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Glycocalyx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640849/motility-in-blastogregarines-apicomplexa-native-and-drug-induced-organisation-of-siedleckia-nematoides-cytoskeletal-elements
#1
Andrea Valigurová, Naděžda Vaškovicová, Andrei Diakin, Gita G Paskerova, Timur G Simdyanov, Magdaléna Kováčiková
Recent studies on motility of Apicomplexa concur with the so-called glideosome concept applied for apicomplexan zoites, describing a unique mechanism of substrate-dependent gliding motility facilitated by a conserved form of actomyosin motor and subpellicular microtubules. In contrast, the gregarines and blastogregarines exhibit different modes and mechanisms of motility, correlating with diverse modifications of their cortex. This study focuses on the motility and cytoskeleton of the blastogregarine Siedleckia nematoides Caullery et Mesnil, 1898 parasitising the polychaete Scoloplos cf...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616946/glycocalyx-scaffolding-with-synthetic-nanoscale-glycomaterials
#2
Mia L Huang, Sean C Purcell, Stephen Verespy Iii, Yinan Wang, Kamil Godula
We report a method for programming complexity into the glycocalyx of live cells. Via a combination of glycomaterial synthesis and membrane remodeling, we have engineered cells to display native-like, mixed sialoglycan populations, while confining the activity of each glycan into a specific nanoscale presentation.
June 15, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585976/dynamic-glycosylation-of-liposomes-by-thioester-exchange
#3
Johanna Moratz, Florian Klepel, Bart Jan Ravoo
The interplay of dynamic functionalization and specific molecular recognition on biological membranes is key to numerous physiological processes. In this work we present a simple glycocalyx model based on the covalent yet reversible glycosylation of liposomes and subsequent recognition by a lectin. Reversible thioester exchange of membrane embedded amphiphilic thioesters with thiol-tagged d-mannose in solution is performed at physiologically relevant conditions. Recognition with the lectin concanavalin A is possible directly from this reaction mixture, leading to liposome agglutination...
June 14, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579548/syndecan-1-a-quantitative-marker-for-the-endotheliopathy-of-trauma
#4
Erika Gonzalez Rodriguez, Sisse R Ostrowski, Jessica C Cardenas, Lisa A Baer, Jeffrey S Tomasek, Hanne H Henriksen, Jakob Stensballe, Bryan A Cotton, John B Holcomb, Pär I Johansson, Charles E Wade
BACKGROUND: Endothelial glycocalyx breakdown elicits syndecan-1 shedding, and traumatic endotheliopathy (EoT). We hypothesized that a cutoff syndecan-1 level can identify patients with endothelial dysfunction who would have poorer outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study; trauma patients with the highest level of activation admitted during July 2011-September 2013 were eligible. We recorded demographics, injury type/severity (ISS), physiology and outcome data, and quantified syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin from plasma with ELISAs...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578339/erythrocyte-sodium-sensitivity-and-eryptosis-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#5
Anna Meyring-Wösten, Viktoriya Kuntsevich, Israel Campos, Schantel Williams, Jie Ma, Samir Patel, Chiarra Ornillo, Stephan Thijssen, Peter Kotanko
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In hemodialysis (HD) patients the endothelial and erythrocyte glycocalyx is impaired which in turn correlates with elevated erythrocyte sodium sensitivity (ESS). Additionally, apoptotic erythrocyte death (eryptosis), characterized by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on the cell surface, is increased in this population. We aimed to explore the relationship of ESS and eryptosis. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 11 healthy controls and 20 chronic HD patients before and after midweek HD...
2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569597/endothelial-glycocalyx-repair-building-a-wall-to-protect-the-lung-during-sepsis
#6
Alicia N Rizzo, Steven M Dudek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549278/effects-of-varenicline-and-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-arterial-elasticity-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-oxidative-stress-during-a-3-month-smoking-cessation-program
#7
Ignatios Ikonomidis, Margarita Marinou, Dimitrios Vlastos, Kallirhoe Kourea, Ioanna Andreadou, Nikolaos Liarakos, Helen Triantafyllidi, George Pavlidis, Elias Tsougos, John Parissis, John Lekakis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of medically-aided smoking cessation on vascular function and oxidative stress are not fully clarified. METHODS: One hundred eighty-eight current smokers were randomized to varenicline or nicotine replacement treatment (NRT) for a 3-month period. We assessed: (a) augmentation index (Aix) and pulse wave velocity (PWV); (b) perfusion boundary region (PBR) of sublingual microvasculature (range:5-25 μm), an index of the endothelial glycocalyx thickness, using Sideview, Darkfield imaging; (c) the exhaled CO; and (d) the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) plasma levels, as markers of oxidative stress, at baseline and after 3 and 12 months...
