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Nicotine replacement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070620/nicotine-delivery-to-users-from-cigarettes-and-from-different-types-of-e-cigarettes
#1
Peter Hajek, Dunja Przulj, Anna Phillips, Rebecca Anderson, Hayden McRobbie
BACKGROUND: Delivering nicotine in the way smokers seek is likely to be the key factor in e-cigarette (EC) success in replacing cigarettes. We examined to what degree different types of EC mimic nicotine intake from cigarettes. METHODS: Twelve participants ('dual users' of EC and cigarettes) used their own brand cigarette and nine different EC brands. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 2-min intervals for 10 min and again at 30 min. RESULTS: Eleven smokers provided usable data...
January 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063325/a-pilot-trial-of-in-vivo-nrt-sampling-to-increase-medication-adherence-in-community-corrections-smokers
#2
Karen L Cropsey, Peter S Hendricks, Samantha Schiavon, Aaron Sellers, Morgan Froelich, Richard C Shelton, Matthew J Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Individuals in the criminal justice system demonstrate high rates of cigarette use (70-80%) and low adherence to smoking cessation medication. Educational approaches have not been shown to promote adherence or cessation, though medication sampling has boosted both use and cessation. The objective of the present study was to determine whether In vivo nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sampling approach increases NRT adherence among criminal justice smokers during a subsequent quit attempt...
December 27, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039798/mailed-distribution-of-free-nicotine-patches-without-behavioral-support-predictors-of-use-and-cessation
#3
Vladyslav Kushnir, Beth A Sproule, John A Cunningham
INTRODUCTION: There is growing evidence that the mailed distribution of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), usually as part of smokers' helplines, can been effective in increasing the odds of cessation on a population level. However, limited information is available on the utilization of NRT when it is provided for free, and factors associated with regimen adherence have remained largely unexplored. METHODS: In the context of a randomized controlled trial, 500 adult smokers across Canada hypothetically interested in free NRT were mailed a 5week supply of nicotine patches, but no other support was offered...
December 23, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034998/the-methodological-quality-and-effectiveness-of-technology-based-smoking-cessation-interventions-for-disadvantaged-groups-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Veronica C Boland, Emily A Stockings, Richard P Mattick, Hayden McRobbie, Jamie Brown, Ryan J Courtney
AIMS: To assess the methodological quality and effectiveness of technology-based smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged groups. METHOD: Four databases (EMBASE, Cochrane, Medline, and PsycInfo) were searched for studies conducted from 1980- May 2016. Randomised controlled trials that compared a behavioural smoking cessation intervention delivered primarily through a technology-based platform (e.g. mobile phone) with a no-intervention comparison group among disadvantaged smokers were included...
December 29, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027387/impact-of-smoking-cessation-counseling-prior-to-total-joint-arthroplasty
#5
Sina Akhavan, Long-Co Nguyen, Vanessa Chan, Jamal Saleh, Kevin J Bozic
Perioperative smoking has been linked to surgical complications including poor wound healing, infection, myocardial infarction, prolonged length of stay, need for mechanical ventilation, and death. This study evaluated the effectiveness of preoperative counseling on smoking cessation for patients undergoing elective total joint arthroplasty. Thirty smokers with hip or knee osteoarthritis seeking hip or knee replacement surgery were enrolled prospectively. Interventions included counseling, referrals to smoking cessation programs including the California Smokers' Helpline and the Fontana Tobacco Treatment Program, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), or instructing patients quit through the "cold turkey" method of abstinence...
December 27, 2016: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025093/varenicline-improves-motor-and-cognitive-deficits-and-decreases-depressive-like-behaviour-in-late-stage-yac128-mice
#6
Ailsa L McGregor, Gary D'Souza, Donghyo Kim, Malcolm D Tingle
OBJECTIVE: Studies in the post mortem human brain and in genetic mouse model suggest that dysfunctional cholinergic neurotransmission, through a loss of agonist rather than receptors may be a significant contributing factor to HD pathology. If correct, pharmacological replacement may therefore be a potential treatment strategy. We have investigated whether chronic administration of the selective nicotinic partial agonist varenicline improved motor, cognitive and affective symptoms in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease...
