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Glycocalyx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907146/glycocalyx-degradation-induces-a-proinflammatory-phenotype-and-increased-leukocyte-adhesion-in-cultured-endothelial-cells-under-flow
#1
Karli K McDonald, Scott Cooper, Lisa Danielzak, Richard L Leask
Leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium is an early step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Effective adhesion requires the binding of leukocytes to their cognate receptors on the surface of endothelial cells. The glycocalyx covers the surface of endothelial cells and is important in the mechanotransduction of shear stress. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of the glycocalyx in leukocyte adhesion under flow. We performed experiments using 3-D cell culture models, exposing human abdominal aortic endothelial cells to steady laminar shear stress (10 dynes/cm2 for 24 hours)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898729/rna-contaminates-glycosaminoglycans-extracted-from-cells-and-tissues
#2
Jasper J van Gemst, Markus A Loeven, Mark J J de Graaf, Jo H M Berden, Ton J Rabelink, Cornelis H Smit, Johan van der Vlag
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear negatively charged polysaccharides and important components of extracellular matrices and cell surface glycan layers such as the endothelial glycocalyx. The GAG family includes sulfated heparin, heparan sulfate (HS), dermatan sulfate (DS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), keratan sulfate, and non-sulfated hyaluronan. Because relative expression of GAGs is dependent on cell-type and niche, isolating GAGs from cell cultures and tissues may provide insight into cell- and tissue-specific GAG structure and functions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852610/vascular-endothelium-in-diabetes
#3
Michael S Goligorsky
Three decades ago a revolutionary idea ascribing to dysfunctional endothelia some manifestations of diabetes was born, the Steno hypothesis. Here I briefly outline the accomplishments made in the past 15 years to buttress this hypothesis. Those include development of novel technological platforms to examine microcirculatory beds, deeper understanding of patterns of microvascular derangement in diabetes, pathophysiology of nitric oxide synthesis and availability, nitrosative and oxidative stress in diabetes, premature senescence of endothelial cells and the role of sirtuin 1 and lysosomal dysfunction in this process, state of endothelial glycocalyx and endothelial progenitor cells in diabetes...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851053/1417-prevention-of-glycocalyx-degradation-on-sciatic-nerves-by-danaparoid-sodium-in-a-septic-rat-model
#4
Hirofumi Hino, Arisa Miura, Sachi Shinmi, Soichiro Inoue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850961/1325-hydrocortisone-therapy-with-car-peptide-protects-the-injured-endothelial-glycocalyx-in-sepsis
#5
Kodai Suzuki, Hideshi Okada, Chihiro Takada, Kazumasa Oda, Takahiro Yoshida, David Mann, Masanobu Komatsu, Shinji Ogura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821209/motility-morphology-and-phylogeny-of-the-plasmodial-worm-ceratomyxa-vermiformis-n-sp-cnidaria-myxozoa-myxosporea
#6
E A Adriano, B Okamura
The Myxozoa demonstrate extensive morphological simplification and miniaturization relative to their free-living cnidarian ancestors. This is particularly pronounced in the highly derived myxosporeans, which develop as plasmodia and pseudoplasmodia. To date, motility in these stages has been linked with membrane deformation (e.g. as pseudopodia and mobile folds). Here we illustrate a motile, elongate plasmodium that undergoes coordinated undulatory locomotion, revealing remarkable convergence to a functional worm at the cellular level...
November 8, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800510/sevoflurane-mitigates-shedding-of-hyaluronan-from-the-coronary-endothelium-also-during-ischemia-reperfusion-an-ex-vivo-animal-study
#7
Congcong Chen, Daniel Chappell, Thorsten Annecke, Peter Conzen, Matthias Jacob, Ulrich Welsch, Bernhard Zwissler, Bernhard F Becker
Glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), a major constituent of the endothelial glycocalyx, helps to maintain vascular integrity. Preconditioning the heart with volatile anesthetic agents protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury. We investigated a possible protective effect of sevoflurane on the glycocalyx, especially on HA. The effect of pre-ischemic treatment with sevoflurane (15 minutes at 2% vol/vol gas) on shedding of HA was evaluated in 28 isolated, beating guinea pig hearts, subjected to warm ischemia (20 minutes at 37°C) followed by reperfusion (40 minutes), half with and half without preconditioning by sevoflurane...
