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Antibiotic sensitivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731664/-severe-infection-by-methicillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-producing-panton-valentine-leukocidin-reports-of-two-cases
#1
Martín Brizuela, Guadalupe Pérez, Silvina Ruvinsky, Claudia Sarkis, Romina Romero, Alejandra Mastroianni, Lidia Casimir, María E Venuta, Verónica Gómez Bonduele, Rosa Bologna
Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiologic agent of infections in children from the community and the hospital setting. The severity of these conditions is associated with virulence factors, including the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Both methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus produce this leukocidin although with varying frequency. We present two children with severe infection by sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producer of Panton-Valentine leukocidin with musculoskeletal and endovascular complications...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731324/using-infrared-spectroscopy-and-multivariate-analysis-to-detect-antibiotics-resistant-escherichia-coli-bacteria
#2
Uraib Sharaha, Eladio Rodriguez-Diaz, Klaris Riesenberg, Irving J Bigio, Mahmoud Huleihel, Ahmad Salman
Bacterial pathogens are one of the primary causes of human morbidity worldwide. Historically, antibiotics have been highly effective against most bacterial pathogens; however, the increasing resistance of bacteria to a broad spectrum of commonly used antibiotics has become a global health-care problem. Early and rapid determination of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics has become essential in many clinical settings, and, sometimes, can save lives. Currently classical procedures require at least 48 hours for determining bacterial susceptibility, which can constitute a life-threatening delay for effective treatment...
July 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730697/impact-of-simultaneous-glutamate-dehydrogenase-gdh-and-toxin-a-b-rapid-immunoassay-on-clostridium-difficile-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-hospitalized-patients-with-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-in-a-university-hospital-of-brazil
#3
Guilherme Grossi Lopes Cançado, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Amanda Pontes Nader, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Eduardo Garcia Vilela
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a major cause of health care-associated infection, but disagreement between diagnostic tests is an ongoing barrier to clinical decision making. Conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for toxin detection is currently the most frequently used technique for CDI diagnosis, but its low sensitivity makes the development of an alternative strategy necessary for improving the diagnosis in developing countries. METHODS: Between years 2011 and 2015, 154 stool samples from patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea were examined by toxigenic culture (TC) and EIA for the diagnosis of CDI...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729206/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-gram-negative-bacteria-isolated-from-bloodstream-infections-in-an-iranian-referral-pediatric-hospital-a-six-year-study
#4
Shima Mahmoudi, Masoumeh Mahzari, Maryam Banar, Babak Pourakbari, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Mohsen Mohammadi, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children all over the world. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) isolated from bloodstream infections (BSIs) in children admitted to the Children Medical Center Hospital (CMC), Tehran, Iran. METHODS: Clinical and microbiological data of the patients with positive blood cultures was collected from March 2011 to September 2016...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729205/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-in-israel
#5
Linda Tkhawkho, Orna Nitzan, Nina Pastukh, Diana Brodsky, Karen Jackson, Avi Peretz
OBJECTIVES: An increase of Clostridium difficile isolates with reduced susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents has been observed, including isolates that are non-susceptible to antibiotics that are routinely used for treatment of C. difficile, such as vancomycin and metronidazole. We determined the susceptibility rates of C. difficile isolates from hospitals in northern Israel to various antibiotics including tigecycline, which was not previously reported from Israel. METHODS: A total of 81 stool samples were collected from three hospitals in northern Israel from patients with C...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727372/fosfomycin-a-good-alternative-drug-for-prostate-biopsy-prophylaxis-the-results-of-a-prospective-randomized-trial-with-respect-to-risk-factors
#6
Erdem Kisa, Mustafa Ugur Altug, Oguz Alp Gurbuz, Harun Ozdemir
PURPOSE: To determine the risk factors and the efficiency of rectal swab samples to prevent infectious complications in prostate biopsy, and compare fosfomycin with ciprofloxacin use in prophylaxis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May and October 2014, pre-biopsy risk factors and their effect in ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin prophylaxis were determined. Pre-biopsy urinalysis, urine culture and rectal swab samples were obtained from all of the patients. Rectal swabs were obtained upon admission, and biopsy was performed in the following 3-7 days...
