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Glycocalyx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145197/inflammatory-and-angiogenic-factors-linked-to-longitudinal-microvascular-changes-in-hemodialysis-patients-irrespective-of-treatment-dose-intensity
#1
Nicos Mitsides, Tom Cornelis, Natascha J H Broers, Nanada M P Diederen, Paul Brenchley, Nicole Heitink-Ter Braak, Frank M van der Sande, Casper G Schalkwijk, Jeroen P Kooman, Sandip Mitra
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a major contributor to the poor outcomes observed in hemodialysis. We investigated the relationship between hemodialysis intensity and vascular parameters in high-dose (HDHD; >12hrs/week) and Conventional (CHD; ≤12hrs/week) hemodialysis intensity over a 6-month period. METHODS: We present the 6-month longitudinal analysis of a 2-year multicenter study investigating the effects of HDHD on cardiovascular parameters. We used pulse wave velocity, 24hr ambulatory blood pressure and sublingual dark field capillaroscopy measurements to assess macro- and microcirculation on 6-monthly basis...
November 16, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137486/the-arteriolar-glycocalyx-plays-a-role-in-the-regulation-of-blood-flow-in-the-iliac-of-the-anaesthetised-pig
#2
T Ruane-O'Hora, F Markos
The role of the glycocalyx of arterial resistance vessels in regulating blood flow in vivo is not fully understood. Therefore, the effect of glycocalyx damage using two separate compounds, hyaluronidase and N-Formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), was evaluated in the iliac artery vascular bed of the anaesthetised pig. Blood flow and pressure were measured in the iliac, an adjustable snare was applied to the iliac above the pressure and flow measurement site to induce step decreases (3 occlusions at 3-4 min intervals were performed for each infusion) in blood flow, and hence iliac pressure, and vascular conductance (flow / pressure) was calculated...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137479/the-role-of-the-carbohydrates-in-plasmatic-membrane
#3
P Sprovieri, G Martino
In the following paper, authors describe glycans present on cell membranes as they affect the folding, the spatial arrangement, the behavior and the interaction with the substrate of some membrane proteins. Authors describe the synthesis and assembly of a glycan on a protein, the formation of N-glycans, the maturation of an N-glycan in different cellular compartments, the structure of the glycocalyx and how it interacts with any pathogens. The study of the E-cadherin and the potassium channel to demonstrate how glycans affect the spatial arrangement, the stability and activity of the glycoproteins on the membranes...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127504/glycocalyx-in-atherosclerosis-relevant-endothelium-function-and-as-a-therapeutic-target
#4
REVIEW
Ronodeep Mitra, Gerard Leland O'Neil, Ian Chandler Harding, Ming Jie Cheng, Solomon Arko Mensah, Eno Essien Ebong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cell surface-attached extracellular glycocalyx (GCX) layer is a major contributor to endothelial cell (EC) function and EC-dependent vascular health and is a first line of defense against vascular diseases including atherosclerosis. Here, we highlight our findings regarding three GCX-dependent EC functions, which are altered when GCX is shed and in atherosclerosis. We discuss why the GCX is a viable option for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: GCX regulated EC activities such as barrier and filtration function, active cell-to-cell communication, and vascular tone mediation contribute to function of the entire vascular wall...
November 10, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121099/dengue-virus-ns1-cytokine-independent-vascular-leak-is-dependent-on-endothelial-glycocalyx-components
#5
Dustin R Glasner, Kalani Ratnasiri, Henry Puerta-Guardo, Diego A Espinosa, P Robert Beatty, Eva Harris
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent, medically important mosquito-borne virus. Disease ranges from uncomplicated dengue to life-threatening disease, characterized by endothelial dysfunction and vascular leakage. Previously, we demonstrated that DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) induces endothelial hyperpermeability in a systemic mouse model and human pulmonary endothelial cells, where NS1 disrupts the endothelial glycocalyx-like layer. NS1 also triggers release of inflammatory cytokines from PBMCs via TLR4...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101181/endothelial-dysfunction-is-a-super-inducer-of-syndecan-4-fibrogenic-role-of-its-ectodomain
#6
Mark Lipphardt, Jong W Song, Brian B Ratliff, Hassan Dihazi, Gerhard A Müller, Michael S Goligorsky
Syndecan 4 (Synd4) is a member of membrane-spanning, glycocalyx-forming proteoglycan family. It has been suggested that Synd4 participates in renal fibrosis. We compared wild type and fibrosis-prone endothelial sirtuin1-deficient (Sirt1(endo)-/-) mice, the latter being a model of global endothelial dysfunction. We performed mass-spectrometry analysis, which revealed that Synd4 was highly enriched in the secretome of renal microvascular endothelial cells (RMVEC) obtained from Sirt1(endo)-/- mice upon stimulation with TGFβ1; notably all detectable peptides were confined to the ectodomain of Synd4...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096093/long-term-exposure-to-cadmium-pathological-effects-on-kidney-tubules-cells-in-sparus-aurata-juveniles
#7
Bice Avallone, Raimondo Cerciello, Patrizia Cretì, Carmela Pizzoleo, Rosaria Scudiero, Monica Tizzano, Raffaele Panzuto, Palma Simoniello, Maria Rosa Montinari, Chiara M Motta
The effects of an exposure to cadmium chloride 0.47μM for 150days were studied in kidneys of juveniles Sparus aurata by a multidisciplinary approach so to correlate uptake and detoxification potential to changes in brush border and glycocalyx sugar composition. Results demonstrated that cadmium concentration in kidney significantly increased from day 30 reaching a plateau on day 120 while metallothioneins reached a peak on day 90 and by day 120 were already decreasing to control values. Cytological damage was extensive on day 90, clearly detectable at both structural and ultrastructural levels, in tubular cells and brush-border...
