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Josip Crnjac, Petar Ozretić, Siniša Merkaš, Martina Ratko, Mateja Lozančić, Marina Korolija, Maja Popović, Gordan Mršić
X chromosome STR typing has emerged recently as a powerful tool, complementary to autosomal STR typing, in solving complex forensic and missing person cases. Investigator® Argus X-12 is a commercial product that allows co-amplification of 12 X chromosomal markers belonging to four linkage groups (LGs). In this study, we analyzed by capillary electrophoresis blood samples from 100 females and 102 males from a population of northern Croatia. Statistical analysis included calculation of allele and haplotype frequencies, as well as forensic parameters...
October 20, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Angie D Ambers, Jennifer D Churchill, Jonathan L King, Monika Stoljarova, Harrell Gill-King, Mourad Assidi, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Abdelbaset Buhmeida, Bruce Budowle
BACKGROUND: Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
Brandon L Thompson, Christopher Birch, Daniel A Nelson, Jingyi Li, Jacquelyn A DuVall, Delphine Le Roux, An-Chi Tsuei, Daniel L Mills, Brian E Root, James P Landers
Current conventional methods utilized for forensic DNA analysis are time consuming and labor-intensive requiring large and expensive equipment and instrumentation. While more portable Rapid DNA systems have been developed, introducing them to a working laboratory still necessitates a high cost of initiation followed by the recurrent cost of the devices. This has highlighted the need for an inexpensive, rapid and portable DNA analysis tool for human identification in a forensic setting. In order for an integrated DNA analysis system such as this to be realized, device operations must always be concluded by a rapid separation of short-tandem repeat (STR) DNA fragments...
October 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
E Yu Zemskova, Eksp Timoshenko, Eksp Leonov, P L Ivanov
The objective of the present work was to study the phenomenon of nucleotide sequence polymorphism in alleles of the STR-loci of human chromosomal DNA and to estimate its interpopulation differences with a view to the search for the molecular-genetic markers to be used as an efficient tool for the determination of belonging of the subjects of interest to a given population. We undertook the comprehensive analysis of amplified DNA fragment sequence polymorphism (AFSP) and amplified DNA fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with the use of the PLEX-ID-TM analytical mass-spectrometry platform (Abbott Molecular, USA)...
2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
S Raposo, A Constantino, F Rodrigues, B Rodrigues, M E Lima-Costa
Nowadays, bioethanol production is one of the most important technologies by the necessity to identify alternative energy resources, principally when based on inexpensive renewable resources. However, the costs of 2nd-generation bioethanol production using current biotechnologies are still high compared to fossil fuels. The feasibility of bioethanol production, by obtaining high yields and concentrations of ethanol, using low-cost medium, is the primary goal, leading the research done today. Batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of high-density sugar from carob residues with different organic (yeast extract, peptone, urea) and inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) was performed for evaluating a cost-effective ethanol production, with high ethanol yield and productivity...
October 19, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xianghua Wang, Seppo Huhtinen, Karen Hansen
Species limits in the small genus Geopyxis are debatable because of problems with interpreting the few phenotypic features and poor documentation of types. To clarify species boundaries and diversity, we studied the morphology of 74 specimens of Geopyxis from the Northern Hemisphere, including five types, and sequenced four loci for 57 representatives: the nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS), D1-D2 domains of nuc 28S rDNA (28S), translation elongation factor (tef1), and (or) part of the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (rpb2) (5-7 region)...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
Anne T Kloek, Angela C M van Zijl, Olle T J Ten Cate
INTRODUCTION: Teaching opportunities and teacher courses for medical students are increasingly offered by medical schools but little has been investigated about their long-term effect. The aim of our study was to investigate the long-term career effect of an intensive elective teaching experience for final year medical students. METHODS: We approached UMC Utrecht medical graduates who had taken a final year, 6‑week full time student teaching rotation (STR) elective, 6 to 9 years after graduation, with an online survey to ask about their educational activities and obtained teaching certificates, their current roles related to education, and their appreciation of the rotation, even if this was a long time ago...
