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Antibiotic sensitivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150372/duration-of-group-a-streptococcus-pcr-positivity-following-antibiotic-treatment-of-pharyngitis
#1
Jason H Homme, Corryn S Greenwood, Lisa B Cronk, Lisa M Nyre, James R Uhl, Amy L Weaver, Robin Patel
BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has high sensitivity and specificity for detection of group A streptococcus (GAS) in throat swabs and is routinely used for GAS pharyngitis diagnosis at our institution. Herein we defined the natural history of throat swab GAS PCR and culture positivity during and following treatment of GAS pharyngitis. METHODS: Fifty children with a PCR positive GAS throat swab were recruited for participation. Four additional throat swabs were collected over 2 weeks following the initial positive PCR result (during and following a standard course of antibiotic therapy) and tested for GAS using rapid real-time PCR and culture...
October 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149989/low-background-and-visual-detection-of-antibiotic-based-on-target-activated-colorimetric-split-peroxidase-dnazyme-coupled-with-dual-nicking-enzyme-signal-amplification
#2
REVIEW
Xuejun Cui, Rongguo Li, Xiaofei Liu, Jingfeng Wang, Xueqi Leng, Xiaolei Song, Qianqian Pei, Yu Wang, Su Liu, Jiadong Huang
Herein, we have reported the development of a simple, rapid, and low cost colorimetric method for the detection of antibiotic based on target-activated split peroxidase DNAzyme coupled with dual nicking enzyme signal amplification (NESA). To lower background signal in G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based detection, the two split G-rich parts are caged into two different hairpin probes, respectively, preventing the two parts from assembling into the G-quadruplex structure. By the combination of restriction endonuclease-assisted cleavage reaction with the spilt G-quadruplex probes, target-modulated release of the two split G-rich parts is achieved, affording high specificity of antibiotic detection...
January 2, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149176/a-simple-way-for-targeted-delivery-of-an-antibiotic-in-vitro-evaluation-of-a-nanoclay-based-composite
#3
Leslie Valdés, Irela Pérez, Louis Charles de Ménorval, Ernesto Altshuler, Jon Otto Fossum, Aramis Rivera
The sodium-modified form of fluorohectorite nanoclay (NaFh) is introduced as a potential drug carrier, demonstrating its ability for the controlled release of the broad-spectrum antibiotic Ciprofloxacin through in vitro tests. The new clay-drug composite is designed to target the local infections in the large intestine, where it delivers most of the incorporated drug thanks to its pH-sensitive behavior. The composite has been conceived to avoid the use of coating technology and to decrease the side-effects commonly associated to the burst-release of the ciprofloxacin at the stomach level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147114/antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-isolates-from-captive-green-turtles-and-in-vitro-sensitivity-to-bacteriophages
#4
Alessandro Delli Paoli Carini, Ellen Ariel, Jacqueline Picard, Lisa Elliott
This study aimed to test multidrug resistant isolates from hospitalised green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and their environment in North Queensland, Australia, for in vitro susceptibility to bacteriophages. Seventy-one Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from green turtle eye swabs and water samples. Broth microdilution tests were used to determine antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with 24% being resistant to seven of the eight antibiotics. Highest resistance rates were detected to enrofloxacin (77%) and ampicillin (69...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146662/comparative-effectiveness-of-injectable-penicillin-versus-a-combination-of-penicillin-and-gentamicin-in-children-with-pneumonia-characterised-by-indrawing-in-kenya-a-retrospective-observational-study
#5
Lucas Malla, Rafael Perera-Salazar, Emily McFadden, Mike English
OBJECTIVES: Kenyan guidelines for antibiotic treatment of pneumonia recommended treatment of pneumonia characterised by indrawing with injectable penicillin alone in inpatient settings until early 2016. At this point, they were revised becoming consistent with WHO guidance after results of a Kenyan trial provided further evidence of equivalence of oral amoxicillin and injectable penicillin. This change also made possible use of oral amoxicillin for outpatient treatment in this patient group...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146620/diagnosing-infection-in-a-neonate-using-whole-body-screening-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Ting Ting Fu, Paul S Kingma
The location of invasive infections is difficult to detect in infants, in part due to their inability to localize signs and symptoms. However, identifying the location often significantly alters clinical management by extending the duration of antibiotic therapy or revealing a source requiring surgical intervention. Compared with commonly used first-line imaging techniques such as radiographs and ultrasounds, MRI has higher sensitivity for identifying invasive infections and allows for simultaneous evaluation of multiple foci...
