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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150536/availability-sales-and-affordability-of-tobacco-cessation-medicines-in-kerala-india
#1
Smitha Sarma, Sivadasanpillai Harikrishnan, Abigail S Baldridge, Raji Devarajan, Aashna Mehta, Sakhtivel Selvaraj, Mohammed K Ali, Padinhare P Mohanan, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Mark D Huffman
BACKGROUND: India is the world's second largest consumer of tobacco, but tobacco cessation remains uncommon due, at least in part, to underutilization of cessation pharmacotherapy. We evaluated the availability, sales, and affordability of nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline in the South Indian state of Kerala to understand potential reasons for underutilization. METHODS AND RESULTS: From November 2016 to April 2017, we collected data on availability, inventory, and pricing of cessation medication through a cross-sectional survey of 199 public, semiprivate (Karunya), and private pharmacies across 5 districts in Kerala using World Health Organization/Health Action International methodology...
November 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149048/quit-methods-used-by-american-smokers-2013-2014
#2
Brad Rodu, Nantaporn Plurphanswat
This report describes the quit methods used in the past 12 months by current and former smokers in the baseline Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study during 2013-2014. Descriptive statistics were used to report the use of single and two or more quit methods; survey weights were used to compute population estimates. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between past year former smokers and single quit method, including individual characteristics. RESULTS: Of 11,402 current smokers and 4919 former smokers, 4541 had tried and 839 had quit in the past 12 months...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148565/tobacco-cessation-interventions-for-young-people
#3
REVIEW
Thomas R Fanshawe, William Halliwell, Nicola Lindson, Paul Aveyard, Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Most tobacco control programmes for adolescents are based around prevention of uptake, but teenage smoking is still common. It is unclear if interventions that are effective for adults can also help adolescents to quit. This is the update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of strategies that help young people to stop smoking tobacco. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register in June 2017...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146649/what-are-older-smokers-attitudes-to-quitting-and-how-are-they-managed-in-primary-care-an-analysis-of-the-cross-sectional-english-smoking-toolkit-study
#4
Hannah Jordan, Mira Hidajat, Nick Payne, Jean Adams, Martin White, Yoav Ben-Shlomo
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age is associated with access to smoking cessation services. DESIGN: Data from the Smoking Toolkit Study 2006-2015, a repeated multiwave cross-sectional household survey (n=181 157). SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: Past-year smokers who participated in any of the 102 waves stratified into age groups. OUTCOME MEASURES: Amount smoked and nicotine dependency, self-reported quit attempts and use of smoking cessation interventions...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138902/-use-of-e%C3%A2-cigarettes-as-an-additional-tool-in-a%C3%A2-smoking-cessation-group-intervention-results-after-12%C3%A2-months
#5
Christoph B Kröger, Sarah Ofner, Daniela Piontek
BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes are considerably safer regarding health issues than conventional cigarettes, but there is uncertainty concerning its use for smoking cessation. OBJECTIVES: How and to what extent are E‑cigarettes used by smokers willing to quit? Are E‑cigarettes a useful intervention for smokers attending a group intervention for smoking cessation? MATERIALS AND METHODS: One year after attending a group intervention for smoking cessation in Germany, 637 attendants were assessed by telephone...
November 14, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131057/unaided-smoking-cessation-in-healthy-employees
#6
Meryem Manis, Michael Tamm, Daiana Stolz
BACKGROUND: According to guidelines, behavioral and pharmacological assistance should be offered to all smokers willing to quit. However, a large proportion of ex-cigarette smokers are self-quitters. OBJECTIVES: To identify characteristics of long-term, unaided self-quitters, as compared to recurrent smokers among health care employees. METHODS: University hospital employees (n = 5,218) were addressed through a 17-question questionnaire inquiring about past and current smoking behavior...