October 18, 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
Aurélie Chauffour, Jérôme Robert, Nicolas Veziris, Alexandra Aubry, Vincent Jarlier
BACKGROUND: The treatment of Buruli ulcer (BU) that is caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is currently based on a daily administration of rifampin and streptomycin (RIF-STR). A fully oral intermittent regimen would greatly simplify its treatment on the field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this study was to assess the bactericidal and sterilizing activities of intermittent oral regimens in a murine model of established M. ulcerans infection. Regimens combining rifapentine (RFP 20 mg/kg) with either moxifloxacin (MXF 200 mg/kg), clarithromycin (CLR 100 mg/kg) or bedaquiline (BDQ 25 mg/kg) were administrated twice (2/7) or three (only for RFP-CLR 3/7) times weekly during 8 weeks...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hui Zhang, Li Ma, Yu-Bo Wang, Cheng Shu, Yong-An Huang, Lian-Qiang Dong, Gang-Ge Cheng
OBJECTIVE: Clear cell meningioma (CCM) is a rare histological subtype of meningioma which is classified as WHO grade II tumor. We conducted the present study to characterize clinical features of intracranial CCM and investigate the prognostic factors associated with surgical recurrence-free survival (RFS) of the patients. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched for case reports and series relevant to CCM. For each included study, relevant data were extracted, including patients' characteristics, pathology findings, therapeutic modality, and outcome...
October 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
K Yoshizawa, M Souza-Silva, R L Ferreira
A new barklouse species belonging to the Trichadenotecnum s.str. clade (Psocodea: "Psocoptera": Psocidae) was described from southeastern Brazil (Minas Gerais state). This locality is highly isolated (about 3400 km) from the closest known distributional range of this clade. It also represents the southernmost distributional record of Trichadenotecnum s.str. Phylogenetic placement of the species and biogeography of Neotropical Trichadenotecnum were briefly discussed. Trichadenotecnum punctipenne New, 1972 described from Brazil was synonymized with Trichadenotecnum pardus Badonnel, 1955...
October 14, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Shao-Yong Xu, Shu-Fen Li, Guo-Xin Ni
BACKGROUND Although tendinopathy is common, its underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the possible pathogenesis of tendinopathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, a total of 24 rats were randomly and evenly divided into a control (CON) group and a strenuous treadmill running (STR) group. Animals in the STR group were subjected to a 12-week treadmill running protocol. Subsequently, all Achilles tendons were harvested to perform histological observation or biochemical analyses...
October 15, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Pedro W Crous, Johannes Z Groenewald
Species of Coleophoma have been reported as plant pathogenic, saprobic or endophytic on a wide host range. The genus is characterised by having pycnidial conidiomata, phialidic conidiogenous cells intermingled among paraphyses, and cylindrical conidia. Coleophoma has had a confusing taxonomic history with numerous synonyms, and its phylogeny has remained unresolved. The aim of the present study was to use a polyphasic approach incorporating morphology, ecology, and molecular data of the partial large subunit of nrDNA (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region with intervening 5...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Chen Chen, Gerard J M Verkley, Guangyu Sun, Johannes Z Groenewald, Pedro W Crous
Species in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera have been reported as saprobes, plant pathogens or endophytes from a wide range of hosts. The asexual morphs of Neofabraea and Pezicula had been placed in Cryptosporiopsis, now a synonym of Pezicula, while Neofabraea was also linked to Phlyctema. Based on morphology and molecular data of the partial large subunit nrDNA (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region with intervening 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), partial β-tubulin region (tub2), and the partial RNA polymerase II second largest subunit region (rpb2), the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these fungi were investigated...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Xue-Qin Wang, Guang-Hua Wang, Zeng-Rong Zhu, Qi-Yi Tang, Yang Hu, Fei Qiao, Kong Luen Heong, Jia-An Cheng
BACKGROUND: Spiders are effective biological control agents in rice ecosystems, but the comparative study of predations among main spider species under field conditions have not been fully explored since lack of practical methodology. In this study, more than 6000 spiders of dominant species were collected from subtropical rice ecosystems to compare their predations on Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) using DNA based gut content analysis. RESULTS: The positive rates for all spider taxa were closely related to prey densities, as well as their behaviors and niches...