October 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093075/the-measurement-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-as-a-new-biomarker-of-endothelial-derangement-in-systemic-sclerosis-a-challenge-for-the-future
#8
EDITORIAL
Silvia Bellando-Randone, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073603/vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-during-cardiac-surgery-on-pump-versus-off-pump-coronary-surgery
#9
Florian Brettner, Daniel Chappell, Lisa Schwartz, Alexander Lukasz, Philipp Kümpers, Bernhard F Becker, Bruno Reichart, Markus Rehm, Dirk Bruegger
BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery often causes ischemia and development of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which impairs vascular barrier function, normally maintained by the endothelial cell line and the endothelial glycocalyx (EG). The EG normally covers and protects healthy endothelial cells throughout the vasculature. The aim of the present study was to assess the disruption of the cellular part of the microvascular barrier by determining parameters of endothelial cell activation known to influence and reflect cell-cell junctional integrity...
October 26, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065974/seminal-plasma-and-cryopreservation-alter-ram-sperm-surface-carbohydrates-and-interactions-with-neutrophils
#10
Taylor Pini, Tamara Leahy, Simon Paul de Graaf
Spermatozoa deposited vaginally must navigate the physical, chemical and immune barriers of the cervix to reach the site of fertilisation. Characteristics that favour successful cervical transit remain largely unknown beyond the obvious factors of motility and viability. Epididymal and cryopreserved ram spermatozoa demonstrate poor cervical transit, for unknown reasons. We hypothesised that seminal plasma exposure and cryopreservation alter the surface sugars of these sperm populations and, consequently, their interaction with immune cells, both potential factors for successful cervical transit...
October 25, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058634/three-dimensional-ultrastructure-of-capillary-endothelial-glycocalyx-under-normal-and-experimental-endotoxemic-conditions
#11
Hideshi Okada, Genzou Takemura, Kodai Suzuki, Kazumasa Oda, Chihiro Takada, Yasuaki Hotta, Nagisa Miyazaki, Akiko Tsujimoto, Isamu Muraki, Yoshiaki Ando, Ryogen Zaikokuji, Atsumu Matsumoto, Hiroki Kitagaki, Yuto Tamaoki, Takahiro Usui, Tomoaki Doi, Takahiro Yoshida, Shozo Yoshida, Hiroaki Ushikoshi, Izumi Toyoda, Shinji Ogura
BACKGROUND: Sugar-protein glycocalyx coats healthy endothelium, but its ultrastructure is not well described. Our aim was to determine the three-dimensional ultrastructure of capillary endothelial glycocalyx in the heart, kidney, and liver, where capillaries are, respectively, continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoidal. METHODS: Tissue samples were processed with lanthanum-containing alkaline fixative, which preserves the structure of glycocalyx. RESULTS: Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the endothelial glycocalyx layer in continuous and fenestrated capillaries was substantially thicker than in sinusoids...
October 23, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049135/early-identification-of-the-patient-with-endotheliopathy-of-trauma-by-arrival-serum-albumin
#12
Erika Gonzalez Rodriguez, Jessica C Cardenas, Ernesto Lopez, Bryan A Cotton, Jeffrey S Tomasek, Sisse R Ostrowski, Lisa A Baer, Jakob Stensballe, John B Holcomb, Pär I Johansson, Charles E Wade
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic endotheliopathy (EoT) is associated with glycocalyx breakdown and capillary leak resulting in the extravasation of proteins. We hypothesized that lower serum albumin levels are associated with EoT, poor outcomes, and can be used for early EoT screening in trauma patients. METHODS: We enrolled severely injured trauma patients with serum albumin levels available on admission. Syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin were quantified from plasma by ELISA...