December 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013098/toward-precision-smoking-cessation-treatment-i-moderator-results-from-a-factorial-experiment
#7
Megan E Piper, Tanya R Schlam, Jessica W Cook, Stevens S Smith, Daniel M Bolt, Wei-Yin Loh, Robin Mermelstein, Linda M Collins, Michael C Fiore, Timothy B Baker
BACKGROUND: The development of tobacco use treatments that are effective for all smokers is critical to improving clinical and public health. The Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) uses highly efficient factorial experiments to evaluate multiple intervention components for possible inclusion in an optimized tobacco use treatment. Factorial experiments permit analyses of the influence of patient characteristics on main and interaction effects of multiple, relatively discrete, intervention components...
November 25, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013097/toward-precision-smoking-cessation-treatment-ii-proximal-effects-of-smoking-cessation-intervention-components-on-putative-mechanisms-of-action
#8
Megan E Piper, Jessica W Cook, Tanya R Schlam, Stevens S Smith, Daniel M Bolt, Linda M Collins, Robin Mermelstein, Michael C Fiore, Timothy B Baker
BACKGROUND: Understanding how smoking cessation treatments exert their effects can inform treatment development and use. Factorial designs allow researchers to examine whether multiple intervention components affect hypothesized change mechanisms, and whether the affected mechanisms are related to cessation. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of smokers recruited during primary care visits (N=637, 55% women, 87% white) who were motivated to quit. Participants in this fractional factorial experiment were randomized to one level of each of six intervention factors: Prequit Nicotine Patch vs None, Prequit Nicotine Gum vs None, Preparation Counseling vs None, Intensive In-Person Counseling vs Minimal, Intensive Phone Counseling vs Minimal, and 16 vs 8 Weeks of Combination Nicotine Replacement (nicotine patch+nicotine gum)...
November 24, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989452/long-term-quit-rates-in-fax-referred-as-compared-to-self-referred-tobacco-quitline-registrants
#9
Dana S Mowls, Lindsay Boeckman, Stephen R Gillaspy, Laura A Beebe
INTRODUCTION: To increase the use of quitlines for treating tobacco use and dependence, quitline referral interventions are recommended for healthcare systems and providers. Research is limited as to whether fax-referred smokers have quit outcomes similar to those of traditional self-callers to quitlines. METHODS: Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline registration data from March 2013 to October 2014 and 7-month follow-up data were used to compare hospital- and clinic-based fax-referred registrants (n=537) to self-callers (n=2,577)...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983709/no-ifs-no-butts-compliance-with-smoking-cessation-in-secondary-care-guidance-nice-ph48-by-providers-of-cancer-therapies-radiotherapy-and-chemotherapy-in-the-uk
#10
Daniel Hutton, Ivan Gee, Ciara E McGee, Rebecca Mellor
Background: Legislation preventing smoking in public places was introduced in England in July 2007. Since then, smoke-free policies have been extended to the majority of hospitals including those providing cancer therapies. Whilst studies have been conducted on the impact and effectiveness of hospital smoke-free policy in the UK and other countries, there have not been any studies with a focus on cancer care providers. Cancer patients are a priority group for smoking cessation and support and this study aimed to examine implementation of the National Institute Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance (PH48) in acute cancer care trusts in the UK...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971578/trends-in-the-utilization-spending-and-prices-for-smoking-cessation-and-nicotine-replacement-products-in-us-medicaid-programs-1991-2015
#11
X Yue, J J Guo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965870/protecting-children-from-secondhand-smoke-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-study-of-a-novel-smoke-free-home-intervention
#12
John Marsh, Ann McNeill, Sarah Lewis, Tim Coleman, Manpreet Bains, Alexandra Larwood, Jacqueline Purdy, Laura L Jones
BACKGROUND: Globally, 40 % of children under 14 years are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS), typically in their homes. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce children's SHS exposure, and so the aim of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel intervention to help parents and carers (caregivers) to reduce their children's exposure to SHS at home. METHODS: A novel multi-component intervention to support caregivers to reduce their children's SHS exposure at home was tested in a two-phase feasibility study...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965778/the-management-of-asthmatic-smokers
#13
REVIEW
José Miguel Chatkin, Cynthia Rocha Dullius
Asthma is still a major public health problem in most countries; new strategies to better control this disease are necessary. Such strategies must include predisposing factors. One of these factors is smoking and a significant fraction of asthmatics are smokers. However, clinical trials studying new drugs or newer therapeutic regimens for asthma generally exclude smokers. Therefore, there is a lack of specific information about the treatment of asthma in smokers. The asthmatic smoker is a special phenotype with important therapeutic and prognostic clinical implications...
