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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333504/community-based-physical-activity-as-adjunctive-smoking-cessation-treatment-rationale-design-and-baseline-data-for-the-lifestyle-enhancement-program-leap-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Mark W Vander Weg, Mace Coday, Michelle B Stockton, Barbara McClanahan, George Relyea, Mary C Read, Nancy Wilson, Stephanie Connelly, Phyllis Richey, Karen C Johnson, Kenneth D Ward
Despite advances in behavioral and pharmacological treatment for tobacco use and dependence, quit rates remain suboptimal. Increasing physical activity has shown some promise as a strategy for improving cessation outcomes. However, initial efficacy studies focused on intensive, highly structured exercise programs that may not be applicable to the general population of smokers. We describe the rationale and study design and report baseline participant characteristics from the Lifestyle Enhancement Program (LEAP), a two-group, randomized controlled trial...
March 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323611/harm-minimization-and-tobacco-control-reframing-societal-views-of-nicotine-use-to-rapidly-save-lives
#2
David B Abrams, Allison M Glasser, Jennifer L Pearson, Andrea C Villanti, Lauren K Collins, Raymond S Niaura
Inhalation of the toxic smoke produced by combusting tobacco products, primarily cigarettes, is the overwhelming cause of tobacco-related disease and death in the United States and globally. A diverse class of alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDS) has recently been developed that do not combust tobacco and are substantially less harmful than cigarettes. ANDS have the potential to disrupt the 120-year dominance of the cigarette and challenge the field on how the tobacco pandemic could be reversed if nicotine is decoupled from lethal inhaled smoke...
January 11, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320670/diagnosing-copd-and-supporting-smoking-cessation-in-general-practice-evidence-practice-gaps
#3
Jenifer Liang, Michael J Abramson, Nicholas A Zwar, Grant M Russell, Anne E Holland, Billie Bonevski, Ajay Mahal, Kirsten Phillips, Paula Eustace, Eldho Paul, Sally Wilson, Johnson George
OBJECTIVES: To review the accuracy of diagnoses of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care in Australia, and to describe smokers' experiences with and preferences for smoking cessation. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients were invited to participate if they were at least 40 years old and had visited participating general practice clinics in Melbourne at least twice during the previous 12 months, reported being current or ex-smokers with a smoking history of at least 10 pack-years, or were being managed for COPD...
January 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320660/nicotine-replacement-therapy-for-smoking-cessation-during-pregnancy
#4
Yael Bar-Zeev, Ling Li Lim, Billie Bonevski, Maree Gruppetta, Gillian S Gould
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is recommended in current Australian clinical guidelines for pregnant women who are unable to quit smoking unassisted. Clinicians report low levels of prescribing NRT during pregnancy, due to safety concerns and low levels of confidence in their ability to prescribe NRT. Animal models show that nicotine is harmful to the fetus, especially for brain and lung development, but human studies have not found any harmful effects on fetal and pregnancy outcomes. Studies of efficacy and effectiveness in the real world suggest that NRT use during pregnancy increases smoking cessation rates...
January 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313652/lung-cancer-smoking-cessation
#5
Kelly M Latimer
Smoking cessation for patients who smoke should be a top priority for physicians. Nicotine dependence should be considered a chronic disease, with the expectation that relapse is normal. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that physicians screen all adults for tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions and Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for cessation to adults who use tobacco. It also recommends use of the 5 As (ie, Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) in discussing tobacco use with patients...
January 2018: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302224/tobacco-use-disorder-and-treatment-new-challenges-and-opportunities
#6
Douglas Ziedonis, Smita Das, Celine Larkin
Tobacco use remains a global problem, and options for consumers have increased with the development and marketing of e-cigarettes and other new nicotine and tobacco products, such as "heat-not-burn" tobacco and dissolvable tobacco. The increased access to these new products is juxtaposed with expanding public health and clinical intervention options, including mobile technologies and social media. The persistent high rate of tobacco-use disorders among those with psychiatric disorders has gathered increased global attention, including successful approaches to individual treatment and organizational-level interventions...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287665/tobacco-dependence-treatment-in-the-emergency-department-a-randomized-trial-using-the-multiphase-optimization-strategy
#7
Steven L Bernstein, James Dziura, June Weiss, Ted Miller, Katrina A Vickerman, Lauretta E Grau, Michael V Pantalon, Lorien Abroms, Linda M Collins, Benjamin Toll
BACKGROUND: Tobacco dependence remains the leading preventable cause of death in the developed world. Smokers are disproportionately from lower socioeconomic groups, and may use the hospital emergency department (ED) as an important source of care. A recent clinical trial demonstrated the efficacy of a multicomponent intervention to help smokers quit, but the independent contributions of those components is unknown. METHODS: This is a full-factorial (16-arm) randomized trial in a busy hospital ED of 4 tobacco dependence interventions: brief motivational interviewing, nicotine replacement therapy, referral to a telephone quitline, and a texting program...
