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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624760/how-do-smoking-cessation-medicines-compare-with-respect-to-their-neuropsychiatric-safety-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-network-meta-analysis-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#1
Kyla H Thomas, Deborah Caldwell, Michael N Dalili, David Gunnell, Marcus R Munafò, Matt Stevenson, Nicky J Welton
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of early death in the UK and worldwide. Public health guidance recommends the use of varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) as smoking cessation aids in the UK. Additionally, the first electronic cigarette has been licensed for use as a smoking cessation medicine. However, there are ongoing concerns about the safety of these medicines. We present a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to determine how these smoking cessation medicines compare to each other with respect to their neuropsychiatric safety in adult smokers...
June 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622813/evaluation-of-drug-use-and-medication-compliance-in-adolescents-admitted-to-a-psychiatric-facility-from-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#2
George Sam Wang, Genie Roosevelt, Amy Becker, Lina Brou, Jeffrey L Galinkin
OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of drug use and medication compliance during mental health evaluation can help guide evaluation and treatment. The objective was to evaluate drug use and medication compliance in a pediatric emergency department (PED) psychiatric population by comparing medical history, standard urine drug screen (EIA), and expanded urine drug screen (HPLC-MS/MS). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of admitted psychiatric patients ≥13years and ≤18years in a tertiary-care children's hospital psychiatric ED from January 31, 2013 through April 16, 2014...
May 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618425/electronic-cigarettes-in-germany-patterns-of-use-and-perceived-health-improvement
#3
Kirsten Lehmann, Silke Kuhn, Jens Reimer
AIMS: The aim of the study was to characterize e-cigarette users in terms of their consumption patterns, motives, and the perceived health benefits they experience from using e-cigarettes. DESIGN: The study was a cross-sectional online survey in 2015. A total of 3,320 German e-cigarette users were enrolled. A total of 91.5% were former tobacco smokers, 7.5% used both e-cigarettes and tobacco products, 1.0% were never-smokers. RESULTS: No differences were found between ex-smokers and dual users with regard to sociodemographic and smoking history (mean age 40...
June 16, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618214/how-to-stop-smoking
#4
Priyanga Jayakumar, Hema Madhuri Mekala, Rajashekar Reddy Yeruva, Steven Lippmann
Despite the known dangers of cigarette smoking, many smokers do not use effective means for cessation. Smoking-cessation guidelines recommend a variety of psychological and medicinal options that include nicotine-replacement products, pharmaceuticals, and electronic cigarettes. This article describes these smoking-cessation options and provides guidance for physicians.
June 8, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610482/randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-healthy-lifestyle-intervention-among-smokers-with-psychotic-disorders-outcomes-to-36%C3%A2-months
#5
Amanda L Baker, Robyn Richmond, Frances J Kay-Lambkin, Sacha L Filia, David Castle, Jill M Williams, Terry J Lewin, Vanessa Clark, Robin Callister, Kerrin Palazzi
OBJECTIVE: People living with psychotic disorders (schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders) have high rates of cardiovascular disease risk behaviours, including smoking, physical inactivity and poor diet. We report cardiovascular disease risk, smoking cessation and other risk behaviour outcomes over 36 months following recruitment into a two-arm randomised controlled trial among smokers with psychotic disorders. METHODS: Participants ( N = 235) drawn from three sites were randomised to receive nicotine replacement therapy plus (1) a Healthy Lifestyles intervention delivered over approximately 9 months or (2) a largely telephone-delivered intervention (designed to control for nicotine replacement therapy provision, session frequency and other monitoring)...
June 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593499/in-utero-exposure-to-nicotine-alters-the-development-of-the-rabbit-cardiac-conduction-system-and-provides-a-potential-mechanism-for-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#6
Anh Tuan Ton, Michael Biet, Jean-Francois Delabre, Nathalie Morin, Robert Dumaine
In-utero exposure to tobacco smoke remains the highest risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To alleviate the risks, nicotine replacement therapies are often prescribed to women who wish to quit smoking during their pregnancy. Cardiac arrhythmias is considered the final outcome leading to sudden death. Our goal in this study was to determine if exposing rabbit fetus to nicotine altered the cardiac conduction system of newborn kittens in a manner susceptible to cause SIDS. Using neuronal markers and a series of immunohistological and electrophysiological techniques we found that nicotine delayed the development of the cardiac pacemaker center (sinoatrial node) and decreased its innervation...
