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Oliver M Pearce
Aberrant glycan epitopes are a classic hallmark of malignant transformation, yet their full clinical potential in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics is yet to be realized. This is partly because our understanding of how these epitopes are regulated remains poorly understood. In this review cancer glycan epitopes for the major glycan classes are summarized with a focus on their biosynthesis, structure, and role in cancer progression. Their application as cancer biomarkers, in particular the more recent work on cancer glycoforms, and the advantages these offer over the glycan or protein alone are discussed...
March 13, 2018: Glycobiology
Brett Ronald Cutler, Samira Gholami, Jie Shi Chua, Balagurunathan Kuberan, Pon Velayutham Anandh Babu
BACKGROUND: Glycosaminoglycan (GAG), a major component of the endothelial glycocalyx, is severely perturbed in diabetic vasculature leading to endothelial inflammation and vascular disease in diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that blueberry metabolites (BBM) ameliorate endothelial inflammation in diabetic endothelial cells (ECs) by restoring cell surface GAGs. METHODS: ECs isolated from healthy individuals [human aortic ECs (HAECs)] and diabetic patients (diabetic HAECs) were treated with ±BBM (benzoic acid-4-sulfate, hippuric acid, hydroxyhippuric acid, isovanillic acid-3-sulfate, and vanillic acid-4-sulfate at concentrations known to circulate in human plasma following blueberry consumption) for 3 days, and indices for endothelial inflammation were measured...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Jonathan V Martin, David M Liberati, Lawrence N Diebel
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is a common problem affecting critically ill patients, whether due to underlying pathology or the subsequent result of hypertonic fluid resuscitation. Numerous studies have been published suggesting that hypernatremia may adversely affect the vascular endothelial glycocalyx. Our study aimed to evaluate if high sodium concentration would impair the endothelial and glycocalyx barrier function and if stress conditions that simulate the shock microenvironment would exacerbate any observed adverse effects of hypernatremia...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Xiang-Yong Liu, Hai-Xiao Xu, Jian-Kui Li, Dong Zhang, Xiao-Hong Ma, Li-Na Huang, Jun-Hong Lü, Xiao-Zhi Wang
Damage to the endothelial glycocalyx is a critical factor in increased pulmonary vascular permeability, which is the basic pathological feature of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Neferine (Nef), a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from green seed embryos of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn , has extensive pharmacological activity. In this study, we showed that Nef reduced lung-capillary permeability, down-regulated the production of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10) and inhibited the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jens W Fischer
Hyaluronan (HA), HA synthases (HAS) and HA receptors are expressed during the progression of atherosclerotic plaques. HA is thought to promote the activated phenotype of local vascular smooth muscle cells characterized by increased migration, proliferation and matrix synthesis. Furthermore, HA may modulate the immune response by increasing macrophage retention and by promoting the polarization of Th1 cells that enhance macrophage driven inflammation as well. The pro-atherosclerotic functions of HA are opposed by the presence of HA in the glycocalyx where it critically contributes to anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory function of the glycocalyx...
March 3, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Ignatios Ikonomidis, Astrinos Voumvourakis, George Makavos, Helen Triantafyllidi, George Pavlidis, Konstantinos Katogiannis, Dimitris Benas, Dimitris Vlastos, Paraskevi Trivilou, Maria Varoudi, John Parissis, Efstathios Iliodromitis, John Lekakis
We investigated the association of endothelial glycocalyx damage with arterial stiffness, impairment of coronary microcirculatory function, and LV myocardial deformation in 320 untreated hypertensives and 160 controls. We measured perfused boundary region (PBR) of the sublingual microvessels, a marker inversely related with glycocalyx thickness, coronary flow reserve (CFR), and Global Longitudinal strain (GLS) by echocardiography, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central systolic blood pressure (cSBP). Hypertensives had higher PBR, PWV cSBP, and lower CFR and GLS than controls (P < ...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Jing Li, Hong Du, Xue-Fan Bai, Xiao-Yan Wang, Ying Zhang, Hong Jiang, Ping-Zhong Wang
BACKGROUND: Until now, there is non-specific treatment, and exploring early and novel biomarkers to determine the disease severity and prognosis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) would be of importance for clinician to take systematic and timely intervention. This study observed the expression of plasma sCD138, a soluble component shedding from the glycocalyx (GCX) to the circulating blood, and evaluated its predictive value on disease severity and prognosis of HFRS. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-six patients with HFRS who were treated at our center between January 2011 and December 2013 were randomly enrolled in this study...
