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Antibiotic sensitivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103306/a-superoxide-dismutase-capable-of-functioning-with-iron-or-manganese-promotes-the-resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-to-calprotectin-and-nutritional-immunity
#1
Yuritzi M Garcia, Anna Barwinska-Sendra, Emma Tarrant, Eric P Skaar, Kevin J Waldron, Thomas E Kehl-Fie
Staphylococcus aureus is a devastating mammalian pathogen for which the development of new therapeutic approaches is urgently needed due to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. During infection pathogens must overcome the dual threats of host-imposed manganese starvation, termed nutritional immunity, and the oxidative burst of immune cells. These defenses function synergistically, as host-imposed manganese starvation reduces activity of the manganese-dependent enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). S. aureus expresses two SODs, denoted SodA and SodM...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103262/serotype-distribution-and-antimicrobial-sensitivity-profile-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-carried-in-healthy-toddlers-before-pcv13-introduction-in-niamey-niger
#2
Sani Ousmane, Bouli A Diallo, Rasmata Ouedraogo, Abdel-Kader A Sanda, Amadou M Soussou, Jean-Marc Collard
BACKGROUND: To mitigate the burden of pneumococcal infections in Niger, a 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine, PCV13, was introduced for routine child vaccination in July 2014. In order to provide pre-vaccine baseline data and allow appreciation of changes on carriage due to vaccination, we analyzed retrospectively pneumococcal isolates obtained from healthy, 0 to 2 year old children prior to the vaccine introduction. METHODS: From June 5, 2007, to May 26, 2008, 1200 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from healthy 0 to 2 year old children and analyzed by standard microbiological methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103015/antimicrobial-activity-ame-resistance-and-translation-inhibition-studies-of-anthraquinone-neomycin-conjugates
#3
Natalya N Degtyareva, Changjun Gong, Sandra Story, Nathanael Levinson, Adegboyega K Oyelere, Keith D Green, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Dev Priya Arya
The antibacterial effects of aminoglycosides are based on their association with the A-site of bacterial ribosomal RNA and interference with the translational process in the bacterial cell, causing cell death. The clinical use of aminoglycosides is complicated by resistance and side effects, some of which arise from their interactions with the human mitochondrial 12S rRNA and its deafness-associated mutations, C1494U and A1555G. We report a rapid assay that allows screening of aminoglycoside compounds to these classes of rRNAs...
January 19, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101153/upregulated-effects-of-mir-7-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Hong Zhang, Haiqing Li, Yan Liu, Qingyan Li, Yufang Bi, Guiqing Fang
The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristic function of the upregulated effects of miR-7 in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). After separating the MRSA in clinic, the expression of miR-7 mRNA was tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The overexpression, inhibition of miR-7, and control group were established by plasmid in vitro. Following transfection of the bacterial strain, the effect of β-lactam antibiotics in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed using the microporous dilution method, and antibacterial effects in vitro were observed using the dynamic growth curve method...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100357/-hemoptysis-in-adults-with-bronchiectasis-correlation-with-disease-severity-and-exacerbation-risk
#5
W J Guan, J J Yuan, Y H Gao, H M Li, N S Zhong, R C Chen
Objective: To investigate the association between hemoptysis and disease severity and risks of acute exacerbations in patients with bronchiectasis. Methods: Between September 2012 and January 2014, we recruited 148 patients (56 males, 92 females, mean age: 44.6 years) with clinically stable bronchiectasis, who were classified into hemoptysis group (36 males, 70 females, mean age: 45.6 years) and non-hemoptysis group (20 males, 22 females, mean age: 41.8 years). We inquired the past history, and evaluated chest imaging characteristics, lung function, cough sensitivity assessed using capsaicin cough challenge tests, and airway inflammation...