November 7, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130427/reduction-of-anxiety-sensitivity-in-relation-to-nicotine-withdrawal-symptoms-during-smoking-cessation-an-examination-among-successful-quitters
#7
Jafar Bakhshaie, Michael J Zvolensky, Kirsten J Langdon, Adam M Leventhal, Norman B Schmidt
Anxiety sensitivity has been implicated as a potential risk factor for post-quit withdrawal symptoms. The present study examined relations between the extent of change in anxiety sensitivity and the course of nicotine withdrawal symptoms experienced during the initial two weeks of a quit attempt among treatment-seeking smokers. The sample consisted of 29 adult daily smokers (34% female; Mage = 47.7, SD = 13.1) who successfully quit and maintained their abstinence. After adjusting for the effects of gender, treatment condition, use of nicotine replacement therapy, nicotine dependence, alcohol use problems, baseline levels of anxiety sensitivity, and reductions in negative affect, greater reductions in anxiety sensitivity were related to faster decreases in withdrawal symptoms...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129555/nicotine-delivery-efficiency-of-first-and-second-generation-e-cigarettes-and-its-impact-on-relief-of-craving-during-the-acute-phase-of-use
#8
Tobias Rüther, Dieter Hagedorn, Konstantin Schiela, Thomas Schettgen, Helga Osiander-Fuchs, Wolfgang Schober
Knowledge about the change in blood nicotine concentrations during the first five minutes (acute phase) of e-cigarette vaping is important to determine whether the used product has a dependence potential or may be an efficient nicotine replacement product. To address this issue, we monitored blood nicotine levels during the acute phase in volunteers using disposable cigalikes (CLs) and a tank model (TM) and compared them with blood nicotine levels in subjects using a tobacco cigarette (TC). In parallel, heart rate changes were continually measured and withdrawal symptoms and craving were assessed with the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges before and immediately after the vaping/smoking sessions...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126149/-they-re-thinking-well-it-s-not-as-bad-i-probably-won-t-get-addicted-to-that-but-it-s-still-got-the-nicotine-in-it-so%C3%A2-maturity-control-and-socialising-negotiating-identities-in-relation-to-smoking-and-vaping-a-qualitative-study-of-young-adults-in-scotland
#9
Mark Lucherini, Catriona Rooke, Amanda Amos
Objective: To explore the understandings of and engagement with e-cigarettes, of young adults from disadvantaged backgrounds, and how these may be impacting upon existing smoking identities. Methods: Twenty-two small group and 11 individual qualitative interviews conducted in Central Scotland with 72 16-24 year olds between September 2015 and April 2016. Participants were mostly smokers and ex-smokers from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Results: While most participants had tried e-cigarettes, they generally held ambivalent views about e-cigarettes and vaping...
November 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095106/deletion-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subunit-gene-d%C3%AE-1-confers-insecticide-resistance-but-at-what-cost
#10
Jason Somers, Hang Ngoc Bao Luong, Philip Batterham, Trent Perry
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have vital functions in processes of neurotransmission that underpin key behaviors. These pentameric ligand-gated ion channels have been used as targets for insecticides that constitutively activate them, causing the death of insect pests. In examining a knockout of the Dα1 nAChR subunit gene, our study linked this one subunit with multiple traits. We were able to confirm previous work that had identified Dα1 as a target of the neonicotinoid class of insecticides...
November 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080852/assessment-of-tobacco-heating-product-thp1-0-part-9-the-placement-of-a-range-of-next-generation-products-on-an-emissions-continuum-relative-to-cigarettes-via-pre-clinical-assessment-studies
#11
James Murphy, Chuan Liu, Kevin McAdam, Marianna Gaca, Krishna Prasad, Oscar Camacho, John McAughey, Christopher Proctor
This series of nine papers described the operation and pre-clinical assessment of a tobacco heating product THP1.0. This last paper contextualises the pre-clinical assessment data on THP1.0 with data from other next generation products relative to cigarette smoke. The tobacco and nicotine risk continuum is a concept that ranks products according to their potential harm, with cigarettes at the highest risk extreme and Nicotine Replacement Therapy at the least risky extreme. Data generated in pre-clinical studies on THP1...
October 5, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076779/cigarette-smoking-and-outcomes-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-nationwide-analysis
#12
Hormuzdiyar H Dasenbrock, Robert F Rudy, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Timothy R Smith, Kai U Frerichs, William B Gormley, M Ali Aziz-Sultan, Rose Du
OBJECTIVE Although cigarette smoking is one of the strongest risk factors for cerebral aneurysm development and rupture, there are limited data evaluating the impact of smoking on outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Additionally, two recent studies suggested that nicotine replacement therapy was associated with improved neurological outcomes among smokers who had sustained an SAH compared with smokers who did not receive nicotine. METHODS Patients who underwent endovascular or microsurgical repair of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS, 2009-2011) and stratified by cigarette smoking...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065204/the-role-of-nicotine-dependence-in-e-cigarettes-potential-for-smoking-reduction
#13
Arielle S Selya, Lisa Dierker, Jennifer S Rose, Donald Hedeker, Robin J Mermelstein
Introduction: E-cigarettes (Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems, or ENDS) are an increasingly popular tobacco product among youth. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may be effective for harm reduction and smoking cessation, although these claims remain controversial. Little is known about how nicotine dependence may contribute to e-cigarettes' effectiveness in reducing or quitting conventional smoking. Methods: A cohort of young adults were surveyed over 4 years (approximately ages 19-23)...
July 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059389/pilot-study-of-a-tailored-smoking-cessation-intervention-for-individuals-in-treatment-for-opioid-dependence
#14
Nina A Cooperman, Shou-En Lu, Kimber P Richter, Steven L Bernstein, Jill M Williams
Introduction: Over 85% of opioid-dependent individuals in methadone treatment smoke cigarettes; however, smoking cessation interventions are minimally effective in this population. To better help opioid-dependent individuals quit smoking, we developed and pilot-tested an intervention, based in the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of behavior change, which could be tailored to address individual barriers to smoking cessation in this population. Methods: We randomized participants (n=83) in methadone treatment to the eight-session, IMB model-based, intervention plus nicotine replacement therapy (intervention, n=41) or a facilitated referral to the state Quitline (control, n=42)...
