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Glycocalyx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733074/non-invasive-assessment-of-microvascular-dysfunction-in-patients-with-microvascular-angina
#1
Caroline Jaarsma, Hans Vink, Judith van Haare, Sebastiaan C A M Bekkers, Bart D van Rooijen, Walter H Backes, Joachim E Wildberger, Harry J Crijns, Jurgen van Teeffelen, Simon Schalla
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the microvascular function in patients with microvascular angina (MVA) by assessing 1) the endothelial glycocalyx barrier properties using sublingual microscopy, and 2) the myocardial perfusion reserve using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. METHODS: Sublingual microscopy was performed in 13 MVA patients (angina pectoris, ST-depression on treadmill testing, normal coronary angiogram) and compared with 2 control groups of 13 volunteers and 14 patients with known obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD)...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732591/diabetic-retinopathy-breaking-the-barrier
#2
REVIEW
Randa S Eshaq, Alaa M Z Aldalati, J Steven Alexander, Norman R Harris
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains a major complication of diabetes and a leading cause of blindness among adults worldwide. DR is a progressive disease affecting both type I and type II diabetic patients at any stage of the disease, and targets the retinal microvasculature. DR results from multiple biochemical, molecular and pathophysiological changes to the retinal vasculature, which affect both microcirculatory functions and ultimately photoreceptor function. Several neural, endothelial, and support cell (e...
July 12, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701622/effects-on-glycocalyx-structures-of-frozen-thawed-bovine-sperm-induced-by-flow-cytometry-and-artificial-capacitation
#3
Kohei Umezu, Yuuki Hiradate, Takashi Numabe, Kenshiro Hara, Kentaro Tanemura
Sperm sorting by flow cytometry is a useful technology in the bovine industry, but the conception rates after artificial insemination using sex-sorted sperm are lower than when using the un-sorted sperm. In this study, we have investigated the causes for these low conception rates. We have focused on changes caused by flow cytometry to the glycocalyx, which forms the outermost surface of the sperm membrane. We have also evaluated the effects of capacitation on the glycocalyx since capacitation involves a redistribution of the sperm membrane that is vital for successful fertilization and conception...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700908/endothelial-glycocalyx-mediated-nitric-oxide-production-in-response-to-selective-afm-pulling
#4
Anne Marie W Bartosch, Rick Mathews, John M Tarbell
Nitric oxide (NO) is a regulatory molecule in the vascular system and its inhibition due to endothelial injury contributes to cardiovascular disease. The glycocalyx is a thin layer of glycolipids, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans on the surface of mammalian epithelial cells. Extracellular forces are transmitted through the glycocalyx to initiate intracellular signaling pathways. In endothelial cells (ECs), previous studies have shown the glycocalyx to be a significant mediator of NO production; degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) drastically reduces EC production of NO in response to fluid shear stress...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694125/a-fully-analytical-approach-to-investigate-the-electro-viscous-effect-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-layer-on-the-microvascular-blood-flow
#5
Arezoo Khosravi, Hadi Asgharzadeh Shirazi, Alireza Asnafi, Alireza Karimi
BACKGROUND: Recently, the glycocalyx lining the endothelial surface has emerged as a structure of fundamental importance to a wide range of phenomena that has undeniable effect on cardiovascular health and disease. With respect to the blood flow in small vessels, it has been experimentally reported that the glycocalyx layer causes additional resistance to the flow. METHODS: The hypothesis of glycocalyx resistance against the blood flow, considered as two-phase layer fluid through a small blood vessel, was theoretically evaluated...
July 8, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693594/the-impact-of-phosphate-balanced-crystalloid-infusion-on-acid-base-homeostasis-palance-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Judith-Irina Pagel, Nikolai Hulde, Tobias Kammerer, Michaela Schwarz, Daniel Chappell, Alexander Burges, Klaus Hofmann-Kiefer, Markus Rehm
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the effects of a modified, balanced crystalloid including phosphate in a perioperative setting in order to maintain a stable electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis in the patient. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a single-centre, open-label, randomized controlled trial involving two parallel groups of female patients comparing a perioperative infusion regime with sodium glycerophosphate and Jonosteril® (treatment group) or Jonosteril® (comparator) alone...
July 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691393/sequence-and-architectural-control-in-glycopolymer-synthesis
#7
REVIEW
Yamin Abdouni, Gokhan Yilmaz, C Remzi Becer
Glycopolymers are synthetic-carbohydrate-containing materials capable of interacting and binding to specific targeting lectins, which are crucially important in many biologically active processes. Over the last decade, advances in synthetic chemistry and polymerization techniques have enabled the development of sequence and architecturally controlled glycopolymers for different types of bioapplications, such as drug delivery and release purposes, gene therapy, lectin-based biosensors, and much more in the future...
