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Antibiotic sensitivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335481/genetic-variants-contributing-to-colistin-cytotoxicity-identification-of-tgif1-and-hoxd10-using-a-population-genomics-approach
#1
Michael T Eadon, Ronald J Hause, Amy L Stark, Ying-Hua Cheng, Heather E Wheeler, Kimberly S Burgess, Eric A Benson, Patrick N Cunningham, Robert L Bacallao, Pierre C Dagher, Todd C Skaar, M Eileen Dolan
Colistin sulfate (polymixin E) is an antibiotic prescribed with increasing frequency for severe Gram-negative bacterial infections. As nephrotoxicity is a common side effect, the discovery of pharmacogenomic markers associated with toxicity would benefit the utility of this drug. Our objective was to identify genetic markers of colistin cytotoxicity that were also associated with expression of key proteins using an unbiased, whole genome approach and further evaluate the functional significance in renal cell lines...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334931/rgf1p-rho1p-gef-is-required-for-double-strand-break-repair-in-fission-yeast
#2
Elvira Manjón, Tomás Edreira, Sofía Muñoz, Yolanda Sánchez
Rho GTPases are conserved molecules that control cytoskeletal dynamics. These functions are expedited by Rho GEFs that stimulate the release of GDP to enable GTP binding, thereby allowing Rho proteins to initiate intracellular signaling. How Rho GEFs and Rho GTPases protect cells from DNA damage is unknown. Here, we explore the extreme sensitivity of a deletion mutation in the Rho1p exchange factor Rgf1p to the DNA break/inducing antibiotic phleomycin (Phl). The Rgf1p mutant cells are defective in reentry into the cell cycle following the induction of severe DNA damage...
March 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334777/clinicians-interpretations-of-point-of-care-urine-culture-versus-laboratory-culture-results-analysis-from-the-four-country-poetic-trial-of-diagnosis-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infection-in-primary-care
#3
Saskia Hullegie, Mandy Wootton, Theo J M Verheij, Emma Thomas-Jones, Janine Bates, Kerenza Hood, Micaela Gal, Nick A Francis, Paul Little, Michael Moore, Carl Llor, Timothy Pickles, David Gillespie, Nigel Kirby, Curt Brugman, Christopher C Butler
Background.: Urine culture at the point of care minimises delay between obtaining the sample and agar inoculation in a microbiology laboratory, and quantification and sensitivity results can be available more rapidly in primary care. Objective.: To identify the degree to which clinicians' interpretations of a point-of-care-test (POCT) urine culture (Flexicult™ SSI-Urinary Kit) agrees with laboratory culture in women presenting to primary care with symptoms of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI)...
March 1, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334251/isolation-of-vibrionaceae-from-wild-blue-mussel-mytilus-edulis-adults-and-their-impact-on-blue-mussel-larviculture
#4
Mieke Eggermont, Peter Bossier, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro Pande, Vyshal Delahaut, Ali Md Rayhan, Nipa Gupta, Shikder Saiful Islam, Elsie Yumo, Nancy Nevejan, Patrick Sorgeloos, Bruno Gomez-Gil, Tom Defoirdt
The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is known as a robust mollusk species, although its larviculture appears to be highly susceptible to diseases. In this study, we isolated 17 strains from induced mortality events in healthy wild-caught blue mussel adults and demonstrated that they caused between 17 and 98% mortality in blue mussel larvae in a newly developed, highly controlled immersion challenge test model. Eight of the isolates belong to the Splendidus clade of vibrios, while the other isolates belong to the genus Photobacterium...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333307/formation-physiology-ecology-evolution-and-clinical-importance-of-bacterial-persisters
#5
Bram Van den Bergh, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
Persisters are transiently tolerant variants that allow populations to avoid eradication by antibiotic treatment. Their antibiotic tolerance is non-genetic, not inheritable and results from a phenotypic switch from the normal, sensitive cell type to the tolerant, persister state. Here we give a comprehensive overview on bacterial persistence. We first define persistence, summarize the various aspects of persister physiology and show their heterogeneous nature. We then focus on the role of key cellular processes and mechanisms controlling the formation of a subpopulation of tolerant cells...
February 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333297/effect-of-adding-a-mobile-health-intervention-to-a-multimodal-antimicrobial-stewardship-programme-across-three-teaching-hospitals-an-interrupted-time-series-study
#6
E Charani, M Gharbi, L S P Moore, E Castro-Sanchéz, W Lawson, M Gilchrist, A H Holmes
Objectives: To evaluate the impact of adding a mobile health (mHealth) decision support system for antibiotic prescribing to an established antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP). Methods: In August 2011, the antimicrobial prescribing policy was converted into a mobile application (app). A segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was used to assess the impact of the app on prescribing indicators, using data (2008-14) from a biannual point prevalence survey of medical and surgical wards...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332827/subcellular-chemical-imaging-of-antibiotics-in-single-bacteria-using-c60-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry
#7
Hua Tian, David A Six, Thomas Krucker, Jennifer A Leeds, Nicholas Winograd
The inherent difficulty of discovering new and effective antibacterials and the rapid development of resistance particularly in Gram-negative bacteria, illustrates the urgent need for new methods that enable rational drug design. Here we report the development of 3D imaging cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as a label-free approach to chemically map small molecules in aggregated and single Escherichia coli cells, with ~300 nm spatial resolution and high chemical sensitivity. The feasibility of quantitative analysis was explored, and a non-linear relationship between treatment dose and signal for tetracycline and ampicillin, two clinically-used antibacterials, was observed...
