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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820349/evaluation-of-different-methods-for-dna-extraction-from-human-burnt-bones-and-the-generation-of-genetic-profiles-for-identification
#1
Anum Uzair, Nouman Rasool, Muhammad Wasim
Bone exposure to heat in the presence of moisture breaks the phosphodiester bonds of the backbone, leaving sheared DNA in bone cells. This also limits the possibility of generating a complete profile of the victim. With the increasing incidence of fire outbreaks over the past few years, a paradigm shift to establish identity has been observed, from morphological identification of victims to STR profiling. For this study, 10 bone samples were taken from burnt human bodies that were recovered from different fire outbreak scenes...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819805/diversity-and-evolution-of-leaf-anatomical-characters-in-taxaceae-s-l-fluorescence-microscopy-reveals-new-delimitating-characters
#2
Christoph Elpe, Patrick Knopf, Thomas Stützel, Christian Schulz
Taxaceae s.l. comprise six genera (including Cephalotaxus) and about 35 species; The present study aims to give new insights into the evolution of this family, especially into the phylogenetic position of Cephalotaxus. Moreover, only little is known about comparative leaf anatomy of this family and this study aims to expose and interpret the diversity and evolution of leaf anatomical characters and to assess their applicability to identify taxa at the generic and species level. A detailed phylogeny was reconstructed, using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, with a combined dataset of four molecular markers from the plastid and nuclear genomes...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819705/clinical-features-and-long-term-outcomes-of-primary-spinal-malignant-melanoma-a-single-center-experience
#3
Liang Wu, Ning Yao, Jingyi Fang, Jun Yang, Yulun Xu
Primary malignant melanomas are very rare tumors in the spinal canal. In this study, the authors review their experience in a series of seven patients with histologically proven primary spinal malignant melanoma (PSMM) and discuss the clinical features, treatment strategy, and long-term outcomes. Clinical data of seven patients with PSMM treated at a single institution were retrospectively analyzed. There were three male and four female patients, with a mean age of 44 years. The mean duration of illness was 5...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818715/screening-for-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-highly-degraded-dna-by-using-the-amplified-fragment-length-polymorphism-technique
#4
Mitsuyo Machida, Takashi Taki, Kazuhiko Kibayashi
Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis is generally used for human identification of forensic samples; however, standard STR analysis sometimes fails to generate full profiles since DNA is frequently degraded by various environmental factors. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis has attracted attention for human identification since the shorter amplicons are better suited for degraded samples. Though various SNP loci are used for analysis of degraded samples, it is unclear which ones are more appropriate...
August 9, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818115/the-use-of-genetic-markers-to-estimate-relationships-between-dogs-in-the-course-of-criminal-investigations
#5
Roberta Ciampolini, Francesca Cecchi, Isabella Spinetti, Anna Rocchi, Filippo Biscarini
OBJECTIVE: Attacks on humans by dogs in a pack, though uncommon, do happen, and result in severe, sometimes fatal, injuries. We describe the role that canine genetic markers played during the investigation of a fatal dog-pack attack involving a 50-year-old male truck driver in a parking lot in Tuscany (Italy). Using canine specific STR genetic markers, the local authorities, in the course of their investigations, reconstructed the genetic relationships between the dogs that caused the deadly aggression and other dogs belonging to the owner of the parking who, at the moment of the aggression, was located in another region of Italy...
August 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817155/genetic-variation-of-15-autosomal-strs-in-a-population-sample-of-bedouins-residing-in-the-area-of-the-fourth-nile-cataract-sudan
#6
Andrzej Ossowski, Jaroslaw Piatek, Miroslaw Parafiniuk, Aleksandra Pudlo, Witold Pepinski, Malgorzata Skawronska, Michal Szeremeta, Anna Niemcunowicz-Janica, Ireneusz Soltyszewski
The purpose of the paper was to report allelic frequencies of 15 autosomal STR markers (AmpFlSTR NGM PCR Amplification Kit) for Bedouin inhabitants in the area of the Fourth Nile Cataract in Sudan, and compute commonly used population and forensic biostatistical parameters. Buccal swabs were collected from 117 unrelated individuals. DNA was extracted using DNA QIAamp(®) DNA Mini Kit, and quantitated with Quantifiler Human Quantification Kit in a 7500 Real-Time PCR System. Amplification of 15 AmpFlSTR NGM PCR Kit loci was performed in PCR System 9700...
