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Glycocalyx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231640/mind-the-gap-mechanisms-regulating-the-endothelial-barrier
#1
REVIEW
Mariya Y Radeva, Jens Waschke
The endothelial barrier consists of intercellular contacts localized in the cleft between endothelial cells, which is covered by the glycocalyx in a sieve-like manner. Both types of barrier-forming junctions, i.e. the adherens junction (AJ) serving mechanical anchorage and mechanotransduction and the tight junction (TJ) sealing the intercellular space to limit paracelullar permeability, are tethered to the actin cytoskeleton. Under resting conditions, the endothelium thereby builds a selective layer controlling the exchange of fluid and solutes with the surrounding tissue...
February 23, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218620/endothelial-antigen-assembly-leads-to-thrombotic-complications-in-heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia
#2
Vincent Hayes, Ian Johnston, Gowthami M Arepally, Steven E McKenzie, Douglas B Cines, Lubica Rauova, Mortimer Poncz
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic disorder initiated by antibodies against complexes between human platelet factor 4 (hPF4) and heparin. A better understanding of the events that initiate the prothrombotic state may improve approaches to antithrombotic management. Here, we visualized thrombus formation in an in vivo murine model and an endothelialized microfluidic system that simulate the pathogenesis of HIT. hPF4 released from platelets predominantly bound to peri-injury endothelium and formed HIT antigenic complexes that were dissociated by heparin...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211170/endothelial-glycocalyx-as-a-critical-signalling-platform-integrating-the-extracellular-haemodynamic-forces-and-chemical-signalling
#3
REVIEW
Ye Zeng
The glycocalyx covers the human mammalian cells and plays important roles in stroke, inflammation and atherosclerosis. It has also been shown to be involved in endothelial mechanotransduction of shear stress. Shear stress induces the remodelling of the major component of the glycocalyx including glypican-1, a cell membrane heparan sulphate proteoglycan. Other factors, such as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), protect the glycocalyx against syndecan-1 ectodomain shedding and induce the synthesis of heparan sulphate...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205169/quantitative-measurement-of-cholesterol-in-cell-populations-using-flow-cytometry-and-fluorescent-perfringolysin-o
#4
Jian Li, Peter L Lee, Suzanne R Pfeffer
Methods to quantify intracellular cholesterol are valuable for the study of its trafficking and storage in normal cells and in lysosomal storage disorders. Traditionally, cholesterol has been tracked using the small molecule, filipin. Filipin can be difficult to visualize and visualization can be cytotoxic as it requires UV illumination. Here we describe a method to measure cholesterol using a fluorescently labeled, mutant form of Perfringolysin O, a soluble protein toxin that binds cholesterol specifically...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191820/vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-glycocalyx-mediates-shear-stress-induced-contractile-responses-via-a-rho-kinase-rock-myosin-light-chain-phosphatase-mlcp-pathway
#5
Hongyan Kang, Jiajia Liu, Anqiang Sun, Xiao Liu, Yubo Fan, Xiaoyan Deng
The vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are exposed to interstitial flow induced shear stress that may be sensed by the surface glycocalyx, a surface layer composed primarily of proteoglycans and glycoproteins, to mediate cell contraction during the myogenic response. We, therefore, attempted to elucidate the signal pathway of the glycocalyx mechanotransduction in shear stress regulated SMC contraction. Human umbilical vein SMCs (HUVSMCs) deprived of serum for 3-4 days were exposed to a step increase (0 to 20 dyn/cm(2)) in shear stress in a parallel plate flow chamber, and reduction in the cell area was quantified as contraction...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187268/fibroblast-growth-factor-signaling-mediates-pulmonary-endothelial-glycocalyx-reconstitution
#6
Yimu Yang, Sarah M Haeger, Matthew A Suflita, Fuming Zhang, Kyrie L Dailey, James F Colbert, Joshay A Ford, Mario A Picon, Robert S Stearman, Lei Lin, Xinyue Liu, Xiaorui Han, Robert J Linhardt, Eric P Schmidt
RATIONALE: The endothelial glycocalyx is a heparan sulfate-rich endovascular structure critical to endothelial function. Accordingly, endothelial glycocalyx degradation during sepsis contributes to tissue edema and organ injury. OBJECTIVE: We determined the endogenous mechanisms governing pulmonary endothelial glycocalyx reconstitution, and if these reparative mechanisms are impaired during sepsis. METHODS: We performed intravital microscopy of wild-type and transgenic mice to determine the rapidity of pulmonary endothelial glycocalyx reconstitution after non-septic (heparinase-III-mediated) or septic (cecal ligation and puncture-mediated) endothelial glycocalyx degradation...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179016/shock-induced-endotheliopathy-shine-in-acute-critical-illness-a-unifying-pathophysiologic-mechanism
#7
REVIEW
PärIngemar Johansson, Jakob Stensballe, SisseRye Ostrowski
One quarter of patients suffering from acute critical illness such as severe trauma, sepsis, myocardial infarction (MI) or post cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) develop severe hemostatic aberrations and coagulopathy, which are associated with excess mortality. Despite the different types of injurious "hit", acutely critically ill patients share several phenotypic features that may be driven by the shock. This response, mounted by the body to various life-threatening conditions, is relatively homogenous and most likely evolutionarily adapted...
