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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321567/structure-and-elasticity-of-bush-and-brush-like-models-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx
#1
Aleksei Kabedev, Vladimir Lobaskin
The endothelial glycocalyx (EG), a sugar-rich layer that lines the luminal surface of blood vessels, is an important constituent of the vascular system. Although the chemical composition of the EG is fairly well known, there is no consensus regarding its ultrastructure. While previous experiments probed the properties of the layer at the continuum level, they did not provide sufficient insight into its molecular organisation. In this work, we investigate the EG mechanics using two simple brush and bush-like simulation models, and use these models to describe its molecular structure and elastic response to indentation...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297387/personalised-fluid-resuscitation-in-the-icu-still-a-fluid-concept
#2
REVIEW
Frank van Haren
The administration of intravenous fluid to critically ill patients is one of the most common, but also one of the most fiercely debated, interventions in intensive care medicine. Even though many thousands of patients have been enrolled in large trials of alternative fluid strategies, consensus remains elusive and practice is widely variable. Critically ill patients are significantly heterogeneous, making a one size fits all approach unlikely to be successful.New data from basic, animal, and clinical research suggest that fluid resuscitation could be associated with significant harm...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288385/the-pulmonary-vascular-barrier-insights-into-structure-function-and-regulatory-mechanisms
#3
Kaushik Parthasarathi
Pulmonary blood vessels act as a well-regulated barrier to the flux of fluid and solutes between the lumen and the air space. Perturbation of the barrier function results in excessive fluid leak into the interstitium and alveoli, and impairs gas exchange. Recent studies provide deeper insight into the precise control mechanisms involved in the regulation of the barrier. This chapter will highlight these mechanisms and discuss the current understanding on the fluid and solute transport pathways across the vascular endothelial layer...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287059/microfluidics-a-high-throughput-system-for-the-assessment-of-the-endotheliopathy-of-trauma-and-the-effect-of-timing-of-plasma-administration-on-ameliorating-shock-associated-endothelial-dysfunction
#4
Lawrence N Diebel, Jonathan V Martin, David M Liberati
BACKGROUND: Early resuscitation after trauma-hemorrhagic shock (HS) with plasma rather than crystalloid may ameliorate systemic endothelial cell (EC) injury and dysfunction (endotheliopathy of trauma [EOT]). We postulated that endothelial lined microfluidic networks would be a useful platform to study the endothelial cell activation/injury under flow conditions to mimic HS. We then used the microfluidic system to further characterize the protective effects and optimal timing of plasma infusion on the development of "EOT" in our model...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259710/regulation-of-blood-vascular-permeability-in-the-skin
#5
REVIEW
Sachiko Ono, Gyohei Egawa, Kenji Kabashima
Regulation of blood vessel permeability is essential for the homeostasis of peripheral tissues. This regulation controls the trafficking of plasma contents, including water, vitamins, ions, hormones, cytokines, amyloids, lipoproteins, carrier proteins, and immunoglobulins. The properties of blood vessels vary among tissues based on their structural differences: continuous, fenestrated, or sinusoidal. These three types of blood vessels have different charge and size barrier properties. The anionic luminal glycocalyx layer on endothelial cells establishes the "charge barrier" that repels the attachment of negatively charged blood cells and plasma molecules...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239112/male-reproductive-tract-and-spermatozoa-ultrastructure-in-the-grasshopper-orphulella-punctata-de-geer-1773-insecta-orthoptera-caelifera
#6
Daniela Santos Martins Silva, Jamile Fernanda Silva Cossolin, Marcelo Ribeiro Pereira, José Lino-Neto, Carlos Frankl Sperber, José Eduardo Serrão
Identification Orphulellini grasshoppers (Acrididae: Gomphocerinae) species has been difficult due to high polymorphism rate. Orphulella Giglio-Tos, 1894 is a genus with widespread geographical distribution and poor descriptions. Orphulella punctata (De Geer, 1773) has an extensive record of occurrence and available information about the phallic complex, however, there is poor data describing other parts of the male reproductive tract. The objective of this study was characterizes the internal organs of the male reproductive system and spermatozoa of O...
December 14, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222871/myelin-extracellular-leaflet-compaction-requires-apolipoprotein-d-membrane-management-to-optimize-lysosomal-dependent-recycling-and-glycocalyx-removal
#7
Nadia García-Mateo, Raquel Pascua-Maestro, Alberto Pérez-Castellanos, Concepción Lillo, Diego Sanchez, Maria D Ganfornina
To compact the extracellular sides of myelin, an important transition must take place: from membrane sliding, while building the wraps, to membrane adhesion and water exclusion. Removal of the negatively charged glycocalyx becomes the limiting factor in such transition. What is required to initiate this membrane-zipping process? Knocking-out the Lipocalin Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), essential for lysosomal functional integrity in glial cells, results in a specific defect in myelin extracellular leaflet compaction in peripheral and central nervous system, which results in reduced conduction velocity and suboptimal behavioral outputs: motor learning is compromised...
