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Sarah Norsworthy, Desmond S Lun, Catherine M Grgicak
The interpretation of DNA evidence may rely upon the assumption that the forensic short tandem repeat (STR) profile is composed of multiple genotypes, or partial genotypes, originating from n contributors. In cases where the number of contributors (NOC) is in dispute, it may be justifiable to compute likelihood ratios that utilize different NOC parameters in the numerator and denominator, or present different likelihoods separately. Therefore, in this work, we evaluate the impact of allele dropout on estimating the NOC for simulated mixtures with up to six contributors in the presence or absence of a major contributor...
February 8, 2018: Legal Medicine
Chun Yang, Huajie Ba, Wei Zhang, Shuyou Zhang, Hanqing Zhao, Haiying Yu, Zhiqin Gao, Binbin Wang
Aggressive behavior represents an important public concern and a clinical challenge to behaviorists and psychiatrists. Aggression in humans is known to have an important genetic basis, so to investigate the association of Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci with initiative-aggressive behavior, we compared allelic and haplotypic distributions of 22 Y-STRs in a group of Chinese males convicted of premeditated extremely violent crimes (n = 271) with a normal control group (n = 492). Allelic distributions of DYS533 and DYS437 loci differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0...
February 13, 2018: Gene
Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Hiroyuki Takaoka
Indonesia is one of the megadiversity country in the world endowed with rich and unique biodiversity insects such as blackflies species (Diptera: Simuliidae). Blackflies are found almost anywhere with running water suitable as habitat for the immature stages. This family is one of the most important groups of blood-sucking insects. This study collates the the records of Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) in previous publications related fauna of Indonesia. Based on the results of this study, there were 124 species of blackflies in Indonesian Archipelago...
February 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
Behnaz Pezeshkpoor, Katrin J Czogalla, Michael Caspers, Ann-Cristin Berkemeier, Kerstin Liphardt, Suvoshree Ghosh, Marco Kellner, Silvia Ulrich, Anna Pavlova, Johannes Oldenburg
One of the most common and unwanted side effects during oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) is bleeding complications. In rare cases, vitamin K antagonist (VKA)-related bleeding events are associated with mutations affecting the F9 propeptide at amino acid position 37 due to a substitution of alanine to either valine or threonine. Based on our actual cohort of 18 patients, we update the knowledge on this rare phenotype and its origin. A founder mutation for both variants was reconfirmed by haplotype analysis of intronic and extragenic short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms with a higher prevalence in Switzerland than in other regions of Europe...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Paula L Vieira-Brock, Brent M Vaughan, David L Vollmer
Plant essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Whether these antimicrobial effects are comparable to synthetic household products is less clear. Furthermore, limited research is available on the potential additive effect of blending EOs. In this investigation, a new EO blend containing orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was compared to its individual single oils and to three household products-air freshener, liquid soap, and body spray-for their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudonomas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus brasiliensis in the disc-diffusion assay...
December 2017: Biochimie Open
F Li, M Zhang, Y X Wang, J J Shui, M Yan, X P Jin, X J Zhu
OBJECTIVES: To explore the application value of InnoTyper® 21 kit in forensic practice. METHODS: Samples of hair shafts and saliva were collected from 8 unrelated individuals. Template DNA was extracted by AutoMate Express™ forensic DNA automatic extraction system. DNA was amplified by InnoTyper® 21 kit and AmpFℓSTR™ Identifiler™ Plus kit, respectively, and then the results were compared. RESULTS: After the amplification by InnoTyper® 21 kit, complete specific genotyping could be detected from the saliva samples, and the peak value of genotyping profiles of hair shafts without sheath cells was 57-1 219 RFU...
December 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
J S Gao, Y Ye, Y P Hou
OBJECTIVES: To develop a SNP-STR haplotype by consisting of the SNP and STR genetic markers, both of which locate in a haplotype block. To investigate its distribution in Han population from Chengdu, and explore its application in some special cases of paternity testing. METHODS: D18S51 , one of the high mutation rate STR markers in combined DNA index system (CODIS), and three SNP loci rs8089331, rs8094489 and rs7236090 in its flanking region, were chosen to establish SNP-STR...