October 18, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044509/comprehensive-transcriptome-analysis-of-fluid-shear-stress-altered-gene-expression-in-renal-epithelial-cells
#13
Steven J Kunnen, Tareq B Malas, Cornelis M Semeins, Astrid D Bakker, Dorien J M Peters
Renal epithelial cells are exposed to mechanical forces due to flow-induced shear stress within the nephrons. Shear stress is altered in renal diseases caused by tubular dilation, obstruction and hyperfiltration, which occur to compensate for lost nephrons. Fundamental in regulation of shear stress are primary cilia and other mechano-sensors, and defects in cilia formation and function have profound effects on development and physiology of kidneys and other organs. We applied RNA sequencing to get a comprehensive overview of fluid-shear regulated genes and pathways in renal epithelial cells...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041883/-molecular-aspects-of-translational-cardiology-in-vascular-wall-research
#14
V A Maksimenko
Clinical-biochemical research of vascular wall hydrated state, water-electrolyte balance has broadened substantially our notions concerning initiation mechanism of vessel damages, methods of their prevention and treatment. Consecutive study of endothelial glycocalyx functioning, computational research of its interaction with oxidative stress, regulation of its state has been aimed at development of novel means of the vascular system protection. Mutual efforts of clinicians and scientists should contribute to the productivity of results of translational cardiology...
July 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040203/the-temporal-response-and-mechanism-of-action-of-tranexamic-acid-in-endothelial-glycocalyx-degradation
#15
Mark E Diebel, Jonathan V Martin, David M Liberati, Lawrence N Diebel
BACKGROUND: The endothelial glycocalyx (GCX) plays an important role in vascular barrier function. Damage to the GCX occurs due to a variety of causes including hypoxia, ischemia-reperfusion, stress related sympathoadrenal activation, and inflammation. Tranexamic acid (TXA) may prevent GCX degradation. The therapeutic window for TXA administration and the mechanism of action has been under review. Membrane-anchored proteases (sheddases) are key components in endothelial cell biology including the regulation of vascular permeability...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039925/exosomes-secreted-by-hela-cells-shuttle-on-their-surface-the-plasma-membrane-associated-sialidase-neu3
#16
Lucia Paolini, Flavia Orizio, Sara Busatto, Annalisa Radeghieri, Roberto Bresciani, Paolo Bergese, Eugenio Monti
Sialidases are glycohydrolases that remove terminal sialic acid residues from oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. The plasma membrane-associated sialidase NEU3 is involved in the fine-tuning of sialic acid-containing glycans directly on the cell surface and plays relevant roles in important biological phenomena such as cell differentiation, molecular recognition, and cancer transformation. Extracellular vesicles are membranous structures with a diameter of 0.03-1 μm released by cells and can be detected in blood, urine, and culture media...
October 27, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033715/has-goal-directed-fluid-therapy-and-glycocalyx-a-role-in-enhanced-recovery-after-anesthesia
#17
EDITORIAL
Abdelazeem Eldawlatly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031654/disparate-effects-of-catecholamines-under-stress-conditions-on-endothelial-glycocalyx-injury-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-model
#18
Jonathan V Martin, David M Liberati, Lawrence N Diebel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027748/a-microfluidics-approach-to-investigate-the-role-of-dynamic-similitude-in-osteocyte-mechanobiology
#19
Kevin Middleton, Avinash Kondiboyina, Michael Borrett, Yi Cui, Xueting Mei, Lidan You
Fluid flow is an important regulator of cell function and metabolism in many tissues. Fluid shear stresses have been used to level the mechanical stimuli applied in vitro with what occurs in vivo. However, these experiments often lack dynamic similarity, which is necessary to ensure the validity of the model. For interstitial fluid flow, the major requirement for dynamic similarity is the Reynolds number (Re), the ratio of inertial to viscous forces, is the same between the system and model. To study the necessity of dynamic similarity for cell mechanotransduction studies, we investigated the response of osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells to different Re flows at the same level of fluid shear stress...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024378/the-cyclocalyx-study-ovulatory-cycle-affects-circulating-compartments-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-in-blood
#20
Nikolai Hulde, Nina Rogenhofer, Florian Brettner, Nicole C Eckert, Isabella Götzfried, Thu Nguyen, Judith-I Pagel, Tobias Kammerer, Klaus F Hofmann-Kiefer, Gustav Schelling, Andreas Dendorfer, Markus Rehm, Christian J Thaler
PROBLEM: The endothelial glycocalyx (EGX) plays an important role in vascular integrity. Recently, increased levels of EGX components were detected in the circulating blood of healthy pregnant women and were related to the increased tendency to edema formation during gestation. However, the EGX has not yet been systematically studied in non-pregnant women during ovulatory cycles. METHOD OF STUDY: Serum levels of EGX components syndecan-1, heparan sulfate, and hyaluronan in healthy women (n = 16) at 3 phases of the ovulatory cycle (early follicular phase, at ovulation, and mid-luteal phase) were compared with a control group of healthy men (n = 10)...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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