June 14, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724393/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-emerged-long-before-the-introduction-of-methicillin-into-clinical-practice
#7
Catriona P Harkins, Bruno Pichon, Michel Doumith, Julian Parkhill, Henrik Westh, Alexander Tomasz, Herminia de Lencastre, Stephen D Bentley, Angela M Kearns, Matthew T G Holden
BACKGROUND: The spread of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens poses a major threat to global health. It is widely recognised that the widespread use of antibiotics has generated selective pressures that have driven the emergence of resistant strains. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was first observed in 1960, less than one year after the introduction of this second generation beta-lactam antibiotic into clinical practice. Epidemiological evidence has always suggested that resistance arose around this period, when the mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance carried on an SCCmec element, was horizontally transferred to an intrinsically sensitive strain of S...
July 20, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722662/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-infections-in-patients-with-acute-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Yan-Guo Xi, Xu Tian, Wei-Qing Chen, Sai Zhang, Shan Zhang, Wei-Dan Ren, Qi-Jun Pang, Guo-Tao Yang, Zhi-Ming Yang
OBJECTIVE: Infections are frequent after stroke and lead to increased mortality and neurological disability. Antibiotic prophylaxis has potential of decreasing the risk of infections and mortality and improving poor functional outcome. Several studies evaluated antibiotic prophylaxis for infections in acute stroke patients have generated conflicting results. The systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) aimed at comprehensively assessing the evidence of antibiotic prophylaxis for the treatment of acute stroke patients...
July 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721025/antibacterial-effect-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
R Salomoni, P Léo, A F Montemor, B G Rinaldi, Mfa Rodrigues
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has great intrinsic antimicrobial resistance limiting the number of effective antibiotics. Thus, other antimicrobial agents such as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are considered potential agents to help manage and prevent infections. AgNPs can be used in several applications against bacteria resistant to common antibiotics or even multi-resistant bacteria such as P. aeruginosa. This study assessed the antimicrobial activity of commercial 10 nm AgNPs on two hospital strains of P. aeruginosa resistant to a large number of antibiotics and a reference strain from a culture collection...
2017: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720732/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-alters-staphylococcus-aureus-sensitivity-to-vancomycin-in-a-biofilm-model-of-cystic-fibrosis-infection
#10
Giulia Orazi, George A O'Toole
The airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have thick mucus, which fosters chronic, polymicrobial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens in CF patients. In this study, we tested whether P. aeruginosa influences the susceptibility of S. aureus to frontline antibiotics used to treat CF lung infections. Using our in vitro coculture model, we observed that addition of P. aeruginosa supernatants to S. aureus biofilms grown either on epithelial cells or on plastic significantly decreased the susceptibility of S...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719354/thymol-and-carvacrol-strongly-inhibit-biofilm-formation-and-growth-of-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli
#11
P Raei, T Pourlak, M Y Memar, N Alizadeh, M Aghamali, E Zeinalzadeh, M Asgharzadeh, H S Kafil
Discovery of novel drugs with new mechanisms of action and without cross-reaction with current therapeutic agents is crucial in the management of infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of carvacrol and thymol on biofilm formation and antimicrobial activity against different carbapenemase-producing Gram negative bacilli. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect of thymol and carvacrol was investigated against strains harboring different genes related to carbapenemase resistance...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718958/multiplex-pcr-scheme-for-variant-plasmid-mediated-class-c-%C3%AE-lactamase-typing
#12
Le Van Chuong, Virapong Prachayasittikul, Chartchalerm Isarankura Na Ayudhya, Ratana Lawung
BACKGROUND: An increasing of prevalence and diversification of plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) has been emerged worldwide. The incidence of pAmpC resulted in increasing β-lactamase production and conferred resistance to almost all β-lactam antibiotics excluding carbapenems. The lack of standard method for pAmpC identification and classification exert a challenge in epidemiological surveillance and infection control practices. METHODS: A robust, single tube multiplex PCR has been developed to classify six different pAmpC groups including CIT (CMY-2 like, LAT and CFE), ECB (ACT, MIR), MOX & CMY-1 like, DHA, ACC, and FOX...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718238/bacteriology-of-diabetic-foot-in-tertiary-care-hospital-frequency-antibiotic-susceptibility-and-risk-factors
#13
Syeda Sadia Amjad, Jamal Zafar, Nadia Shams
BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot being one of the frequent and disabling complications of diabetes. In view of widespread regional variation in causative organisms and antimicrobial susceptibility, the current study aimed to determine frequency of causative organisms, their antimicrobial susceptibility and associated risk factors. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 months' duration at dept. of Medicine; PIMS Hospital Islamabad. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic foot ulcer were enrolled after informed consent...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717548/infective-complications-in-patients-after-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-and-the-role-of-ciprofloxacin-resistant-escherichia-coli-colonization-in-rectal-flora
