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Glycocalyx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107214/loss-of-syndecan-1-abrogates-the-pulmonary-protective-phenotype-induced-by-plasma-after-hemorrhagic-shock
#1
Feng Wu, Zhanglong Peng, Pyong Woo Park, Rosemary A Kozar
Syndecan-1 is considered a biomarker of injury to the endothelial glycocalyx following hemorrhagic shock, with shedding of sdc1 deleterious. Resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) has been correlated with restitution of pulmonary sdc1 and reduction of lung injury, but the precise contribution of sdc1 to FFPs protection in the lung remains unclear. Human lung endothelial cells were used to assess the time and dose dependent effect of FFP on sdc1 expression and the effect of sdc1 silencing on in vitro endothelial cell permeability and actin stress fiber formation...
January 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096045/early-detection-of-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-first-degree-relatives-of-diabetic-patients-by-myocardial-deformation-imaging-the-role-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-damage
#2
Ignatios Ikonomidis, George Pavlidis, Vaia Lambadiari, Fotini Kousathana, Maria Varoudi, Filio Spanoudi, Eirini Maratou, John Parissis, Helen Triantafyllidi, George Dimitriadis, John Lekakis
BACKGROUND: First-degree relatives of type-2 diabetes patients (FDR) present insulin resistance. We investigated whether FDR and dysglycaemic subjects demonstrate abnormal endothelial glycocalyx and LV deformation during postprandial hyperglycemia. METHODS: We studied 40 FDR with normal oral glucose test (OGTT), 40 subjects with abnormal OGTT (dysglycaemic) and 20 subjects with normal OGTT without parental history of diabetes (normoglycaemic). At 0 and 120min of OGTT we measured: a) LV longitudinal strain (LS) of subendocardial, mid-myocardial and subepicardial layers, global LS (GLS), peak twisting (pTw), untwisting velocity (pUtwVel), by speckle tracking echocardiography b) perfused boundary region (PBR) of the sublingual arterial microvessels; high PBR values represent reduced glycocalyx thickness...
January 8, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078967/the-glycocalyx-regulates-the-uptake-of-nanoparticles-by-human-endothelial-cells-in-vitro
#3
Leonhard Möckl, Stephanie Hirn, Adriano A Torrano, Bernd Uhl, Christoph Bräuchle, Fritz Krombach
AIM: To assess the role of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGCX) for the uptake of nanoparticles by endothelial cells. METHODS: The expression of the eGCX on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells was determined by immunostaining of heparan sulfate. Enzymatic degradation of the eGCX was achieved by incubating the cells with eGCX-shedding enzymes. The uptake of 50-nm polystyrene nanospheres was quantified by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells expressed a robust eGCX when cultured for 10 days...
January 12, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073502/lethal-effects-of-ichthyotoxic-raphidophytes-chattonella-marina-c-antiqua-and-heterosigma-akashiwo-on-post-embryonic-stages-of-the-japanese-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata-martensii
#4
Leila Basti, Kiyohito Nagai, Jiyoji Go, Sho Okano, Tatsuya Oda, Yuji Tanaka, Satoshi Nagai
The inimical effects of the ichthyotoxic harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, and Chattonella antiqua on the early-life stages of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii were studied. Fertilized eggs and developing embryos were not affected following exposure to the harmful raphidophytes; however, all three algal species severely affected trochophores and D-larvae, early-stage D-larvae, and late-stage pre-settling larvae. Exposure to C. marina (5×10(2)cellsml(-1)), C...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057660/protocol-for-intraoperative-assessment-of-the-human-cerebrovascular-glycocalyx
#5
R H L Haeren, H Vink, J Staals, M A M J van Zandvoort, J Dings, J J van Overbeeke, G Hoogland, K Rijkers, O E M G Schijns
INTRODUCTION: Adequate functioning of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important for brain homoeostasis and normal neuronal function. Disruption of the BBB has been described in several neurological diseases. Recent reports suggest that an increased permeability of the BBB also contributes to increased seizure susceptibility in patients with epilepsy. The endothelial glycocalyx is coating the luminal side of the endothelium and can be considered as the first barrier of the BBB. We hypothesise that an altered glycocalyx thickness plays a role in the aetiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common type of epilepsy...
January 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000132/biomarkers-of-glycocalyx-injury-are-associated-with-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-case-series-supporting-a-new-hypothesis
#6
Josh D Bell, Shawn G Rhind, Alex P Di Battista, R Loch Macdonald, Andrew J Baker
BACKGROUND: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) contributes to morbidity following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage; however, its etiology remains poorly understood. DCI is not only a consequence of angiographic vasospasm, but also involves microthrombosis and neuroinflammation, two events with unexplained phenomenology. The vascular endothelial glycocalyx mediates platelet aggregation and endothelial cell-leukocyte interactions and may play an important role in DCI pathogenesis. METHODS: We present a case series in which we conducted multiplex and singlet enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of endothelial, glycocalyx, inflammatory, and neuroinjury proteins in both CSF and plasma in three patients during active DCI following SAH...