June 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589268/e-cigarette-users-attitudes-on-the-banning-of-sales-of-nicotine-e-liquid-its-implication-on-e-cigarette-use-behaviours-and-alternative-sources-of-nicotine-e-liquid
#7
Li Ping Wong, Haridah Alias, Nasrin Agha Mohammadi, Azadeh Ghadimi, Victor Chee Wai Hoe
The banning of sales of nicotine e-liquid in e-cigarette shops has been implemented in several states in Malaysia. The distribution of nicotine e-liquid can only be allowed by licensed pharmacies or registered medical practitioners. This study aimed to evaluate e-cigarette users' responses to the control policy in a cross-sectional survey of 851 e-cigarette users by utilizing a self-report questionnaire that assessed (1) attitudes on regulation policy of e-cigarette banning; (2) e-cigarette use behaviors; and (3) sources of e-liquid after the regulation policy has been implemented...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577210/-distal-femoral-osteotomy-using-a-lateral-opening-wedge-technique
#8
M J Feucht, J Mehl, P Forkel, A B Imhoff, S Hinterwimmer
OBJECTIVE: To shift the weight-bearing axis of the lower limb medially by opening a lateral-based metaphyseal osteotomy at the distal femur. INDICATIONS: Femoral-based valgus malalignment and symptomatic lateral unicompartimental osteoarthritis, lateral hyperpression syndrome, cartilage therapy of the lateral compartment, lateral meniscal replacement/transplantation, medial instability with valgus thrust, reconstruction of the medial collateral ligament, patellar instability and/or maltracking...
June 2, 2017: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576892/study-protocol-of-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-pilot-trial-clinical-effectiveness-on-smoking-cessation-of-traditional-and-complementary-medicine-interventions-including-acupuncture-and-aromatherapy-in-combination-with-nicotine-replacement-therapy
#9
Soobin Jang, Sunju Park, Bo-Hyoung Jang, Yu Lee Park, Ju Ah Lee, Chung-Sik Cho, Ho-Yeon Go, Yong Cheol Shin, Seong-Gyu Ko
INTRODUCTION: Nicotine dependence is a disease, and tobacco use is related to 6 million deaths annually worldwide. Recently, in many countries, there has been growing interest in the use of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) methods, especially acupuncture, as therapeutic interventions for smoking cessation. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of T&CM interventions on smoking cessation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The STOP (Stop Tobacco Programme using traditional Korean medicine) study is designed to be a pragmatic, open-label, randomised pilot trial...
June 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572029/risk-factor-modification-behaviors-of-practicing-vascular-surgeons
#10
Alexandra P Bader, Claudia P Barone, Matthew R Smeds
OBJECTIVES: National smoking rates have declined; however, it remains the primary modifiable risk factor for nearly all vascular disease. While vascular surgeons have the availability to treat patients via medical or surgical/endovascular means, involvement in risk factor modification may be lacking. This study seeks to understand vascular surgeons' involvement in tobacco cessation and risk factor modification, and to determine if practice variables had any effect on provision of these services to vascular surgery patients...
May 29, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556464/tobacco-harms-nicotine-pharmacology-and-pharmacologic-tobacco-cessation-interventions-for-women
#11
REVIEW
L Kim Baraona, Dawn Lovelace, Julie L Daniels, Linda McDaniel
Firsthand and secondhand tobacco use is linked to a multitude of harmful illnesses, adverse perinatal outcomes, and death. Cessation attempts among women may be hampered by their unique biologic response to nicotine. Current research has revealed epigenetic changes from intrauterine nicotine exposure that have intergenerational consequences. Multiple studies have demonstrated the efficacy of various pharmacologic tobacco cessation interventions in conjunction with behavioral counseling. Based on this evidence, the US Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) 2015 guideline recommends pharmacologic therapy for all nonpregnant persons who smoke in addition to behavioral counseling...
May 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551588/feasibility-of-biochemical-verification-in-a-web-based-smoking-cessation-study
#12
Sarah Cha, Ollie Ganz, Amy M Cohn, Sarah J Ehlke, Amanda L Graham
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cogent arguments have been made against the need for biochemical verification in population-based studies with low-demand characteristics. Despite this fact, studies involving digital interventions (low-demand) are often required in peer review to report biochemically verified abstinence. To address this discrepancy, we examined the feasibility and costs of biochemical verification in a web-based study conducted with a national sample. METHODS: Participants were 600U...
May 22, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550919/evaluation-of-a-smoking-cessation-service-in-elective-surgery
#13
Jennifer Saxony, Lis Cowling, Leanne Catchpole, Natalie Walker
BACKGROUND: No best practice service models exist for promoting preoperative smoking cessation support, despite smokers experiencing more perioperative complications than nonsmokers. A novel specialist stop smoking service for patients undergoing elective surgery (called 'ELECT') was established in 2012 in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ). An evaluation of the service was undertaken in 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ELECT service involved regular staff training and the development of setting-specific and easy-to-use referral procedures...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550660/achieving-smoking-cessation-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-special-considerations
#14
REVIEW
Corinne Cather, Gladys N Pachas, Kristina M Cieslak, A Eden Evins
Premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease in those with schizophrenia is the largest lifespan disparity in the US and is growing; adults in the US with schizophrenia die, on average, 28 years earlier than those in the general population. The rate of smoking prevalence among individuals with schizophrenia is estimated to be from 64 to 79%. Smokers with schizophrenia have historically been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies. However, converging evidence indicates that a majority of smokers with schizophrenia want to quit smoking, and that available pharmacotherapeutic smoking cessation aids are well tolerated by this population of smokers and are effective when combined with behavioral treatment...