November 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146504/minocycline-protects-developing-brain-against-ethanol-induced-damage
#7
Xin Wang, Kai Zhang, Fanmuyi Yang, Zhenhua Ren, Mei Xu, Jacqueline A Frank, Zun-Ji Ke, Jia Luo
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are caused by ethanol exposure during the pregnancy and is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure during the development results in the loss of neurons in the developing brain, which may underlie many neurobehavioral deficits associated with FASD. It is important to understand the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced neuronal loss and develop appropriate therapeutic strategies. One of the potential mechanisms involves neuroimmune activation. Using a third trimester equivalent mouse model of ethanol exposure, we demonstrated that ethanol induced a wide-spread neuroapoptosis, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation in C57BL/6 mice...
November 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141347/-antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-subtypes-of-salmonella-typhi-and-salmonella-paratyphoid-isolates-from-jiangsu-province-2012-2015
#8
X X Kong, C Dong, H Ji, Y Wang, C C Bao, X Huo, H M Qian
Objective: To retrospectively analyze the antimicrobial resistance phenotype and molecular typing characteristics of Salmonella (S.) typhi and S. paratyphi in Jiangsu province from 2012 to 2015. Methods: The samples were collected from typhoid and paratyphoid patients in Jiangsu province. The biochemical identification and serotyping were carried out after isolation and culture. Kirby-Bauer (K-B) testing was used to detect the drug susceptibility of the strains. The molecular typing characteristics of S. typhi and S...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141346/-etiologic-characteristics-of-shigella-sonnei-strains-isolated-from-some-areas-of-guangdong-province-and-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-of-china-2014-2016
#9
B S Li, L J Chen, B X Ke, J M Lin, L Q Xu, H L Tan, D M He, Y H Liang, C W Ke, Y H Zhang
Objective: To investigated the etiologic characteristics of Shigella (S.) sonnei strains causing outbreaks and sporadic cases in some areas of Guangdong province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region during 2014-2016. Methods: Fourteen S. sonnei strains isolated from outbreaks and 6 S. sonnei strains from sporadic cases from Guangdong and Liuzhou of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were tested for antimicrobial resistance and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Six typical strains were selected for whole genome sequencing typing and compared with 51 strains isolated both at home and abroad from NCBI genome database...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140661/an-international-model-for-antibiotics-regulation
#10
Emilie Aguirre
We face a global antibiotics resistance crisis. Antibiotic drugs are rapidly losing their effectiveness, potentially propelling us toward a post-antibiotic world. The largest use of antibiotics in the world is in food-producing animals. Food producers administer these drugs in routine, low doses—the types of doses that are incidentally the most conducive to breeding antibiotic resistance. In general, individual countries have been too slow to act in regulating misuse and overuse of antibiotics in foodproducing animals...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137627/prevalence-of-current-patterns-and-predictive-trends-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-typhi-in-sudan
#11
Ayman A Elshayeb, Abdelazim A Ahmed, Marmar A El Siddig, Adil A El Hussien
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135241/the-antibiotic-novobiocin-binds-and-activates-the-atpase-that-powers-lipopolysaccharide-transport
#12
Janine M May, Tristan Wold Owens, Michael Dan Mandler, Brent W Simpson, Michael Lazarus, David J Sherman, Rebecca M Davis, Suguru Okuda, Walter Massefski, Natividad Ruiz, Daniel Kahne
Most natural product antibiotics are well known for one mecha-nism of action. Novobiocin is an orally active antibiotic that in-hibits DNA gyrase by binding the ATP-binding site in the ATPase subunit. Although effective against Gram-positive pathogens, novobiocin has limited activity against Gram-negative organisms due to the presence of the lipopolysaccharide-containing outer membrane, which acts as a permeability barrier. Using a novobi-ocin-sensitive Escherichia coli strain with a leaky outer membrane, we identified a mutant with increased resistance to novobiocin...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134768/determination-of-multiple-antibiotics-in-leafy-vegetables-using-quechers-uhplc-ms-ms
#13
Xiaolu Yu, Hang Liu, Chengjun Pu, Junhao Chen, Ying Sun, Lin Hu
A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method was established for simultaneous extraction and cleanup of multiple antibiotics in leafy vegetables, and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was used for analysis. Antibiotics in leafy vegetables were extracted with citric acid/sodium citrate in mixed solvents consisting of acetonitrile/methanol (85:15 v/v) from 10 g of vegetables. Octadecylsilyl and graphitized carbon black were used as dispersant adsorbents...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133389/selective-killing-of-helicobacter-pylori-with-ph-responsive-helix-coil-conformation-transitionable-antimicrobial-polypeptides
#14
Menghua Xiong, Yan Bao, Xin Xu, Hua Wang, Zhiyuan Han, Zhiyu Wang, Yeqing Liu, Songyin Huang, Ziyuan Song, Jinjing Chen, Richard M Peek, Lichen Yin, Lin-Feng Chen, Jianjun Cheng
Current clinical treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, the main etiological factor in the development of gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric carcinoma, requires a combination of at least two antibiotics and one proton pump inhibitor. However, such triple therapy suffers from progressively decreased therapeutic efficacy due to the drug resistance and undesired killing of the commensal bacteria due to poor selectivity. Here, we report the development of antimicrobial polypeptide-based monotherapy, which can specifically kill H...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133025/perivalvular-mitral-abscess-fistulised-to-the-pericardial-cavity-revealing-staphylococcal-endocarditis
#15
Paul Desaint, Anthony Chauvat, Thomas Garaud, Olivier Andremont, Gaëtan Plantefève, Hervé Mentec, Damien Contou
BACKGROUND: Fistula to the pericardial cavity is a very rare complication of perivalvular abscess during infective endocarditis, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most commonly associated microorganism. METHODS: We report a fatal septic shock due to a mitral endocarditis revealed by a myocardial abscess fistulised toward the pericardial cavity. RESULTS: A 66-year-old female without previous valvular disease was admitted to intensive care for severe sepsis...