May 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543319/glycocalyx-bending-by-an-electric-field-increases-cell-motility
#8
Francis X Hart, John R Palisano
The application of physiological strength electric fields may produce a wide range of effects on cells. The mechanisms by which cells detect the presence of these fields, however, are not fully understood. Previous experiments have shown that directionality of cells in the field is governed by an electromechanical mechanism in which the field exerts a torque on the negatively charged, inner glycocalyx that is then transmitted as a force on the cytoskeleton. This mechanism is similar to that by which cells detect fluid shear forces...
May 24, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538085/circulating-heparan-sulfate-fragments-attenuate-histone-induced-lung-injury-independently-of-histone-binding
#9
Yanlin Zhang, Sarah M Haeger, Yimu Yang, Kyrie L Dailey, Joshay A Ford, Eric P Schmidt
Extracellular histones are cationic damage-associated molecular pattern molecules capable of directly inducing cellular injury via charge-mediated interactions with plasma membranes. Accordingly, histones released into the plasma during critical illness are known to contribute to the onset and propagation of lung injury. Vascular injury (with consequent degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx) simultaneously releases anionic heparan sulfate fragments (hexa- to octasaccharides in size) into the plasma. It is unknown whether this endogenous release of heparan sulfate fragments modulates charge-dependent histone cytotoxicity, or if exogenous heparan sulfate fragments could therapeutically attenuate histone-induced lung injury...
May 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535253/endothelial-glycocalyx-the-battleground-for-complications-of-sepsis-and-kidney-injury
#10
Jong Wook Song, Joseph Zullo, Mark Lipphardt, Matthew Dragovich, Frank X Zhang, Bingmei Fu, Michael S Goligorsky
After briefly discussing endothelial glycocalyx and its role in vascular physiology and renal disease, this overview focuses on its degradation very early in the course of microbial sepsis. We describe our recently proposed mechanism for glycocalyx degradation induced by exocytosis of lysosome-related organelles and release of their cargo. Notably, an intermediate in nitric oxide synthesis, NG-hydroxy-l-arginine, shows efficacy in curtailing exocytosis of these organelles and improvement in animal survival...
May 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528983/glycocalyx-shedding-is-markedly-increased-during-the-acute-phase-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#11
Thanh H Nguyen, Saifei Liu, Gao J Ong, Irene Stafford, Michael P Frenneaux, John D Horowitz
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and other forms of myocardial acute oxidative stress are associated with variable "shedding" of the endothelial glycocalyx (GCS) which can be quantitated ex vivo by release into plasma of glycocalyx components such as Syndecan-1 (SD-1). Previous studies have implicated release of both catecholamines and BNP as potential accentuating factors in GCS: since these are prominent aspects of the pathogenesis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), we hypothesised that TTC is associated with increased GCS and the extent of GCS is predictable on the basis of NT-proBNP and catecholamine releases...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524373/sialic-acids-regulate-microvessel-permeability-revealed-by-novel-in-vivo-studies-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-structure-and-function
#12
Kai Betteridge, Kenton Arkill, Chris Neal, Steve Harper, Becky Foster, Simon Satchell, David Bates, Andy Salmon
The endothelial glycocalyx forms a continuous coat over the luminal surface of all vessels, and regulates multiple vascular functions. The contribution of individual components of the endothelial glycocalyx to one critical vascular function, microvascular permeability, remains unclear. We developed novel, real-time, paired methodologies to study the contribution of sialic acids within the endothelial glycocalyx to the structural and functional permeability properties of the same microvessel in vivo. Single perfused rat mesenteric microvessels were perfused with fluorescent endothelial cell membrane and glycocalyx labels, and imaged with confocal microscopy...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515328/mechanotransmission-in-endothelial-cells-subjected-to-oscillatory-and-multi-directional-shear-flow
#13
Mahsa Dabagh, Payman Jalali, Peter J Butler, Amanda Randles, John M Tarbell
Local haemodynamics are linked to the non-uniform distribution of atherosclerosic lesions in arteries. Low and oscillatory (reversing in the axial flow direction) wall shear stress (WSS) induce inflammatory responses in endothelial cells (ECs) mediating disease localization. The objective of this study is to investigate computationally how the flow direction (reflected in WSS variation on the EC surface over time) influences the forces experienced by structural components of ECs that are believed to play important roles in mechanotransduction...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513898/synthesis-of-bodipy-labelled-cholesterylated-glycopeptides-by-tandem-click-chemistry-for-glycocalyxification-of-giant-unilamellar-vesicles-guvs
#14
Nicolai Stuhr-Hansen, Charikleia-Despoina Vagianou, Ola Blixt
The glycocalyx cover membrane surfaces of all living cells. These complex archtechtures render their interaction mechanisms on the membrane surface difficult to study. Artificial cell-sized membranes with selected and defined glycosylation patterns may serve as a minimalistic approach to systematically study cell surface glycan interactions. Here we developed a facile general synthetic procedure for the synthesis of BODIPY-labelled cholesterylated glycopeptides, which can coat cell-size giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs)...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509684/histone-complexed-dna-fragments-levels-are-associated-with-coagulopathy-endothelial-cell-damage-and-increased-mortality-after-severe-pediatric-trauma
#15
Robert T Russell, Sarah C Christiaans, Tate Nice, Morgan Banks, Vincent Mortellaro, Charity Morgan, Amy Duhachek-Stapelman, Steven J Lisco, Jeffrey D Kerby, Brant M Wagener, Mike K Chen, Jean-François Pittet
BACKGROUND: The release of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) in the extracellular space secondary to injury has been shown to cause systemic activation of the coagulation system and endothelial cell damage. We hypothesized that pediatric trauma patients with increased levels of histone-complexed DNA fragments (hcDNA) would have evidence of coagulopathy and endothelial damage that would be associated with poor outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of 149 pediatric trauma patients and 62 control patients at two level 1 pediatric trauma centers from 2013-2016...