June 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549278/effects-of-varenicline-and-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-arterial-elasticity-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-oxidative-stress-during-a-3-month-smoking-cessation-program
#15
Ignatios Ikonomidis, Margarita Marinou, Dimitrios Vlastos, Kallirhoe Kourea, Ioanna Andreadou, Nikolaos Liarakos, Helen Triantafyllidi, George Pavlidis, Elias Tsougos, John Parissis, John Lekakis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of medically-aided smoking cessation on vascular function and oxidative stress are not fully clarified. METHODS: One hundred eighty-eight current smokers were randomized to varenicline or nicotine replacement treatment (NRT) for a 3-month period. We assessed: (a) augmentation index (Aix) and pulse wave velocity (PWV); (b) perfusion boundary region (PBR) of sublingual microvasculature (range:5-25 μm), an index of the endothelial glycocalyx thickness, using Sideview, Darkfield imaging; (c) the exhaled CO; and (d) the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) plasma levels, as markers of oxidative stress, at baseline and after 3 and 12 months...
May 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535687/positive-smoking-cessation-related-interactions-with-hiv-care-providers-increase-the-likelihood-of-interest-in-cessation-among-hiv-positive-cigarette-smokers
#16
Lauren R Pacek, Olga Rass, Matthew W Johnson
Smoking cessation has proven to be a challenge for HIV-positive smokers. Patient and provider characteristics may provide barriers to smoking cessation. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with interest in cessation as well as characterize use of, current interest in, and provider recommendations for smoking cessation modalities. Data came from 275 HIV-positive smokers recruited online. Half (49.1%) of the sample was interested in quitting; daily smoking was associated with decreased likelihood of interest in cessation, whereas making a lifetime quit attempt, receiving encouragement to quit from an HIV care provider, and greater frequency of discussions regarding cessation with HIV care providers were associated with increased likelihood of interest in cessation...
May 23, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528524/a-novel-public-health-approach-to-measuring-tobacco-cessation-needs-among-cancer-survivors-in-alaska
#17
J Michael Underwood, Samantha J Hyde-Rolland, Julia Thorsness, Sherri L Stewart
Cancer survivors who continue to smoke have poorer response to treatment, higher risk for future cancers and lower survival rates than those who quit tobacco after diagnosis. Despite the increased risk for negative health outcomes, tobacco use among Alaskan cancer survivors is 19%, among the highest in the nation. To characterize and address tobacco cessation needs among cancer survivors who called a quit line for help in quitting tobacco, Alaska's Comprehensive Cancer Control program initiated a novel partnership with the state's Tobacco Quit Line...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522745/randomised-controlled-trial-of-stand-alone-tailored-emails-for-smoking-cessation
#18
J Lee Westmaas, Jeuneviette Bontemps-Jones, Peter S Hendricks, Jihye Kim, Lorien C Abroms
INTRODUCTION: Digital technology has created opportunities for delivering smoking cessation assistance at the population level. However, the efficacy of sending multiple, automated, tailored emails providing motivation, support and information for quitting is unknown. METHODS: Smokers planning to quit (n=1070) were randomly assigned to (1) 27 tailored cessation emails (deluxe email group (DEG)), (2) 3 to 4 tailored emails with links to downloadable booklets (basic email group (BEG)) or (3) a single non-tailored email (single email group (SEG))...
May 18, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521782/combining-alcohol-interventions-with-tobacco-addictions-treatment-in-primary-care-the-combat-study-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial
#19
Nadia Minian, Dolly Baliunas, Laurie Zawertailo, Aliya Noormohamed, Norman Giesbrecht, Christian S Hendershot, Bernard Le Foll, Jürgen Rehm, Andriy Samokhvalov, Peter L Selby
BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol use present multiplicative risk for aerodigestive cancers. Reducing alcohol consumption improves smoking cessation outcomes and reduces cancer risk. Risky alcohol consumption and smoking are often treated separately despite concurrent treatment potentially leading to better outcomes for each. However, no rapidly scalable program exists for combined interventions in primary care clinics spread across wide geographic areas. This cluster randomized trial aims to report on the effects of a novel clinical decision support system (CDSS) on intervention rates by primary care practitioners addressing risky alcohol use in a smoking cessation program...
May 18, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521015/changes-in-alcohol-consumption-during-a-stop-smoking-attempt-and-differences-between-smokers-using-nicotine-replacement-and-smokers-using-varenicline
#20
Dunja Przulj, Peter Hajek, Sarah Snuggs, Hayden McRobbie
Introduction: Little is known about effects of smoking cessation on alcohol consumption. Varenicline reduces enjoyment of smoking and cigarette consumption and may also reduce enjoyment and consumption of alcohol. We conducted the first prospective examination of the effects of stopping smoking on alcohol enjoyment and consumption, and compared clients using varenicline and clients using nicotine replacement treatment (NRT). Methods: Audit of records from clients undergoing routine smoking cessation treatment inthree stop-smoking services in London, UK...
May 17, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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