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Glycocalyx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444849/multivalent-peptide-nanoparticle-conjugates-for-influenza-virus-inhibition
#1
Daniel Lauster, Maria Glanz, Markus Bardua, Kai Ludwig, Markus Hellmund, Ute Hoffmann, Alf Hamann, Christoph Böttcher, Rainer Haag, Christian P R Hackenberger, Andreas Herrmann
To inhibit binding of the influenza A virus to the host cell glycocalyx, we generate multivalent peptide-polymer nanoparticles binding with nanomolar affinity to the virus via its spike protein hemagglutinin. The chosen dendritic polyglycerol scaffolds are highly biocompatible and well suited for a multivalent presentation. We could demonstrate in vitro that by increasing the size of the polymer scaffold and adjusting the peptide density, viral infection is drastically reduced. Such a peptide-polymer conjugate qualified also in an in vivo infection scenario...
April 26, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437586/pathogenesis-of-vascular-leak-in-dengue-virus-infection
#2
REVIEW
Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige, Graham S Ogg
Endothelial dysfunction leading to vascular leak is the hallmark of severe dengue. Vascular leak typically becomes clinically evident during 3-6 days since the onset of illness, which is known as the critical phase. This critical phase follows the period of peak viraemia, and lasts for 24 to 48 hours and usually shows rapid and complete reversal, suggesting it is likely to occur as a result of inflammatory mediators, rather than infection of the endothelium. Cytokines such as TNFα, which are known to be elevated in the critical phase of dengue, are likely to be contributing factors...
April 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419253/layer-upon-layer-the-functional-consequences-of-disrupting-the-glycocalyx-endothelial-barrier-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#3
FitzRoy E Curry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406245/nanomechanics-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-contribute-to-na-induced-vascular-inflammation
#4
Florian Schierke, Margot J Wyrwoll, Martin Wisdorf, Leon Niedzielski, Martina Maase, Tobias Ruck, Sven G Meuth, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog
High dietary salt (NaCl) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular pathologies and inflammation. High plasma Na(+) concentrations (high Na(+)) have been shown to stiffen the endothelial cortex and decrease nitric oxide (NO) release, a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction. Here we report that chronic high Na(+) damages the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC), induces release of inflammatory cytokines from the endothelium and promotes monocyte adhesion. Single cell force spectroscopy reveals that high Na(+) enhances vascular adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent adhesion forces between monocytes and endothelial surface, giving rise to increased numbers of adherent monocytes on the endothelial surface...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399917/metformin-and-sulodexide-restore-cardiac-microvascular-perfusion-capacity-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#5
Judith van Haare, M Eline Kooi, Jurgen W G E van Teeffelen, Hans Vink, Jos Slenter, Hanneke Cobelens, Gustav J Strijkers, Dennis Koehn, Mark J Post, Marc van Bilsen
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in coronary microcirculatory function, such as the endothelial glycocalyx, are early hallmarks in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Accordingly, in the present study myocardial microcirculatory perfusion during rest and stress was assessed following metformin or sulodexide therapy in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Additionally, the effect of degradation of the glycocalyx on myocardial perfusion was assessed in chow-fed rats. METHODS: Rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and were divided into a group without therapy, and groups that received the anti-diabetic drug metformin or the glycocalyx-stabilizing drug sulodexide in their drinking water during the last 4 weeks of the feeding period...
April 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393899/increased-serum-hyaluronic-acid-and-heparan-sulfate-in-dengue-fever-association-with-plasma-leakage-and-disease-severity
#6
Tommy Hing-Cheung Tang, Sylvie Alonso, Lisa Fong-Poh Ng, Tun-Linn Thein, Vincent Jun-Xiong Pang, Yee-Sin Leo, David Chien-Boon Lye, Tsin-Wen Yeo
Plasma leakage is a major pathogenic mechanism of severe dengue, but the etiology remains unclear. The association between endothelial glycocalyx integrity and vascular permeability in older adults with dengue has not been evaluated. A prospective cohort study of adults with undifferentiated fever screened for dengue by RT-PCR or NS1 antigen testing was performed. Patients were assessed daily while symptomatic and at convalescence. Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulfate (HS) and selected cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10) were measured on enrollment and convalescence...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393287/starch-enriched-diet-modulates-the-glucidic-profile-in-the-rat-colonic-mucosa
#7
Maria Gabriella Gabrielli, Daniele Tomassoni
PURPOSE: The protective function of the intestinal mucosa largely depends on carbohydrate moieties that as a part of glycoproteins and glycolipids form the epithelial glycocalyx or are secreted as mucins. Modifications of their expression can be induced by an altered intestinal microenvironment and have been associated with inflammatory disorders and colorectal cancer. Given the influence of dietary factors on the gut ecosystem, here we have investigated whether a long term feeding on a starch-rich diet can modulate the glucidic profile in the colonic mucosa of rats...