December 9, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212760/large-scale-molecular-dynamics-simulation-of-coupled-dynamics-of-flow-and-glycocalyx-towards-understanding-atomic-events-on-an-endothelial-cell-surface
#8
Xi Zhuo Jiang, Haipeng Gong, Kai Hong Luo, Yiannis Ventikos
The glycocalyx has a prominent role in orchestrating multiple biological processes occurring at the plasma membrane. In this paper, an all-atom flow/glycocalyx system is constructed with the bulk flow velocity in the physiologically relevant ranges for the first time. The system is simulated by molecular dynamics using 5.8 million atoms. Flow dynamics and statistics in the presence of the glycocalyx are presented and discussed. Complex dynamic behaviours of the glycocalyx, particularly the sugar chains, are observed in response to blood flow...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210138/endovascular-shedding-markers-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#9
Petra Nijst, Jirka Cops, Pieter Martens, Quirine Swennen, Matthias Dupont, W H Wilson Tang, Wilfried Mullens
BACKGROUND: Endothelial glycocalyx degradation has been associated with multiple pathophysiological processes in cardiovascular disease. AIMS: To explore the role of glycocalyx shedding markers in pathophysiology of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: In 123 HFrEF patients the concentration, prognostic value and association of glycocalyx shedding markers with other disease processes was investigated. RESULTS: Median hyaluronic acid (HA) levels and syndecan-1 levels in HFrEF patients were respectively 29...
December 6, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207649/sulodexide-recovers-endothelial-function-through-reconstructing-glycocalyx-in-the-balloon-injury-rat-carotid-artery-model
#10
Tianjia Li, Xinnong Liu, Zhewei Zhao, Leng Ni, Changwei Liu
Disruption of endothelial cell function is a principle event in cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, therapies have mostly focused on repairing the endothelium, but little attention has been paid to the reconstruction of glycocalyx, which covers the endothelium and protects the function of endothelial cells. Sulodexide has a similar glycosaminoglycan structure to glycocalyx, so it is assumed to be effective in remodeling the glycocalyx following damage. We assessed the effect of sulodexide on glycocalyx remodeling and endothelial function in the balloon-injury rat carotid artery model...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207576/glycosaminoglycan-mediated-downstream-signaling-of-cxcl8-binding-to-endothelial-cells
#11
Rupert Derler, Bernd Gesslbauer, Corinna Weber, Elisabeth Strutzmann, Ingrid Miller, Andreas Kungl
The recruitment of leukocytes, mediated by endothelium bound chemokine gradients, is a vital process in inflammation. The highly negatively charged, unbranched polysaccharide family of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate mediate chemokine immobilization. Specifically the binding of CXCL8 (interleukin 8) to GAGs on endothelial cell surfaces is known to regulate neutrophil recruitment. Currently, it is not clear if binding of CXCL8 to GAGs leads to endothelial downstream signaling in addition to the typical CXCR1/CXCR2 (C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 and 2)-mediated signaling which activates neutrophils...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199903/more-than-a-biomarker-the-systemic-consequences-of-heparan-sulfate-fragments-released-during-endothelial-surface-layer-degradation-2017-grover-conference-series
#12
Kaori Oshima, Sarah M Haeger, Joseph A Hippensteel, Paco S Herson, Eric P Schmidt
Advances in tissue fixation and imaging techniques have yielded increasing appreciation for the glycosaminoglycan-rich endothelial glycocalyx and its in vivo manifestation, the endothelial surface layer (ESL). Pathological loss of the ESL during critical illness promotes local endothelial dysfunction and, consequently, organ injury. Glycosaminoglycan fragments, such as heparan sulfate, are released into the plasma of animals and humans after ESL degradation and have thus served as a biomarker of endothelial injury...
January 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194316/tubastatin-a-prevents-hemorrhage-induced-endothelial-barrier-dysfunction
#13
Peter J Bruhn, Vahagn C Nikolian, Ihab Halaweish, Zhigang Chang, Martin Sillesen, Baoling Liu, Yongqing Li, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Microvascular hyperpermeability resulting from endothelial barrier dysfunction (EBD) is associated with worse clinical outcomes in trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock. We have previously shown that treatment with Tubastatin A (TubA), a histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor, improves outcomes in animal models of shock. In this study, we investigate whether TubA treatment may prevent trauma-related EBD. METHODS: Wistar-Kyoto rats subjected to 40% hemorrhage were treated with TubA or vehicle control...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178990/variants-in-chondroitin-sulfate-metabolism-genes-in-thrombotic-storm
#14
Karen Nuytemans, Thomas L Ortel, Lissette Gomez, Natalia Hofmann, Natalie Alves, Nicole Dueker, Ashley Beecham, Patrice Whitehead, Susan Hahn Estabrooks, Craig S Kitchens, Doruk Erkan, Leonardo R Brandão, Andra H James, Roshni Kulkarni, Marilyn J Manco-Johnson, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Jeffery M Vance
INTRODUCTION: Thrombotic storm (TS) presents as a severe, acute thrombotic phenotype, characterized by multiple clotting events and frequently affecting younger adults. Understanding the extensive hypercoagulation of an extreme phenotype as TS will also provide insight into the pathogenesis of a wider spectrum of thrombotic disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We completed whole exome sequencing on 26 TS patients, including 1 multiplex family, 13 trios and 12 isolated TS patients...