July 10, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685678/glomerular-endothelium-and-its-impact-on-glomerular-filtration-barrier-in-diabetes-are-the-gaps-still-illusive
#8
Joseph Fomusi Ndisang
BACKGROUND: Glomerular capillaries are lined with highly specialized fenestrated endothelium which are primarily responsible to regulate high flux filtration of fluid and small solutes. During filtration, plasma passes through the fenestrated endothelium and basement membrane before it reaches the slit diaphragm, a specialized type of intercellular junction that connects neighbouring podocytes. METHODS: A PubMed search was done for recent articles on components of the glomerular filtration barrier such as glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes and glomerular basement membrane, and the effect of diabetes on these structures...
July 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673582/endothelial-dysfunction-mediated-by-interleukin-18-in-patients-with-ischemic-heart-disease-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-surgery
#9
Sokolic Jadranko, Vlatka Sotosek Tokmadzic, Knezevic Danijel, Medved Igor, Vukelic Damjani Nada, Balen Sanja, Rakic Marijana, Lanca Bastiancic Ana, Laskarin Gordana
When medication management or percutaneous coronary intervention is not successful in patients with advanced ischemic heart disease, surgical revascularisation-predominantly coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-is considered the gold standard. However, CABG surgery can lead to ischemia/reperfusion injury, which is characterized by a strong inflammatory response. Interleukin (IL)-18, is a strong inflammatory mediator, that is released from cardiomyocytes and can be found in the systemic circulation of patients during and immediately after CABG surgery...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667310/surface-modification-of-pig-endothelial-cells-with-a-branched-heparin-conjugate-improves-their-compatibility-with-human-blood
#10
Anjan K Bongoni, Evelyn Salvaris, Sofia Nordling, Nikolai Klymiuk, Eckhard Wolf, David L Ayares, Robert Rieben, Peetra U Magnusson, Peter J Cowan
Corline Heparin Conjugate (CHC), a compound of multiple unfractionated heparin chains, coats cells with a glycocalyx-like layer and may inhibit (xeno)transplant-associated activation of the plasma cascade systems. Here, we investigated the use of CHC to protect WT and genetically modified (GTKO.hCD46.hTBM) pig aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) in two pig-to-human in vitro xenotransplantation settings. Model 1: incubation of untreated or hTNFα-treated PAEC with 10% human plasma induced complement C3b/c and C5b-9 deposition, cellular activation and coagulation activation in WT and GTKO...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659919/the-%C3%AE-d-endoglucuronidase-heparanase-is-a-danger-molecule-that-drives-systemic-inflammation-and-correlates-with-clinical-course-after-open-and-endovascular-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair-lessons-learnt-from-mice-and-men
#11
Lukas Martin, Alexander Gombert, Jianmin Chen, Julia Liebens, Julia Verleger, Johannes Kalder, Gernot Marx, Michael Jacobs, Christoph Thiemermann, Tobias Schuerholz
Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) is a highly lethal disorder requiring open or endovascular TAAA repair, both of which are rare, but extensive and complex surgical procedures associated with a significant systemic inflammatory response and high post-operative morbidity and mortality. Heparanase is a β-d-endoglucuronidase that remodels the endothelial glycocalyx by degrading heparan sulfate in many diseases/conditions associated with systemic inflammation including sepsis, trauma, and major surgery. We hypothesized that (a) perioperative serum levels of heparanase and heparan sulfate are associated with the clinical course after open or endovascular TAAA repair and (b) induce a systemic inflammatory response and renal injury/dysfunction in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659186/low-volume-resuscitation-with-normal-saline-is-associated-with-microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-after-hemorrhage-in-rats-compared-to-colloids-and-balanced-crystalloids
#12
Luciana N Torres, Kevin K Chung, Christi L Salgado, Michael A Dubick, Ivo P Torres Filho
BACKGROUND: Restoration of endothelial glycocalyx (EG) barrier may be an essential therapeutic target for successful resuscitation. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the effects of resuscitation with normal saline (NS) to lactated Ringer's solution (LR), 5% albumin and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) on their ability to maintain EG and barrier function integrity, mitigate endothelial injury and inflammation, and restore vascular homeostasis after hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Anesthetized rats (N = 36) were subjected to hemorrhagic shock (bled 40% of total blood volume), followed by resuscitation with 45 ml/kg NS or LR, or 15 ml/kg 5% albumin or FFP...