December 20, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979833/serum-levels-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-constituents-in-women-at-20%C3%A2-weeks-gestation-who-later-develop-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-compared-to-matched-controls-a-pilot-study
#7
David S Long, Weilin Hou, Rennae S Taylor, Lesley M E McCowan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this pilot study was to determine the serum concentration of heparan sulfate, hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate and syndecan-1 and if these serum concentrations can be used to identify women at 20 weeks' gestation who later develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). DESIGN: Nested case-control study from Auckland, New Zealand participants in the prospective cohort Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. SETTING: Auckland, New Zealand...
December 15, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941354/the-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-perioperative-lung-injury
#8
Florian Brettner, Vera von Dossow, Daniel Chappell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventilator-induced lung injury is a major contributor to perioperative lung injury. The end-expiratory lung volume, regional lung overdistension, and tidal recruitment are known to be the main factors causing subsequent alveolar damage and inflammation. The alveolar-capillary membrane including the endothelial glycocalyx as an integral part of the vascular endothelium seems to play a major role in different kinds of lung injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies underline the pivotal importance of the endothelial glycocalyx in lung injury...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941332/overexpression-of-tgf-%C3%AE-inducible-microrna-143-in-zebrafish-leads-to-impairment-of-the-glomerular-filtration-barrier-by-targeting-proteoglycans
#9
Janina Müller-Deile, Finn Gellrich, Heiko Schenk, Patricia Schroder, Jenny Nyström, Johan Lorenzen, Hermann Haller, Mario Schiffer
BACKGROUND: TGF-β is known as an important stress factor of podocytes in glomerular diseases. Apart from activation of direct pro-apoptotic pathways we wanted to analyze micro-RNA (miRs) driven regulation of components involved in the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier induced by TGF-β. Since miR-143-3p (miR-143) is described as a TGF-β inducible miR in other cell types, we examined this specific miR and its ability to induce glomerular pathology. METHODS: We analyzed miR-143 expression in cultured human podocytes after stimulation with TGF-β...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940454/acute-traumatic-coagulopathy-pathophysiology-and-resuscitation
#10
J W Simmons, M F Powell
Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy occurs immediately after massive trauma when shock, hypoperfusion, and vascular damage are present. Mechanisms for this acute coagulopathy include activation of protein C, endothelial glycocalyx disruption, depletion of fibrinogen, and platelet dysfunction. Hypothermia and acidaemia amplify the endogenous coagulopathy and often accompany trauma. These multifactorial processes lead to decreased clot strength, autoheparinization, and hyperfibrinolysis. Furthermore, the effects of aggressive crystalloid administration, haemodilution from inappropriate blood product transfusion, and prolonged surgical times may worsen clinical outcomes...
December 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934922/extreme-activity-of-drug-nanocrystals-coated-with-a-layer-of-non-covalent-polymers-from-self-assembled-boric-acid
#11
Honglei Zhan, Jun F Liang
Non-covalent polymers have remarkable advantages over synthetic polymers for wide biomedical applications. In this study, non-covalent polymers from self-assembled boric acid were used as the capping reagent to replace synthetic polymers in drug crystallization. Under acidic pH, boric acid self-assembled on the surface of drug nanocrystals to form polymers with network-like structures held together by hydrogen bonds. Coating driven by boric acid self-assembly had negligible effects on drug crystallinity and structure but resulted in drug nanocrystals with excellent dispersion properties that aided in the formation of a more stable suspension...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930836/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-propagates-through-interactions-between-syndecan-1-and-cd81-and-impacts-the-hepatocyte-glycocalyx
#12
Boyan Grigorov, Emma Reungoat, Alice Gentil Dit Maurin, Mihayl Varbanov, Julie Blaising, Maud Michelet, Rachel Manuel, Romain Parent, Birke Bartosch, Fabien Zoulim, Florence Ruggiero, Eve-Isabelle Pécheur
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects hepatocytes after binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans, in particular Syndecan-1, followed by recognition of the tetraspanin CD81 and other receptors. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found in a specific microenvironment coating the hepatocyte surface called the glycocalyx and are receptors for extracellular matrix proteins, cytokines, growth factors, lipoproteins, and infectious agents. We investigated the mutual influence of HCV infection on the glycocalyx and revealed new links between Syndecan-1 and CD81...
