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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921634/smoking-cessation-in-smoke-free-prisons-a-grounded-theory-study
#1
Ashleigh Djachenko, Winsome St John, Creina Mitchell
Purpose Prisoners are vulnerable to tobacco addiction and have a smoking prevalence significantly higher than that of the general community. The context of this study was the implementation of a "smoke-free prisons" policy, which imposed forced smoking cessation onto the Queensland, Australian prison population. The study asked the question: "What are the psychosocial processes in which male prisoners engage during smoking cessation in a smoke-free environment?" Design/methodology/approach Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 prisoners in South-east Queensland smoke-free correctional centres...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919936/smoking-cessation-interventions-for-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-and-comorbidities-an-observational-cross-sectional-study-in-primary-care
#2
David N Blane, Daniel Mackay, Bruce Guthrie, Stewart W Mercer
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how smoking cessation practices in primary care differ for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who have different comorbidities. AIM: To determine the association between different patterns of comorbidity and smoking rates and smoking cessation interventions in primary care for patients with CHD. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of 81 456 adults with CHD in primary care in Scotland. METHOD: Details of eight concordant physical comorbidities, 23 discordant physical comorbidities, and eight mental health comorbidities were extracted from electronic health records between April 2006 and March 2007...
December 5, 2016: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894416/australian-university-smoke-free-policy-implementation-a-staff-and-student-survey
#3
Ashleigh Guillaumier, Billie Bonevski, Christine Paul, John Wiggers, John Germov, Dylan Mitchell, Diane Bunch
Issue addressed: Universities represent important settings for the implementation of public health initiatives such as smoke-free policies. The study aimed to assess staff and student attitudes towards policy enforcement and compliance as well as the acceptability of the provision of cessation support in this setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted following the introduction of a designated-areas partial smoke-free policy at two campuses of one Australian university in 2014. Staff (n=533) and students (n=3060) completed separate online surveys assessing attitudes towards smoke-free policy enforcement and compliance, and acceptability of university-provided cessation support...
November 18, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894020/the-anatomical-mummies-of-mombello-detection-of-cocaine-nicotine-and-caffeine-in-the-hair-of-psychiatric-patients-of-the-early-20th-century
#4
Frank Musshoff, Helena Fels, Alberto Carli, Dario Piombino-Mascali
The Mombello Psychiatric Hospital in Limbiate, near Milan, replaced the old Senavra Hospital as the Psychiatric Hospital for the Province of Milan in the 19th century. During the early 20th century, bodies of several Mombello patients were dissected and preserved by Giuseppe Paravicini, an anatomist who operated within the asylum. The aim of the present study was to examine and memorialize this important assemblage. To this end, we were allowed to sample the head hair of six such preparations for toxicological analysis...
November 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893843/comparative-effectiveness-of-smoking-cessation-medications-a-national-prospective-cohort-from-taiwan
#5
Po-Yin Chang, Po-Ching Lo, Hui-Chin Chang, Kuang-Chieh Hsueh, Yi-Wen Tsai
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Relative effectiveness of smoking cessation medications-varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)-remains unclear among smokers in real-world settings. Evidence in females and smokers with light/moderate nicotine dependence is particularly insufficient. This study compared the effectiveness of varenicline, bupropion or NRT gum relative to NRT patch, in achieving abstinence among recent quitters. METHODS: In a national smoking cessation program in Taiwan (2012-2015), a cohort of 11,968 participants received varenicline (n = 5,052), bupropion (n = 823), NRT gum (n = 1944) or NRT patch (n = 4,149)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891317/outcome-of-tobacco-cessation-in-workplace-and-clinic-settings-a-comparative-study
#6
Ramdas S Ransing, Dipak B Patil, Maruti B Desai, Asawari Modak
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Several biological, social, and cultural factors contribute to the poor outcome of tobacco cessation interventions. Inability to engage large number of participants is one of the major identifiable factors. The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of tobacco cessation interventions in the clinical and workplace settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we recruited 100 participants in tobacco cessation clinic (TCC) group and workplace group (50 participants in each)...