2016: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798230/the-role-of-hyal2-in-lss-induced-glycocalyx-impairment-and-the-pka-mediated-decrease-in-enos-ser633-phosphorylation-and-nitric-oxide-production
#8
Xiangquan Kong, Liang Chen, Peng Ye, Zhimei Wang, Junjie Zhang, Fei Ye, Shaoliang Chen
Hyaluronan (HA) in the endothelial glycocalyx serves as a mechanotransducer for high-shear-stress-stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO) production. Low shear stress (LSS) has been shown to contribute to endothelial inflammation and atherosclerosis by impairing the barrier and mechanotransduction properties of the glycocalyx. Here, we focused on the possible role of hyaluronidase 2 (HYAL2) in LSS-induced glycocalyx impairment and the resulting alterations in eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
October 26, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795844/hyaluronic-acid-in-vascular-and-immune-homeostasis-during-normal-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#9
M M Ziganshina, S V Pavlovich, N V Bovin, G T Sukhikh
Preeclampsia (PE) is a multisystem pathologic state that clinically manifests itself after the 20th week of pregnancy. It is characterized by high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. According to modern concepts, the impairment of trophoblast invasion into maternal spiral arteries, leading to the development of ischemia in placenta, is considered to be the major pathogenetic factor of PE development. Ischemic lesions initiate the development of a systemic inflammatory response (SIR) and endothelial dysfunction, which is the main cause of the multiple organ failure in PE...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779595/sympathoadrenal-activation-and-endotheliopathy-are-drivers-of-hypocoagulability-and-hyperfibrinolysis-in-trauma-a-prospective-observational-study-of-404-severely-injured-patients
#10
Sisse R Ostrowski, Hanne H Henriksen, Jakob Stensballe, Mikkel Gybel-Brask, Jessica C Cardenas, Lisa A Baer, Bryan A Cotton, John B Holcomb, Charles E Wade, Pär I Johansson
BACKGROUND: One third of severely injured patients present with a laboratory based diagnosis of coagulopathy. This study investigated clinical and biomarker profile of patients with rapid TEG (rTEG) coagulopathy hypothesizing that sympathoadrenal activation and endothelial damage were drivers of this condition. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 404 trauma patients admitted to a Level 1 US Trauma Center. Patients with admission rTEG and plasma measurements of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and biomarkers reflecting endothelial activation/damage (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, sE-selectin, sVE-cadherin, nucleosomes) were included...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779234/adamts-10-and-6-differentially-regulate-cell-cell-junctions-and-focal-adhesions
#11
Stuart A Cain, Ewa J Mularczyk, Mukti Singh, Teresa Massam-Wu, Cay M Kielty
ADAMTS10 and ADAMTS6 are homologous metalloproteinases with ill-defined roles. ADAMTS10 mutations cause Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS), implicating it in fibrillin microfibril biology since some fibrillin-1 mutations also cause WMS. However little is known about ADAMTS6 function. ADAMTS10 is resistant to furin cleavage, however we show that ADAMTS6 is effectively processed and active. Using siRNA, over-expression and mutagenesis, it was found ADAMTS6 inhibits and ADAMTS10 is required for focal adhesions, epithelial cell-cell junction formation, and microfibril deposition...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765054/regulation-of-blood-flow-and-volume-exchange-across-the-microcirculation
#12
Matthias Jacob, Daniel Chappell, Bernhard F Becker
Oxygen delivery to cells is the basic prerequisite of life. Within the human body, an ingenious oxygen delivery system, comprising steps of convection and diffusion from the upper airways via the lungs and the cardiovascular system to the microvascular area, bridges the gap between oxygen in the outside airspace and the interstitial space around the cells. However, the complexity of this evolutionary development makes us prone to pathophysiological problems. While those problems related to respiration and macrohemodynamics have already been successfully addressed by modern medicine, the pathophysiology of the microcirculation is still often a closed book in daily practice...
October 21, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753903/os-02-03-effect-of-high-glucose-exposure-on-endothelial-microparticle-formation-and-composition
#13
Maddison Turner, Larissa Reid, Mercedes Munkonda, Dylan Burger
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes and hypertension are cognate diseases that often coexist, potentiating one's risk for cardiovascular complications. Both diseases are typified by the development of endothelial dysfunction and are accompanied by increased circulating endothelial microparticles (eMPs). Microparticles are small membrane-derived vesicles that are secreted ubiquitously following cell stress. We have previously shown that eMPs are sensitive markers of vascular injury in hypertension and identified eMP-mediated signaling pathways that lead to endothelial injury...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748983/moderate-intensity-endurance-training-improves-endothelial-glycocalyx-layer-in-healthy-young-men
#14
Joanna Majerczak, Marcin Grandys, Krzysztof Duda, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Aneta Balcerczyk, Leszek Kolodziejski, Dorota Szymoniak-Chochol, Ryszard T Smolenski, Grzegorz Bartosz, Stefan Chlopicki, Jerzy A Zoladz
In this study we have evaluated the effect of 20-weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relation to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40- minute sessions, mainly of moderate-intensity (∼50% of VO2max ), performed 4 times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725198/differential-effect-of-rebamipide-on-transmembrane-mucin-biosynthesis-in-stratified-ocular-surface-epithelial-cells
#15
Yuichi Uchino, Ashley M Woodward, Pablo Argüeso
Mucins are a group of highly glycosylated glycoproteins responsible for the protection of wet-surfaced epithelia. Recent data indicate that transmembrane mucins differ in their contribution to the protective function of the ocular surface, with MUC16 being the most effective barrier on the apical surface glycocalyx. Here, we investigated the role of the mucoprotective drug rebamipide in the regulation of transmembrane mucin biosynthesis using stratified cultures of human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells...