October 31, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132613/identification-and-management-of-shigella-infection-in-children-with-diarrhoea-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Kirkby D Tickell, Rebecca L Brander, Hannah E Atlas, Jeffrey M Pernica, Judd L Walson, Patricia B Pavlinac
BACKGROUND: Shigella infections are a leading cause of diarrhoeal death among children in low-income and middle-income countries. WHO guidelines reserve antibiotics for treating children with dysentery. Reliance on dysentery for identification and management of Shigella infection might miss an opportunity to reduce Shigella-associated morbidity and mortality. We aimed to systematically review and evaluate Shigella-associated and dysentery-associated mortality, the diagnostic value of dysentery for the identification of Shigella infection, and the efficacy of antibiotics for children with Shigella or dysentery, or both...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132466/-association-of-drug-resistance-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-with-dna-load-and-genotypes-in-children-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia
#17
Hui-Fen Zhang, Hai-Tao Bai, Ji-Ming Li, Hui Xie, Ye Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of drug resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) with DNA load and genotypes in children with MP pneumonia. METHODS: A total of 230 children who were hospitalized and diagnosed with MP pneumonia between January 2012 and December 2016 were enrolled. Throat swabs were collected from the 230 children, and a rapid drug sensitivity assay was used to determine the sensitivity of clinical isolates of MP to nine commonly used antibacterial agents...
November 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131910/resistant-infantile-bacterial-conjunctivitis-in-egypt-a-microbiology-study
#18
Aiman Abdeltawwab Hashish, Molham Abdelhafez Elbakary, Waleed Abdelhady Allam
PURPOSE: To study the microbiological aspects of infantile bacterial conjunctivitis resistant to empirical topical antibiotic therapy in Egypt. METHODS: Ninety-two eyes of 86 infants with bacterial conjunctivitis were included in this prospective study. They all failed to show evidence of clinical improvement after 2 weeks of empirical topical antibiotic therapy. Conjunctival swabs were obtained from all patients for bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126469/high-reliable-and-robust-ultrathin-layer-gold-coating-porous-silver-substrate-via-galvanic-free-deposition-for-solid-phase-microextraction-coupled-with-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#19
Weiwei Bian, Zhen Liu, Gang Lian, Le Wang, Qilong Wang, Jinhua Zhan
That intense demand for both high sensitivity and high reliability has been a key factor strengthening the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in the analytical application, particular in the hyphenation with pre-concentration technique. Credible data acquisition and processing is very dependent on the stable and uniform performance of SERS-active substrate. Here, a reliable and uniform ultrathin-layer Au was proposed for protecting the porous Ag fiber (porous Ag@Au) and applied in the solid phase microextraction coupled with SERS...
November 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126217/change-in-pneumococcus-serotypes-but-not-mortality-or-morbidity-in-pre-and-post-13-valent-polysaccharide-conjugate-vaccine-era-epidemiology-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-over-10-years
#20
Kam Lun Hon, King Hang Chan, Pak Long Ko, Michelle Ho Yan Cheung, Kathy Yin C Tsang, Lawrence C N Chan, Renee W Y Chan, Ting Fan Leung, Margaret Ip
Aim: Pneumococcus is a common commensal and an important pathogen among children for which immunization is available. Some serotypes occasionally cause severe pneumococcal disease with high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed all pneumococcal serotypes and mortality/morbidity in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) following universal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunization. Methods: A 13-valent PCV was introduced in the universal immunization program in late 2011 in Hong Kong...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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