January 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099061/iodometric-and-molecular-detection-of-esbl-production-among-clinical-isolates-of-e-coli-fingerprinted-by-eric-pcr-the-first-egyptian-report-declares-the-emergence-of-e-coli-o25b-st131clone-harboring-blages
#6
Mohamed F El-Badawy, Wael M Tawakol, Ibrahim A Maghrabi, Moselhy S Mansy, Mohamed M Shohayeb, Mohammed S Ashour
The extensive use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to emergence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of 7 different ESBL genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaVEB, blaPER, blaGES, and blaOXA-10) and O25b-ST131 high-risk clone among 61 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Also, one broad-spectrum β-lactamase (blaOXA-1) was investigated. This study was also constructed to evaluate iodometric overlay method in detection of ESBL production...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097747/a-literacy-sensitive-approach-to-improving-antibiotic-understanding-in-a-community-based-setting
#7
Crystal M David, Katherine S O'Neal, Michael J Miller, Jeremy L Johnson, Ann E Lloyd
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic misuse contributes to antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Patient and prescriber knowledge and behaviors influence antibiotic use. Past research has focused on describing and influencing prescriber behavior with less attention to the patient role in antibiotic use. This study seeks to: (1) develop and deploy a program to enhance patient knowledge about antibiotic use; (2) evaluate whether providing patient education is associated with improvements in antibiotic knowledge in a community-based sample; and (3) explore whether health literacy may be associated with knowledge of appropriate antibiotic use...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097715/c-di-amp-modulates-listeria-monocytogenes-central-metabolism-to-regulate-growth-antibiotic-resistance-and-osmoregulation
#8
Aaron T Whiteley, Nicholas E Garelis, Bret N Peterson, Philip H Choi, Liang Tong, Joshua J Woodward, Daniel A Portnoy
Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a conserved nucleotide second messenger critical for bacterial growth and resistance to cell wall-active antibiotics. In Listeria monocytogenes, the sole diadenylate cyclase, DacA, is essential in rich, but not synthetic media and ΔdacA mutants are highly sensitive to the β-lactam antibiotic cefuroxime. In this study, loss of function mutations in the oligopeptide importer (oppABCDF) and glycine betaine importer (gbuABC) allowed ΔdacA mutants to grow in rich medium...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097252/enterococcus-faecalis-causing-delayed-spondylodiscitis-in-a-case-with-retained-intraspinal-bullet
#9
Siddharth N Aiyer, Ajoy Prasad Shetty, Rishi Kanna, Srikanth Reddy, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran
Delayed presentations have been reported following gunshot wounds (GSW) with retained intraspinal bullets due to migration of projectile or lead intoxication. We report on the rare occurrence of delayed pyogenic spondylodiscitis and neurological dysfunction following injury from low velocity GSW to the spine with a retained projectile. A 55-year-old male presented 4 months following GSW to the abdomen which resulted in colonic injury and L5 fracture. The patient was treated initially with ileo-transverse anastomosis, antibiotics, without retrieval of the bullet...
December 2016: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096549/decatamariic-acid-a-new-mitochondrial-respiration-inhibitor-discovered-by-pesticidal-screening-using-drug-sensitive-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Yoshihiro Watanabe, Takuya Suga, Satomi Narusawa, Masato Iwatsuki, Kenichi Nonaka, Takuji Nakashima, Yasuo Shinohara, Takahiro Shiotsuki, Naoya Ichimaru, Hideto Miyoshi, Yukihiro Asami, Satoshi Ōmura, Kazuro Shiomi
A new decalin, decatamariic acid, was isolated from a cultured broth of the fungus Aspergillus tamarii FKI-6817. Its absolute configuration was elucidated by NMR and electronic circular dichroism. Decatamariic acid (10 μM) elicited ~50% inhibition of the ATP production in mitochondria isolated from wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae without affecting the activities of respiratory enzymes. The action manner of this compound may be interesting as a possible seed for new pesticides.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 18 January 2017; doi:10...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096488/novel-superspreader-bacteriophages-promote-horizontal-gene-transfer-by-transformation
#11
Eric C Keen, Valery V Bliskovsky, Francisco Malagon, James D Baker, Jeffrey S Prince, James S Klaus, Sankar L Adhya
: Bacteriophages infect an estimated 10(23) to 10(25) bacterial cells each second, many of which carry physiologically relevant plasmids (e.g., those encoding antibiotic resistance). However, even though phage-plasmid interactions occur on a massive scale and have potentially significant evolutionary, ecological, and biomedical implications, plasmid fate upon phage infection and lysis has not been investigated to date. Here we show that a subset of the natural lytic phage population, which we dub "superspreaders," releases substantial amounts of intact, transformable plasmid DNA upon lysis, thereby promoting horizontal gene transfer by transformation...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096484/evolutionary-dynamics-of-pandemic-methicillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-st398-and-its-international-spread-via-routes-of-human-migration
#12
Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Paul R McAdam, Sean B Sullivan, Justin R Knox, Hossein Khiabanian, Raul Rabadan, Peter R Davies, J Ross Fitzgerald, Franklin D Lowy
: Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for the majority of S. aureus infections globally, and yet surprisingly little is known about its clonal evolution. We applied comparative whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses to epidemiologically and geographically diverse ST398-MSSA, a pandemic lineage affecting both humans and livestock. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis predicted divergence of human-associated ST398-MSSA ~40 years ago. Isolates from Midwestern pigs and veterinarians differed substantially from those in New York City (NYC)...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096365/unlocking-tn3-family-transposase-activity-in-vitro-unveils-an-asymetric-pathway-for-transposome-assembly
