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Matthias Jacob, Daniel Chappell, Bernhard F Becker
Oxygen delivery to cells is the basic prerequisite of life. Within the human body, an ingenious oxygen delivery system, comprising steps of convection and diffusion from the upper airways via the lungs and the cardiovascular system to the microvascular area, bridges the gap between oxygen in the outside airspace and the interstitial space around the cells. However, the complexity of this evolutionary development makes us prone to pathophysiological problems. While those problems related to respiration and macrohemodynamics have already been successfully addressed by modern medicine, the pathophysiology of the microcirculation is still often a closed book in daily practice...
October 21, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Maddison Turner, Larissa Reid, Mercedes Munkonda, Dylan Burger
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes and hypertension are cognate diseases that often coexist, potentiating one's risk for cardiovascular complications. Both diseases are typified by the development of endothelial dysfunction and are accompanied by increased circulating endothelial microparticles (eMPs). Microparticles are small membrane-derived vesicles that are secreted ubiquitously following cell stress. We have previously shown that eMPs are sensitive markers of vascular injury in hypertension and identified eMP-mediated signaling pathways that lead to endothelial injury...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Joanna Majerczak, Marcin Grandys, Krzysztof Duda, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Aneta Balcerczyk, Leszek Kolodziejski, Dorota Szymoniak-Chochol, Ryszard T Smolenski, Grzegorz Bartosz, Stefan Chlopicki, Jerzy A Zoladz
In this study we have evaluated the effect of 20-weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relation to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40- minute sessions, mainly of moderate-intensity (∼50% of VO2max ), performed 4 times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Yuichi Uchino, Ashley M Woodward, Pablo Argüeso
Mucins are a group of highly glycosylated glycoproteins responsible for the protection of wet-surfaced epithelia. Recent data indicate that transmembrane mucins differ in their contribution to the protective function of the ocular surface, with MUC16 being the most effective barrier on the apical surface glycocalyx. Here, we investigated the role of the mucoprotective drug rebamipide in the regulation of transmembrane mucin biosynthesis using stratified cultures of human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells...
October 7, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Per Lehnert, Pär I Johansson, Sisse R Ostrowski, Christian H Møller, Lia E Bang, Peter Skov Olsen, Jørn Carlsen
Whole blood coagulation and markers of endothelial damage were studied in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), and evaluated in relation to PE severity. Twenty-five patients were enrolled prospectively each having viscoelastical analysis of whole blood done using thrombelastography (TEG) and Multiplate aggregometry. Fourteen of these patients were investigated for endothelial damage by ELISA measurements of Syndecan-1 (endothelial glycocalyx degradation), soluble endothelial Selectin (endothelial cell activation), soluble Thrombomodulin (endothelial cell injury) and Histone Complexed DNA fragments (endothelial cytotoxic histones)...
October 11, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Hossein Shokri Kojori, Yiwen Ji, Younghun Paik, Adam B Braunschweig, Sung Jin Kim
By immobilizing glycopolymers onto the surface of the recently developed plasmonic field effect transistor (FET), the recognition between lectins and surface-immobilized glycopolymers can be detected over a wide dynamic range (10(-10) to 10(-4) M) in an environment that resembles the glycocalyx. The binding to the sensor surface by various lectins was tested, and the selectivities and relative binding affinity trends observed in solution were maintained on the sensor surface, and the significantly higher avidities are attributed to cluster-glycoside effects that occur on the surface...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Lukas Martin, Patrick Koczera, Elisabeth Zechendorf, Tobias Schuerholz
Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The endothelial glycocalyx is one of the earliest sites involved during sepsis. This fragile layer is a complex network of cell-bound proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycan side chains, and sialoproteins lining the luminal side of endothelial cells with a thickness of about 1 to 3 μm. Sepsis-associated alterations of its structure affect endothelial permeability and result in the liberation of endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
2016: BioMed Research International
Xiao Huang, Guiqing Kong, Yan Li, Weiwei Zhu, Haixiao Xu, Xiaohua Zhang, Jiankui Li, Lipeng Wang, Zhongwen Zhang, Yaru Wu, Xiangyong Liu, Xiaozhi Wang
Decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DAC) and 5-azacitidine (Aza), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, possess a wide range of anti-metabolic and anti-cancer activities. This study examined the effects of DAC and Aza on inflammatory and oxidative injuries, as well as on glycocalyx and MAPK signaling pathways, in a LPS-stimulated ARDS mouse model. Results of ELISA revealed that DAC and Aza significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-1β and prevented LPS-induced elevation of myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels in serum...
September 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Matthew A Dragovich, Daniel Chester, Bingmei M Fu, Chenyu Wu, Yan Xu, Michael S Goligorsky, X Frank Zhang
The endothelial surface glycocalyx (ESG) is a carbohydrate-rich layer found on the vascular endothelium, serving critical functions in the mechanotransduction of blood flow induced forces. One of the most important protective functions of the ESG is to mediate the production of nitric oxide (NO) in response to blood flow. However, the detailed mechanism underlying ESG's mechanotransduction of the production of NO has not been completely identified. Herein, using the cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
T K Kim, K Nam, Y J Cho, J J Min, Y J Hong, K U Park, D M Hong, Y Jeon
The infusion of fluids to patients may affect tissue microcirculation and the endothelial glycocalyx. However, the effects of hydroxyethyl starch and crystalloid on endothelial glycocalyx degradation and microvascular reactivity have not been evaluated in detail. We hypothesised that hydroxyethyl starch may cause less endothelial glycocalyx degradation and better microvascular reactivity than that caused by crystalloid. We randomly allocated 120 patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery to receive up to 20 ml...
