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Bartosz Baran, Michał Krzyżowski, Mikołaj Cup, Jakub Janiec, Mateusz Grabowski, Jacek Francikowski
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are a group of common metabolites and semiochemicals mediating information transfer between higher organisms and bacteria, either from microbiome or external environment. VFAs commonly occur among various insect orders. There are numerous studies exploring their influence on the behavior of different insect species. In relation to the papers published by J. E. McFarlane in 1985, we assessed the effects of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids on the spatial preference of the lesser mealworm ( Alphitobius diaperinus ), a common pest of stored food grain products and the poultry industry...
March 16, 2018: Insects
Saverio Affatato, Alessandro Ruggiero, Sami Abdel Jaber, Massimiliano Merola, Pierangiola Bracco
Given the long-term problem of polyethylene wear, medical interest in the new improved cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), with or without the adding of vitamin E, has risen. The main aim of this study is to gain further insights into the mutual effects of radiation cross-linking and addition of vitamin E on the wear performance of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). We tested four different batches of polyethylene (namely, a standard one, a vitamin E-stabilized, and two cross-linked) in a hip joint simulator for five million cycles where bovine calf serum was used as lubricant...
March 16, 2018: Materials
Yunuen Avalos-Padilla, Roland L Knorr, Rosario Javier-Reyna, Guillermina García-Rivera, Reinhard Lipowsky, Rumiana Dimova, Esther Orozco
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) orchestrates cell membrane-remodeling mechanisms in eukaryotes, including endocytosis. However, ESCRT functions in phagocytosis (ingestion of ≥250 nm particles), has been poorly studied. In macrophages and amoebae, phagocytosis is required for cell nutrition and attack to other microorganisms and cells. In Entamoeba histolytica , the voracious protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, phagocytosis is a land mark of virulence. Here, we have investigated the role of ESCRT-III in the phagocytosis of E...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Sebastian Wallis, Lorcan O'Toole, Laszlo Karsai, Jose Jemy
Cancer of the unknown primary (CUP) makes up 2-4% of new head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) diagnoses. This scenario is recognised as a diagnostic challenge for head and neck surgeons. For all patients with proven cervical lymph node metastatic SCC without a clinically apparent primary site, the current UK guidelines recommends PET-CT, panendoscopy with directed biopsies and bilateral tonsillectomy as a standard of care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 15, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
Jinzhao Song, Vikram Pandian, Michael G Mauk, Haim H Bau, Sara Cherry, Laurence C Tisi, Changchun Liu
Rapid and quantitative molecular diagnostics in the field, at home, and at remote clinics is essential for evidence-based disease management, control, and prevention. Conventional molecular diagnostics requires extensive sample preparation, complex instruments, and skilled personnel, restricting its use to centralized laboratories. To overcome these limitations, we designed a simple, inexpensive, hand-held, smartphone-based mobile detection platform, dubbed "smart-connected cup" (SCC), for rapid, connected and quantitative molecular diagnostics...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Assem Barakat, Abdullah M Al-Majid, Bander M Al-Qahtany, M Ali, Mohamed Teleb, Mohamed H Al-Agamy, Sehrish Naz, Zaheer Ul-Haq
BACKGROUND: Design and synthesis of pyrazole-dimedone derivatives were described by one-pot multicomponent reaction as new antimicrobial agents. These new molecular framework were synthesized in high yields with a broad substrate scope under benign conditions mediated by diethylamine (NHEt2 ). The molecular structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned based on different spectroscopic techniques (1 H-NMR,13 C-NMR, IR, MS, and CHN). RESULTS: The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against S...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Fantin Girard, Conrad Kavalec, Farida Cheriet
Optic disc (OD) appearance in fundus images is one of the clinical indicators considered in the assessment of retinal diseases such as glaucoma. The cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) is the most common clinical measurement used to characterize glaucoma. However, the CDR only evaluates the relative sizes of the cup and the OD via their diameters. We propose to construct an atlas-based shape descriptor (ASD) to statistically characterize the geometric deformations of the OD shape and of the blood vessels' configuration inside the OD region...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Jing-Yang Sun, Yong-Gang Zhou, Yin-Qiao Du, Shang Piao, Sen Wang, Zhi-Sen Gao, Wen-Ming Wu, Hai-Yang Ma
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effect of ceramic on ceramic total hip arthroplasty(THA)in Crowe IV developmental dysplasia of the hip(DDH). METHODS: From April 2008 to December 2015, 137 hips of 111 Crowe IV DDH patients received THA using Forte or Delta ceramic on ceramic by one senior surgeon, which consists of 85 unilateral hips and 26 bilateral hips. The average age of the patients was(38.88±10.83) years old ranging from 18 to 68 years old. The mean follow-up was(41...
