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Antibiotic sensitivity

Riti Sharan, Hee-Jeong Yang, Preeti Sule, Jeffrey D Cirillo
Reporter enzyme fluorescence (REF) utilizes substrates that are specific for enzymes present in target organisms of interest for imaging or detection by fluorescence or bioluminescence. We utilize BlaC, an enzyme expressed constitutively by all M. tuberculosis strains. REF allows rapid quantification of bacteria in lungs of infected mice. The same group of mice can be imaged at many time points, greatly reducing costs, enumerating bacteria more quickly, allowing novel observations in host-pathogen interactions, and increasing statistical power, since more animals per group are readily maintained...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Shaden Jobran, Randa Kattan, Jamal Shamaa, Hiyam Marzouqa, Musa Hindiyeh
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses have an important role in paediatric respiratory tract infections. They are estimated to cause 2-5% of the overall respiratory tract infections and 4-10% of all pneumonias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical presentation and effect of adenoviral infection on the management of infected infants. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of patients infected with adenovirus and admitted to Caritas Baby Hospital...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Qusay Abdoh, Lubna Kharraz, Khubaib Ayoub, Jana Khraim, Wafaa Awad, Aysha Sbeah, Safaa Turman
BACKGROUND: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is considered the most important determinant of treatment failure. Monitoring the evolution of antimicrobial resistance to common antibiotics is therefore of special importance for clinicians. The frequency of resistance to antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori isolates is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of H pylori antibiotic resistance at the An-Najah National University Hospital. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited patients older than 18 year who were admitted to the An-Najah National University Hospital...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Fahime Mohammadi, Morteza Eshaghi, Shabnam Razavi, Davood Darban Sarokhalil, Malihe Talebi, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie
The purpose of the present study was to isolate Lactobacillus bacteria from mother's milk and to assess their probiotic potential. Sixty breast milk samples were collected from the volunteered mothers aged from 19-35 and from rural areas of Lorestan and Markazi Provinces, Iran. At first, 970 bacill-shaped bacterial colonies were isolated from these samples and stored in proper condition. Two hundred isolates were randomly selected and investigated for their ability to tolerate acidic condition and to tolerate bile salt as well...
March 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Deepti Singh, Shwetha Narayanamoorthy, Sunita Gamre, Ananda Guha Majumdar, Manish Goswami, Umesh Gami, Susan Cherian, Mahesh Subramanian
Antibiotic resistance is a global problem and there is an urgent need to augment the arsenal against pathogenic bacteria. The emergence of different drug resistant bacteria is threatening human lives to be pushed towards the pre-antibiotic era. Botanical sources remain a vital source of diverse organic molecules that possess antibacterial property as well as augment existing antibacterial molecules. Piper betle, a climber, is widely used in south and south-east Asia whose leaves and nuts are consumed regularly...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Stefan A Boers, Saskia D Hiltemann, Andrew P Stubbs, Ruud Jansen, John P Hays
Microbiota profiling has the potential to greatly impact on routine clinical diagnostics by detecting DNA derived from live, fastidious, and dead bacterial cells present within clinical samples. Such results could potentially be used to benefit patients by influencing antibiotic prescribing practices or to generate new classical-based diagnostic methods, e.g., culture or PCR. However, technical flaws in 16S rRNA gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) protocols, together with the requirement for access to bioinformatics, currently hinder the introduction of microbiota analysis into clinical diagnostics...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Iwona Pawłowska, Lech Krawczyk, Jadwiga Wojkowska-Mach
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii strains are currently the most commonly isolated non-fermenting rods at Polish intensive care units (ICUs), and they are the dominant aetiological agents of pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of A. baumannii isolated from patients who were hospitalised at Sosnowiec Hospital's ICU. We also investigated the drug sensitivity of A. baumannii in relation to antibiotic consumption expressed as the defined daily dose (DDD) and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Taisa Trevizani Rocchetti, Katheryne Benine Martins, Patricia Yoshida Faccioli Martins, Rogério Antonio de Oliveira, Alessandro Lia Mondelli, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus spp. - both S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) - are relevant agents of healthcare-associated infections. Therefore, the rapid recognition of MRSA and methicillin-resistant CoNS from blood stream infections is critically important for patient management. It is worth noting that inappropriate empiric therapy has been associated with higher in-hospital mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study we evaluated a multiplex PCR standardized to detect Staphylococcus spp...
