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Glycocalyx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535253/endothelial-glycocalyx-the-battleground-for-complications-of-sepsis-and-kidney-injury
#1
Jong Wook Song, Joseph Zullo, Mark Lipphardt, Matthew Dragovich, Frank X Zhang, Bingmei Fu, Michael S Goligorsky
After briefly discussing endothelial glycocalyx and its role in vascular physiology and renal disease, this overview focuses on its degradation very early in the course of microbial sepsis. We describe our recently proposed mechanism for glycocalyx degradation induced by exocytosis of lysosome-related organelles and release of their cargo. Notably, an intermediate in nitric oxide synthesis, NG-hydroxy-l-arginine, shows efficacy in curtailing exocytosis of these organelles and improvement in animal survival...
May 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528983/glycocalyx-shedding-is-markedly-increased-during-the-acute-phase-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#2
Thanh H Nguyen, Saifei Liu, Gao J Ong, Irene Stafford, Michael P Frenneaux, John D Horowitz
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and other forms of myocardial acute oxidative stress are associated with variable "shedding" of the endothelial glycocalyx (GCS) which can be quantitated ex vivo by release into plasma of glycocalyx components such as Syndecan-1 (SD-1). Previous studies have implicated release of both catecholamines and BNP as potential accentuating factors in GCS: since these are prominent aspects of the pathogenesis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), we hypothesised that TTC is associated with increased GCS and the extent of GCS is predictable on the basis of NT-proBNP and catecholamine releases...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524373/sialic-acids-regulate-microvessel-permeability-revealed-by-novel-in-vivo-studies-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-structure-and-function
#3
Kai Betteridge, Kenton Arkill, Chris Neal, Steve Harper, Becky Foster, Simon Satchell, David Bates, Andy Salmon
The endothelial glycocalyx forms a continuous coat over the luminal surface of all vessels, and regulates multiple vascular functions. The contribution of individual components of the endothelial glycocalyx to one critical vascular function, microvascular permeability, remains unclear. We developed novel, real-time, paired methodologies to study the contribution of sialic acids within the endothelial glycocalyx to the structural and functional permeability properties of the same microvessel in vivo. Single perfused rat mesenteric microvessels were perfused with fluorescent endothelial cell membrane and glycocalyx labels, and imaged with confocal microscopy...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515328/mechanotransmission-in-endothelial-cells-subjected-to-oscillatory-and-multi-directional-shear-flow
#4
Mahsa Dabagh, Payman Jalali, Peter J Butler, Amanda Randles, John M Tarbell
Local haemodynamics are linked to the non-uniform distribution of atherosclerosic lesions in arteries. Low and oscillatory (reversing in the axial flow direction) wall shear stress (WSS) induce inflammatory responses in endothelial cells (ECs) mediating disease localization. The objective of this study is to investigate computationally how the flow direction (reflected in WSS variation on the EC surface over time) influences the forces experienced by structural components of ECs that are believed to play important roles in mechanotransduction...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513898/synthesis-of-bodipy-labelled-cholesterylated-glycopeptides-by-tandem-click-chemistry-for-glycocalyxification-of-giant-unilamellar-vesicles-guvs
#5
Nicolai Stuhr-Hansen, Charikleia-Despoina Vagianou, Ola Blixt
The glycocalyx cover membrane surfaces of all living cells. These complex archtechtures render their interaction mechanisms on the membrane surface difficult to study. Artificial cell-sized membranes with selected and defined glycosylation patterns may serve as a minimalistic approach to systematically study cell surface glycan interactions. Here we developed a facile general synthetic procedure for the synthesis of BODIPY-labelled cholesterylated glycopeptides, which can coat cell-size giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs)...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509684/histone-complexed-dna-fragments-levels-are-associated-with-coagulopathy-endothelial-cell-damage-and-increased-mortality-after-severe-pediatric-trauma
#6
Robert T Russell, Sarah C Christiaans, Tate Nice, Morgan Banks, Vincent Mortellaro, Charity Morgan, Amy Duhachek-Stapelman, Steven J Lisco, Jeffrey D Kerby, Brant M Wagener, Mike K Chen, Jean-François Pittet
BACKGROUND: The release of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) in the extracellular space secondary to injury has been shown to cause systemic activation of the coagulation system and endothelial cell damage. We hypothesized that pediatric trauma patients with increased levels of histone-complexed DNA fragments (hcDNA) would have evidence of coagulopathy and endothelial damage that would be associated with poor outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of 149 pediatric trauma patients and 62 control patients at two level 1 pediatric trauma centers from 2013-2016...