December 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Raquel Sarafian, Mariana Morato-Marques, Juliana Borsoi, Lygia Veiga Pereira
The ability to reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has led to the generation of large collections of cell lines from thousands of individuals with specific phenotypes, many of which will be shared among different research groups as invaluable tools for biomedical research. As hiPSC-based research involves extensive culture of many cell lines, the issue periodic cell line identification is particularly important to ensure that cell line identity remains accurate. Here we analyzed the different commercially available genotyping methods considering ease of in-house genotyping, cost and informativeness, and applied one of them in our workflow for hiPSC generation...
January 31, 2018: Stem Cell Research
G Cereda, R D Gill, F Taroni
The rare type match problem is an evaluative challenging situation in which the analysis of a DNA profile reveals the presence of (at least) one allele which is not contained in the reference database. This situation is challenging because an estimate for the frequency of occurrence of the profile in a given population needs sophisticated evaluative procedures. The rare type match problem is very common when the DIP-STR marker system, which has proven itself very useful for dealing with unbalanced DNA mixtures, is used, essentially due to the limited size of the available database...
August 24, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
M E García-Aceves, O Romero Rentería, X X Díaz-Navarro, H Rangel-Villalobos
National and international reports regarding the paternity testing activity scarcely include information from Mexico and other Latin American countries. Therefore, we report different results from the analysis of 3005 paternity cases analyzed during a period of five years in a Mexican paternity testing laboratory. Motherless tests were the most frequent (77.27%), followed by trio cases (20.70%); the remaining 2.04% included different cases of kinship reconstruction. The paternity exclusion rate was 29.58%, higher but into the range reported by the American Association of Blood Banks (average 24...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Shanthi Ganesan, Corey M Summers, Sarah C Pearce, Nicholas K Gabler, Rudy J Valentine, Lance H Baumgard, Robert P Rhoads, Joshua T Selsby
Heat-related complications continue to be a major health concern for humans and animals and lead to potentially life-threatening conditions. Heat stress (HS) alters metabolic parameters and may alter glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which 12 h of HS altered energetic metabolism in oxidative skeletal muscle. To address this, crossbred gilts (n=8/group) were assigned to one of three environmental treatments for 12 h: thermoneutral (TN; 21° C), heat stress (HS; 37° C), or pair-fed to HS counterparts but housed in TN conditions (PFTN)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Victoria Nikitina, Tatiana Astrelina, Vladimir Nugis, Aleksandr Ostashkin, Tatiana Karaseva, Ekaterina Dobrovolskaya, Dariya Usupzhanova, Yulia Suchkova, Elena Lomonosova, Sergey Rodin, Vitaliy Brunchukov, Stanislav Lauk-Dubitskiy, Valentin Brumberg, Anastasia Machova, Irina Kobzeva, Andrey Bushmanov, Aleksandr Samoilov
BACKGROUND AIMS: Spontaneous mutagenesis often leads to appearance of genetic changes in cells. Although human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) are considered as genetically stable, there is a risk of genomic and structural chromosome instability and, therefore, side effects of cell therapy associated with long-term effects. In this study, the karyotype, genetic variability and clone formation analyses have been carried out in the long-term culture MSC from human gingival mucosa...