#14
Mustafa Bilal Hamarat, Fatih Tarhan, Rahim Horuz, Gülfem Akengin Öcal, Mehmet Kutlu Demirkol, Alper Kafkaslı, Özgür Yazıcı
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we aimed to invastigate the ciprofloxacin resistance in rectal flora of the patients undergoing prostate biopsy in our department. Additionally, the possible effects of the presence of ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria in faecal flora on the risk of infective complications after the procedure as well as the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on such infectious complications have been evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 142 patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy were included into the study program...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717309/molecular-characterization-of-antibiotic-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-livestock-bovine-and-swine
#15
Asima Zehra, Randhir Singh, Simranpreet Kaur, J P S Gill
AIM: The aim of this study was to figure the prevalence, phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance (AR) pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine and swine nares. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Colonies with typical morphology on Baird-Parker agar supplemented with egg-yolk tellurite emulsion were selected and biochemically/genotypically identified as S. aureus. These strains were further subjected to epsilometer test for their sensitivity to various clinically important antibiotics and antibiotic susceptibility testing for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and double-disk diffusion testing was performed by the standard disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717308/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-and-nasal-carriage-isolates-from-bovines-and-its-antibiogram
#16
Alok Kumar, Purushottam Kaushik, Anjay, Pankaj Kumar, Manoj Kumar
AIM: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in cattle and buffalo and to study their antibiotic resistance pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 136 samples (skin and nasal swab) from cattle and buffalo were collected. MRSA was identified by conventional bacterial culture techniques which were further confirmed by amplification of S. aureus-specific 16S rRNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716936/bacterial-infection-imaging-with-18-f-fluoropropyl-trimethoprim
#17
Mark A Sellmyer, Iljung Lee, Catherine Hou, Chi-Chang Weng, Shihong Li, Brian P Lieberman, Chenbo Zeng, David A Mankoff, Robert H Mach
There is often overlap in the diagnostic features of common pathologic processes such as infection, sterile inflammation, and cancer both clinically and using conventional imaging techniques. Here, we report the development of a positron emission tomography probe for live bacterial infection based on the small-molecule antibiotic trimethoprim (TMP). [(18)F]fluoropropyl-trimethoprim, or [(18)F]FPTMP, shows a greater than 100-fold increased uptake in vitro in live bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) relative to controls...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713356/a-genotypic-analysis-of-five-p-aeruginosa-strains-after-biofilm-infection-by-phages-targeting-different-cell-surface-receptors
#18
Diana P Pires, Andreas Dötsch, Erin M Anderson, Youai Hao, Cezar M Khursigara, Joseph S Lam, Sanna Sillankorva, Joana Azeredo
Antibiotic resistance constitutes one of the most serious threats to the global public health and urgently requires new and effective solutions. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses increasingly recognized as being good alternatives to traditional antibiotic therapies. In this study, the efficacy of phages, targeting different cell receptors, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm and planktonic cell cultures was evaluated over the course of 48 h. Although significant reductions in the number of viable cells were achieved for both cases, the high level of adaptability of the bacteria in response to the selective pressure caused by phage treatment resulted in the emergence of phage-resistant variants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712173/surgical-site-infection-in-orthopaedic-implants-and-its-common-bacteria-with-their-sensitivities-to-antibiotics-in-open-reduction-internal-fixation
#19
Muhammad Qaisar Shah, Muhammad Shoib Zardad, Alamzeb Khan, Sajjad Ahmed, Abdus Saboor Awan, Taj Mohammad
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants is a major problem, causing long hospital stay, cost to the patient and is a burden on health care facilities. It increases rate of nonunion, osteomyelitis, implant failure, sepsis, multiorgan dysfunction and even death. Surgical site infection is defined as pain, erythema, swelling and discharge from wound site. Surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants is more challenging to the treating orthopaedic surgeon as the causative organism is protected by a biofilm over the implant's surface...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712106/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-urinalysis-samples-in-critically-ill-patients
#20
Sean P Lee, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Thomas James Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Preemptive screening of urine for patients admitted to an intensive care unit can result in misinterpretation of data and over- or under-treatment of urinary tract infection. METHODS: Data were studied from 169 consecutive patients admitted to the neurologic or burn intensive care unit at Shands Hospital at the University of Florida. All patients had a urinary catheter in place at the time of admission. Urinalysis and urine culture were sent for analysis...
July 16, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
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