April 9, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386837/effect-of-delayed-onset-prostacyclin-on-markers-of-endothelial-function-and-damage-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#8
Mikkel Gybel-Brask, Rune Rasmussen, Jakob Stensballe, Pär I Johansson, Sisse R Ostrowski
BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurological emergency. Delayed ischemic neurological deficit is one of the main causes of poor outcome after SAH and is probably caused, at least in part, by cerebral vasospasm. The pathophysiology of this is multifaceted, but endothelial damage and activation as well as glycocalyx damage have been implicated. Prostacyclin has been shown to protect damaged and activated endothelium and to facilitate glycocalyx repair. We investigated biomarkers of endothelial activation and damage in patients with SAH randomized to 5 days prostacyclin infusion or placebo...
April 7, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374551/the-impact-of-hyperglycemia-on-adhesion-between-endothelial-and-cancer-cells-revealed-by-single-cell-force-spectroscopy
#9
Katarzyna E Malek-Zietek, Marta Targosz-Korecka, Marek Szymonski
The impact of hyperglycemia on adhesion between lung carcinoma cells (A549) and pulmonary human aorta endothelial cells (PHAEC) was studied using the single-cell force spectroscopy. Cancer cells were immobilized on a tipless Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) cantilever and a single layer of endothelial cells was prepared on a glass slide. The measured force-distance curves provided information about the detachment force and about the frequency of specific ligand-receptor rupture events. Measurements were performed for different times of short term (up to 2 h) and prolonged hyperglycemia (3 h - 24 h)...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368904/preparation-and-anticancer-activity-evaluation-of-an-amorphous-drug-nanocomposite-by-simple-heat-treatment
#10
Honglei Zhan, Jun F Liang
The solubility of drug molecules is closely related to its bioactivity as it affects the dissolution rate and bioavailability, especially in the case of BCS IV drugs like camptothecin (CPT), a potential broad-spectrum anticancer agent. In this study, we construct a novel boric acid (BA)-coated CPT nanocomposite by means of a simple heat-treatment approach, which combines nanoscale size range and amorphous solid state together to improve the overall dissolution rate of CPT. This new CPT formulation showed a rod-like structure with nanoscale size and amorphous solid nature...
March 31, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365703/in-vivo-imaging-of-the-cerebral-endothelial-glycocalyx-in-mice
#11
Jin-Hui Yoon, Eek-Sung Lee, Yong Jeong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endothelial glycocalyx refers to the proteoglycan or glycoprotein layer of vessel walls and has critical physiological functions. Cerebral glycocalyx may have additional functions considering the blood-brain barrier and other features. However, the assessment of it has only been performed ex vivo, which includes processes presumably damaging the glycocalyx layer. Here we visualize and characterize the cerebral endothelial glycocalyx in vivo. METHODS: We visualized and quantified the cerebral endothelial glycocalyx in vivo under a 2-photon microscope by tagging glycocalyx and vessel lumen with wheat germ agglutinin lectin and dextran, respectively...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353658/development-of-a-glycosaminoglycan-derived-selectin-targeting-anti-adhesive-coating-to-treat-endothelial-cell-dysfunction
#12
James R Wodicka, Andrea M Chambers, Gurneet S Sangha, Craig J Goergen, Alyssa Panitch
Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is associated with many disease states including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), chronic kidney disease, sepsis and diabetes. Loss of the glycocalyx, a thin glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-rich layer on the EC surface, is a key feature of endothelial dysfunction and increases exposure of EC adhesion molecules such as selectins, which are involved in platelet binding to ECs. Once bound, platelets cause thrombus formation and an increased inflammatory response. We have developed a GAG derived, selectin targeting anti-adhesive coating (termed EC-SEAL) consisting of a dermatan sulfate backbone and multiple selectin-binding peptides designed to bind to inflamed endothelium and prevent platelet binding to create a more quiescent endothelial state...
March 29, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347755/inhibition-of-inflammation-induced-shedding-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-with-low-molecular-weight-heparin
#13
Herbert H Lipowsky, Anne Lescanic
The endothelial surface layer (ESL) consists of the endothelial cell (EC) glycocalyx and adsorbed proteins, and forms a barrier between blood and the EC. Enzymatic shedding of the ESL in response to cytokines may expose receptors for leukocyte (WBC) adhesion and increase vascular permeability. Thus, intravital microscopy was used to explore stabilization of the ESL with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) to mitigate structural changes with inflammation. Following bolus infusions (i.v.) of LMWH (0.12-1.6mg/kg), shedding of glycans in response to 10(-7)M fMLP was measured by loss of fluorescently labeled lectins bound to the EC and WBC-EC adhesion was monitored in post-capillary venules of rat mesentery...