May 15, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506708/electron-microscopy-approach-for-the-visualization-of-the-epithelial-and-endothelial-glycocalyx
#7
L Chevalier, J Selim, D Genty, J M Baste, N Piton, I Boukhalfa, M Hamzaoui, P Pareige, V Richard
This study presents a methodological approach for the visualization of the glycocalyx by electron microscopy. The glycocalyx is a three dimensional network mainly composed of glycolipids, glycoproteins and proteoglycans associated with the plasma membrane. Since less than a decade, the epithelial and endothelial glycocalyx proved to play an important role in physiology and pathology, increasing its research interest especially in vascular functions. Therefore, visualization of the glycocalyx requires reliable techniques and its preservation remains challenging due to its fragile and dynamic organization, which is highly sensitive to the different process steps for electron microscopy sampling...
May 12, 2017: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504989/structural-behavior-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-is-associated-with-pathophysiologic-status-in-septic-mice-an-integrated-approach-to-analyzing-the-behavior-and-function-of-the-glycocalyx-using-both-electron-and-fluorescence-intravital-microscopy
#8
Hanae Kataoka, Akira Ushiyama, Yoshihiro Akimoto, Sachie Matsubara, Hayato Kawakami, Takehiko Iijima
BACKGROUND: The endothelial surface layer (ESL) regulates vascular permeability to maintain fluid homeostasis. The glycocalyx (GCX), which has a complex and fragile ultrastructure, is an important component of the ESL. Abnormalities of the GCX have been hypothesized to trigger pathological hyperpermeability. Here, we report an integrated in vivo analysis of the morphological and functional properties of the GCX in a vital organ. METHODS: We examined the behavior of the ESL and GCX, using both electron microscopy (EM) and intravital microscopy (IVM)...
May 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489728/novel-adjunct-drugs-reverse-endothelial-glycocalyx-damage-after-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#9
Ivo P Torres Filho, Luciana N Torres, Christi Salgado, Michael A Dubick
INTRODUCTION: There is interest in the small-volume therapeutic use of adjunct drugs for treating hemorrhagic shock (HS). However, critical information is only partially available on mechanisms of action of promising compounds such as adenosine-lidocaine-Magnesium (ALM), beta-hydroxybutyrate plus melatonin (BHB/M), and poloxamer 188 (P-188). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that these adjuncts would reverse HS-induced damage to microvascular endothelial glycocalyx and hemodynamics...
May 9, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487369/n-glycosylation-affects-the-stability-and-barrier-function-of-the-muc16-mucin
#10
Takazumi Taniguchi, Ashley M Woodward, Paula Magnelli, Nicole M McColgan, Sylvain Lehoux, Sarah Melissa P Jacobo, Jérôme Mauris, Pablo Argüeso
Transmembrane mucins are highly O-glycosylated glycoproteins that coat the apical glycocalyx on mucosal surfaces and represent the first line of cellular defense against infection and injury. Relatively low levels of N-glycans are found on transmembrane mucins, and their structure and function remains poorly characterized. We previously reported that carbohydrate-dependent interactions of transmembrane mucins with galectin-3 contribute to maintain the epithelial barrier at the ocular surface. Now, using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we report that transmembrane mucin N-glycans in differentiated human corneal epithelial cells contain primarily complex-type structures with N-acetyllactosamine, a preferred galectin ligand...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486940/binding-of-plasmodium-falciparum-to-cd36-can-be-shielded-by-the-glycocalyx
#11
Casper Hempel, Christian William Wang, Jørgen Anders Lindholm Kurtzhals, Trine Staalsø
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes sequester in the microcirculation due to interaction between surface-expressed parasite proteins and endothelial receptors. Endothelial cells are covered in a carbohydrate-rich glycocalyx that shields against undesired leukocyte adhesion. It was investigated if the cellular glycocalyx affects the binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to CD36 in vitro. METHODS: Glycocalyx growth was followed in vitro by using azido sugars and cationized ferritin detecting O-glycoproteins and negatively charged proteoglycans, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486888/endothelial-glycocalyx-basic-science-and-clinical-implications
#12
N L Pillinger, Pca Kam
The classic Starling principle proposed that microvascular fluid exchange was determined by a balance of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures relative to the vascular wall and this movement of water was regulated by gaps in the intercellular spaces. However, current literature on the endothelial glycocalyx (a jelly-like protective layer covering the luminal surface of the endothelium) has revised Starling's traditional concepts. This article aims to summarise the literature on the glycocalyx related to its basic science, clinical settings inciting injury, protective strategies and clinical perspectives...
May 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478798/sphingosine-1-phosphate-reduces-adhesion-of-malignant-mammary-tumor-cells-mda-mb-231-to-microvessel-walls-by-protecting-endothelial-surface-glycocalyx
#13
L Zhang, M Zeng, B M Fu
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a sphingolipid in plasma that plays a critical role in cardiovascular and immune systems. Endothelial surface glycocalyx (ESG) decorating the inner wall of blood vessels is a regulator of multiple vascular functions. To test the hypothesis that S1P can reduce tumor cell adhesion to microvessel walls by protecting the ESG, we quantified the ESG and MDA-MB-231 tumor cell adhesion in the presence and absence of 1μM S1P, and in the presence of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor in post-capillary venules of rat mesentery...
