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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046011/-biomarkers-in-diagnosis-treatment-and-prognosis-of-infectious-lung-diseases
#1
M Unnewehr, M Kolditz, W Windisch, B Schaaf
Biomarkers play an important role in the management of infectious pulmonary diseases, even though there is only limited evidence that biomarker-guided therapies are superior to clinical strategies.Well-established indications for the use of biomarkers are the guidance of the duration of antibiotic therapy in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) by PCT, the decision against the use of antibiotics by CRP or PCT in ambulatory settings, and the evaluation of CAP treatment by CRP or PCT kinetics.In the prognostic assessment of CAP, the standard biomarkers of acute organ dysfunction should be given priority, e...
October 18, 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045953/-detection-of-large-deletions-in-x-linked-alport-syndrome-using-competitive-multiplex-fluorescence-polymerase-chain-reaction
#2
F Wang, Y Q Zhang, J Ding, L X Yu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of multiplex competitive fluorescence polymerase chain reaction in detection of large deletion and duplication genotypes of X-linked Alport syndrome. METHODS: Clinical diagnosis of X-linked Alport syndrome was based on either abnormal staining of type IV collagen α5 chain in the epidermal basement membrane alone or with abnormal staining of type IV collagen α5 chain in the glomerular basement membrane and Bowman's capsule/ultrastructural changes in the glomerular basement membrane typical of Alport syndrome...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044779/exocrine-pancreas-function-decreases-during-the-progression-of-the-beta-cell-damaging-process-in-young-prediabetic-children
#3
Anita Kondrashova, Noora Nurminen, Jussi Lehtonen, Marja Hyöty, Jorma Toppari, Jorma Ilonen, Riitta Veijola, Mikael Knip, Heikki Hyöty
OBJECTIVE: The function of the exocrine pancreas is decreased in patients with type 1 diabetes but it is not known when this defect develops. The current study set out to determine whether the reduced exocrine function becomes manifest after the initiation of islet autoimmunity. METHODS: The study was nested in the prospective Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study where children with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-conferred susceptibility are observed from birth...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044654/animal-models-of-neuroinflammation-secondary-to-acute-insults-originated-outside-the-brain
#4
REVIEW
Mike Yoshio Hamasaki, Marcel Cerqueira César Machado, Fabiano Pinheiro da Silva
The term "neuroinflammation" has been widely used to describe a series of acute or chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Neurological damage can be a consequence of direct local injury or, secondary, of systemic or even distant inflammatory processes. In this respect, animal models have been developed to better understand the pathophysiology and, possibly, to evaluate more effective methods of treatment for these disorders. Animal models that promote alterations in blood-brain barrier permeability-the activation of microglia or astrocytes, modifications in neuropeptide expression, oxidative stress, increased apoptosis, release of inflammatory mediators, leukocyte infiltration, and brain edema-are likely to involve neuroinflammation and therefore can serve as useful models for human inflammatory CNS injury...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044422/the-response-of-the-innate-immune-and-cardiovascular-systems-to-lps-in-pregnant-and-nonpregnant-mice
#5
Julia Zöllner, Laura G Howe, Lydia F Edey, Kieran P O'Dea, Masao Takata, Fabiana Gordon, James Leiper, Mark R Johnson
Sepsis is the leading cause of direct maternal mortality, but there are no data directly comparing the response to sepsis in pregnant and nonpregnant (NP) individuals. This study uses a mouse model of sepsis to test the hypothesis that the cardiovascular response to sepsis is more marked during pregnancy. Female CD1 mice had radiotelemetry probes implanted and were time mated. NP and day 16 pregnant CD-1 mice received intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 μg, serotype 0111: B4). In a separate study, tissue and serum (for RNA, protein and flow cytometry studies), aorta and uterine vessels (for wire myography) were collected after LPS or vehicle control administration...
August 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044226/bone-marrow-transplant-induced-alterations-in-notch-signaling-promote-pathologic-th17-responses-to-%C3%AE-herpesvirus-infection
#6
S J Gurczynski, X Zhou, M Flaherty, C A Wilke, B B Moore
Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a common, often fatal, complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) characterized by severe pneumonitis and interstitial fibrosis. Fully reconstituted syngeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) mice infected with murine γ-herpesvirus-68 develop interleukin-17 (IL-17)-driven pneumonitis and fibrosis, which mimics clinical manifestations of IPS. We found CD103+ and CD11b+ dendritic cells (DCs) are selectively deficient for the Notch ligand, DLL4, following BMT and CD4+ T cells isolated from lungs and spleens of infected BMT mice display Notch signaling defects...