October 14, 2016: Pest Management Science
Saulius Sadauskas, Albinas Naudžiūnas, Alvydas Unikauskas, Edita Mašanauskienė, Giedrė Bakšytė, Andrius Macas
BACKGROUND Heart failure (HF) accounts for about 5% of all causes of urgent hospital admissions, and the overall mortality of HF patients within 1 year after hospitalization is 17-45%. Transthoracic impedance cardiography (ICG) is a safe, non-invasive diagnostic technique that helps to detect various parameters that define different cardiac functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of ICG parameters in patients hospitalized due to HF flare-ups. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 60 patients (24 women and 36 men) who were admitted to intensive care units because of an acute episode of HF without signs of myocardial infarction...
October 9, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Henrik H De Fine Licht, Annette B Jensen, Jørgen Eilenberg
Obligate parasites are under strong selection to increase exploitation of their host to survive while evading detection by host immune defences. This has often led to elaborate pathogen adaptations and extreme host specificity. Specialization on one host, however, often incurs a trade-off influencing the capacity to infect alternate hosts. Here, we investigate host adaptation in two morphologically indistinguishable and closely related obligate specialist insect-pathogenic fungi from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, Entomophthora muscae sensu stricto and E...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Wei Chen, Xiayu Xia, Nan Song, Ying Wang, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Qi Kong, Xianmin Pan, Chuan Qin
BACKGROUND: Mouse has been extensively used as a tool for investigating the onset and development of human neurological disorders. As a first step to construct a transgenic mouse model of human brain lesions, it is of fundamental importance to clarify the similarity and divergence of genetic background between non-diseased human and mouse brain tissues. METHODS: We systematically compared, based on large scale integrated microarray data, the transcriptomes of three anatomically distinct brain regions; prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HIP) and striatum (STR), across human and mouse...
2016: PloS One
Shinri Tomioka, Tomohiko Kondoh, Waka Sato-Okoshi, Katsutoshi Ito, Keiichi Kakui, Hiroshi Kajihara
Capitella teleta Blake et al., 2009 is an opportunistic capitellid originally described from Massachusetts (USA), but also reported from the Mediterranean, NW Atlantic, and North Pacific, including Japan. This putatively wide distribution had not been tested with DNA sequence data; intraspecific variation in morphological characters diagnostic for the species had not been assessed with specimens from non-type localities, and the species status of the Japanese population(s) was uncertain. We examined the morphology and mitochondrial COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) gene sequences of Capitella specimens from two localities (Ainan and Gamo) in Japan...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Andrzej Ossowski, Marta Diepenbroek, Tomasz Kupiec, Milena Bykowska-Witowska, Grażyna Zielińska, Teresa Dembińska, Andrzej Ciechanowicz
As the result of the communist terror in Poland, during years 1944-1956 more than 50,000 people died. Their bodies were buried secretly, and most places are still unknown. The research presents the results of identification of people buried in one of many mass graves, which were found at the cemetery Powązki Military in Warsaw, Poland. Exhumation revealed the remains of eight people, among which seven were identified genetically. Well-preserved molars were used for the study. Reference material was collected from the closest living relatives...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
U R Pagel, R S Reis, V P Carvalho, E V W Santos, E Zandonade, I D Louro, F Paula
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are commonly used as genetic markers. The detection and analysis of STRs can be used to gather information on polymorphisms of interest to forensic geneticists. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is an affordable method for the detection of minor sequence changes in DNA, while capillary electrophoresis (CE) is the gold standard for genotyping analysis. This appears to be the first study to directly compare data obtained using the two electrophoretic techniques. We analyzed genomic DNA from 209 individuals to compare genotyping results from seven Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) STR markers obtained by both techniques...
September 9, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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