December 26, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284949/smoking-cessation-advice-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-among-clinical-dental-students
#8
Allama Prabhu, Jayesh Kumar Jain, B Sakeenabhi, P G Naveen Kumar, Mohamed Imranulla, Mallikarjuna Ragher
Background: Smoking is the single most important public health challenge facing the National Health Service. The detrimental effects on the general health of tobacco smoking are well documented. Smoking is a primary risk factor for oral cancer and many oral diseases. Dental professional scan plays an important role in preventing adverse health effects by promoting smoking cessation. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice among clinical dental students in giving smoking cessation advice and to explore the barriers to this activity...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281040/effectiveness-of-pharmaceutical-smoking-cessation-aids-in-a-nationally-representative-cohort-of-american-smokers
#9
Eric C Leas, John P Pierce, Tarik Benmarhnia, Martha M White, Madison L Noble, Dennis R Trinidad, David R Strong
Background: Despite strong efficacy in randomized trials, the population effectiveness of pharmaceutical aids in long-term smoking cessation is lacking, possibly because of confounding (factors that are associated with both pharmaceutical aid use and difficulty quitting). Matching techniques in longitudinal studies can remove this confounding bias. Methods: Using the nationally representative Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS), we assessed the effectiveness of medications to aid quitting among baseline adult smokers who attempted to quit prior to one year of follow-up in two longitudinal studies: 2002-2003 and 2010-2011...
December 21, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275967/effectiveness-and-safety-of-varenicline-and-nicotine-replacement-therapy-among-mental-health-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
C A Jimenez-Ruiz, J F Pascual-Lledó, A Cícero-Guerrero, M Cristóbal-Fernández, M Mayayo-Ulibarri, C Villar-Laguna
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effectiveness and safety of two smoking cessation medications (varenicline and nicotine patches) in patients with controlled psychiatric disorders in daily practice in a Smoking Cessation Service. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. It was carried on at a smoking cessation clinic in Madrid and used a convenience sampling strategy. We reviewed medical records of patients diagnosed with psychiatric disorders who attended a Smoking Cessation Service...
December 21, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250815/current-and-emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-cessation-of-tobacco-smoking
#11
Nieves Gómez-Coronado, Adam J Walker, Michael Berk, Seetal Dodd
Tobacco use disorder is a chronic illness. With its high comorbidity rate, it is a major cause of years of life lost or years lived with disability; however, is also considered the most preventable cause of death in developed countries. Since the development of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in 1978, treatment options have continued to evolve and expand. Despite this, currently available treatments remain insufficient, with less than 25% of smokers remaining abstinent after one year after treatment. In this article, we review existing and emerging smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, affording a special emphasis on the most promising agents that are currently being investigated...
December 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246856/the-behavioral-pharmacology-and-therapeutic-potential-of-lorcaserin-for-substance-use-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Gregory T Collins, Lisa R Gerak, Charles P France
Substance abuse is serious public health problem for which there are few effective pharmacotherapies. Traditional strategies for drug development have focused on antagonists to block the abuse-related effects of a drug at its site of action, and agonists to replace/mimic the effects of the abused substance. However, recent efforts have targeted receptors, such as serotonin (5-HT)2 receptors, that can indirectly modulate dopamine neurotransmission with the goal of developing a pharmacotherapy that might be effective at reducing the abuse-related effects of drugs more generally...
December 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242560/characterising-the-nicotine-metabolite-ratio-and-its-association-with-treatment-choice-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-stop-smoking-services-in-england
#13
Lion Shahab, Emily Mortimer, Linda Bauld, Jennifer A McGowan, Ann McNeill, Rachel F Tyndale
Pharmacotherapy provision based on Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR) status (slow/normal metabolism) may improve smoking cessation rates. However, it is unclear whether NMR status is consistent across patient characteristics and current treatment choice. Data come from 1,826 participants attending Stop Smoking Services (SSS) across England in 2012/13. Sociodemographic, mental/physical health, smoking and treatment characteristics (nicotine replacement therapy vs. other pharmacotherapy; group vs. one-to-one behavioural support) were assessed...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234509/assessing-the-second-hand-effects-of-a-new-no-smoking-policy-in-an-acute-mental-health-trust
#14
Benjamin Ian Perry, Katherine Meehan, Ashok Kumar Jainer
Aims and method To examine whether a new no-smoking policy in an in-patient mental health setting had any effects outside of smoking cessation. Our hypothesis stated that a forced smoking ban for in-patients may result in an increased susceptibility for clinical incidents, aggression and lower admission rates. All patients admitted to adult in-patient mental health services in Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership NHS Trust were included in the analysis. Data 6 months post-implementation of the smoking policy (1 July 2015 to 1 January 2016) were compared with the same period 1 year prior (1 July 2014 to 1 January 2015)...