February 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Jae H Kang, Kerry L Ivey, Tahani Boumenna, Bernard Rosner, Janey L Wiggs, Louis R Pasquale
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between flavonoid intake and incident primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: We followed 65 516 women from the Nurses' Health Study (from 1984) and 42 156 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (from 1986) biennially to 2012, who were 40+ years old, free of POAG, and reported eye examinations. Dietary flavonoid intake was assessed with validated repeated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Incident POAG cases (n = 1575) were confirmed with medical record review...
March 14, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Paul F Lachiewicz, Jane Anne O'Dell
BACKGROUND: The best method for acetabular revisions in patients with severe bone loss remains controversial; typical approaches include jumbo cups, cages, cup-cages, and custom components. Tantalum (TM) components have good results at midterm followup, but the longer term survival and complications are not available. We previously reported on a series of such reconstructions; here we provide additional followup on that group along with a larger study cohort. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the survival at a minimum followup of 5 years of these components implanted in difficult revisions and what is the mechanism of failure? (2) What is the most common complication of these reconstructions, and what hip scores did these patients achieve? METHODS: Between 2001 and 2010, one surgeon performed 150 acetabular revisions, of which 74 (49%) were done using TM components...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
William S Murphy, Ho Hyun Yun, Brett Hayden, Jens H Kowal, Stephen B Murphy
BACKGROUND: Cup malposition is a common cause of impingement, limitation of ROM, acceleration of bearing wear, liner fracture, and instability in THA. Previous studies of the safe zone based on plain radiographs have limitations inherent to measuring angles from two-dimensional projections. The current study uses CT to measure component position in stable and unstable hips to assess the presence of a safe zone for cup position in THA. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does acetabular component orientation, when measured on CT, differ in stable components and those revised for recurrent instability? (2) Do CT data support historic safe zone definitions for component orientation in THA? METHODS: We identified 34 hips that had undergone revision of the acetabulum for recurrent instability that also had a CT scan of the pelvis between August 2003 and February 2017...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
James A Keeney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Anton Khlopas, Morad Chughtai, Randa K Elmallah, David Hip-Flores, Arthur L Malkani, Steven F Harwin, Michael A Mont, Michael D Ries
BACKGROUND: Bone loss in patients undergoing revision THA poses a considerable challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Often, to achieve better fixation in remaining bone, larger diameter acetabular components and reaming superiorly may be necessary. However, this is likely to raise the hip center of rotation, which may lead to altered biomechanics, specifically, insufficiency of the abductor muscles, altered gait, and increased risk of dislocation from impingement. More recently, a newer acetabular shell has been designed to more closely replicate the native hip center of rotation in these circumstances while maintaining adequate fixation...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Brian P Chalmers, Graham D Pallante, Michael J Taunton, Rafael J Sierra, Robert T Trousdale
BACKGROUND: Revision THA to treat recurrent instability can itself be complicated by recurrent instability, and when this occurs, this problem is difficult to treat. Some patients' THAs will continue to dislocate despite use of a constrained liner. One option in this difficult-to-treat group is conversion to a dual-mobility (DM) construct, but there are few data on this approach. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What were the Harris hip scores in a small group of patients whose constrained liners were converted to DM constructs to treat recurrent dislocation? (2) What were the redislocation, rerevision, and DM construct retention rates in these patients? METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a longitudinally maintained institutional database maintained by individuals other than the treating surgeons to identify patients undergoing conversion of constrained liners to DM constructs in revision THA from 2011 to 2014...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Robert H Hopper, Henry Ho, Supatra Sritulanondha, Ann C Williams, Charles A Engh