August 17, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806630/case-report-coincidental-inclusion-in-a-17-locus-y-str-mixture-wrongful-conviction-and-exoneration
#7
Greg Hampikian, Gianluca Peri, Shih-Shiang Lo, Mong-Hwa Chin, Kuo-Lan Liu
We report the case of a suspect (Suspect-3) who was convicted (and later exonerated) of participating in the multiple-attacker rape of two women. The forensic evidence against him was his inclusion in a 17-marker Y-STR mixture isolated from semen on one victim's clothing. The DNA inclusion produced a match statistic with a combined probability of inclusion of 1 in 741, and a Likelihood Ratio of 3296. While the defense team was told that Suspect-3 was included in the semen DNA mixture, they were not told that all of the Y-STR alleles could also be explained by just the other two accused attackers' haplotypes...
August 7, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806211/the-opiorphin-analog-str-324-decreases-sensory-hypersensitivity-in-a-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#8
Alain Van Elstraete, Philippe Sitbon, Leila Hamdi, Victor Juarez-Perez, Jean-Xavier Mazoit, Dan Benhamou, Catherine Rougeot
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain represents a therapeutic challenge, and treatments with increased efficacy and tolerability still need to be developed. Opiorphin protects endogenous enkephalins from degradation, potentiating enkephalin-dependent analgesia via the activation of opioid pathways. Enkephalins are natural ligands of opioid receptors, with strong affinity for δ-opioid receptors. Expression of functional δ-opioid receptors increases in sensory neurons after peripheral nerve injury in neuropathic pain models...
August 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801050/electron-transfer-through-arsenite-oxidase-insights-into-rieske-interaction-with-cytochrome-c
#9
Cameron Watson, Dimitri Niks, Russ Hille, Marta Vieira, Barbara Schoepp-Cothenet, Alexandra T Marques, Maria João Romão, Teresa Santos-Silva, Joanne M Santini
Arsenic is a widely distributed environmental toxin whose presence in drinking water poses a threat to >140 million people worldwide. The respiratory enzyme arsenite oxidase from various bacteria catalyses the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate and is being developed as a biosensor for arsenite. The arsenite oxidase from Rhizobium sp. str. NT-26 (a member of the Alphaproteobacteria) is a heterotetramer consisting of a large catalytic subunit (AioA), which contains a molybdenum centre and a 3Fe-4S cluster, and a small subunit (AioB) containing a Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster...