March 27, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338083/microvasculature-on-a-chip-study-of-the-endothelial-surface-layer-and-the-flow-structure-of-red-blood-cells
#14
Daria Tsvirkun, Alexei Grichine, Alain Duperray, Chaouqi Misbah, Lionel Bureau
Microvasculatures-on-a-chip, i.e. in vitro models that mimic important features of microvessel networks, have gained increasing interest in recent years. Such devices have allowed investigating pathophysiological situations involving abnormal biophysical interactions between blood cells and vessel walls. Still, a central question remains regarding the presence, in such biomimetic systems, of the endothelial glycocalyx. The latter is a glycosaminoglycans-rich surface layer exposed to blood flow, which plays a crucial role in regulating the interactions between circulating cells and the endothelium...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337244/rat-liver-enzyme-release-depends-on-blood-flow-bearing-physical-forces-acting-in-endothelium-glycocalyx-rather-than-on-liver-damage
#15
Julieta A Díaz-Juárez, Rolando Hernández-Muñoz
We have found selective elevation of serum enzyme activities in rats subjected to partial hepatectomy (PH), apparently controlled by hemodynamic flow-bearing physical forces. Here, we assess the involvement of stretch-sensitive calcium channels and calcium mobilization in isolated livers, after chemical modifications of the endothelial glycocalyx and changing perfusion directionality. Inhibiting in vivo protein synthesis, we found that liver enzyme release is influenced by de novo synthesis of endothelial glycocalyx components, and released enzymes are confined into a liver "pool...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328682/early-tranexamic-acid-administration-ameliorates-the-endotheliopathy-of-trauma-and-shock-in-an-in-vitro-model
#16
Lawrence N Diebel, Jonathan V Martin, David M Liberati
BACKGROUND: Systemic vascular endothelial injury is a consequence of trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) which results in disturbances of coagulation, inflammation and endothelial barrier integrity. The effect of T/HS on the endothelium (Endotheliopathy of Trauma)[EoT] is of intense research interest and may lead to EoT directed therapies. Administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in trauma patients is associated with a survival benefit and fewer complications if given early after injury. Mechanisms for this protective effect include the anti-fibrinolytic and anti-inflammatory effects of TXA...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318230/label-free-discovery-array-platform-for-the-characterization-of-glycan-binding-proteins-and-glycoproteins
#17
Christopher J Gray, Antonio Sánchez-Ruíz, Ivana Šardzíková, Yassir A Ahmed, Rebecca L Miller, Juana E Reyes Martinez, Edward Pallister, Kun Huang, Peter Both, Mirja Hartmann, Hannah N Roberts, Robert Šardzík, Santanu Mandal, Jerry E Turnbull, Claire E Eyers, Sabine L Flitsch
The identification of carbohydrate-protein interactions is central to our understanding of the roles of cell-surface carbohydrates (the glycocalyx), fundamental for cell-recognition events. Therefore, there is a need for fast high-throughput biochemical tools to capture the complexity of these biological interactions. Here, we describe a rapid method for qualitative label-free detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions on arrays of simple synthetic glycans, more complex natural glycosaminoglycans (GAG), and lectins/carbohydrate binding proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry...
March 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296924/changes-in-surface-glycosylation-and-glycocalyx-shedding-in-trichobilharzia-regenti-schistosomatidae-during-the-transformation-of-cercaria-to-schistosomulum
#18
Jana Řimnáčová, Libor Mikeš, Libuše Turjanicová, Jana Bulantová, Petr Horák
The invasive larvae (cercariae) of schistosomes penetrate the skin of their definitive hosts. During the invasion, they undergo dramatic ultrastructural and physiological transitions. These changes result in the development of the subsequent stage, schistosomulum, which migrates through host tissues in close contact with host's immune system. One of the striking changes in the transforming cercariae is the shedding of their thick tegumental glycocalyx, which represents an immunoattractive structure; therefore its removal helps cercariae to avoid immune attack...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264742/differential-surface-glycoprofile-of-buffalo-bull-spermatozoa-during-mating-and-non-mating-periods
#19
G Accogli, G M Lacalandra, G Aiudi, S N Cox, S Desantis
The buffalo has a seasonal reproduction activity with mating and non-mating periods occurring from late autumn to winter and from late spring to beginning of autumn, respectively. Sperm glycocalyx plays an important role in reproduction as it is the first interface between sperm and environment. Semen quality is poorer during non-mating periods, so we aimed to evaluate if there were also seasonal differences in the surface glycosylation pattern of mating period spermatozoa (MPS) compared with non-mating period spermatozoa (NMPS)...
March 7, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260391/endothelial-glycocalyx-damage-and-renal-dysfunction-in-hiv-patients-receiving-combined-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Malena Gadelha Cavalcante, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Alice Maria Costa Martins, Roberto da Justa Pires Neto, Alexandre Braga Libório, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
Widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) increased HIV patients' life expectancy, however, favored the development of kidney and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) damage and its association with renal function in HIV patients receiving cART. This is a cross-sectional study with HIV-infected patients with no renal and cardiovascular disease, recruited in public health centers in Brazil. Clinical and laboratory parameters of HIV patients were compared according to cART use and with a healthy control group...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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