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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149079/sphingosine-1-phosphate-s1p-signaling-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Shailaja Mahajan-Thakur, Sandra Bien-Möller, Sascha Marx, Henry Schroeder, Bernhard H Rauch
The multifunctional sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid signaling molecule and central regulator in the development of several cancer types. In recent years, intriguing information has become available regarding the role of S1P in the progression of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive and common brain tumor in adults. S1P modulates numerous cellular processes in GBM, such as oncogenesis, proliferation and survival, invasion, migration, metastasis and stem cell behavior. These processes are regulated via a family of five G-protein-coupled S1P receptors (S1PR1-5) and may involve mainly unknown intracellular targets...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147958/ginsenoside-rg1-decreases-oxidative-stress-and-down-regulates-akt-mtor-signalling-to-attenuate-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-and-senescence-of-neural-stem-cells-induced-by-d-galactose
#2
Linbo Chen, Hui Yao, Xiongbin Chen, Ziling Wang, Yue Xiang, Jieyu Xia, Ying Liu, Yaping Wang
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a pivotal role in learning and memory. The suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by an increase of oxidative stress is closely related to cognitive impairment. Neural stem cells which persist in the adult vertebrate brain keep up the production of neurons over the lifespan. The balance between pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants is important for function and surviving of neural stem cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the most active components of Panax ginseng, and many studies suggest that ginsenosides have antioxidant properties...
November 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147847/r-hyper-cvad-versus-r-chop-cytarabine-with-high-dose-therapy-and-autologous-haematopoietic-stem-cell-support-in-fit-patients-with-mantle-cell-lymphoma-20%C3%A2-years-of-single-center-experience
#3
Fabienne Widmer, Stefan Balabanov, Davide Soldini, Panagiotis Samaras, Bernhard Gerber, Markus G Manz, Jeroen S Goede
Standard of care for untreated mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is still debated. At the University Hospital Zurich, advanced MCL in physically fit patients is treated either with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone induction followed by consolidating high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell support (R-CHOP/HD-ASCT), or with rituximab plus fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone alternating with high-dose methotrexate-cytarabine (R-hyper-CVAD/MTX-AraC) without consolidating HD-ASCT upon physicians' and patients' choice...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146144/drosophila-adult-muscle-development-and-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
Rajesh D Gunage, Nagaraju Dhanyasi, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Myogenesis is a highly orchestrated, complex developmental process by which cell lineages that are mesodermal in origin generate differentiated multinucleate muscle cells as a final product. Considerable insight into the process of myogenesis has been obtained for the embryonic development of the larval muscles of Drosophila. More recently, the postembryonic development of the muscles of the adult fly has become a focus of experimental investigation of myogenesis since specific flight muscles of the fly manifest remarkable similarities to vertebrate muscles in their development and organization...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146058/methylation-associated-silencing-of-sfrp1-gene-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-carcinomas
#5
Vedran Kardum, Valentina Karin, Mislav Glibo, Anita Skrtic, Tamara Nikuseva Martic, Nermina Ibisevic, Faruk Skenderi, Semir Vranic, Ljiljana Serman
Wnt is a highly conserved signaling pathway responsible for tissue regeneration, maintenance and differentiation of stem cells in adults. Its aberrant activation through reduced expression of Wnt signaling pathway inhibitors, such as proteins from the SFRP family, is commonly seen in many tumors. In the present study we explored SFRP1 protein expression using immunohistochemistry in 11 low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (LGSC), 42 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSC), and 5 normal ovarian tissues (controls)...
December 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145898/making-gametes-from-alternate-sources-of-stem-cells-past-present-and-future
#6
REVIEW
Deepa Bhartiya, Sandhya Anand, Hiren Patel, Seema Parte
Infertile couples including cancer survivors stand to benefit from gametes differentiated from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem (ES/iPS) cells. It remains challenging to convert human ES/iPS cells into primordial germ-like cells (PGCLCs) en route to obtaining gametes. Considerable success was achieved in 2016 to obtain fertile offspring starting with mouse ES/iPS cells, however the specification of human ES/iPS cells into PGCLCs in vitro is still not achieved. Human ES cells will not yield patient-specific gametes unless and until hES cells are derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (therapeutic cloning) whereas iPS cells retain the residual epigenetic memory of the somatic cells from which they are derived and also harbor genomic and mitochondrial DNA mutations...