March 13, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Andrew McDowell, Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Raghuram Rao, Sanjay Sarin, Aakshi Kalra, Virender Singh Salhotra, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in children presents considerable challenges. Upfront testing on Xpert® MTB/RIF ('Xpert')-a rapid molecular assay with high sensitivity and specificity-for pediatric presumptive TB patients, as recommended by India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), can pave the way for early TB diagnosis. As part of an ongoing project implemented by Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) dedicated to providing upfront free-of-cost (FOC) Xpert testing to children seeking care in the public and private sectors, a qualitative assessment was designed to understand how national guidelines on TB diagnosis and Xpert technology have been integrated into the pediatric TB care practices of different health providers...
2018: PloS One
Lawrence Mj Best, Yemisi Takwoingi, Sulman Siddique, Abiram Selladurai, Akash Gandhi, Benjamin Low, Mohammad Yaghoobi, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been implicated in a number of malignancies and non-malignant conditions including peptic ulcers, non-ulcer dyspepsia, recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding, unexplained iron deficiency anaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia purpura, and colorectal adenomas. The confirmatory diagnosis of H pylori is by endoscopic biopsy, followed by histopathological examination using haemotoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain or special stains such as Giemsa stain and Warthin-Starry stain...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Pamela Orjuela-Sanchez, Zaira Hellen Villa, Marta Moreno, Carlos Tong-Rios, Stephan Meister, Gregory M LaMonte, Brice Campo, Joseph M Vinetz, Elizabeth A Winzeler
To develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria elimination, it will be necessary to discover biological interventions, including small molecules that act against Plasmodium vivax exoerythrocytic forms. However, a robust in vitro culture system for P. vivax is still lacking. Thus, to study exoerythrocytic forms, researchers must have simultaneous access to fresh, temperature-controlled patient blood samples, as well as an anopheline mosquito colony. In addition, researchers must rely on native mosquito species to avoid introducing a potentially dangerous invasive species into a malaria-endemic region...
March 15, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Miriam Eddyani, Ghislain E Sopoh, Gilbert Ayelo, Luc V C Brun, Jean-Jacques Roux, Yves Barogui, Dissou Affolabi, William R Faber, Marleen Boelaert, Annelies Van Rie, Françoise Portaels, Bouke C de Jong
Background: The diagnosis of the neglected tropical skin and soft tissue disease Buruli ulcer (BU) is made on clinical and epidemiological grounds, after which treatment with BU-specific antibiotics is initiated empirically. Given the current decline in BU incidence, clinical expertise in the recognition of BU is likely to wane and laboratory confirmation of BU becomes increasingly important. We therefore aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of clinical signs and microbiological tests in patients presenting with lesions clinically compatible with BU...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Md Asaduzzaman Shishir, Md Al Mamun, Md Mahmuduzzaman Mian, Umme Tamanna Ferdous, Noor Jahan Akter, Rajia Sultana Suravi, Suvamoy Datta, Md Ehsanul Kabir
The scarcity of hygienic drinking water is a normal phenomenon in the coastal areas of Bangladesh due to the high salinity of ground water. The inhabitants of this locality, therefore, live on alternative supplies of water including rain-fed pond water, and rainwater with persistent complex microbial interactions therein, often contaminated with life-threatening pathogens. Hence, this study was aimed at analyzing the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae ( Vc ) in the alternative drinking waters of Mathbaria, a coastal subdistrict neighboring the Bay of Bengal, the efficacy of pond sand filter (PSF) and the co-association among Bacillus -like spore formers (Sf) and Vc ...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
I-Ling Chen, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Shih-Wen Ting, Lily Yu-Chin Wang
Objectives: The increasing number of reports on infections due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) has raised concerns, because they have complicated empiric or guided antibiotic therapy for critically ill patients. We aimed to develop a scoring system to predict nosocomial imipenem-resistant GNB (IR-GNB) septicemia among the critically ill patients. Materials and methods: The study included critically ill adult patients with nosocomial GNB septicemia at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) in 2013-2015, and the scoring system for predicting IR-GNB septicemia was developed, followed by prospective validation conducted among patients at Linkou CGMH and Kaohsiung CGMH between January and June, 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Kennedy Daniel Mwambete, Mathias Eulambius