August 30, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059367/nicotine-metabolism-informed-care-for-smoking-cessation-a-pilot-precision-rct
#15
Quinn S Wells, Matthew S Freiberg, Robert A Greevy, Rachel F Tyndale, Suman Kundu, Meredith S Duncan, Stephen King, Elizabeth Scoville, Dawn Beaulieu, Vanessa Gatskie, Hilary A Tindle
Introduction: Varenicline doubles cessation over nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch for "normal," but not "slow," nicotine metabolizers, as assessed by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR). Metabolism-informed care (MIC) could improve outcomes by matching normal metabolizers with non-nicotine medication (e.g., varenicline) and slow metabolizers with NRT patch. Methods: We conducted a feasibility randomized controlled trial of MIC vs. guideline based care (GBC) among 81 outpatient adult daily smokers with medical comorbidity...
October 14, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059345/state-tobacco-policies-as-predictors-of-evidence-based-cessation-method-usage-results-from-a-large-nationally-representative-dataset
#16
Jennifer Dahne, Amy E Wahlquist, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Bryan W Heckman, K Michael Cummings, Matthew J Carpenter
Introduction: Evidence-based cessation methods including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), non-NRT medications, quitlines, and behavioral treatments are underutilized by smokers attempting to quit. Although a number of studies have demonstrated a relationship between state-level tobacco policies (eg, taxation, appropriations) and cessation, whether such state-level factors influence likelihood of using an evidence-based treatment is unclear. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were: (1) to describe evidence-based cessation method utilization by state and (2) to examine the effect of state-level factors on cessation method utilization above and beyond individual-level predictors...
September 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048454/are-the-school-prevention-programmes-aimed-at-de-normalizing-smoking-among-youths-beneficial-in-the-long-term-an-example-from-the-smoke-free-class-competition-in-italy
#17
V Zagà, F Giordano, P Gremigni, D L Amram, A De Blasi, M Amendola, J F Osborn, M S Cattaruzza
Tobacco smoking by young people is of great concern because it usually leads to regular smoking, nicotine addiction and quitting difficulties. Young people "hooked" by tobacco maintain the profits of the tobacco industry by replacing smokers who quit or die. If new generations could be tobacco-free, as supported by tobacco endgame strategies, the tobacco epidemic could end within decades. Smoking prevention programmes for teens are offered by schools with the aim to prevent or delay smoking onset. Among these, the Smoke Free Class Competition (SFC) was widely implemented in Europe...
November 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048184/association-of-nicotine-metabolism-and-sex-with-relapse-following-varenicline-and-nicotine-replacement-therapy
#18
Anaïs Glatard, Maria Dobrinas, Mehdi Gholamrezaee, Rubin Lubomirov, Jacques Cornuz, Chantal Csajka, Chin B Eap
Nicotine is metabolized into cotinine and then into trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, mainly by cytochrome P450 2A6. Recent studies reported better effectiveness of varenicline in women and in nicotine normal metabolizers phenotypically determined by nicotine-metabolite ratio. Our objective was to study the influence of nicotine-metabolite ratio, CYP2A6 genotype and sex on the response to nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline. Data were extracted from a longitudinal study which included smokers participating in a smoking cessation program...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046149/schizophrenia-and-nicotine-dependence-what-psychopharmacological-treatment-options-are-available-for-the-duo-perturbationes
#19
Yoong Mei Theng, Suzaily Wahab, Noor Alaudin Wahab, Hatta Sidi, Srijit Das
Nicotine dependence has progressively become a foremost community health interest in the both developed and developing nations due to the economic burden and health-related problem. Smoking was significantly higher among patients with schizophrenia in comparison to the general population. Nicotine dependence is not only associated with public stress, but among patients with schizophrenia, smoking brings major challenges to the management. Nicotine may diminish the therapeutic efficacy of the bioavailability of the psychopharmacological agents in-vivo...
October 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040555/the-effectiveness-of-varenicline-versus-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-long-term-smoking-cessation-in-primary-care-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-electronic-medical-records
#20
Gemma M J Taylor, Amy E Taylor, Kyla H Thomas, Timothy Jones, Richard M Martin, Marcus R Munafò, Frank Windmeijer, Neil M Davies
Background: There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for long-term smoking cessation in primary care, or whether the treatment effectiveness differs by socioeconomic position (SEP). Therefore, we estimated the long-term effectiveness of varenicline versus NRT (> 2 years) on smoking cessation, and investigated whether effectiveness differs by SEP. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 654 general practices in England, within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, using three different analytical methods: multivariable logistic regression, propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses...
June 26, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
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