November 16, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145015/glial-control-of-neurogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Sven Falk, Magdalena Götz
Glial cells are central components of all neurogenic niches in the embryonic as well as in the adult central nervous system. While neural stem cells (NSCs) themselves exhibit glial features the behavior of NSCs is also strongly influenced by niche glial cells. Recently, studies have begun to uncover a large variety of glial cell-extrinsic as well as intrinsic factors that play crucial roles in the control of NSCs and the regulation of the cellular output from the neurogenic niches. In this review, we focus on mechanisms underlying the formation of adult NSCs by embryonic radial glia cells, discuss the influence of niche glia cells on adult NSCs and examine how the neurogenic potential of glial cells is controlled...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143560/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-from-human-amnion-in-chemically-defined-conditions
#8
Jaroslav Slamecka, Steven McClellan, Anna Wilk, Javier Laurini, Elizabeth Manci, Simon P Hoerstrup, Benedikt Weber, Laurie Owen
Fetal stem cells are a unique type of adult stem cells that have been suggested to be broadly multipotent with some features of pluripotency. Their clinical potential has been documented but their upgrade to full pluripotency could open up a wide range of cell-based therapies particularly suited for pediatric tissue engineering, longitudinal studies or disease modeling. Here we describe episomal reprogramming of mesenchymal stem cells from the human amnion to pluripotency (AM-iPSC) in chemically defined conditions...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143185/osteogenic-prospective-of-deriving-human-dental-stem-cells-in-collagen-matrix-boost
#9
Tong-Jing Fang, Ding-Han Wang, Chia-Yu Wang, Raju Poongodi, Nien-Hsien Liou, Jiang-Chuan Liu, Ming-Lun Hsu, Po-Da Hong, Shih-Fang Yang, Meng-Lun Liu
Stem cells derived from oral tissue represent a highly attractive alternative source for clinical bone regeneration because they can be collected by non-invasive or minimally invasive procedures. Herein, we describe the human dental stem cells (DSCs) deriving from buccal fat pads (BFP), dental pulp (DP) of impacted teeth, and periodontal ligaments (PDL) to obtain BFPSCs, DPSCs, and PDLSCs, respectively. Cells were purified with selected medium and expanded through passages in stem cell culture medium. Purified cells were characterized for stemness by their growth rate, immunostaining, and multilineage differentiation ability...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141966/nutritional-factors-affecting-adult-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-function
#10
REVIEW
Shibu M Poulose, Marshall G Miller, Tammy Scott, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141958/dna-methylation-defines-regional-identity-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-organoids-and-undergoes-dynamic-changes-during-development
#11
Judith Kraiczy, Komal M Nayak, Kate J Howell, Alexander Ross, Jessica Forbester, Camilla Salvestrini, Roxana Mustata, Sally Perkins, Amanda Andersson-Rolf, Esther Leenen, Anke Liebert, Ludovic Vallier, Philip C Rosenstiel, Oliver Stegle, Gordon Dougan, Robert Heuschkel, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Matthias Zilbauer
OBJECTIVE: Human intestinal epithelial organoids (IEOs) are increasingly being recognised as a highly promising translational research tool. However, our understanding of their epigenetic molecular characteristics and behaviour in culture remains limited. DESIGN: We performed genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptomic profiling of human IEOs derived from paediatric/adult and fetal small and large bowel as well as matching purified human gut epithelium. Furthermore, organoids were subjected to in vitro differentiation and genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 technology...
November 15, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141554/insight-into-the-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-during-osteogenesis-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Sibei Huo, Yachuan Zhou, Xinyu He, Mian Wan, Wei Du, Xin Xu, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Liwei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides in length. Instead of being "transcriptional noise", lncRNAs are emerging as a key modulator in various biological processes and disease development. Mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from various adult tissues, such as bone marrow and dental tissues. The differentiation processes into multiple lineages, such as osteogenic differentiation, are precisely orchestrated by molecular signals in both genetic and epigenetic ways...
November 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141227/in-situ-fixation-redefines-quiescence-and-early-activation-of-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells
#13
Léo Machado, Joana Esteves de Lima, Odile Fabre, Caroline Proux, Rachel Legendre, Anikó Szegedi, Hugo Varet, Lars Roed Ingerslev, Romain Barrès, Frédéric Relaix, Philippos Mourikis
State of the art techniques have been developed to isolate and analyze cells from various tissues, aiming to capture their in vivo state. However, the majority of cell isolation protocols involve lengthy mechanical and enzymatic dissociation steps followed by flow cytometry, exposing cells to stress and disrupting their physiological niche. Focusing on adult skeletal muscle stem cells, we have developed a protocol that circumvents the impact of isolation procedures and captures cells in their native quiescent state...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141221/chemotherapy-induced-depletion-of-oct4-positive-cancer-stem-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-malignant-testicular-cancer
#14
Timothy M Pierpont, Amy M Lyndaker, Claire M Anderson, Qiming Jin, Elizabeth S Moore, Jamie L Roden, Alicia Braxton, Lina Bagepalli, Nandita Kataria, Hilary Zhaoxu Hu, Jason Garness, Matthew S Cook, Blanche Capel, Donald H Schlafer, Teresa Southard, Robert S Weiss
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are among the most responsive solid cancers to conventional chemotherapy. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we developed a mouse TGCT model featuring germ cell-specific Kras activation and Pten inactivation. The resulting mice developed malignant, metastatic TGCTs composed of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma, the latter of which exhibited stem cell characteristics, including expression of the pluripotency factor OCT4. Consistent with epidemiological data linking human testicular cancer risk to in utero exposures, embryonic germ cells were susceptible to malignant transformation, whereas adult germ cells underwent apoptosis in response to the same oncogenic events...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141183/functional-outcomes-of-acute-inpatient-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#15
Jason Leung, Sean Smith, Claire Kalpakjian
BACKGROUND: Growing numbers of allogeneic stem cell transplants (HSCT) and improved post-transplant care have led to an increase of individuals with chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD). Although cGVHD leads to functional impairment for many, there is limited literature regarding the benefits of acute inpatient rehabilitation for cGVHD patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess Functional Independence Measure (FIM) outcomes of cGVHD patients during acute inpatient rehabilitation, and to compare inpatient rehabilitation outcomes to burn patients, a rehabilitation patient population with similar co-morbidities...