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of otitis media (OM)-associated bacterial flora of asymptomatic people living with HIV (PLH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and assess antibiotic resistance profiles of the bacteria. METHODOLOGY: Ear secretion specimens were collected by syringe or cotton swabs. Isolated bacteria were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests. RESULTS: Of 290 recruited PLH, 81.7% were females and 18...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Mst Ishrat Jahan, Ryuta Tobe, Hisaaki Mihara
The extI gene in Geobacter sulfurreducens encodes a putative outer membrane channel porin, which resides within a cluster of extHIJKLMNOPQS genes. This cluster is highly conserved across the Geobacteraceae and includes multiple putative c -type cytochromes. In silico analyses of the ExtI sequence, together with Western blot analysis and proteinase protection assays, showed that it is an outer membrane protein. The expression level of ExtI did not respond to changes in osmolality and phosphate starvation. An extI -deficient mutant did not show any significant impact on fumarate or Fe(III) citrate reduction or sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics, as compared with those of the wild-type strain...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Felicia Turowski, Ulrich Hügle, Arno Dormann, Matthias Bechtler, Ralf Jakobs, Uwe Gottschalk, Ellen Nötzel, Dirk Hartmann, Albrecht Lorenz, Frank Kolligs, Wilfried Veltzke-Schlieker, Andreas Adler, Olaf Becker, Bertram Wiedenmann, Nataly Bürgel, Hanno Tröger, Michael Schumann, Severin Daum, Britta Siegmund, Christian Bojarski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness and diagnostic and therapeutic outcome of the single-operator cholangiopancreatoscopy (SOC) with SpyGlassDS™. METHODS: In a retrospective multicenter study between November 2015 and January 2017, SpyGlassDS™ procedures were analyzed in participating centers. Indications, accuracy of SOC-guided biopsies, management of large bile duct stones, and complications were analyzed. Follow-up was 4 months...
March 12, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Xinghua Gao, Qiuhua Cao, Yan Cheng, Dandan Zhao, Zhuo Wang, Hongbao Yang, Qijin Wu, Linjun You, Yue Wang, Yanting Lin, Xianjing Li, Yun Wang, Jin-Song Bian, Dongdong Sun, Lingyi Kong, Lutz Birnbaumer, Yong Yang
Chronic stress is known to promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unresolved. Here, we found chronic stress to sensitize mice to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis; to increase the infiltration of B cells, neutrophils, and proinflammatory ly6Chi macrophages in colonic lamina propria; and to present with decreased thymus and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) coefficients. Circulating total white blood cells were significantly increased after stress, and the proportion of MLN-associated immune cells were largely changed...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Elia Zomot, Eliane Hadas Yardeni, Attilio Vittorio Vargiu, Heng-Keat Tam, Giuliano Malloci, Venkata Krishnan Ramaswamy, Michal Perach, Paolo Ruggerone, Klaas Martinus Pos, Eitan Bibi
Secondary multidrug (Mdr) transporters utilize ion concentration gradients to actively remove antibiotics and other toxic compounds from cells. The model Mdr transporter MdfA from E. coli exchanges dissimilar drugs for protons. The transporter should open at the cytoplasmic side to enable access of drugs into the Mdr-recognition pocket. Here we show that the cytoplasmic rim around the Mdr-recognition pocket represents a previously overlooked important regulatory determinant in MdfA. We demonstrate that increasing the positive charge of the electrically asymmetric rim dramatically inhibits MdfA activity and sometimes even leads to influx of planar, positively charged compounds, resulting in drug sensitivity...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Naoki Sawada, Takenori Kotani, Tasuku Konno, Jajar Setiawan, Yuka Nishigaito, Yasuyuki Saito, Yoji Murata, Ken-Ichi Nibu, Takashi Matozaki
In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), interneurons such as granule cells and periglomerular cells are continuously replaced by adult-born neurons, which are generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain. We have now investigated the role of commensal bacteria in regulation of such neuronal cell turnover in the adult mouse brain. Administration of mixture of antibiotics to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice markedly attenuated the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into the SVZ cells. The treatment with antibiotics also reduced newly generated BrdU-positive neurons in the mouse OB...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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