#13
Emilien Nicolas, Cédric A Oger, Nathan Nguyen, Michaël Lambin, Amandine Draime, Sébastien C Leterme, Michael Chandler, Bernard F J Hallet
The Tn3 family is a widespread group of replicative transposons that are notorious for their contribution to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multiresistant pathogens worldwide. The TnpA transposase of these elements catalyzes DNA breakage and rejoining reactions required for transposition. It also is responsible for target immunity, a phenomenon that prevents multiple insertions of the transposon into the same genomic region. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby TnpA acts in both processes remain unknown...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096340/evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance-is-linked-to-any-genetic-mechanism-affecting-bacterial-duration-of-carriage
#14
Sonja Lehtinen, François Blanquart, Nicholas J Croucher, Paul Turner, Marc Lipsitch, Christophe Fraser
Understanding how changes in antibiotic consumption affect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is important for public health. In a number of bacterial species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the prevalence of resistance has remained relatively stable despite prolonged selection pressure from antibiotics. The evolutionary processes allowing the robust coexistence of antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains are not fully understood. While allelic diversity can be maintained at a locus by direct balancing selection, there is no evidence for such selection acting in the case of resistance...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096160/determinants-of-antibacterial-spectrum-and-resistance-potential-of-the-elongation-factor-g-inhibitor-argyrin-b-in-key-gram-negative-pathogens
#15
Adriana K Jones, Angela L Woods, Kenneth T Takeoka, Xiaoyu Shen, Jun-Rong Wei, Ruth E Caughlan, Charles R Dean
Argyrins are natural products with antibacterial activity against Gram-negative pathogens such as P. aeruginosa, B. multivorans and S. maltophilia We previously showed that argyrin B targets elongation factor G (FusA). Here we show that Argyrin B activity against P. aeruginosa PAO1 (MIC = 8 μg/mL) was not affected by deletion of the MexAB-OprM, MexXY-OprM, MexCD-OprJ or MexEF-OprN efflux pumps. However, argyrin B induced expression of MexXY causing a slight but reproducible antagonism with the MexXY substrate antibiotic ciprofloxacin...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095918/anti-staphylococcal-activity-resulting-from-epithelial-lining-fluid-elf-concentrations-of-amikacin-inhale-administered-via-the-pulmonary-drug-delivery-system
#16
Islam M Ghazi, Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Amikacin inhale (BAY41-6551), a unique drug-device combination of a specially formulated drug solution and a pulmonary drug delivery system device (AMK-I) is currently under phase III study as an adjunctive therapy to IV antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. While the epidemiology of nosocomial pneumonia is predominated by Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of concern for these pulmonary based infections...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095794/development-of-an-algorithm-for-phenotypic-screening-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-routine-laboratory
#17
Jérôme Robert, Alix Pantel, Audrey Merens, Elodie Meiller, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Marie-Hélène Nicolas-Chanoine
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are difficult to identify among carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (NSE). We designed phenotypic strategies giving priority to high sensitivity for screening putative CPE before further testing. METHODS: Presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in ertapenem NSE (MIC > 0.5 mg/l) consecutively isolated in 80 French laboratories between November 2011 and April 2012 was determined by the Check-MDR-CT103 array method...
January 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095556/combination-therapy-for-acne-scarring-personal-experience-and-clinical-suggestions
#18
Lucija Kroepfl, Jason J Emer
Acne is one of the most prevalent skin conditions seen by dermatologists. The cosmetic sequelae of severe acne, including scarring and pigmentation, have a profound psychological impact on those in icted. Topical (eg, retinoids, antibiotics, dapsone, hydroxyacids) and oral treatments (eg, antibiotics and/or spironolactone) are often bene cial to control acne or in the instance of oral isotretinoin use, rid the acne permanently; however, these treatments have very little affect on the ultimate cosmetic outcome of the acne scarring and skin texture that results...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094507/conjugated-polyelectrolyte-based-sensitive-detection-and-removal-of-antibiotics-tetracycline-from-water
#19
Akhtar Hussain Malik, Parameswar Krishnan Iyer
A new conjugated polyelectrolyte poly[5,5'-(((2-phenyl-9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl))bis(oxy))diisophthalate] sodium (PFPT) was synthesized via Palladium catalysed Suzuki cross coupling polymerization method and successfully applied for the rapid, real time and highly sensitive detection of antibiotics tetracycline (Tc) in 100% aqueous media via photo-induced electron transfer with detection limit in ppb level. Remarkably, PFPT could also be applied for the trace analysis of Tc in serum samples having recoveries well in the range 92-97% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093269/invasive-disease-versus-urinary-antigen-confirmed-pneumococcal-community-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres, Catia Cilloniz, Rosanel Amaro, Albert Gabarrus, Eva Polverino, Elena Prina, Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Eva Muñoz-Conejero, Cristina Mendez, Isabel Cifuentes, Jorge Puig de la Bella Casa, Rosario Menendez, Michael S Niederman
OBJECTIVES: The burden of pneumococcal disease is measured only through patients with invasive pneumococcal disease. The urinary antigen test (UAT) for pneumococcus has exhibited a high sensitivity and specificity. We aimed to compare the pneumococcal pneumonias diagnosed as invasive disease with pneumococcal pneumonias defined by UAT. METHODS: Prospective observational study on consecutive non-immunosuppressed patients with community-acquired pneumonia from January 2000 to December 2014...
January 13, 2017: Chest
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