March 1, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Monika Kopeć, Halina Abramczyk
Combined micro-Raman imaging and AFM imaging are efficient methods for analyzing human tissue due to their high spatial and spectral resolution as well as sensitivity to subtle chemical, structural and topographical changes. The aim of this study was to determine biochemical composition and mechanical topography around blood vessels in the tumor mass of human breast tissue. Significant alterations of the chemical composition and structural architecture around the blood vessel were found compared to the normal breast tissue...
February 24, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Andrius Pranskunas, Tomas Tamosuitis, Neringa Balciuniene, Diana Damanskyte, Edvin Sneider, Astra Vitkauskiene, Edmundas Sirvinskas, Vidas Pilvinis, E Christiaan Boerma
As of now the relationship between glycocalyx degradation and microcirculatory perfusion abnormalities in non-septic critical ill patients is unclear. In addition, conjunctival sidestream dark field-imaging for the purpose of glycocalyx thickness estimation has never been performed. We aimed to investigate whether changes in glycocalyx thickness in non-septic patients are associated with microcirculatory alterations in conjunctival and sublingual mucosa. In this single-centre prospective observational study, using techniques for direct in-vivo observation of the microcirculation, we performed a single measurement of microcirculatory perfusion parameters and visualized glycocalyx thickness in both ocular conjunctiva and sublingual mucosa in mixed cardio surgical (n = 18) and neurocritical patients (n = 27) and compared these data with age-matched healthy controls (n = 20)...
February 17, 2018: Microvascular Research
Sungki Min, Taekyeong Lee, Soon Hyuck Lee, Junghwa Hong
A new theoretical generation mechanism of the transient streaming potential considering variations in the surface potential on the wall in a lacunocanalicular system, is proposed based on the assumption of the piezoelectric bone matrix. To obtain the streaming potential analytically, a modified transient charge density equation is proposed. An osteon is modeled as a piezoelectric solid phase having fluid-filled cavities (lacunae) connected by channels (canaliculae) to obtain the pressure gradients in the canaliculae and the electric boundary conditions on the canalicular walls...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Sofia André Dias, Emmanuelle Planus, Christelle Angely, Luc Lotteau, Renaud Tissier, Marcel Filoche, Bruno Louis, Gabriel Pelle, Daniel Isabey
During total liquid ventilation, lung cells are exposed to perfluorocarbon (PFC) whose chemophysical properties highly differ from standard aqueous cell feeding medium (DMEM). We herein perform a systematic study of structural and mechanical properties of A549 alveolar epithelial cells in order to characterize their response to PFC exposure, using DMEM as control condition. Changes in F-actin structure, focal adhesion density and glycocalyx distribution are evaluated by confocal fluorescent microscopy. Changes in cell mechanics and adhesion are measured by multiscale magnetic twisting cytometry (MTC)...
February 15, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Ole Wilhelm Bøe, Kjell Sveen, Magne Børset, Kirk M Druey
BACKGROUND Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) (Clarkson's disease) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by transient episodes of hypotension, and the microvascular leak of fluids into the peripheral tissues, resulting in edema. Between 80-90% of patients with SCLS have a concomitant monoclonal gammopathy. Although translational in vitro studies have implicated vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction in the etiology of SCLS, the etiology and disease associations in clinical cases remain unknown...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Alexandros Rovas, Alexander-Henrik Lukasz, Hans Vink, Marc Urban, Jan Sackarnd, Hermann Pavenstädt, Philipp Kümpers
BACKGROUND: Deterioration of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC), a protective carbohydrate-rich layer lining the luminal surface of the endothelium, plays a key role in vascular barrier dysfunction and eventually organ-failure in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Early detection of glycocalyx damage could thus become an important goal in critical care. This study was designed to determine the feasibility and reproducibility of quantitative, real-time glycocalyx measurements performed at bedside in the emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU)...