December 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226683/permeability-barriers-for-nicotine-and-mannitol-in-porcine-buccal-mucosa-studied-by-high-resolution-maldi-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#15
Eva Marxen, Jette Jacobsen, Birgitte Hyrup, Christian Janfeldt
Improved nicotine permeability across buccal mucosa may enable more effective oromucosal nicotine replacement therapy products. It is essential to know the location and composition of the main barrier for drug diffusion to enhance the drug permeability. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a rapidly evolving technique that can be used to image the spatial distribution of drugs and drug metabolites in tissue cryo-sections, without prior labeling of the drug. In this study, the distribution of nicotine and mannitol in porcine buccal mucosa was imaged with 10 µm spatial resolution after apical as well as submucosal application of the drugs, in order to localize the main permeability barrier(s)...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225440/smoking-urges-during-treatment-and-long-term-cessation-among-low-income-african-americans
#16
Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A Dietz, Joseph C Wilson
Objective: The urge to smoke is a predictor of smoking relapse. Little research has focused on the impact of acute urges during treatment among African Americans. This study examined the relationship between smoking urges and long-term abstinence among treatment seekers. Design: Longitudinal prospective investigation. Urges to smoke were assessed at the initial (session 1) and final (session 8) sessions among adult smokers (N=308) enrolled in a 4-week group intervention trial...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220743/the-cigarette-dependence-scale-and-heaviness-of-smoking-index-as-predictors-of-smoking-cessation-after-10weeks-of-nicotine-replacement-therapy-and-at-6-month-follow-up
#17
Laurie Zawertailo, Sabrina Voci, Peter Selby
INTRODUCTION: The reliability and validity of the Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS) has been tested in online studies and compared with other tobacco dependence measures. Findings regarding its ability to predict smoking cessation have been mixed. We examined whether the CDS predicted cessation among a sample that received nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) at a community workshop and assessed the incremental predictive validity of the CDS-5 and CDS-12 over the 2-item Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI)...
November 27, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205283/clinician-factors-associated-with-prescribing-nicotine-replacement-therapy-in-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-australian-obstetricians-and-general-practitioners
#18
Yael Bar-Zeev, Billie Bonevski, Maree Gruppetta, Laura Twyman, Lou Atkins, Kerrin Palazzi, Christopher Oldmeadow, Gillian S Gould
The use of nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy has been debated but evidence suggests that it is safer than smoking. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with: (i) general practitioners and obstetricians from a college database; and (ii) general practitioners with a special interest in Indigenous health. General practitioners had higher odds of prescribing compared to obstetricians. Reading guidelines, confidence, viewing nicotine replacement therapy as safe, effective and with good adherence, also significantly increased the odds of prescription...
December 4, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196725/pharmacogenetic-study-of-seven-polymorphisms-in-three-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits-in-smoking-cessation-therapies
#19
Giulia Pintarelli, Antonella Galvan, Paolo Pozzi, Sara Noci, Giovanna Pasetti, Francesca Sala, Ugo Pastorino, Roberto Boffi, Francesca Colombo
Smoking-cessation therapy reduces the risk of smoking-related diseases, but is successful only in a fraction of smokers. There is growing evidence that genetic variations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits influence the risk of nicotine dependence and the ability to quit smoking. To investigate the role of polymorphisms in nAChR genes on smoking quantity and the outcome of smoking-cessation therapies, we carried out an association study on 337 smokers who underwent pharmacotherapy with varenicline, bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) alone, or NRT plus bupropion...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195588/characteristics-and-clinical-treatment-of-tobacco-smokers-enrolled-in-a-va-substance-use-disorders-clinic
#20
Julie C Gass, David H Morris, Jamie Winters, Joseph W VanderVeen, Stephen Chermack
Individuals with a substance use disorder (SUD) diagnosis are more than twice as likely to smoke cigarettes as the general population. Emerging research has suggested that treating a substance use disorder simultaneously with tobacco use leads to a higher rate of treatment success for both substances. Despite this, substance use treatment protocols tend not to focus on tobacco use; in fact, traditional substance use treatments often discourage patients from attempting to quit smoking. One rationale is that patients may not be motivated to quit smoking...
January 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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