2018: PloS One
Felicia Bardan, Denice Higgins, Jeremy J Austin
Short Tandem Repeat (STR) genotyping is currently the primary DNA-based method for human identification, however it can have limited success when applied to degraded human remains. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) provides new opportunities to obtain genetic data for hundreds of loci in a single assay with higher success from degraded samples. However, due to the extra requirement for specialised equipment, expertise and resources, routine use of MPS may not be feasible or necessary for many forensic cases...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
C Robino, A Ralf, S Pasino, M R De Marchi, K N Ballantyne, A Barbaro, C Bini, E Carnevali, L Casarino, C Di Gaetano, M Fabbri, G Ferri, E Giardina, A Gonzalez, G Matullo, A L Nutini, V Onofri, A Piccinini, M Piglionica, E Ponzano, C Previderè, N Resta, F Scarnicci, G Seidita, S Sorçaburu-Cigliero, S Turrina, A Verzeletti, M Kayser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Andrej Pala, Anne Lea Schmitz, Andreas Knoll, Max Schneider, Michal Hlavac, Ralph König, Christian Rainer Wirtz, Jan Coburger
OBJECTIVES: At present, there is no standard therapy approved for recurrent glioblastoma (rGB). In particular, the counselling of patients with an unmethylated O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter GB remains a challenge. Our aim was to compare the overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in patients treated surgically and non-surgically at the time of GB recurrence. This was evaluated with particular reference to the impact of recurrent surgery for patients with unmethylated MGMT promoter rGB...
February 5, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Willy De Mattia, Marco T Neiber, Klaus Groh
The genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 is revised on the basis of conchological, anatomical and genetic characteristics. A new genus Wollastoniagen. n., two recent species, W. jessicaesp. n. and W. klausgrohisp. n., and one recent subspecies, W. jessicae monticolassp. n. are described as new to science, as well as five fossil taxa, H. microcarinatasp. n., W. beckmannisp. n., W. falknerorumsp. n., W. ripkenisp. n., and W. inexpectatasp. n. For Helix vermetiformis R. T. Lowe, 1855, H. leacockiana Wollaston, 1878, H...
2018: ZooKeys
Anne Helene S Tandberg, Wim Vader
Amphilochus manudens and Amphilochopsis hamatus are redescribed based on specimens from the BioIce, Mareano, and IceAGE programmes. The new species Amphilochus anoculussp. n. is described based on material from the IceAGE programme and the preceding BioIce programme; it is separated from the closely related Amphilochus manudens by the absence of eyes, a symmetrically bilobed labrum, four setae on the maxilla 2 outer plate, a rounded corner of epimeral plate 3, and a robust seta at the tip of the telson. There are also clear differences in depth and temperature ranges...
2018: ZooKeys
Dian Huang, Zong-Ze Shao, Yi Yu, Min-Min Cai, Long-Yu Zheng, Guang-Yu Li, Zi-Niu Yu, Xian-Feng Yi, Ji-Bin Zhang, Fu-Hua Hao
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, which causes rice bacterial blight, is one of the most destructive pathogenic bacteria. Biological control against plant pathogens has recently received increasing interest. 1-Deoxy-N-acetylglucosamine (1-DGlcNAc) was extracted from the supernatant of Virgibacillus dokdonensis MCCC 1A00493 fermentation through antibacterial bioassay-guided isolation. Its structure was elucidated by LC/MS, NMR, chemical synthesis and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations...
February 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
Laurence Devesse, David Ballard, Lucinda Davenport, Immy Riethorst, Gabriella Mason-Buck, Denise Syndercombe Court
By using sequencing technology to genotype loci of forensic interest it is possible to simultaneously target autosomal, X and Y STRs as well as identity, ancestry and phenotypic informative SNPs, resulting in a breadth of data obtained from a single run that is considerable when compared to that generated with standard technologies. It is important however that this information aligns with the genotype data currently obtained using commercially available kits for CE-based investigations such that results are compatible with existing databases and hence can be of use to the forensic community...
November 4, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Michelle Harrel, Carrie Mayes, David Gangitano, Sheree Hughes-Stamm
Bones are often recovered in forensic investigations, including missing persons and mass disasters. While traditional DNA extraction methods rely on grinding bone into powder prior to DNA purification, the TBone Ex buffer (DNA Chip Research Inc.) digests bone chips without powdering. In this study, six bones were extracted using the TBone Ex kit in conjunction with the PrepFiler® BTA™ DNA extraction kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific) both manually and via an automated platform. Comparable amounts of DNA were recovered from a 50 mg bone chip using the TBone Ex kit and 50 mg of powdered bone with the PrepFiler® BTA™ kit...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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