September 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891229/nicotine-replacement-therapy-for-agitation-and-delirium-management-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#7
Melanie Kowalski, Andrew A Udy, Hayden J McRobbie, Michael J Dooley
BACKGROUND: Active smokers are prevalent within the intensive care setting and place a significant burden on healthcare systems. Nicotine withdrawal due to forced abstinence on admission may contribute to increased agitation and delirium in this patient group. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether management of nicotine withdrawal, with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), reduces agitation and delirium in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU)...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886046/views-and-preferences-for-nicotine-products-as-an-alternative-to-smoking-a-focus-group-study-of-people-living-with-mental-disorders
#8
Carla Meurk, Pauline Ford, Ratika Sharma, Lisa Fitzgerald, Coral Gartner
Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882838/a-pragmatic-randomized-trial-comparing-telephone-based-enhanced-pharmacy-care-and-usual-care-to-support-smoking-cessation
#9
Jason Gong, Christine L Baker, Kelly H Zou, Marianna Bruno, Zhanna Jumadilova, David Lawrence, Beth Wilson, Cynthia Ewel
BACKGROUND: Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, and tobacco control professionals continue to make progress in cessation efforts. Pharmacists can assist smokers seeking to quit by offering counseling on smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Pragmatic randomized trials are useful for investigating practical questions about an intervention's risks, benefits, and costs in routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an enhanced pharmacy care (EPC) program involving personalized pharmacist-provided telephone counseling for supporting prescription smoking cessation medications compared with usual care (UC)...
December 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879608/e-cigarettes-and-potential-implications-for-plastic-surgery
#10
Peter J Taub, Alan Matarasso
The use of tobacco-based products, most notably cigarettes, is related directly to wound healing problems and poorer outcomes in plastic surgery. Current abstracts have highlighted the potential complications from nicotine, specifically following plastic surgery in patients who choose to smoke. Recently, products that use electricity to vaporize liquid nitrogen have been gaining popularity. New rules were recently proposed that would give the federal government authority over electronic cigarettes. However, the health-related issues surrounding e-cigarettes are still largely unknown or misunderstood...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878808/interventions-for-tobacco-use-cessation-in-people-in-treatment-for-or-recovery-from-substance-use-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Dorie Apollonio, Rose Philipps, Lisa Bero
BACKGROUND: Smoking rates in people with alcohol and other drug dependencies are two to four times those of the general population. Concurrent treatment of tobacco dependence has been limited due to concern that these interventions are not successful in this population or that recovery from other addictions could be compromised if tobacco cessation was combined with other drug dependency treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether interventions for tobacco cessation are associated with tobacco abstinence for people in concurrent treatment for or in recovery from alcohol and other drug dependence...
November 23, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864102/a-health-sciences-student-run-smoking-cessation-clinic-experience-within-a-homeless-population
#12
Kelsey Buckley, Laura Tsu, Sabrina Hormann, Kevin Giang, April Bills, Nicole Early, Rebekah Jackowski
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to describe a professional and graduate student-run approach to smoking cessation education combined with motivational interviewing and pharmacotherapy in regard to the frequency of follow-up with a smoking cessation quitline program in the homeless population. The secondary objective is to assess participants' self-reported level of confidence, knowledge, and willingness to quit before and after participation in the student-run smoking cessation clinic...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852893/philip-morris-research-on-precursors-to-the-modern-e-cigarette-since-1990
#13
Lauren M Dutra, Rachel Grana, Stanton A Glantz
BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing rapidly. Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik is frequently cited as inventing the modern e-cigarette in 2003. However, tobacco companies have developed electronic nicotine delivery systems since at least 1963. METHODS: We searched the University of California San Francisco Truth (formerly Legacy) Tobacco Industry Documents beginning with the terms 'electric cigarette' and 'electronic cigarettes', 'e-cigarette', 'smokeless cigarettes', 'nicotine aerosol', 'tobacco aerosol', and 'vaping' and then expanded the search using snowball sampling...
November 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851994/pregnancy-outcomes-after-maternal-varenicline-use-analysis-of-surveillance-data-collected-by-the-european-network-of-teratology-information-services
#14
J L Richardson, S Stephens, L M Yates, O Diav-Citrin, J Arnon, D Beghin, A Kayser, D Kennedy, D Cupitt, B Te Winkel, M Peltonen, Y C Kaplan, S H L Thomas
: Varenicline is a smoking cessation aid for which limited data exist concerning safety during human pregnancy. This multicentre prospective observational comparative cohort study was undertaken using surveillance data collected by the European Network of Teratology Information Services. The study sample consisted of 89 varenicline exposed pregnancies and two matched comparator groups; 267 non-teratogen exposed (NTE) controls and 78 exposed to nicotine replacement therapy or bupropion (NRT/B) for smoking cessation...