October 18, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044010/-simple-mechanical-reperfusion-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-determinants-prognostic-implications-and-relation-with-thrombus-histology
#7
Jorge L Szarfer, Alejandro García-Escudero, Federico Blanco, Federico Albornoz, Analía Alonso, Andrea Zappi, Rodrigo Blanco, Gerardo Gigena, Juan Gagliardi
Simple mechanical reperfusion (SMR) is defined as reperfusion achieved after wire insertion at the occluded infarct-related artery in primary angioplasty. The determinants and prognostic implications of SMR and its relationship with the histopathology of the rescued thrombus were evaluated in 601 patients with acute myocardial infarction showing ST elevation and pre-procedural total occlusion of the infarct-related artery (TIMI flow 0). Two groups were considered according to the presence of SMR, defined as the visualization of contrast material after crossing the occlusion with the guide wire...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042780/frequencies-of-circulating-b-and-t-lymphocytes-as-indicators-for-stroke-outcomes
#8
Yanling Wang, Jihong Liu, Xuemei Wang, Zongjian Liu, Fengwu Li, Fenghua Chen, Xiaokun Geng, Zhili Ji, Huishan Du, Xiaoming Hu
BACKGROUND: Stroke has high mortality and morbidity. Biomarkers are required for to predict stroke outcomes, which could help clinicians to provide rationale approaches for patient management. The dynamic changes in circulating immune cells have been reported in stroke patients and animal models of stroke. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore biomarkers to predict stroke outcomes by investigating the relationship between the frequencies of circulating immune cells and stroke outcomes...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042702/genetic-factors-of-low-responsiveness-to-hepatitis-b-virus-vaccine-confirms-the-importance-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-class-ii-types-in-a-japanese-young-adult-population
#9
Nobuyasu Yukimasa, Shota Kohama, Wataru Oboshi, Shoichi Sato, Takehiro Nakamura
We investigated the genetic mechanisms underlying the association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types and the immune response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in 84 healthy Japanese adults, and found that the HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DQB1*03 frequencies were higher in the low responders (<10 mIU/ml; n=9, 10.7%) compared to the responders (≥10 mIU/ml, n=75, 89.3%). The combination of DRB1*04 and DQB1*03 was associated with a low response to vaccination. The DRB1*04 and DQB1*03 haplotypes' frequencies were significantly higher in the low responders compared to responders...
October 2017: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042269/the-comparison-of-acute-high-intensity-interval-exercise-vs-continuous-moderate-intensity-exercise-on-plasma-calprotectin-and-associated-inflammatory-mediators
#10
Brandon G Fico, Michael Whitehurst, Aaron L Slusher, James T Mock, Arun Maharaj, Katelyn M Dodge, Chun-Jung Huang
PURPOSE: Calprotectin promotes the release of inflammatory mediators (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1] and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) during the innate immune response as a mechanism to augment leukocyte chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Although plasma calprotectin is elevated with traditional continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME) as an indicator of the inflammatory response, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) has been shown to attenuate systemic inflammation while providing similar improvements in cardiovascular health...
October 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042256/antiseptic-effects-of-dabrafenib-on-tgfbip-induced-septic-responses
#11
In-Chul Lee, Jong-Sup Bae
Transforming growth factor-β-induced protein (TGFBIp), an extracellular protein, is expressed on several cell types in response to TGF-β stimulation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)-derived TGFBIp functions as a mediator of sepsis. Screening of bioactive compound libraries is an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new treatments for human diseases (drug repositioning). Dabrafenib (DAB), a B-Raf inhibitor, was initially used for treating metastatic melanoma...
October 14, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042026/identification-signaling-and-functions-of-ltb4-receptors
#12
REVIEW
Kazuko Saeki, Takehiko Yokomizo
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a lipid mediator produced from arachidonic acid, is a chemoattractant for inflammatory leukocytes. We identified two receptors for LTB4, the high-affinity receptor BLT1 and the low-affinity receptor BLT2. BLT1 is expressed in various subsets of leukocytes, and analyses of BLT1-deficient mice revealed that the LTB4/BLT1 axis enhances leukocyte recruitment to infected sites, and is involved in the elimination of pathogens. Hyperactivation of the LTB4/BLT1 axis induces acute and chronic inflammation, resulting in various inflammatory diseases...
October 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042024/the-role-of-the-ltb4-blt1-axis-in-chemotactic-gradient-sensing-and-directed-leukocyte-migration
#13
REVIEW
Bhagawat C Subramanian, Ritankar Majumdar, Carole A Parent
Directed leukocyte migration is a hallmark of inflammatory immune responses. Leukotrienes are derived from arachidonic acid and represent a class of potent lipid mediators of leukocyte migration. In this review, we summarize the essential steps leading to the production of LTB4 in leukocytes. We discuss the recent findings on the exosomal packaging and transport of LTB4 in the context of chemotactic gradients formation and regulation of leukocyte recruitment. We also discuss the dynamic roles of the LTB4 receptors, BLT1 and BLT2, in mediating chemotactic signaling in leukocytes and contrast them to other structurally related leukotrienes that bind to distinct GPCRs...