December 8, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930307/cosmc-is-an-x-linked-inflammatory-bowel-disease-risk-gene-that-spatially-regulates-gut-microbiota-and-contributes-to-sex-specific-risk
#13
Matthew R Kudelka, Benjamin H Hinrichs, Trevor Darby, Carlos S Moreno, Hikaru Nishio, Christopher E Cutler, Jianmei Wang, Huixia Wu, Junwei Zeng, Yingchun Wang, Tongzhong Ju, Sean R Stowell, Asma Nusrat, Rheinallt M Jones, Andrew S Neish, Richard D Cummings
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from aberrant immune stimulation against a dysbiotic mucosal but relatively preserved luminal microbiota and preferentially affects males in early onset disease. However, factors contributing to sex-specific risk and the pattern of dysbiosis are largely unexplored. Core 1 β3GalT-specific molecular chaperone (Cosmc), which encodes an X-linked chaperone important for glycocalyx formation, was recently identified as an IBD risk factor by genome-wide association study. We deleted Cosmc in mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and found marked reduction of microbiota diversity in progression from the proximal to the distal gut mucosa, but not in the overlying lumen, as seen in IBD...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916567/fluorescent-visualization-of-cellular-proton-fluxes
#14
Lejie Zhang, Karl Bellve, Kevin Fogarty, William R Kobertz
Cells use plasma membrane proton fluxes to maintain cytoplasmic and extracellular pH and to mediate the co-transport of metabolites and ions. Because proton-coupled transport often involves movement of multiple substrates, traditional electrical measurements provide limited information about proton transport at the cell surface. Here we visualize voltage-dependent proton fluxes over the entire landscape of a cell by covalently attaching small-molecule fluorescent pH sensors to the cell's glycocalyx. We found that the extracellularly facing sensors enable real-time detection of proton accumulation and depletion at the plasma membrane, providing an indirect readout of channel and transporter activity that correlated with whole-cell proton current...
December 22, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907146/glycocalyx-degradation-induces-a-proinflammatory-phenotype-and-increased-leukocyte-adhesion-in-cultured-endothelial-cells-under-flow
#15
Karli K McDonald, Scott Cooper, Lisa Danielzak, Richard L Leask
Leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium is an early step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Effective adhesion requires the binding of leukocytes to their cognate receptors on the surface of endothelial cells. The glycocalyx covers the surface of endothelial cells and is important in the mechanotransduction of shear stress. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of the glycocalyx in leukocyte adhesion under flow. We performed experiments using 3-D cell culture models, exposing human abdominal aortic endothelial cells to steady laminar shear stress (10 dynes/cm2 for 24 hours)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898729/rna-contaminates-glycosaminoglycans-extracted-from-cells-and-tissues
#16
Jasper J van Gemst, Markus A Loeven, Mark J J de Graaf, Jo H M Berden, Ton J Rabelink, Cornelis H Smit, Johan van der Vlag
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear negatively charged polysaccharides and important components of extracellular matrices and cell surface glycan layers such as the endothelial glycocalyx. The GAG family includes sulfated heparin, heparan sulfate (HS), dermatan sulfate (DS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), keratan sulfate, and non-sulfated hyaluronan. Because relative expression of GAGs is dependent on cell-type and niche, isolating GAGs from cell cultures and tissues may provide insight into cell- and tissue-specific GAG structure and functions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852610/vascular-endothelium-in-diabetes
#17
Michael S Goligorsky
Three decades ago a revolutionary idea ascribing to dysfunctional endothelia some manifestations of diabetes was born, the Steno hypothesis. Here I briefly outline the accomplishments made in the past 15 years to buttress this hypothesis. Those include development of novel technological platforms to examine microcirculatory beds, deeper understanding of patterns of microvascular derangement in diabetes, pathophysiology of nitric oxide synthesis and availability, nitrosative and oxidative stress in diabetes, premature senescence of endothelial cells and the role of sirtuin 1 and lysosomal dysfunction in this process, state of endothelial glycocalyx and endothelial progenitor cells in diabetes...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851053/1417-prevention-of-glycocalyx-degradation-on-sciatic-nerves-by-danaparoid-sodium-in-a-septic-rat-model
#18
Hirofumi Hino, Arisa Miura, Sachi Shinmi, Soichiro Inoue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850961/1325-hydrocortisone-therapy-with-car-peptide-protects-the-injured-endothelial-glycocalyx-in-sepsis
#19
Kodai Suzuki, Hideshi Okada, Chihiro Takada, Kazumasa Oda, Takahiro Yoshida, David Mann, Masanobu Komatsu, Shinji Ogura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821209/motility-morphology-and-phylogeny-of-the-plasmodial-worm-ceratomyxa-vermiformis-n-sp-cnidaria-myxozoa-myxosporea
#20
E A Adriano, B Okamura
The Myxozoa demonstrate extensive morphological simplification and miniaturization relative to their free-living cnidarian ancestors. This is particularly pronounced in the highly derived myxosporeans, which develop as plasmodia and pseudoplasmodia. To date, motility in these stages has been linked with membrane deformation (e.g. as pseudopodia and mobile folds). Here we illustrate a motile, elongate plasmodium that undergoes coordinated undulatory locomotion, revealing remarkable convergence to a functional worm at the cellular level...
November 8, 2016: Parasitology
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