September 26, 2016: Anaesthesia
Alexander Arthur, Phillip J McCall, Lisa Jolly, John Kinsella, Alan Kirk, Ben G Shelley
AIM: We investigated if the serum biomarkers of endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) disruption, heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) and syndecan-1 (SDC1) were elevated following lung resection surgery. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from 16 patients undergoing lobectomy for primary lung cancer. HSPG and SDC1 were measured at five perioperative timepoints. Postoperative oxygenation was recorded. RESULTS: Post-hoc pair wise comparisons showed SDC1 concentration was significantly elevated on postoperative day 2, p < 0...
October 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
Maddison Turner, Larissa Reid, Mercedes Munkonda, Dylan Burger
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes and hypertension are cognate diseases that often coexist, potentiating one's risk for cardiovascular complications. Both diseases are typified by the development of endothelial dysfunction and are accompanied by increased circulating endothelial microparticles (eMPs). Microparticles are small membrane-derived vesicles that are secreted ubiquitously following cell stress. We have previously shown that eMPs are sensitive markers of vascular injury in hypertension and identified eMP-mediated signaling pathways that lead to endothelial injury...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
M F Powell, M Mathru, A Brandon, R Patel, M A Frölich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
A I Grudyanov, O N Tkacheva, A T Khatagov, F N Mustafina, A Yu Gorshkov
The intactness degree of glycocalyx and the thickness of endothelium layer in sublingual microvessels was determined by means of darkfield microscopy and GlycoCheck RI software in 35 patients (19 men and 16 women, aged 35 to 65 years) with chronic generalized severe periodontitis before and after anti-inflammatory and surgical treatment. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group recieved only local anti-inflammatory therapy while patients of group 2 underwent surgical intervention on the periodontium in addition to local anti-inflammatory therapy...
2016: Stomatologii︠a︡
Winston W-Y Kao, Vivien J Coulson-Thomas
Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from connective tissues are pluripotent and differentiate into phenotypes of connective tissue cell lineages (osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes) in vitro and in vivo. They have been used to treat mouse models of connective tissue disease such as lumican-null (Lum) and mucopolysaccharidosis (Gusb) mice. Mesenchymal stem cells have unique immunosuppressive properties allowing evasion of host rejection; thus, they are valuable tools for cell therapy of congenital and acquired diseases involving immune dysfunction of multiple tissues including ocular surface tissues (cornea)...
November 2016: Cornea
Gustav Folmer Genét, Peter Bentzer, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Pär Ingemar Johansson
Traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and edema formation. Recent animal studies have shown that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) resuscitation reduces brain swelling and improves endothelial function compared to isotonic NaCl (NS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether pooled and pathogen-reduced plasma (OctaplasLG(®) [OCTA]; Octapharma, Stockholm, Sweden) was comparable to FFP with regard to effects on brain water content, BBB permeability, and plasma biomarkers of endothelial glycocalyx shedding and cell damage...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Sophie Melikishvili, Alexandra Poturnayova, Maksim Ionov, Maria Bryszewska, Tomáš Vary, Julius Cirak, María Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Rafael Gomez-Ramirez, Francisco Javier de la Mata, Tibor Hianik
In this study, dendrimers have been purposed as an alternative approach for delivery of HIV peptides to dendritic cells. We have investigated the interaction of dendriplexes formed from polyanionic HIV peptide Nef and cationic carbosilane dendrimer (CBD) with model lipid membranes - large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), Langmuir monolayers and supported lipid membranes (sBLMs) containing various molar ratio of zwitterionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy (polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG2000)...
September 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Akira Ushiyama, Hanae Kataoka, Takehiko Iijima
Vascular hyperpermeability is a frequent intractable feature involved in a wide range of diseases in the intensive care unit. The glycocalyx (GCX) seemingly plays a key role to control vascular permeability. The GCX has attracted the attention of clinicians working on vascular permeability involving angiopathies, and several clinical approaches to examine the involvement of the GCX have been attempted. The GCX is a major constituent of the endothelial surface layer (ESL), which covers most of the surface of the endothelial cells and reduces the access of cellular and macromolecular components of the blood to the surface of the endothelium...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Brian C Leonard, Bernardo Yañez-Soto, Vijay Krishna Raghunathan, Nicholas L Abbott, Christopher J Murphy
Mucins are large glycoproteins expressed by epithelial cells of both the conjunctiva and cornea, and principle components of the glycocalyx. They are thought to play an important role in determining the interactions between the cornea/conjunctiva and the overlying tear film. The purpose of this study was to characterize the membrane-associated corneal mucin expression pattern from multiple species commonly used in ophthalmic research and drug development to better define the biochemical attributes of the ocular surface...
September 8, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Richard W Clarke, Pavel Novak, Alexander Zhukov, Eleanor J Tyler, Marife Cano-Jaimez, Anna Drews, Owen Richards, Kirill Volynski, Cleo Bishop, David Klenerman
Directly examining subcellular mechanics whilst avoiding excessive strain of a live cell requires the precise control of light stress on very small areas, which is fundamentally difficult. Here we use a glass nanopipet out of contact with the plasma membrane to both exert the stress on the cell and also accurately monitor cellular compression. This allows the mapping of cell stiffness at a lateral resolution finer than 100 nm. We calculate the stress a nanopipet exerts on a cell as the sum of the intrinsic pressure between the tip face and the plasma membrane plus its direct pressure on any glycocalyx, both evaluated from the gap size in terms of the ion current decrease...
October 14, 2016: Soft Matter
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