November 21, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178250/sublingual-functional-capillary-rarefaction-in-chronic-heart-failure
#15
Patricia P Wadowski, Martin Hülsmann, Christian Schörgenhofer, Irene M Lang, Raphael Wurm, Thomas Gremmel, Renate Koppensteiner, Barbara Steinlechner, Michael Schwameis, Bernd Jilma
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Microcirculatory changes contribute to clinical symptoms and disease progression in chronic heart failure (CHF). A depression of coronary flow reserve is associated with a lower myocardial capillary density in biopsies. We hypothesized that changes in cardiac microcirculation might also be reflected by a systemic reduction of capillaries and visualized by sublingual videomicroscopy. The aim was to study in vivo capillary density and glycocalyx dimensions in patients with CHF vs...
November 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175047/hemorrhagic-shock-drives-glycocalyx-barrier-and-organ-dysfunction-early-after-polytrauma
#16
Rebecca Halbgebauer, Christian K Braun, Stephanie Denk, Benjamin Mayer, Paolo Cinelli, Peter Radermacher, Guido A Wanner, Hans-Peter Simmen, Florian Gebhard, Daniel Rittirsch, Markus Huber-Lang
Polytrauma (PT) is frequently associated with hemorrhagic shock (HS), which increases morbidity and mortality. Although various aspects of HS have been addressed in PT patients, the impact of an additional HS is largely unknown regarding the development of multiple organ dysfunction associated with disturbed glycocalyx and barrier function early after trauma. A prospective, longitudinal, mono-centered, observational study enrolling severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score, ISS=38.1±2.6) served for an in-depth analysis of blood (drawn on days 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5) and clinical data (up to 21days) of 30 patients who were then stratified into PT with and without HS...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162916/afm-based-detection-of-glycocalyx-degradation-and-endothelial-stiffening-in-the-db-db-mouse-model-of-diabetes
#17
Marta Targosz-Korecka, Magdalena Jaglarz, Katarzyna E Malek-Zietek, Aleksandra Gregorius, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Barbara Sitek, Zenon Rajfur, Stefan Chlopicki, Marek Szymonski
Degradation of the glycocalyx and stiffening of endothelium are important pathophysiological components of endothelial dysfunction. However, to our knowledge, these events have not been investigated in tandem in experimental diabetes. Here, the mechanical properties of the glycocalyx and endothelium in ex vivo mouse aorta were determined simultaneously in indentation experiments with an atomic force microscope (AFM) for diabetic db/db and control db/+ mice at ages of 11-19 weeks. To analyze highly heterogeneous aorta samples, we developed a tailored classification procedure of indentation data based on a bi-layer brush model supplemented with Hertz model for quantification of nanomechanics of endothelial regions with and without the glycocalyx surface...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150735/glycomics-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Jun-Ichi Furukawa, Kazue Okada, Yasuro Shinohara
Most cells are coated by a dense glycocalyx composed of glycoconjugates such as glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans. The overall glycomic profile is believed to be crucial for the diverse roles of glycans, which are mediated by specific interactions that regulate cell-cell adhesion, the immune response, microbial pathogenesis, and other cellular events. Many cell surface markers were discovered and identified as glycoconjugates such as stage-specific embryonic antigen, Tra-1-60/81 and various other cell surface molecules (e...
December 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145197/inflammatory-and-angiogenic-factors-linked-to-longitudinal-microvascular-changes-in-hemodialysis-patients-irrespective-of-treatment-dose-intensity
#19
Nicos Mitsides, Tom Cornelis, Natascha J H Broers, Nanada M P Diederen, Paul Brenchley, Nicole Heitink-Ter Braak, Frank M van der Sande, Casper G Schalkwijk, Jeroen P Kooman, Sandip Mitra
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a major contributor to the poor outcomes observed in hemodialysis. We investigated the relationship between hemodialysis intensity and vascular parameters in high-dose (HDHD; >12hrs/week) and Conventional (CHD; ≤12hrs/week) hemodialysis intensity over a 6-month period. METHODS: We present the 6-month longitudinal analysis of a 2-year multicenter study investigating the effects of HDHD on cardiovascular parameters. We used pulse wave velocity, 24hr ambulatory blood pressure and sublingual dark field capillaroscopy measurements to assess macro- and microcirculation on 6-monthly basis...
November 16, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137486/the-arteriolar-glycocalyx-plays-a-role-in-the-regulation-of-blood-flow-in-the-iliac-of-the-anaesthetised-pig
#20
T Ruane-O'Hora, F Markos
The role of the glycocalyx of arterial resistance vessels in regulating blood flow in vivo is not fully understood. Therefore, the effect of glycocalyx damage using two separate compounds, hyaluronidase and N-Formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), was evaluated in the iliac artery vascular bed of the anaesthetised pig. Blood flow and pressure were measured in the iliac, an adjustable snare was applied to the iliac above the pressure and flow measurement site to induce step decreases (3 occlusions at 3-4 min intervals were performed for each infusion) in blood flow, and hence iliac pressure, and vascular conductance (flow / pressure) was calculated...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
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