Read by QxMD icon Read

Adult stem cell

Seung-Ah Yahng, Sung-Soo Park, Young-Woo Jeon, Jae-Ho Yoon, Seung-Hwan Shin, Sung-Eun Lee, Byung-Sik Cho, Ki-Seong Eom, Yoo-Jin Kim, Seok Lee, Chang-Ki Min, Hee-Je Kim, Seok-Goo Cho, Dong-Wook Kim, Woo-Sung Min, Jong Wook Lee
Data regarding the optimal approach for second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after graft failure (GF) in acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA) are still limited and heterogeneous. We examined 24 patients who underwent second HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD) peripheral blood HSCT for GF. The reconditioning regimen (TNI-750/ATG) consisted of a single dose of total nodal irradiation (TNI, 750 cGy) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG; Thymoglobulin® , 1.25 mg/kg/day for 3 days). All but one patient achieved successful engraftment of neutrophils (median 12 days, range 5-21) and platelets (median 15 days, range 9-316)...
March 21, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Leigh Zerboni, Phillip Sung, Gordon Lee, Ann Arvin
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the skin-tropic human alphaherpesvirus responsible for both varicella and herpes zoster. Varicella and herpes zoster skin lesions have similar morphology but herpes zoster occurs disproportionally in older individuals and is often associated with a more extensive local rash and severe zoster-related neuralgia. We hypothesized that skin aging could also influence the outcome of the anterograde axonal transport of VZV to skin. We utilized human skin xenografts maintained in immunodeficient (SCID) mice to study VZV-induced skin pathology in vivo in fetal and adult skin xenografts...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
Masanari Seike, Yoshiki Omatsu, Hitomi Watanabe, Gen Kondoh, Takashi Nagasawa
Bone marrow is the tissue filling the space between bone surfaces. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained by special microenvironments known as niches within bone marrow cavities. Mesenchymal cells, termed CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)-abundant reticular (CAR) cells or leptin receptor-positive (LepR+ ) cells, are a major cellular component of HSC niches that gives rise to osteoblasts in bone marrow. However, it remains unclear how osteogenesis is prevented in most CAR/LepR+ cells to maintain HSC niches and marrow cavities...
March 21, 2018: Genes & Development
Lucie Bacakova, Jana Zarubova, Martina Travnickova, Jana Musilkova, Julia Pajorova, Petr Slepicka, Nikola Slepickova Kasalkova, Vaclav Svorcik, Zdenka Kolska, Hooman Motarjemi, Martin Molitor
Stem cells can be defined as units of biological organization that are responsible for the development and the regeneration of organ and tissue systems. They are able to renew their populations and to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Therefore, these cells have great potential in advanced tissue engineering and cell therapies. When seeded on synthetic or nature-derived scaffolds in vitro, stem cells can be differentiated towards the desired phenotype by an appropriate composition, by an appropriate architecture, and by appropriate physicochemical and mechanical properties of the scaffolds, particularly if the scaffold properties are combined with a suitable composition of cell culture media, and with suitable mechanical, electrical or magnetic stimulation...
March 18, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Marina Macedo-Viñas, David W Denning
We aimed to estimate for the first time the burden of fungal infections in Uruguay. Data on population characteristics and underlying conditions were extracted from the National Statistics Institute, the World Bank, national registries, and published articles. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies extrapolating from the literature. Population structure (inhabitants): total 3,444,006; 73% adults; 35% women younger than 50 years. Size of populations at risk (total cases per year): HIV infected 12,000; acute myeloid leukemia 126; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 30; solid organ transplants 134; COPD 272,006; asthma in adults 223,431; cystic fibrosis in adults 48; tuberculosis 613; lung cancer 1400...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Anne Conrad, Vincent Alcazer, Florent Valour, Florence Ader
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a major curative treatment option for malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases, but is associated with an increased risk for infections, of which some are preventable by vaccination. Vaccination guidelines recommend repeated doses of most inactivated vaccines to achieve long-lasting immune responses. However, the efficacy of immunization is often hampered by graft-versus-host disease or severe opportunistic infections. Areas covered: This review summarizes the vaccine recommendations for adult allogeneic HSCT recipients and discusses the challenges and future directions regarding vaccine immunization in these patients...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Takuichiro Hide, Yoshihiro Komohara, Yuko Miyasato, Hideo Nakamura, Keishi Makino, Motohiro Takeya, Jun-Ichi Kuratsu, Akitake Mukasa, Shigetoshi Yano
Glioblastoma (GBM) usually develops in adult brain white matter. Even after complete resection, GBM recurs around the tumor removal cavity, where GBM cells acquire chemo-radioresistance. Characterization of the tumor border microenvironment is critical for improving prognosis in patients with GBM. Here, we compared microRNA (miRNA) expression in samples from the tumor, tumor border, and periphery by miRNA microarray. The top three of miRNAs showing higher expression in the tumor border were related to oligodendrocyte differentiation, and pathologically oligodendrocyte lineage cells were increased in the border, where macrophages and microglia also colocalized...