February 9, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170292/heparanase-mediates-intestinal-inflammation-and-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis
#8
Song Chen, Ying He, Ziwei Hu, Siyu Lu, Xiaohan Yin, Xiaochun Ma, Chuanzhu Lv, Guiyun Jin
Heparanase, a heparan sulfate (HS)-specific endoglycosidase, plays an important role in inflammation and mediates acute pulmonary and renal injuries during sepsis. To explore its role in septic intestinal injury, a non-anticoagulant heparanase inhibitor, N-desulfated/re- N-acetylated heparin (NAH), was administrated to a mouse sepsis model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Immunohistochemical staining revealed massive shedding of HS from the intestinal mucosal surfaces after CLP, and effective inhibition of heparanase by NAH was confirmed by markedly reduced HS shedding...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170036/association-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-tight-and-adherens-junctions-with-severity-of-plasma-leakage-in-dengue-infection
#9
Suhendro Suwarto, R Tedjo Sasmono, Robert Sinto, Eppy Ibrahim, Maulana Suryamin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167639/therapeutic-restoration-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-in-sepsis
#10
Jong Wook Song, Joseph A Zullo, Dionysios Liveris, Matthew Dragovich, X Frank Zhang, Michael S Goligorsky
Endothelial glycocalyx (EG) is disintegrated during sepsis. We showed (Am J Pathol, 2016) that this occurs very early in the course of sepsis and its prevention improves survival of mice with sepsis. Here, we sought to investigate the possibility to pharmacologically accelerate the restoration of disintegrated EG in sepsis. We used a soilage injection model to induce polymicrobial sepsis in C57/BL6 mice and measured total body EG. En face aortic preparations were used for staining for markers of EG and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure EG in vitro...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165115/endothelial-glycocalyx-breakdown-is-mediated-by-angiopoietin-2
#11
Alexander Lukasz, Carina Hillgruber, Hans Oberleithner, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog, Hermann Pavenstädt, Alexandros Rovas, Bettina Hesse, Tobias Goerge, Philipp Kümpers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155149/lectin-histochemistry-for-metastasizing-and-non-metastasizing-cancer-cells
#12
Gerrit Wolters-Eisfeld, Udo Schumacher
Changes in glycosylation of the cancer cell glycocalyx are a hallmark of metastasizing cancers and critically contribute to distant metastasis. In this chapter we concentrate on two lectins capable of specifically binding tumor-associated glycans in cryostat or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections derived from primary clinical material, genetically engineered mouse models with endogenous cancer formation or xenograft mouse models. The snail lectin of Helix pomatia (HPA) binds N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) that is expressed among others as Tn antigen (O-linked GalNAc) in primary tumors and metastases in several human adenocarcinomas...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135073/the-endothelial-glycocalyx-controls-interactions-of-quantum-dots-with-the-endothelium-and-their-translocation-across-the-blood-tissue-border
#13
Bernd Uhl, Stephanie Hirn, Roland Immler, Karina Mildner, Leonhard Möckl, Markus Sperandio, Christoph Bräuchle, Christoph A Reichel, Dagmar Zeuschner, Fritz Krombach
Advances in the engineering of nanoparticles (NPs), which represent particles of less than 100 nm in one external dimension, led to an increasing utilization of nanomaterials for biomedical purposes. A prerequisite for their use in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, however, is the targeted delivery to the site of injury. Interactions between blood-borne NPs and the vascular endothelium represent a critical step for nanoparticle delivery into diseased tissue. Here, we show that the endothelial glycocalyx, which constitutes a glycoprotein-polysaccharide meshwork coating the luminal surface of vessels, effectively controls interactions of carboxyl-functionalized quantum dots with the microvascular endothelium...
February 7, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124862/fluid-management-in-thoracic-anesthesia
#14
Mert Şentürk, Mukadder Orhan Sungur, Zerrin Sungur
Fluid management during thoracic anesthesia remains as a challenge for the anesthesiologists. The "safe zone" between volume overload (risk of pulmonary edema) and hypovolemia (potential risk of renal failure) is hard to determine and narrow. Relationship between peroperative fluid administration and postoperative lung injury has been clearly demonstrated but lung injury can even occur after the most restrictive management. Multiple hit hypothesis and endothelial glycocalyx in addition to revised Starling equation can help us understand this dilemma...