October 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042015/identification-of-monoclonal-antibodies-cross-reactive-with-bottlenose-dolphin-orthologues-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-and-leukocyte-differentiation-molecules
#14
Mahmoud M Elnaggar, Gaber S Abdellrazeq, Stephanie K Venn-Watson, Eric D Jensen, Victoria Hulubei, Lindsay M Fry, Randy E Sacco, William C Davis
The slow progress in understanding immunotoxic effects of environmental contaminants and their influence on disease susceptibility in whales is largely due to the limited information available on the immune systems and immune function of species included in the Cetancodontamorpha clade. Studies in species in the other major clades included in the Artiodactylamorpha, Ruminantiamorpha, Suinamorpha, and Camelidamorpha have revealed the immune systems are similar, but not identical. The present study was undertaken to expand the available monoclonal antibody reagents needed to gain insight into the composition, function, and evolution of the immune system in Cetancodontamorpha, using the dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) as a model cetacean species...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042013/inhibition-of-microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1-mpges-1-selectively-suppresses-pge2-in-an-in-vitro-equine-inflammation-model
#15
Emily M Martin, Samuel L Jones
Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production effectively limits inflammation in horses, however nonspecific prostaglandin blockade via cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition elicits deleterious gastrointestinal side effects in equine patients. Thus, more selective PGE2 targeting therapeutics are needed to treat inflammatory disease in horses. One potential target is microsomal prostaglandin E-synthase-1 (mPGES-1), which is the terminal enzyme downstream of COX-2 in the inducible PGE2 synthesis cascade. This enzyme has yet to be studied in equine leukocytes, which play a pivotal role in equine inflammatory disease...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041967/microparticles-from-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-induce-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-degranulation-of-polymorphonuclear-leukocytes
#16
Line Kjær Winberg, Søren Jacobsen, Claus H Nielsen
BACKGROUND: The interaction of circulating microparticles (MPs) with immune cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is sparsely investigated. We examined the ability of MPs from SLE patients to induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). METHODS: Plasma MPs, leukocytes and sera isolated from 20 SLE patients and 10 healthy controls were mixed in different combinations, with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and incubated for 30 min...
October 17, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041891/-functional-state-of-vascular-endothelium-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-associated-with-congenital-heart-diseases
#17
Y E Emelyanchik, G N Vol'f, A O Vesemiller, B A Salmina
In this article, we present results of the study of blebbing activity of membranes of peripheral blood lymphocytes, concentrations of soluble platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart diseases. The research has shown that hypoxia and hemodynamic factors are the initiators of blebbing of membrane of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The activity of blebbing increases in parallel with the severity of the disease...
August 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041881/-age-related-changes-of-heart-rate-variability-at-various-insulin-sensitivity-and-telomere-length
#18
A S Boytsov, N O Tkachyeva, I L Streltsova, N E Dudinskaya, U D Akasheva, V E Plokhova, D I Strazhesko
AIM: To study relationship between age-associated changes of heart rate variability (HRV), telomere length (TL), and lowering of insulin sensitivity (IS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included in this study 229 individuals aged 23‒91 years without clinical manifestations of cardiovascular and other somatic diseases. In all participants, we analyzed HRV parameters obtained at 24-hour ECG monitoring (24-h ECG) and 5 minutes ECG recordings in the supine and standing positions...
July 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040594/association-between-exposure-to-second-hand-smoke-and-telomere-length-cross-sectional-study-of-1303-non-smokers
#19
Liya Lu, Cathy Johnman, Liane McGlynn, Daniel F Mackay, Paul G Shiels, Jill P Pell
Background: Both active smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) are important risk factors for many age-related diseases. Active smoking is associated with shortened telomere length. However, whether SHS accelerates telomere attrition with age is uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the association between SHS exposure and shortening by age of leukocyte telomere length among adult non-smokers. Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional study of the association between self-reported levels of SHS exposure and telomere length shortening per annum on a subgroup of participants from the Scottish Family Health Study...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040326/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-modulates-adipose-tissue-biology
#20
Macarena Beigier-Bompadre, Georgina N Montagna, Anja A Kühl, Laura Lozza, January Weiner, Andreas Kupz, Alexis Vogelzang, Hans-Joachim Mollenkopf, Delia Löwe, Silke Bandermann, Anca Dorhoi, Volker Brinkmann, Kai Matuschewski, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) primarily resides in the lung but can also persist in extrapulmonary sites. Macrophages are considered the prime cellular habitat in all tissues. Here we demonstrate that Mtb resides inside adipocytes of fat tissue where it expresses stress-related genes. Moreover, perigonadal fat of Mtb-infected mice disseminated the infection when transferred to uninfected animals. Adipose tissue harbors leukocytes in addition to adipocytes and other cell types and we observed that Mtb infection induces changes in adipose tissue biology depending on stage of infection...
October 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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