November 13, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847973/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-as-a-potential-target-for-smoking-cessation
#15
REVIEW
Cristiano Chiamulera, Claudio Marcello Marzo, David J K Balfour
RATIONALE: Most habitual smokers find it difficult to quit smoking because they are dependent upon the nicotine present in tobacco smoke. Tobacco dependence is commonly treated pharmacologically using nicotine replacement therapy or drugs, such as varenicline, that target the nicotinic receptor. Relapse rates, however, remain high, and there remains a need to develop novel non-nicotinic pharmacotherapies for the dependence that are more effective than existing treatments. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that drugs that antagonise the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the brain are likely to be efficacious as treatments for tobacco dependence...
November 16, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845484/smoking-cessation-practice-among-family-doctors-in-lithuania-a-survey
#16
R Everatt, E Zolubiene, M C Grassi
OBJECTIVES: Relatively low proportion of ex-smokers and high rates of smoking-related diseases are estimated in Lithuania. The aim of this survey was to assess the extent of smoking cessation assistance among family doctors in Lithuania, and to identify factors associated with cessation interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected using a questionnaire addressing family doctors' cessation assistance practice; knowledge of smoking epidemiology and health effects; knowledge of cessation assistance guidelines; smoking status; and attendance on Courses/Conferences on Smoking and smoking cessation Assistance (CCSA)...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836982/improving-adherence-to-smoking-cessation-treatment-intervention-effects-in-a-web-based-randomized-trial
#17
Amanda L Graham, George D Papandonatos, Sarah Cha, Bahar Erar, Michael S Amato, Nathan K Cobb, Raymond S Niaura, David B Abrams
BACKGROUND: Web-based smoking cessation interventions can deliver evidence-based treatments to a wide swath of the population, but effectiveness is often limited by insufficient adherence to proven treatment components. This study evaluated the impact of a social network (SN) intervention and free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on adherence to evidence-based components of smoking cessation treatment in the context of a Web-based intervention. METHODS: A sample of adult U...
November 11, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834883/patterns-of-smoking-and-snus-use-in-sweden-implications-for-public-health
#18
Lars Ramström, Ron Borland, Tom Wikmans
There has been concern that the availability of alternative less harmful forms of nicotine might inhibit smoking cessation and/or encourage those who would not otherwise have smoked to do so. The plausibility of such effects can be best assessed by looking at population trends in use of smoking in relation to alternatives. This paper looks at the relationships between snus use and smoking in Sweden. Analyses are based on a data set for the period January 2003 to February 2011 from a long-term study covering nationally representative samples of the Swedish population aged 18-79, with a total study population of 60,675 individuals...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832565/safety-of-nicotine-replacement-therapy-in-critically-ill-smokers-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
A Kerr, J T McVey, A M Wood, Fmp Van Haren
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is a common first-line treatment to prevent nicotine withdrawal in smokers. However, available literature reports conflicting results regarding its efficacy and safety in critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between NRT in smokers in the intensive care unit (ICU) and outcomes. This case-control study was conducted in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital ICU. Over a period of five years, 126 active smokers who received transdermal NRT were matched to 126 active smokers who did not receive NRT...
November 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829296/development-and-characterization-of-electronic-cigarette-exposure-generation-system-ecig-egs-for-the-physico-chemical-and-toxicological-assessment-of-electronic-cigarette-emissions
#20
Jiayuan Zhao, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Philip Demokritou
Electronic cigarettes (e-cig) have been introduced as a nicotine replacement therapy and have gained increasing attention and popularity. However, while findings on possible toxicological implications continue to grow, major knowledge gaps on both the complex chemistry of the exposure and toxicity exist, prohibiting public health assessors from assessing risks. Here, a versatile electronic cigarette exposure generation system (Ecig-EGS) has been developed and characterized. Ecig-EGS allows generation of real world e-cig emission profiles under controlled operational conditions, real time monitoring and time-integrated particle/gas sampling for physico-chemical characterization, and toxicological assessment (both in vitro and in vivo)...
November 10, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
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