October 8, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724023/coagulopathy-in-patients-with-acute-pulmonary-embolism-a-pilot-study-of-whole-blood-coagulation-and-markers-of-endothelial-damage
#16
Per Lehnert, Pär I Johansson, Sisse R Ostrowski, Christian H Møller, Lia E Bang, Peter Skov Olsen, Jørn Carlsen
Whole blood coagulation and markers of endothelial damage were studied in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), and evaluated in relation to PE severity. Twenty-five patients were enrolled prospectively each having viscoelastical analysis of whole blood done using thrombelastography (TEG) and Multiplate aggregometry. Fourteen of these patients were investigated for endothelial damage by ELISA measurements of Syndecan-1 (endothelial glycocalyx degradation), soluble endothelial Selectin (endothelial cell activation), soluble Thrombomodulin (endothelial cell injury) and Histone Complexed DNA fragments (endothelial cytotoxic histones)...
October 11, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714196/monitoring-interfacial-lectin-binding-with-nanomolar-sensitivity-using-a-plasmon-field-effect-transistor
#17
Hossein Shokri Kojori, Yiwen Ji, Younghun Paik, Adam B Braunschweig, Sung Jin Kim
By immobilizing glycopolymers onto the surface of the recently developed plasmonic field effect transistor (FET), the recognition between lectins and surface-immobilized glycopolymers can be detected over a wide dynamic range (10(-10) to 10(-4) M) in an environment that resembles the glycocalyx. The binding to the sensor surface by various lectins was tested, and the selectivities and relative binding affinity trends observed in solution were maintained on the sensor surface, and the significantly higher avidities are attributed to cluster-glycoside effects that occur on the surface...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699168/the-endothelial-glycocalyx-new-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approaches-in-sepsis
#18
Lukas Martin, Patrick Koczera, Elisabeth Zechendorf, Tobias Schuerholz
Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The endothelial glycocalyx is one of the earliest sites involved during sepsis. This fragile layer is a complex network of cell-bound proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycan side chains, and sialoproteins lining the luminal side of endothelial cells with a thickness of about 1 to 3 μm. Sepsis-associated alterations of its structure affect endothelial permeability and result in the liberation of endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685787/decitabine-and-5-azacitidine-both-alleviate-lps-induced-ards-through-anti-inflammatory-antioxidant-activity-and-protection-of-glycocalyx-and-inhibition-of-mapk-pathways-in-mice
#19
Xiao Huang, Guiqing Kong, Yan Li, Weiwei Zhu, Haixiao Xu, Xiaohua Zhang, Jiankui Li, Lipeng Wang, Zhongwen Zhang, Yaru Wu, Xiangyong Liu, Xiaozhi Wang
Decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DAC) and 5-azacitidine (Aza), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, possess a wide range of anti-metabolic and anti-cancer activities. This study examined the effects of DAC and Aza on inflammatory and oxidative injuries, as well as on glycocalyx and MAPK signaling pathways, in a LPS-stimulated ARDS mouse model. Results of ELISA revealed that DAC and Aza significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-1β and prevented LPS-induced elevation of myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels in serum...
September 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681180/mechanotransduction-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-mediates-nitric-oxide-production-through-activation-of-trp-channels
#20
Matthew A Dragovich, Daniel Chester, Bingmei M Fu, Chenyu Wu, Yan Xu, Michael S Goligorsky, X Frank Zhang
The endothelial surface glycocalyx (ESG) is a carbohydrate-rich layer found on the vascular endothelium, serving critical functions in the mechanotransduction of blood flow-induced forces. One of the most important protective functions of the ESG is to mediate the production of nitric oxide (NO) in response to blood flow. However, the detailed mechanism underlying ESG's mechanotransduction of the production of NO has not been completely identified. Herein, using the cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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