April 29, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474270/stenosis-hemodynamics-disrupt-the-endothelial-cell-glycocalyx-by-mmp-activity-creating-a-proinflammatory-environment
#14
S Cooper, K McDonald, D Burkat, Richard L Leask
Hemodynamic forces are known to be able to induce an inflammatory phenotype in endothelial cells (ECs). The EC glycocalyx (GCX) is a dynamic structure which is regulated in response to different stimuli and hypothesized as an important contributor to the mechanotransduction of wall shear stresses (WSS). In this work, we used a three dimensional in vitro EC culture model with a 50% asymmetric stenosis to investigate degradation of the GCX by increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in regions of WSS gradients and how this degradation might create a proinflammatory environment...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467734/structural-heteropolysaccharide-adhesion-to-the-glycocalyx-of-visceral-mesothelium
#15
Andrew Servais, Arne Kienzle, Cristian D Valenzuela, Alexandra B Ysasi, Willi L Wagner, Akira Tsuda, Maximilian Ackermann, Steven J Mentzer
Bioadhesives are biopolymers with potential applications in wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. Pectin, a plant-based heteropolysaccharide, has recently demonstrated potential as a mucoadhesive in the gut. Since mucoadhesion is a process likely involving the interpenetration of the pectin polymer with mucin chains, we hypothesized that pectin may also be effective at targeting the glycocalyx of visceral mesothelium. To explore the potential role of pectin as a mesothelial bioadhesive, we studied the interaction of various pectin formulations with the mesothelium of the lung, liver, bowel and heart...
May 3, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467354/aged-lymphatic-vessels-and-mast-cells-in-perilymphatic-tissues
#16
REVIEW
Sarit Pal, Cynthia J Meininger, Anatoliy A Gashev
This review provides a comprehensive summary of research on aging-associated alterations in lymphatic vessels and mast cells in perilymphatic tissues. Aging alters structure (by increasing the size of zones with low muscle cell investiture), ultrastructure (through loss of the glycocalyx), and proteome composition with a concomitant increase in permeability of aged lymphatic vessels. The contractile function of aged lymphatic vessels is depleted with the abolished role of nitric oxide and an increased role of lymphatic-born histamine in flow-dependent regulation of lymphatic phasic contractions and tone...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453844/association-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-tight-and-adherens-junctions-with-severity-of-plasma-leakage-in-dengue-infection
#17
Suhendro Suwarto, R Tedjo Sasmono, Robert Sinto, Eppy Ibrahim, Maulana Suryamin
Background.: The role of vascular endothelial (VE) components in dengue infection with plasma leakage is unknown. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the adjusted association of the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) and tight and adherens junction markers with plasma leakage. Methods.: A prospective observational study was conducted at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Adult dengue patients admitted to the hospital on the third day of fever from November 2013 through August 2015 were included in the study...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453735/layer-upon-layer-the-functional-consequences-of-disrupting-the-glycocalyx-endothelial-barrier-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#18
FitzRoy E Curry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453727/endothelial-glycocalyx-breakdown-is-mediated-by-angiopoietin-2
#19
Alexander Lukasz, Carina Hillgruber, Hans Oberleithner, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog, Hermann Pavenstädt, Alexandros Rovas, Bettina Hesse, Tobias Goerge, Philipp Kümpers
Aims: The endothelial glycocalyx (eGC), a carbohydrate-rich layer lining the luminal surface of the endothelium, provides a first vasoprotective barrier against vascular leakage and adhesion in sepsis and vessel inflammation. Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2), an antagonist of the endothelium-stabilizing receptor Tie2 secreted by endothelial cells, promotes vascular permeability through cellular contraction and junctional disintegration. We hypothesized that Angpt-2 might also mediate the breakdown of the eGC...
May 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444849/multivalent-peptide-nanoparticle-conjugates-for-influenza-virus-inhibition
#20
Daniel Lauster, Maria Glanz, Markus Bardua, Kai Ludwig, Markus Hellmund, Ute Hoffmann, Alf Hamann, Christoph Böttcher, Rainer Haag, Christian P R Hackenberger, Andreas Herrmann
To inhibit binding of the influenza A virus to the host cell glycocalyx, we generate multivalent peptide-polymer nanoparticles binding with nanomolar affinity to the virus via its spike protein hemagglutinin. The chosen dendritic polyglycerol scaffolds are highly biocompatible and well suited for a multivalent presentation. We could demonstrate in vitro that by increasing the size of the polymer scaffold and adjusting the peptide density, viral infection is drastically reduced. Such a peptide-polymer conjugate qualified also in an in vivo infection scenario...
April 26, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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