March 1, 2018: EBioMedicine
Xiao-Shuai Han, Chen Wang, Fang-Hao Guo, Shuang Huang, Yong-Wen Qin, Xian-Xian Zhao, Qing Jing
Regeneration, relying mainly on resident adult stem cells, is widespread. However, the mechanism by which stem cells initiate proliferation during this process in vivo is unclear. Using planarian as a model, we screened 46 transcripts showing potential function in the regulation of local stem cell proliferation following 48 h regeneration. By analyzing the regeneration defects and the mitotic activity of animals under administration of RNA interference (RNAi), we identified factor for initiating regeneration 1 (Fir1) required for local proliferation...
March 20, 2018: Protein & Cell
Lauren A Jevons, Franchesca D Houghton, Rahul S Tare
The rise in the incidence of musculoskeletal diseases is attributed to an increasing ageing population. The debilitating effects of musculoskeletal diseases, coupled with a lack of effective therapies, contribute to huge financial strains on healthcare systems. The focus of regenerative medicine has shifted to pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), namely, human embryonic stem cells and human-induced PSCs, due to the limited success of adult stem cell-based interventions. PSCs constitute a valuable cell source for musculoskeletal regeneration due to their capacity for unlimited self-renewal, ability to differentiate into all cell lineages of the three germ layers and perceived immunoprivileged characteristics...
March 20, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Michał Romański, Jacek Wachowiak, Franciszek K Główka
Treosulfan is a prodrug that undergoes a highly pH- and temperature-dependent nonenzymatic conversion to the monoepoxide {(2S,3S)-1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol 4-methanesulfonate [S,S-EBDM]} and diepoxide {(2S,3S)-1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane [S,S-DEB]}. Currently, treosulfan is tested in clinical trials as an alternative to busulfan in conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of note, the optimal dosing of the prodrug is still unresolved, especially in infants. In this paper, the pharmacokinetics of treosulfan, together with its biologically active epoxides, is comprehensively reviewed for the first time, with the focus on conditioning prior to HSCT...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Hira S Mian, Tanya M Wildes
Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell disease, which typically affects older patients, with a median age at diagnosis of 70 years. The recent introduction of novel drugs and ongoing improvements in supportive care have significantly contributed to overall better management and outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma. Autologous stem-cell transplantation has been a standard part of therapy for myeloma patients for many years, first in younger patients and increasingly in older, and may still be considered in selected older patients with myeloma...
March 19, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Sinem Civriz Bozdağ, Meltem Kurt Yüksel, Taner Demirer
Stem cells can be either totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent or unipotent. Totipotent cells have the capability to produce all cell types of the developing organism, including both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. The Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC) are the first defined adult stem cells (ASC) that give rise to all blood cells and immune system. Use of HSCs for treatment of hematologic malignancies, which is also called bone marrow (BM) transplantation or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) transplantation is the pioneer of cellular therapy and translational research...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jérome Chal, Ziad Al Tanoury, Masayuki Oginuma, Philippe Moncuquet, Bénédicte Gobert, Ayako Miyanari, Olivier Tassy, Getzabel Guevara, Alexis Hubaud, Agata Bera, Olga Sumara, Jean-Marie Garnier, Leif Kennedy, Marie Knockaert, Barbara Gayraud-Morel, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Olivier Pourquié
Body skeletal muscles derive from the paraxial mesoderm, which forms in the posterior region of the embryo. Using microarrays, we characterize novel mouse presomitic mesoderm (PSM) markers and show that, unlike the abrupt transcriptome reorganization of the PSM, neural tube differentiation is accompanied by progressive transcriptome changes. The early paraxial mesoderm differentiation stages can be efficiently recapitulated in vitro using mouse and human pluripotent stem cells. While Wnt activation alone can induce posterior PSM markers, acquisition of a committed PSM fate and efficient differentiation into anterior PSM Pax3+ identity further requires BMP inhibition to prevent progenitors from drifting to a lateral plate mesoderm fate...