March 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331866/clinical-response-and-outcome-in-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-infections
#8
Masoume Malekolkottab, Lida Shojaei, Hossein Khalili, Mahsa Doomanlou
OBJECTIVE: In this study, frequency and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms were evaluated in a referral teaching hospital in Iran. METHODS: Patients with MDR Gram-negative pathogens were followed during the course of hospitalization. Demographic data, baseline diseases, type of biological sample, isolated microorganism, type of infection, antibiotic regimen before the availability of the culture result and change in the antibiotic regimen following receiving the antibiogram results, response to the treatment regimen, and duration of hospitalization and patient's outcome were considered variables for each recruited patient...
January 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330272/biodegradation-of-endocrine-disruptor-dibutyl-phthalate-dbp-by-a-newly-isolated-methylobacillus-sp-v29b-and-the-dbp-degradation-pathway
#9
Vinay Kumar, S S Maitra
Bacteria of the genus Methylobacillus are methanotrophs, a metabolic feature that is widespread in the phylum Proteobacteria. The study demonstrates the isolation and characterization of a newly isolated Methylobacillus sp. V29b. which grows on methanol, protocatechuate, monobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, dioctyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate. Methylobacillus sp. V29b was characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Gram staining, antibiotics sensitivity tests and biochemical characterization...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330130/isolation-and-characterization-of-bacterial-endophytes-of-curcuma-longa-l
#10
Ajay Kumar, Ritu Singh, Akhilesh Yadav, D D Giri, P K Singh, Kapil D Pandey
Fourteen endophytic bacterial isolates were isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. were characterized on the basis of morphology, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolates were identified to six strains namely Bacillus cereus (ECL1), Bacillus thuringiensis (ECL2), Bacillus sp. (ECL3), Bacillus pumilis (ECL4), Pseudomonas putida (ECL5), and Clavibacter michiganensis (ECL6). All the strains produced IAA and solubilized phosphate and only two strains produced siderophore (ECL3 and ECL5) during plant growth promoting trait analysis...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329302/sensitization-of-gram-negative-bacilli-to-host-antibacterial-proteins
#11
Joanna Jammal, Fadia Zaknoon, Galoz Kaneti, Ayelet S Hershkovits, Amram Mor
Towards addressing the need for novel alternatives to antibiotics, we attempted to sensitize Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) to innate antibacterial protagonists. We report a lipopeptide-like sequence (C10OOc12O) that inflicted outer-membrane damages at low micromolar range, whereas measurable bacterial growth inhibition in broth medium required >10-fold higher concentrations. In serum however, C10OOc12O induced antibacterial activity in a manner suppressible by anti-complements antibodies or heat treatment, and acted synergistically with exogenous lysozyme in broth and serum media...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329238/practice-patterns-and-outcomes-associated-with-procalcitonin-use-in-critically-ill-patients-with-sepsis
#12
David C Chu, Anuj B Mehta, Allan J Walkey
Background: Randomized trials support use of procalcitonin-based algorithms to decrease duration of antibiotics for critically ill patients with sepsis. However, current utilization of procalcitonin and associated outcomes in "real world" clinical settings is unclear. We sought to determine procalcitonin utilization in critically ill patients with sepsis in the United States and to examine associations between procalcitonin use and clinical outcomes. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of approximately 20% of patients hospitalized in US Intensive Care Units with sepsis...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329125/outcomes-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-implantable-electronic-device-infection-managed-with-chronic-antibiotic-suppression
#13
Eugene M Tan, Daniel C DeSimone, M Rizwan Sohail, Larry M Baddour, Walter R Wilson, James M Steckelberg, Abinash Virk
Background: Most cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) recipients are elderly, have multiple comorbid conditions, and are at increased risk of CIED infection (CIEDI). Current guidelines recommend complete device removal in patients with CIEDI to prevent relapse and mortality. However, comorbidities or other factors may preclude device removal, thus prompting a non-surgical approach that includes chronic antibiotic suppression (CAS). There are limited data on outcomes of patients receiving CAS for CIEDI...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328947/a-spontaneous-mutation-in-kdsd-a-biosynthesis-gene-for-3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic-acid-occurred-in-a-ciprofloxacin-resistant-strain-of-francisella-tularensis-and-caused-a-high-level-of-attenuation-in-murine-models-of-tularemia
#14
Taylor Chance, Jennifer Chua, Ronald G Toothman, Jason T Ladner, Jonathan E Nuss, Jo Lynne Raymond, Fabrice V Biot, Samandra Demons, Lynda Miller, Stephanie Halasohoris, Sherry Mou, Galina Koroleva, Sean Lovett, Gustavo Palacios, Nicholas J Vietri, Patricia L Worsham, Christopher K Cote, Todd M Kijek, Joel A Bozue
Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, is the causative agent of tularemia and able to infect many mammalian species, including humans. Because of its ability to cause a lethal infection, low infectious dose, and aerosolizable nature, F. tularensis subspecies tularensis is considered a potential biowarfare agent. Due to its in vitro efficacy, ciprofloxacin is one of the antibiotics recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis of tularemia. In order to identify therapeutics that will be efficacious against infections caused by drug resistant select-agents and to better understand the threat, we sought to characterize an existing ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) mutant in the Schu S4 strain of F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327271/novel-anti-staphylococcal-and-anti-biofilm-properties-of-two-anti-malarial-compounds-mmv665953-1-3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl-3-3-4-dichlorophenyl-urea-and-mmv665807-5-chloro-2-hydroxy-n-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl-benzamide
#15
Marta Zapotoczna, Nabila Boksmati, Sinead Donohue, Baizurina Bahtiar, Ahmad Boland, Hamzah Al Somali, Alysia Cox, Hilary Humphreys, James P O'Gara, Marian Brennan, Eoghan O'Neill
PURPOSE: The treatment of device-related infections is challenging and current anti-microbial compounds have poor anti-biofilm activity. We aimed to identify and characterize novel compounds effective in the eradication of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. METHODOLOGY: Two novel compounds, MMV665953 {1-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea} and MMV665807{5-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]benzamide}, effective in killing S. aureus biofilms, were identified by screening of the open access 'malaria box' chemical library...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327117/preliminary-evaluation-of-anti-tuberculosis-potential-of-siderophores-against-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-mycobacteria-growth-indicator-tube-drug-sensitivity-test
#16
Karuna Gokarn, Ramprasad B Pal
BACKGROUND: Alternative treatment strategies have become essential in overcoming the problem of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In this preliminary in vitro study, the anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) activity of exogenous iron chelators (xenosiderophores) such as Exochelin-MS (Exo-MS) and Deferoxamine-B (DFO-B) was evaluated against ten multi-drug-resistant (MDR) and seven pyrazinamide-resistant (PZA (R) ) Mtb isolates. METHODS: Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube-Drug Susceptibility Test was used to assess the anti-TB effect of Exo-MS or DFO-B individually and their combinations with isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF) and pyrazinamide (PZA)...
March 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326066/beneficial-microorganisms-for-corals-bmc-proposed-mechanisms-for-coral-health-and-resilience
#17
REVIEW
Raquel S Peixoto, Phillipe M Rosado, Deborah Catharine de Assis Leite, Alexandre S Rosado, David G Bourne
The symbiotic association between the coral animal and its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is central to the success of corals. However, an array of other microorganisms associated with coral (i.e., Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, and viruses) have a complex and intricate role in maintaining homeostasis between corals and Symbiodinium. Corals are sensitive to shifts in the surrounding environmental conditions. One of the most widely reported responses of coral to stressful environmental conditions is bleaching...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325856/prevalence-of-undiagnosed-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-and-associated-risk-factors-during-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-study-at-two-tertiary-centres-in-cairo-egypt
#18
Mohamed Abdel-Aziz Elzayat, Ashton Barnett-Vanes, Mohamed Farag Elmorsy Dabour, Feng Cheng
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy is poorly understood in Egypt-a country with a high birth rate. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of ASB among pregnant women booking at El Hussein and Sayed Galal Hospitals in Al-Azhar University in Egypt; and to observe the relationship between ASB prevalence and risk factors such as socioeconomic level and personal hygiene. SETTING: Obstetrics and gynaecology clinics of 2 university hospitals in the capital of Egypt...
March 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323886/contribution-of-urinary-tract-infection-to-the-burden-of-febrile-illnesses-in-young-children-in-rural-kenya
#19
Wechuli Geoffrey Masika, Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara, Thomas L Holland, Janice Armstrong
INTRODUCTION: The clinical features of UTI in young children may not localize to the urinary tract and closely resemble other febrile illnesses. In malaria endemic areas, a child presenting with fever is often treated presumptively for malaria without investigation for UTI. Delayed or inadequate treatment of UTI increases the risk of bacteremia and renal scarring in young children and subsequently complications as hypertension and end stage renal disease in adulthood. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a hospital in western Kenya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323799/a-prospective-randomized-trial-to-assess-oral-versus-intravenous-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-postoperative-wound-infection-after-extremity-fractures-poviv-study
#20
William T Obremskey, Andrew H Schmidt, Robert V OʼToole, Jennifer DeSanto, Saam Morshed, Paul Tornetta, Clinton K Murray, Clifford B Jones, Daniel O Scharfstein, Tara J Taylor, Anthony R Carlini, Renan C Castillo
Patients surgically treated for infection after extremity fractures are typically discharged with a 6- to 12-week antibiotic regimen. Intravenous (IV) antibiotics are associated with significant cost and potential complications of deep vein thrombosis, line clotting, and sepsis. Many of the pathogens that cause musculoskeletal infection have both oral (PO) and IV antibiotic options with adequate bioavailability and antibacterial effect, yet IV antibiotics remain the standard of care absent evidence that PO options are clinically as efficacious...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
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