2016: Asthma research and practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942543/nicotine-replacement-topography-and-smoking-phenotypes-of-e-cigarettes
#14
Andrew A Strasser, Valentina Souprountchouk, Amanda Kaufmann, Sonja Blazekovic, Frank Leone, Neal L Benowitz, Robert A Schnoll
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the degree of nicotine replacement across first-generation e-cigarette brands, how e-cigarettes are used, and if there is variation across brands in relevant smoking phenotypes. The objective of this project was to collect data that are critical to better understanding, use, and exposure when using e-cigarettes, which may then inform clinical trials and tobacco regulatory policy. METHODS: Twenty-eight cigarette smokers were randomized to use one of 5 popular brands of e-cigarettes for a 10-day study...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935924/smoking-cessation-and-attitudes-belief-observation-and-education-of-medical-students-in-turkey
#15
E Turhan, T Inandi, M Col, R Bugdayci, O Eker, M Ilhan
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use is an important public health problem around the world.Aim of this study is to assess attitudes,belief and observation of the students on smoking cessation and medical education. METHODS: This study is part of a multi-country study called "Global Health Profession Student Survey". The study population consisted of third year medical students in Turkey. The sample consisted of a total of 1834 medical students from randomly selected 12 medical schools...
April 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933638/nursing-interventions-for-smoking-cessation-in-hospitalized-patients-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Z Kazemzadeh, Z S Manzari, Z Pouresmail
AIM: This study aimed to clarify the role of nurses in planning and implementation of nursing interventions related to smoking cessation. BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION: Nearly half of all smokers die from smoking-related illnesses. Quitting smoking can reduce these problems. Smoking cessation interventions include various types helping smokers successfully quit. Studies suggest that hospitalization can be a golden opportunity for nurses helping patients to quit smoking because of No Smoking regulations...
December 9, 2016: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928189/a-reasonable-alternative-to-clozapine-in-the-chronically-relapsing-smoking-patient-a-retrospective-analysis
#17
John R Tomko, Nadeem Ahmed, Cynthia Kuntz, Justine Zick
Background: Clozapine levels are severely decreased by cigarette smoke hydrocarbons. A new agent that is unaffected by smoking is paliperidone palmitate. Objective: The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate hospital readmission and time until readmission for patients prescribed paliperidone palmitate intramuscular injection (PP) as an alternative to oral clozapine for patients with severe schizophrenia who resume smoking following discharge. A secondary analysis was performed to determine whether smoking status alone affects hospital readmission rates in both smoking and nonsmoking clozapine-treated patients...
November 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921634/smoking-cessation-in-smoke-free-prisons-a-grounded-theory-study
#18
Ashleigh Djachenko, Winsome St John, Creina Mitchell
Purpose Prisoners are vulnerable to tobacco addiction and have a smoking prevalence significantly higher than that of the general community. The context of this study was the implementation of a "smoke-free prisons" policy, which imposed forced smoking cessation onto the Queensland, Australian prison population. The study asked the question: "What are the psychosocial processes in which male prisoners engage during smoking cessation in a smoke-free environment?" Design/methodology/approach Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 prisoners in South-east Queensland smoke-free correctional centres...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919936/smoking-cessation-interventions-for-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-and-comorbidities-an-observational-cross-sectional-study-in-primary-care
#19
David N Blane, Daniel Mackay, Bruce Guthrie, Stewart W Mercer
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how smoking cessation practices in primary care differ for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who have different comorbidities. AIM: To determine the association between different patterns of comorbidity and smoking rates and smoking cessation interventions in primary care for patients with CHD. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of 81 456 adults with CHD in primary care in Scotland. METHOD: Details of eight concordant physical comorbidities, 23 discordant physical comorbidities, and eight mental health comorbidities were extracted from electronic health records between April 2006 and March 2007...
December 5, 2016: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894416/australian-university-smoke-free-policy-implementation-a-staff-and-student-survey
#20
Ashleigh Guillaumier, Billie Bonevski, Christine Paul, John Wiggers, John Germov, Dylan Mitchell, Diane Bunch
Issue addressed: Universities represent important settings for the implementation of public health initiatives such as smoke-free policies. The study aimed to assess staff and student attitudes towards policy enforcement and compliance as well as the acceptability of the provision of cessation support in this setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted following the introduction of a designated-areas partial smoke-free policy at two campuses of one Australian university in 2014. Staff (n=533) and students (n=3060) completed separate online surveys assessing attitudes towards smoke-free policy enforcement and compliance, and acceptability of university-provided cessation support...
November 18, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
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