March 19, 2018: Development
Monia Cito, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti, Valeria Sordi
The experience in the field of islet transplantation shows that it is possible to replace β cells in a patient with type 1 diabetes (T1D), but this cell therapy is limited by the scarcity of organ donors and by the danger associated to the immunosuppressive drugs. Stem cell therapy is becoming a concrete opportunity to treat various diseases. In particular, for a disease like T1D, caused by the loss of a single specific cell type that does not need to be transplanted back in its originating site to perform its function, a stem cell-based cell replacement therapy seems to be the ideal cure...
March 2018: Endocrine Connections
Julia P Andreotti, Pedro H D M Prazeres, Luiz A V Magno, Marco A Romano-Silva, Akiva Mintz, Alexander Birbrair
The cerebellum plays major role in motor coordination and learning. It contains half of the neurons in the brain. Thus, deciphering the mechanisms by which cerebellar neurons are generated is essential to understand the cerebellar functions and the pathologies associated with it. In a recent study, Wojcinski et al. (2017) by using in vivo Cre/loxP technologies reveal that Nestin-expressing progenitors repopulated the external granular cell layer after injury. Depletion of postnatal external granular cell layer is not sufficient to induce motor behavior defects in adults, as the cerebellum recovers these neurons...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Sharat Chandra, Jack J Bleesing, Michael B Jordan, Michael S Grimley, Pooja Khandelwal, Stella M Davies, Stephanie Edwards, Tom Leemhuis, Rebecca A Marsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Jacqueline Cloos, Jeffrey R Harris, Jeroen J W M Janssen, Angele Kelder, F Huang, Gerrit Sijm, Maike Vonk, Alexander N Snel, Jennifer R Scheick, Willemijn J Scholten, Jannemieke Carbaat-Ham, Dennis Veldhuizen, Diana Hanekamp, Yvonne J M Oussoren-Brockhoff, Gertjan J L Kaspers, Gerrit J Schuurhuis, A Kate Sasser, Gert Ossenkoppele
Response criteria in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has recently been re-established, with morphologic examination utilized to determine whether patients have achieved complete remission (CR). Approximately half of the adult patients who entered CR will relapse within 12 months due to the outgrowth of residual AML cells in the bone marrow. The quantitation of these remaining leukemia cells, known as minimal or measurable residual disease (MRD), can be a robust biomarker for the prediction of these relapses. Moreover, retrospective analysis of several studies has shown that the presence of MRD in the bone marrow of AML patients correlates with poor survival...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
X Ren, T Zhao, J Wang, H H Zhu, H Jiang, J S Jia, S M Yang, B Jiang, D B Wang, X J Huang, Q Jiang
Objective: To explore outcomes in adult with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) received IA10 (10 mg/m(2) d1-3 idarubicin plus cytarabine 100 mg/m(2) d1-7) regimen as induction chemotherapy. Methods: From January 2008 to February 2016, data of consecutive newly-diagnosed AML (non-M(3)) adults treated with IA10 who achieved morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS) but not accepted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) were assessed retrospectively. Results: A total of 198 patients were included in this study with 96 (48...
January 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
X Y Gong, Y Wang, B C Liu, H Wei, C W Li, Q H Li, J W Zhao, C L Zhou, D Lin, K Q Liu, S N Wei, B F Gong, G J Zhang, Y T Liu, X L Zhao, Y Li, R X Gu, S W Qiu, Y C Mi, J X Wang
Objective: To analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics, and prognosis of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with MLL gene rearrangements. Methods: The medical records of 92 adult AML patients with MLL gene rearrangements from January 2010 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 92 cases (6.5%) with MLL gene rearrangements were identified in 1 417 adult AML (Non-M(3)) patients, the median age of the patients was 35.5 years (15 to 64 years old) with an equal sex ratio, the median WBC were 21...
January 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Janelle L Harris, Keyur Dave, Jeffrey Gorman, Kum Kum Khanna
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: 5T4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with limited expression in normal adult tissues and expression in some solid tumours. It is unclear whether 5T4 is preferentially expressed by stem or differentiated cell types. Modes of 5T4 regulation are unknown despite its ongoing development as a cancer immunotherapy target. Our aims were to clarify the differentiation status of 5T4 expressing cells in breast cancer and to understand the mechanism underlying 5T4 membrane presentation...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"