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Noise Cancellation

Jay R Lucker
BACKGROUND: Many audiologists believe that auditory processing testing must be carried out in a soundproof booth. This expectation is especially a problem in places such as elementary schools. Research comparing pure-tone thresholds obtained in sound booths compared to quiet test environments outside of these booths does not support that belief. Auditory processing testing is generally carried out at above threshold levels, and therefore may be even less likely to require a soundproof booth...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Jong-Ryul Yang, Seong-Tae Han, Donghyun Baek
We propose a differential-type complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sub-terahertz (THz) detector with a subthreshold preamplifier. The proposed detector improves the voltage responsivity and effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using the subthreshold preamplifier, which is located between the differential detector device and main amplifier. The overall noise of the detector for the THz imaging system is reduced by the preamplifier because it diminishes the noise contribution of the main amplifier...
September 9, 2017: Sensors
Peter Hollender, Samantha Lipman, Gregg Trahey
Conventional multiple track location shear wave elasticity imaging (MTL-SWEI) is a powerful tool for noninvasively estimating tissue elasticity. The resolution and noise levels of MTL-SWEI systems, however, are limited by ultrasound speckle. Single track location SWEI (STL-SWEI) is a novel variant which fixes the position of the tracking beam and modulates the push location to effectively cancel out the effects of speckle-induced bias. We present here a three-dimensional STL-SWEI system which provides full suppression of lateral and elevation speckle bias for high resolution volumetric elasticity imaging, and requires no spatial smoothing to make accurate measurements of shear wave speed...
September 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Bork A Berghoff, Torgny Karlsson, Thomas Källman, E Gerhart H Wagner, Manfred G Grabherr
BACKGROUND: Measuring how gene expression changes in the course of an experiment assesses how an organism responds on a molecular level. Sequencing of RNA molecules, and their subsequent quantification, aims to assess global gene expression changes on the RNA level (transcriptome). While advances in high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technologies allow for inexpensive data generation, accurate post-processing and normalization across samples is required to eliminate any systematic noise introduced by the biochemical and/or technical processes...
2017: BioData Mining
Ali Darroudi, Jaber Parchami, Morteza Kafaee Razavi, Ghazaleh Sarbisheie
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, an adaptive method based on error entropy criterion is presented in order to eliminate noise from Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. METHOD: Conventionally, the Mean-Squared Error (MSE) criterion is the dominant criterion deployed in the adaptive filters for this purpose. By deploying MSE, only second-order moment of the error distribution is optimized, which is not adequate for the noisy EEG signal in which the contaminating noises are typically non-Gaussian...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Yong Kyoung Yoo, Jinsik Kim, Gangeun Kim, Young Soo Kim, Hye Yun Kim, Sejin Lee, Won Woo Cho, Seongsoo Kim, Sang-Myung Lee, Byung Chul Lee, Jeong Hoon Lee, Kyo Seon Hwang
We developed an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor system for blood-based Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis based on impedimetric detection of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein, which is a representative candidate biomarker for AD. The IME sensing device was fabricated using a surface micromachining process. For highly sensitive detection of several tens to hundreds of picogram/mL of Aβ in blood, medium change from plasma to PBS buffer was utilized with signal cancellation and amplification processing (SCAP) system...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kensuke Sekihara, Srikantan S Nagarajan
OBJECTIVE: In biomagnetic signal processing, the theory of the signal subspace has been applied to removing interfering magnetic fields, and a representative algorithm is the signal space projection algorithm, in which the signal/interference subspace is defined in the spatial domain as the span of signal/interference-source lead field vectors. This paper extends the notion of this conventional (spatial domain) signal subspace by introducing a new definition of signal subspace in the time domain...
October 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Nabil Faranesh, Ebrahim Magamseh, Suliman Zaaroura, Reem Zeidan, Avi Shupak
OBJECTIVE: To compare the hearing and otoacoustic emissions (OAE) outcome of stapedotomy employing 0.4 and 0.6 mm diameter prostheses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 18 patients with otosclerosis participated in a prospective, double-armed, randomized cohort study. All the patients underwent small fenestra drill stapedotomy employing the Causse fluroplastic large loop piston prostheses. The patients were randomly assigned to groups of 0.4 mm (n=9) and 0.6 mm (n=9) diameter prostheses...
August 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Marko Haramija, Jasna Peter-Katalinić
RATIONALE: Affinity mass spectrometry (AMS) is an emerging tool in the field of study of protein-carbohydrate complexes. However, experimental obstacles and data analysis is preventing faster integration of AMS methods in the field of glycosciences. Here we show how analysis of direct ESI-MS AMS data can be simplified for screening purposes, even for complex AMS spectra. METHODS: Direct ESI-MS assay was tested in this study, and binding data for the galectin-3C•lactose complex were analyzed using comprehensive and simplified data analysis approach...