June 29, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649193/repeated-low-intensity-blast-exposure-is-associated-with-damaged-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-downstream-behavioral-deficits
#13
Aaron A Hall, Mirian I Mendoza, Hanbing Zhou, Michael Shaughness, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, Richard M McCarron, Stephen T Ahlers
Current clinical research into mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has focused on white matter changes as identified by advanced MRI based imaging techniques. However, perivascular tau accumulation in the brains of individuals diagnosed with mTBI suggests that the vasculature plays a key role in the pathology. This study used a rat model to examine whether the endothelial glycocalyx, a layer of the vasculature responsible for sensing luminal shear forces, is damaged by exposure to repeated low intensity blast, and whether this layer is associated with observed behavioral deficits...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640849/motility-in-blastogregarines-apicomplexa-native-and-drug-induced-organisation-of-siedleckia-nematoides-cytoskeletal-elements
#14
Andrea Valigurová, Naděžda Vaškovicová, Andrei Diakin, Gita G Paskerova, Timur G Simdyanov, Magdaléna Kováčiková
Recent studies on motility of Apicomplexa concur with the so-called glideosome concept applied for apicomplexan zoites, describing a unique mechanism of substrate-dependent gliding motility facilitated by a conserved form of actomyosin motor and subpellicular microtubules. In contrast, the gregarines and blastogregarines exhibit different modes and mechanisms of motility, correlating with diverse modifications of their cortex. This study focuses on the motility and cytoskeleton of the blastogregarine Siedleckia nematoides Caullery et Mesnil, 1898 parasitising the polychaete Scoloplos cf...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616946/glycocalyx-scaffolding-with-synthetic-nanoscale-glycomaterials
#15
Mia L Huang, Sean C Purcell, Stephen Verespy Iii, Yinan Wang, Kamil Godula
We report a method for programming complexity into the glycocalyx of live cells. Via a combination of glycomaterial synthesis and membrane remodeling, we have engineered cells to display native-like, mixed sialoglycan populations, while confining the activity of each glycan into a specific nanoscale presentation.
June 15, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585976/dynamic-glycosylation-of-liposomes-by-thioester-exchange
#16
Johanna Moratz, Florian Klepel, Bart Jan Ravoo
The interplay of dynamic functionalization and specific molecular recognition on biological membranes is key to numerous physiological processes. In this work we present a simple glycocalyx model based on the covalent yet reversible glycosylation of liposomes and subsequent recognition by a lectin. Reversible thioester exchange of membrane embedded amphiphilic thioesters with thiol-tagged d-mannose in solution is performed at physiologically relevant conditions. Recognition with the lectin concanavalin A is possible directly from this reaction mixture, leading to liposome agglutination...
June 14, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579548/syndecan-1-a-quantitative-marker-for-the-endotheliopathy-of-trauma
#17
Erika Gonzalez Rodriguez, Sisse R Ostrowski, Jessica C Cardenas, Lisa A Baer, Jeffrey S Tomasek, Hanne H Henriksen, Jakob Stensballe, Bryan A Cotton, John B Holcomb, Pär I Johansson, Charles E Wade
BACKGROUND: Endothelial glycocalyx breakdown elicits syndecan-1 shedding, and traumatic endotheliopathy (EoT). We hypothesized that a cutoff syndecan-1 level can identify patients with endothelial dysfunction who would have poorer outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study; trauma patients with the highest level of activation admitted during July 2011-September 2013 were eligible. We recorded demographics, injury type/severity (ISS), physiology and outcome data, and quantified syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin from plasma with ELISAs...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578339/erythrocyte-sodium-sensitivity-and-eryptosis-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#18
Anna Meyring-Wösten, Viktoriya Kuntsevich, Israel Campos, Schantel Williams, Jie Ma, Samir Patel, Chiarra Ornillo, Stephan Thijssen, Peter Kotanko
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In hemodialysis (HD) patients the endothelial and erythrocyte glycocalyx is impaired which in turn correlates with elevated erythrocyte sodium sensitivity (ESS). Additionally, apoptotic erythrocyte death (eryptosis), characterized by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on the cell surface, is increased in this population. We aimed to explore the relationship of ESS and eryptosis. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 11 healthy controls and 20 chronic HD patients before and after midweek HD...
2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569597/endothelial-glycocalyx-repair-building-a-wall-to-protect-the-lung-during-sepsis
#19
Alicia N Rizzo, Steven M Dudek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549278/effects-of-varenicline-and-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-arterial-elasticity-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-oxidative-stress-during-a-3-month-smoking-cessation-program
#20
Ignatios Ikonomidis, Margarita Marinou, Dimitrios Vlastos, Kallirhoe Kourea, Ioanna Andreadou, Nikolaos Liarakos, Helen Triantafyllidi, George Pavlidis, Elias Tsougos, John Parissis, John Lekakis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of medically-aided smoking cessation on vascular function and oxidative stress are not fully clarified. METHODS: One hundred eighty-eight current smokers were randomized to varenicline or nicotine replacement treatment (NRT) for a 3-month period. We assessed: (a) augmentation index (Aix) and pulse wave velocity (PWV); (b) perfusion boundary region (PBR) of sublingual microvasculature (range:5-25 μm), an index of the endothelial glycocalyx thickness, using Sideview, Darkfield imaging; (c) the exhaled CO; and (d) the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) plasma levels, as markers of oxidative stress, at baseline and after 3 and 12 months...
May 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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