February 14, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Martin Frydland, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Jacob Eifer Møller, Edina Hadziselimovic, Lene Holmvang, Hanne Berg Ravn, Lisette Okkels Jensen, Anna Sina Pettersson, Jesper Kjaergaard, Matias Greve Lindholm, Pär Ingemar Johansson, Christian Hassager
BACKGROUND: Mortality in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)-patients developing cardiogenic shock (CS) during hospitalization is high. Catecholamines, ischemia, and inflammation (parameters present in CS) affect the endothelium. We hypothesized that plasma level of biomarkers reflecting endothelial damage would be associated with CS and mortality. METHODS: In 96% of 1467 consecutive patients with suspected STEMI, biomarkers reflecting endothelial cell- (soluble thrombomodulin, sTM) and glycocalyx- (syndecan-1) damage were measured on admission...
February 12, 2018: Shock
Sara Desideri, Karen L Onions, Yan Qiu, Raina D Ramnath, Matthew J Butler, Christopher R Neal, Matthew L R King, Andrew E Salmon, Moin A Saleem, Gavin I Welsh, C Charles Michel, Simon C Satchell, Andrew H J Salmon, Rebecca R Foster
Increased urinary albumin excretion is a key feature of glomerular disease but has limitations as a measure of glomerular permeability. Here we describe a novel assay to measure the apparent albumin permeability of single capillaries in glomeruli, isolated from perfused kidneys cleared of red blood cells. The rate of decline of the albumin concentration within the capillary lumen was quantified using confocal microscopy and used to calculate apparent permeability. The assay was extensively validated and provided robust, reproducible estimates of glomerular albumin permeability...
February 9, 2018: Kidney International
Johannes Fels, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog
SIGNIFICANCE: Stiffness of endothelial cells is closely linked to the function of the vasculature as it regulates the release of vasoactive substances such as nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The outer layer of endothelial cells, consisting of the glycocalyx above and the cortical zone beneath the plasma membrane, is a vulnerable compartment able to adapt its nanomechanical properties to any changes of forces exerted by the adjacent blood stream. Sustained stiffening of this layer contributes to the development of endothelial dysfunction and vascular pathologies...
February 13, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Sara H Rouhanifard, Aime Lopez Aguilar, Lu Meng, Kelley W Moremen, Peng Wu
At the base of the intestinal crypt, long-lived Lgr5+ stem cells are intercalated by Paneth cells that provide essential niche signals for stem cell maintenance. This unique epithelial anatomy makes the intestinal crypt one of the most accessible models for the study of adult stem cell biology. The glycosylation patterns of this compartment are poorly characterized, and the impact of glycans on stem cell differentiation remains largely unexplored. We find that Paneth cells, but not Lgr5+ stem cells, express abundant terminal N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc)...
February 1, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
David G Jackson
LYVE-1, a close relative of the leucocyte receptor, CD44, is the main receptor for hyaluronan (HA) in lymphatic vessel endothelium and a widely used marker for distinguishing between blood and lymphatic vessels. Enigmatic for many years because of its anomalous HA-binding characteristics, the function of LYVE-1 has just recently been identified as that of a lymphatic docking receptor for dendritic cells, selectively engaging with their surface HA glycocalyx to regulate entry to peripheral lymphatics and migration to downstream lymph nodes for immune activation...
February 6, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Nataly Gurgel Campos, Débora Fortes Marizeiro, Ana Carolina Lins Florêncio, Ítalo Caldas Silva, Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Gabriela Freire Bezerra, Alice Maria Costa Martins, Alexandre Braga Libório
INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis (HD) patients have altered pulmonary function and this is associated with impaired endothelial function and cardiovascular events. Respiratory muscle training (RMT) has the potential to improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing maintenance HD. Here, we evaluated the effects of RMT on endothelium/glycocalyx, oxidative stress biomarkers and pulmonary function test in HD patients. METHODS: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial including 41 patients undergoing thrice-weekly maintenance HD...
January 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Xiaohui Zhang, Dong Sun, Jeon W Song, Joseph Zullo, Mark Lipphardt, Leona Coneh-Gould, Michael S Goligorsky
Dysfunctional endothelial cells are an essential contributor to the progression of diverse chronic cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic diseases. It manifests in impairment of nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation, vascular permeability, and leukocytes deterrent. While endothelial glycocalyx is known to regulate these functions, glycocalyx has been shown to be impaired in pathologic settings leading to endothelial dysfunction. Are these findings coincidental or are they indicative of a potential cooperation of the glycocalyx and the endothelium in inducing a dysfunctional phenotype? The main thrust of this overview is to advance a hypothesis on the existence of vicious circle relations between impaired endothelial glycocalyx and endothelial cell dysfunction...
January 31, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
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