August 14, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Nikhil Deshpande, Jonas Braasch
This study investigates how virtual head rotations can improve a binaural model's ability to segregate speech signals. The model takes two mixed speech sources spatialized to unique azimuth positions and localizes them. The model virtually rotates its head to orient itself for the maximum signal-to-noise ratio for extracting the target. An equalization-cancellation approach is used to generate a binary mask for the target based on localization cues. The mask is then overlaid onto the mixed signal's spectrogram to extract the target from the mixture...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Evgeny Katz, Yaroslav Filipov, Sergii Domanskyi, Mackenna L Wood, Maria Gamella, Vladimir Privman
We report an experimental realization of a biochemical XOR gate function that avoids many of the pitfalls of earlier realizations based on biocatalytic cascades. Inputs - represented by pairs of chemicals - cross-react to largely cancel out when both are nearly equal. The cross-reaction can be designed to also optimize gate functioning for noise handling. When not equal, the residual inputs are further processed to result in the output of the XOR type, by biocatalytic steps that allow for further gate-function optimization...
July 26, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Genevieve Plant, Yifeng Chen, Gerard Wysocki
A proof-of-concept heterodyne-enhanced chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy system is presented. In remote sensing systems where low return powers are expected, the addition of an optical local oscillator and subsequent nonlinear processing can provide improved performance in chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy. Details about the system configuration, phase noise cancellation, and experimental verification are discussed.
July 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Jason P Stockmann, Lawrence L Wald
Functional MRI (fMRI) at 7 T and above provides improved Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Contrast-to-Noise Ratio compared to 3 T acquisitions. In addition to the beneficial effects on spin polarization and magnetization of deoxyhemoglobin, the increased applied field also further magnetizes air and tissue. While the magnets themselves typically provide a static B0 field with sufficient spatial homogeneity, the diamagnetism of tissue and the paramagnetism of air causes local field deviations inside the human head...
June 7, 2017: NeuroImage
Mutsumi Noro, Daisuke Anzai, Jianqing Wang
Wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) is attracting much attention for monitoring heart diseases in healthcare and medical applications. However, an imbalance usually exists between the contact resistances of sensing electrodes, so that a common mode noise caused by external electromagnetic field can be converted into the ECG detection circuit as a differential mode interference voltage. In this study, after explaining the mechanism of how the common mode noise is converted to a differential mode interference voltage, the authors propose a circuit with cadmium sulphide photo-resistors for cancelling the imbalance between the contact resistances and confirm its validity by simulation experiment...
April 2017: Healthcare Technology Letters
Nimrod Shaham, Yoram Burak
It has been proposed that neural noise in the cortex arises from chaotic dynamics in the balanced state: in this model of cortical dynamics, the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to each neuron approximately cancel, and activity is driven by fluctuations of the synaptic inputs around their mean. It remains unclear whether neural networks in the balanced state can perform tasks that are highly sensitive to noise, such as storage of continuous parameters in working memory, while also accounting for the irregular behavior of single neurons...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Gustavo Funes, Jaime Anguita
By means of an experimental setup, we study the time evolution of orbital angular momentum (OAM) crosstalk after a 5 m propagation path with a turbulence perturbation generated by a flat heater. This convective turbulence could simulate the beam passing over hot concrete or building roofs. We study the consequences of using a wide range of transmission OAM states. We also explore the effect of misalignment, and we propose two new different techniques for analyzing the vortex cancellation. Even though results are inconsistent with theoretical predictions, especially for low turbulence regimes, we state that signal-to-noise ratio is the key factor to understanding this discrepancy...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Qiang Guo, Liangang Qi
In the coexistence of multiple types of interfering signals, the performance of interference suppression methods based on time and frequency domains is degraded seriously, and the technique using an antenna array requires a large enough size and huge hardware costs. To combat multi-type interferences better for GNSS receivers, this paper proposes a cascaded multi-type interferences mitigation method combining improved double chain quantum genetic matching pursuit (DCQGMP)-based sparse decomposition and an MPDR beamformer...
April 10, 2017: Sensors
Wootaek Lim, Taekwang Jang, Inhee Lee, Hun-Seok Kim, Dennis Sylvester, David Blaauw
We present a sub-nW optical wake-up receiver for wireless sensor nodes. The wake-up receiver supports dual mode operation for both ultra-low standby power and high data rates, while canceling ambient in-band noise. In 0.18µm CMOS the receiver consumes 380pW in always-on wake-up mode and 28.1µW in fast RX mode at 250kbps.
June 2016: Symposium on VLSI Circuits: [proceedings]. Symposium on VLSI Circuits
Zhen Qu, Ivan B Djordjevic
A high-speed four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system, enabled by wavelength-division multiplexing, polarization multiplexing, and orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing, is studied in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. The atmospheric turbulence channel is emulated by two spatial light modulators (SLMs) on which two randomly generated azimuthal phase patterns yielding Andrews' spectrum are recorded. The phase noise is mitigated by the phase noise cancellation (PNC) stage, and channel transmittance can be monitored directly by the D...
April 3, 2017: Optics Express
Y K Chiang, Y S Choy, S K Tang
The noise attenuation of fan-ducted noise at low blade-passage frequency remains a challenge. The present study investigates the noise reduction mechanism of a tensioned membrane housing device that directly controls the sound radiation from the doublet which is enclosed in an infinitely long duct with a point vortex. The time dependent sound radiation mechanism and the vibro-acoustics coupling mechanism of the systems are studied by adopting the potential theory and matched asymptotic expansion technique. The silencing performance of such a passive approach depends on the amplitude and phase of the sound field created by the doublet and the acoustic pressure induced by the membrane oscillation in order to achieve sound cancellation...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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