May 15, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506708/electron-microscopy-approach-for-the-visualization-of-the-epithelial-and-endothelial-glycocalyx
#16
L Chevalier, J Selim, D Genty, J M Baste, N Piton, I Boukhalfa, M Hamzaoui, P Pareige, V Richard
This study presents a methodological approach for the visualization of the glycocalyx by electron microscopy. The glycocalyx is a three dimensional network mainly composed of glycolipids, glycoproteins and proteoglycans associated with the plasma membrane. Since less than a decade, the epithelial and endothelial glycocalyx proved to play an important role in physiology and pathology, increasing its research interest especially in vascular functions. Therefore, visualization of the glycocalyx requires reliable techniques and its preservation remains challenging due to its fragile and dynamic organization, which is highly sensitive to the different process steps for electron microscopy sampling...
May 12, 2017: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504989/structural-behavior-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-is-associated-with-pathophysiologic-status-in-septic-mice-an-integrated-approach-to-analyzing-the-behavior-and-function-of-the-glycocalyx-using-both-electron-and-fluorescence-intravital-microscopy
#17
Hanae Kataoka, Akira Ushiyama, Yoshihiro Akimoto, Sachie Matsubara, Hayato Kawakami, Takehiko Iijima
BACKGROUND: The endothelial surface layer (ESL) regulates vascular permeability to maintain fluid homeostasis. The glycocalyx (GCX), which has a complex and fragile ultrastructure, is an important component of the ESL. Abnormalities of the GCX have been hypothesized to trigger pathological hyperpermeability. Here, we report an integrated in vivo analysis of the morphological and functional properties of the GCX in a vital organ. METHODS: We examined the behavior of the ESL and GCX, using both electron microscopy (EM) and intravital microscopy (IVM)...
May 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489728/novel-adjunct-drugs-reverse-endothelial-glycocalyx-damage-after-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#18
Ivo P Torres Filho, Luciana N Torres, Christi Salgado, Michael A Dubick
INTRODUCTION: There is interest in the small-volume therapeutic use of adjunct drugs for treating hemorrhagic shock (HS). However, critical information is only partially available on mechanisms of action of promising compounds such as adenosine-lidocaine-Magnesium (ALM), beta-hydroxybutyrate plus melatonin (BHB/M), and poloxamer 188 (P-188). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that these adjuncts would reverse HS-induced damage to microvascular endothelial glycocalyx and hemodynamics...
May 9, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487369/n-glycosylation-affects-the-stability-and-barrier-function-of-the-muc16-mucin
#19
Takazumi Taniguchi, Ashley M Woodward, Paula Magnelli, Nicole M McColgan, Sylvain Lehoux, Sarah Melissa P Jacobo, Jérôme Mauris, Pablo Argüeso
Transmembrane mucins are highly O-glycosylated glycoproteins that coat the apical glycocalyx on mucosal surfaces and represent the first line of cellular defense against infection and injury. Relatively low levels of N-glycans are found on transmembrane mucins, and their structure and function remains poorly characterized. We previously reported that carbohydrate-dependent interactions of transmembrane mucins with galectin-3 contribute to maintain the epithelial barrier at the ocular surface. Now, using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we report that transmembrane mucin N-glycans in differentiated human corneal epithelial cells contain primarily complex-type structures with N-acetyllactosamine, a preferred galectin ligand...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486940/binding-of-plasmodium-falciparum-to-cd36-can-be-shielded-by-the-glycocalyx
#20
Casper Hempel, Christian William Wang, Jørgen Anders Lindholm Kurtzhals, Trine Staalsø
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes sequester in the microcirculation due to interaction between surface-expressed parasite proteins and endothelial receptors. Endothelial cells are covered in a carbohydrate-rich glycocalyx that shields against undesired leukocyte adhesion. It was investigated if the cellular glycocalyx affects the binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to CD36 in vitro. METHODS: Glycocalyx growth was followed in vitro by using azido sugars and cationized ferritin detecting O-glycoproteins and negatively charged proteoglycans, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
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