January 25, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123055/differential-structural-remodelling-of-heparan-sulfate-by-chemokines-the-role-of-chemokine-oligomerization
#15
Douglas P Dyer, Elisa Migliorini, Catherina L Salanga, Dhruv Thakar, Tracy M Handel, Ralf P Richter
Chemokines control the migration of cells in normal physiological processes and in the context of disease such as inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. Two major interactions are involved: (i) binding of chemokines to chemokine receptors, which activates the cellular machinery required for movement; and (ii) binding of chemokines to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which facilitates the organization of chemokines into haptotactic gradients that direct cell movement. Chemokines can bind and activate their receptors as monomers; however, the ability to oligomerize is critical for the function of many chemokines in vivo Chemokine oligomerization is thought to enhance their affinity for GAGs, and here we show that it significantly affects the ability of chemokines to accumulate on and be retained by heparan sulfate (HS)...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110073/sphingosine-1-phosphate-improves-endothelialization-with-reduction-of-thrombosis-in-recellularized-human-umbilical-vein-graft-by-inhibiting-syndecan-1-shedding-in-vitro
#16
Kai Hsia, Ming-Jie Yang, Wei-Min Chen, Chao-Ling Yao, Chih-Hsun Lin, Che-Chuan Loong, Yi-Long Huang, Ya-Ting Lin, Arthur D Lander, Hsinyu Lee, Jen-Her Lu
: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been known to promote endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and protect Syndecan-1 (SDC1) from shedding, thereby maintaining this antithrombotic signal. In the present study, we investigated the effect of S1P in the construction of a functional tissue-engineered blood vessel by using human endothelial cells and decellularized human umbilical vein (DHUV) scaffolds. Both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human cord blood derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were seeded onto the scaffold with or without the S1P treatment...
January 18, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107214/loss-of-syndecan-1-abrogates-the-pulmonary-protective-phenotype-induced-by-plasma-after-hemorrhagic-shock
#17
Feng Wu, Zhanglong Peng, Pyong Woo Park, Rosemary A Kozar
Syndecan-1 is considered a biomarker of injury to the endothelial glycocalyx following hemorrhagic shock, with shedding of sdc1 deleterious. Resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) has been correlated with restitution of pulmonary sdc1 and reduction of lung injury, but the precise contribution of sdc1 to FFPs protection in the lung remains unclear. Human lung endothelial cells were used to assess the time and dose dependent effect of FFP on sdc1 expression and the effect of sdc1 silencing on in vitro endothelial cell permeability and actin stress fiber formation...
January 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096045/early-detection-of-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-first-degree-relatives-of-diabetic-patients-by-myocardial-deformation-imaging-the-role-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-damage
#18
Ignatios Ikonomidis, George Pavlidis, Vaia Lambadiari, Fotini Kousathana, Maria Varoudi, Filio Spanoudi, Eirini Maratou, John Parissis, Helen Triantafyllidi, George Dimitriadis, John Lekakis
BACKGROUND: First-degree relatives of type-2 diabetes patients (FDR) present insulin resistance. We investigated whether FDR and dysglycaemic subjects demonstrate abnormal endothelial glycocalyx and LV deformation during postprandial hyperglycemia. METHODS: We studied 40 FDR with normal oral glucose test (OGTT), 40 subjects with abnormal OGTT (dysglycaemic) and 20 subjects with normal OGTT without parental history of diabetes (normoglycaemic). At 0 and 120min of OGTT we measured: a) LV longitudinal strain (LS) of subendocardial, mid-myocardial and subepicardial layers, global LS (GLS), peak twisting (pTw), untwisting velocity (pUtwVel), by speckle tracking echocardiography b) perfused boundary region (PBR) of the sublingual arterial microvessels; high PBR values represent reduced glycocalyx thickness...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078967/the-glycocalyx-regulates-the-uptake-of-nanoparticles-by-human-endothelial-cells-in-vitro
#19
Leonhard Möckl, Stephanie Hirn, Adriano A Torrano, Bernd Uhl, Christoph Bräuchle, Fritz Krombach
AIM: To assess the role of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGCX) for the uptake of nanoparticles by endothelial cells. METHODS: The expression of the eGCX on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells was determined by immunostaining of heparan sulfate. Enzymatic degradation of the eGCX was achieved by incubating the cells with eGCX-shedding enzymes. The uptake of 50-nm polystyrene nanospheres was quantified by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells expressed a robust eGCX when cultured for 10 days...
February 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073502/lethal-effects-of-ichthyotoxic-raphidophytes-chattonella-marina-c-antiqua-and-heterosigma-akashiwo-on-post-embryonic-stages-of-the-japanese-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata-martensii
#20
Leila Basti, Kiyohito Nagai, Jiyoji Go, Sho Okano, Tatsuya Oda, Yuji Tanaka, Satoshi Nagai
The inimical effects of the ichthyotoxic harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, and Chattonella antiqua on the early-life stages of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii were studied. Fertilized eggs and developing embryos were not affected following exposure to the harmful raphidophytes; however, all three algal species severely affected trochophores and D-larvae, early-stage D-larvae, and late-stage pre-settling larvae. Exposure to C. marina (5×10(2)cellsml(-1)), C...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
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