August 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797659/a-preliminary-evaluation-study-of-new-generation-multiplex-str-kits-comprising-of-the-codis-core-loci-and-the-european-standard-set-loci
#10
Jolena Ying Ying Tan, Yuen Peng Tan, Shilen Ng, Annabel Suan Tay, Yong Han Phua, Wei Jie Tan, Terenze Yao Rui Ong, Li Min Chua, Christopher Kiu Choong Syn
The GlobalFiler™ (Life Technologies), Investigator(®) 24plex QS (Qiagen), and PowerPlex(®) Fusion 6C (Promega) kits are the latest generation 6-dye fluorescent chemistry STR-PCR amplification kits. These kits allow for the simultaneous amplification of the CODIS core loci and the European Standard Set loci, as well as a few Y-STR loci in addition to the standard sex-determining marker Amelogenin. The present study was designed to be a preliminary evaluation of the three STR-PCR kits in terms of sensitivity, profile recovery from degraded DNA samples, tolerance to PCR inhibitors, and detection of minor components in DNA mixtures...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792614/mutation-rates-in-21-autosomal-short-tandem-repeat-loci-in-a-population-from-goi%C3%A3-s-brazil
#11
Thaís Cidália Vieira, Marc Alexandre Duarte Gigonzac, Ricardo Goulart Rodovalho, Luana Morais Cavalcanti, Lysa Bernardes Minasi, Flávia Melo Rodrigues, Aparecido Divino da Cruz
The appearance of new mutations in polymorphic markers plays a central role in a range of genetic applications, including dating phylogenetic events, informing disease studies, and evaluating forensic evidence. The present study estimated the mutation rates of 21 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in a population from Central Brazil. We studied 15,046 paternity cases from Goiás, Brazil from August 2012 to February 2015. We identified 262 mutations in the 21 loci. The loci that presented more mutations were FGA and D18S51, with a total of 46 and 28 mutations, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790019/neuronal-firing-activity-in-the-basal-ganglia-after-striatal-transplantation-of-dopamine-neurons-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#12
Regina Rumpel, Mesbah Alam, Lisa M Schwarz, Andreas Ratzka, Xingxing Jin, Joachim K Krauss, Claudia Grothe, Kerstin Schwabe
The loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and the resulting dopamine (DA) depletion in the striatum (STR) lead to altered neuronal activity and enhanced beta activity in various regions of the basal ganglia (BG) motor loop in patients with Parkinson's disease and in rodents in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model. Intrastriatal DA graft implantation has been shown to re-innervate the host brain and restore DA input. Here, DA cell grafts were implanted into the STR of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats and the effect on neuronal activity under urethane anesthesia (1...
August 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789611/role-of-the-gras-transcription-factor-ata-ram1-in-the-transcriptional-reprogramming-of-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-in-petunia-hybrida
#13
Mélanie K Rich, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Christophe Roux, Didier Reinhardt
BACKGROUND: Development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) requires a fundamental reprogramming of root cells for symbiosis. This involves the induction of hundreds of genes in the host. A recently identified GRAS-type transcription factor in Petunia hybrida, ATA/RAM1, is required for the induction of host genes during AM, and for morphogenesis of the fungal endosymbiont. To better understand the role of RAM1 in symbiosis, we set out to identify all genes that depend on activation by RAM1 in mycorrhizal roots...
August 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782537/expression-of-sweet-taste-receptor-and-gut-hormone-secretion-in-modelled-type-2-diabetes
#14
Rilu Feng, Cheng Qian, Qianjing Liu, Yunqiu Jin, Lianyong Liu, Shengxian Li, Yu Liao, Huan Zhou, Wei Liu, Chris K Rayner, Jing Ma
It was detected that sweet taste receptors (STRs) were expressed in L cells which secreted glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the gut. The STR blocker lactisole reduced GLP-1 secretion and increased blood glucose level. Therefore, we investigated the expression of sweet taste molecules in the proximal and distal small intestine, and gut hormones secretion in healthy control and type 2 diabetic rats. Two groups of rats (Sprague Dawley (SD), and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF)) were involved in the study. Each group (n=10) was performed by an intragastric glucose infusion (50% glucose solution, 2g/kg body weight)...
August 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781922/fluorescein-for-resection-of-high-grade-gliomas-a-safety-study-control-in-a-single-center-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Natale Francaviglia, Domenico Gerardo Iacopino, Gabriele Costantino, Alessandro Villa, Pietro Impallaria, Francesco Meli, Rosario Maugeri
BACKGROUND: The importance of a complete resection of high-grade gliomas (HGGs) has been highlighted in scientific literature, in order to limit tumor recurrence and above all to improve disease-free survival rates. Several fluorescent biomarkers have been tested to improve intraoperative identification of residual tumor; 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and fluorescein sodium (FS) are now starting to play a central role in glioma surgery. We performed a retrospective analysis on 47 patients operated for HGGs...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777850/-analysis-of-clinical-phenotypes-and-gjb2-gene-mutations-in-families-affected-with-hearing-loss-from-southern-zhejiang
#16
Chenyang Xu, Yanbao Xiang, Chong Chen, Xiaoling Lin, Huanzheng Li, Jinfang Lu, Lin Hu, Xueqin Xu, Shaohua Tang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features and pathological mutations in 44 families affected with hearing loss from southern Zhejiang, and to provide genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for 6 of the families. METHODS: Microarray was employed to detect c.35delG, c.176del16, c.235delC and c.299-300delAT mutations of the GJB2 gene among 228 patients. For those carrying a single heterozygous mutation, the whole coding region of the GJB2 gene was analyzed by Sanger sequencing...