November 12, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139178/notch1-and-notch2-coordinately-regulate-stem-cell-function-in-the-quiescent-and-activated-states-of-muscle-satellite-cells
#16
Shin Fujimaki, Daiki Seko, Yasuo Kitajima, Kiyoshi Yoshioka, Yoshifumi Tsuchiya, Shinya Masuda, Yusuke Ono
Satellite cells, the muscle tissue stem cells, express three Notch receptors (Notch1-3). The function of Notch1 and Notch2 in satellite cells has to date not been fully evaluated. We investigated the role of Notch1 and Notch2 in myogenic progression in adult skeletal muscle using tamoxifen-inducible satellite cell-specific conditional knockout mice for Notch1 (N1-scKO), Notch2 (N2-scKO), and Notch1/Notch2 (scDKO). In the quiescent state, the number of satellite cells was slightly reduced in N2-scKO, but not significantly in N1-scKO, and almost completely depleted in scDKO mice...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138265/targeted-delivery-of-stat-3-modulator-to-breast-cancer-stem-like-cells-down-regulates-a-series-of-stem-ness-genes
#17
Santosh K Misra, Arun De, Dipanjan Pan
Cancer stem cells are known to be controlled by pathways that are dormant in normal adult cells, e.g. PTEN, which is a negative regulator of transcription factor STAT3. STAT3 regulates genes that are involved in stem cell self-renewal and thus represents a novel therapeutic target of enormous clinical significance. Studies on breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been also significantly correlated with STATs. We describe here for the first time a novel strategy to selectively target CSCs and to induce downregulation of STAT3 downstream target genes reducing expression of series of 'stem-ness genes' in treated tumors...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137914/orthogonal-potency-analysis-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-function-during-ex-vivo-expansion
#18
Danika Khong, Matthew Li, Amy Singleton, Ling-Yee Chin, Shilpaa Munkundan, Biju Parekkadan
Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have cross-functional, intrinsic potency that is of therapeutic interest. Their ability to regenerate bone, fat, and cartilage, modulate the immune system, and nurture the growth and function of other bone marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells have all been evaluated by transplant applications of MSCs. These applications require the isolation and expansion scaled cell production. To investigate biophysical properties of MSCs that can be feasibly utilized as predictors of bioactivity during biomanufacturing, we used a low-density seeding model to drive MSCs into proliferative stress and exhibit the hallmark characteristics of in vitro aging...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137274/effective-protection-against-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-sepsis-injury-by-combined-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-preactivated-disaggregated-platelets
#19
Chih-Hung Chen, Yung-Lung Chen, Pei-Hsun Sung, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Kuan-Hung Chen, Yi-Ling Chen, Tien-Hung Huang, Hung-I Lu, Fan-Yen Lee, Jiunn-Jye Sheu, Sheng-Ying Chung, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
This study assessed whether combining adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSC) with preactivated, disaggregated shape-changed platelets (PreD-SCP) was superior to either therapy alone for protecting rat lung from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) complicated by sepsis. ARDS and sepsis were induced through 100% oxygen inhalation and peritoneal administration of 1.5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively. Adult-male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=40) were randomized into sham-control (SC), ARDS-LPS, ARDS-LPS-ADMSC (1...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136505/inhibition-of-trf1-telomere-protein-impairs-tumor-initiation-and-progression-in-glioblastoma-mouse-models-and-patient-derived-xenografts
#20
Leire Bejarano, Alberto J Schuhmacher, Marinela Méndez, Diego Megías, Carmen Blanco-Aparicio, Sonia Martínez, Joaquín Pastor, Massimo Squatrito, Maria A Blasco
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly and common brain tumor. Poor prognosis is linked to high proliferation and cell heterogeneity, including glioma stem cells (GSCs). Telomere genes are frequently mutated. The telomere binding protein TRF1 is essential for telomere protection, and for adult and pluripotent stem cells. Here, we find TRF1 upregulation in mouse and human GBM. Brain-specific Trf1 genetic deletion in GBM mouse models inhibited GBM initiation and progression, increasing survival. Trf1 deletion increased telomeric DNA damage and reduced proliferation and stemness...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Cell
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