BACKGROUND: Crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) liners used for primary THA have demonstrated lower wear rates than noncrosslinked, conventional polyethylene (CPE) liners through the first decade of clinical service. However, little high-quality evidence is currently available regarding the second decade performance of these implants and it remains uncertain whether the onset of osteolysis has simply been delayed or if the wear associated with XLPE liners will remain low enough that osteolysis will not occur...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Sang-Hyun Park, Zhen Lu, Robert S Hastings, Patricia A Campbell, Edward Ebramzadeh
BACKGROUND: In 2010, a widely used metal-on-metal hip implant design was voluntarily recalled by the manufacturer because of higher than anticipated failure rates at 5 years. Although there was a large published range of revision rates, numerous studies had reported a higher risk of revision for excessive wear and associated adverse tissue reactions when compared with other metal-on-metal total hips. The reasons for this were suggested by some to be related to cup design features. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: From retrievals of ASR metal-on-metal implants and tissue samples obtained at revision surgery, we asked the following questions: (1) What were the common and uncommon surface features? (2) What were the common and uncommon linear and volumetric wear characteristics? (3) Were there common taper corrosion characteristics? (4) What aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) features were present in the tissues? METHODS: Five hundred fifty-five ASRs, including 23 resurfacings, were studied at one academic research center...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Danny Eizicovits, Yael Edan, Iris Tabak, Shelly Levy-Tzedek
BACKGROUND: Effective human-robot interactions in rehabilitation necessitates an understanding of how these should be tailored to the needs of the human. We report on a robotic system developed as a partner on a 3-D everyday task, using a gamified approach. OBJECTIVES: To: (1) design and test a prototype system, to be ultimately used for upper-limb rehabilitation; (2) evaluate how age affects the response to such a robotic system; and (3) identify whether the robot's physical embodiment is an important aspect in motivating users to complete a set of repetitive tasks...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Gaurav Mathur, Narottama Sindhu, Deependra Vikram Singh, Gurpreet Singh Garcha
PURPOSE: To present a unique case of decompression retinochoroidopathy presenting with intraretinal, subretinal and preretinal hemorrhages. METHODS: A 65-year-old hypertensive female presented with diminution of vision in right eye of 1-week duration. She had been a known case of primary open-angle glaucoma and had undergone trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in right eye 1 week back. Her day 1 postoperative intraocular pressure was 6 mmHg. Her left eye had undergone Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery for the same 2 years back...
March 10, 2018: International Ophthalmology
J I Gargiulo, C R Eastwood, S C Garcia, N A Lyons
An increase in the average herd size on Australian dairy farms has also increased the labor and animal management pressure on farmers, thus potentially encouraging the adoption of precision technologies for enhanced management control. A survey was undertaken in 2015 in Australia to identify the relationship between herd size, current precision technology adoption, and perception of the future of precision technologies. Additionally, differences between farmers and service providers in relation to perception of future precision technology adoption were also investigated...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Masaki Mogi, Katsuhiko Kohara, Yasuharu Tabara, Kana Tsukuda, Michiya Igase, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Our previous report indicated that sarcopenia is associated with arterial stiffness and cardiovascular death. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease and its activation may be correlated with sarcopenia according to basic research. However, few clinical studies have assessed the correlation between skeletal muscle loss and RAS component concentrations in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the excretion of angiotensinogen (AGT) and aldosterone (Ald) in 24-h urine samples and clinical and sarcopenic indices...
March 9, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
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