August 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777843/-genetic-and-prenatal-diagnosis-for-a-haemophilia-a-family-with-two-novel-mutations-of-f8-gene
#17
Tao Li, Qiaofang Hou, Hongyan Liu, Hai Xiao, Bo Zhang, Shiling Liu, Yanli Yang, Chaoyang Zhang, Xuebing Ding, Shixiu Liao
OBJECTIVE: To conduct genetic diagnosis for a family affected with hamophilia A. METHODS: Potential mutations of the F8 gene were analyzed with PCR and Sanger sequencing. Carriers of the mutation were identified through linkage analysis using short tandem repeat (STR) markers. Suspected mutations were verified among 100 healthy controls to rule out genetic polymorphism. Prenatal diagnosis was provided based on the above results. RESULTS: Sequencing analysis has identified two mutations, c...
August 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771023/relationship-between-single-tablet-antiretroviral-regimen-and-adherence-to-antiretroviral-and-non-antiretroviral-medications-among-veterans-affairs-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#18
Jenna Yager, John Faragon, Liam McGuey, Adam Hoye-Simek, Zachary Hecox, Steven Sullivan, Stefanie Neubert, Nimish Patel
Several antiretrovirals (ART) have been coformulated as single tablet regimens (STR). Study objectives were to compare ART and non-ART adherence between STR and multiple tablet regimens (MTR) recipients, determine whether STR independently predicts ART adherence, and determine whether ART adherence influences non-ART adherence. A retrospective cohort study was performed among Upstate New York Veterans' Healthcare Administration (VISN-2) patients from 2000 to 2013. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, receipt of ≥3 ART medications for ≥3 months, and available pharmacy refill records...
August 3, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769614/taxonomic-review-of-the-palaearctic-species-of-the-cheilosia-caerulescens-group-diptera-syrphidae
#19
Gunilla Ståhls, Anatolij V Barkalov
The Palaearctic species of the Cheilosia caerulescens group (Diptera: Syrphidae) are revised in this work. The species group belongs to the genus Cheilosia subgenus Taeniocheilosia Oldenberg. One new species is described from north Caucasus, Cheilosia (Taeniocheilosia) circassica sp. n.Cheilosia primulae Hering is established as a junior synonym of Cheilosia laeviventris Loew. Four lectotype designations are made. The species of the Cheilosia caerulescens group are redescribed and illustrated, and a table of diagnostic characters and an identification key to species are provided...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769055/high-coverage-whole-exome-sequencing-identifies-candidate-genes-for-suicide-in-victims-with-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Dóra Tombácz, Zoltán Maróti, Tibor Kalmár, Zsolt Csabai, Zsolt Balázs, Shinichi Takahashi, Miklós Palkovits, Michael Snyder, Zsolt Boldogkői
We carried out whole-exome ultra-high throughput sequencing in brain samples of suicide victims who had suffered from major depressive disorder and control subjects who had died from other causes. This study aimed to reveal the selective accumulation of rare variants in the coding and the UTR sequences within the genes of suicide victims. We also analysed the potential effect of STR and CNV variations, as well as the infection of the brain with neurovirulent viruses in this behavioural disorder. As a result, we have identified several candidate genes, among others three calcium channel genes that may potentially contribute to completed suicide...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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