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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914179/ammonothermal-synthesis-of-novel-nitrides-case-study-on-cagasin3
#1
Jonas Häusler, Lukas Neudert, Mathias Mallmann, Robin Niklaus, Anna-Carina L Kimmel, Nicolas S A Alt, Eberhard Schlücker, Oliver Oeckler, Wolfgang Schnick
The first gallium-containing nitridosilicate CaGaSiN3 was synthesized in newly developed high-pressure autoclaves using supercritical ammonia as solvent and nitriding agent. The reaction was conducted in ammonobasic environment starting from intermetallic CaGaSi with NaN3 as mineralizer. At 770 K, intermediate compounds were obtained, which were subsequently converted to the crystalline nitride at temperatures up to 1070 K (70 - 150 MPa). The impact of other mineralizers (e. g. LiN3, KN3 and CsN3) on the product formation was investigated as well...
December 3, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914097/ruthenium-catalysts-supported-by-amino-substituted-nhc-ligands-for-olefin-metathesis-of-challenging-substrates
#2
Vincent César, Yin Zhang, Wioletta Kośnik, Adam Zieliński, Adam A Rajkiewicz, Mirko Ruamps, Stéphanie Bastin, Noël Lugan, Guy Lavigne, Karol Grela
N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) ligands IMesNMe2 and IMes(NMe2)2 derived from the well-known IMes ligand by substituting the carbenic heterocycle for one and two dimethylamino groups, respectively, were employed for the synthesis of 2nd generation Grubbs- and Grubbs-Hoveyda-type ruthenium metathesis precatalysts. Whereas the stability of the complexes was found to be function of the degree of dimethylamino-substitution and of the type of complex, the backbone-substitution was shown to have a positive impact on their catalytic activity in RCM, with a more pronounced effect in the 2nd generation Grubbs-type series...
December 3, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914081/negative-staining-and-transmission-electron-microscopy-of-bacterial-surface-structures
#3
Matthias Mörgelin
Negative staining is an essential and versatile staining technique in transmission electron microscopy that can be employed for visualizing bacterial cell morphology, size, and surface architecture at high resolution. Bacteria are usually transferred by passive electrostatic adsorption from suspensions in physiological saline onto suitable hydrophilic support films on electron microscopic grids. There they are contrasted, or "stained," by heavy metal ions in solution such as tungsten, uranyl, molybdate, or vanadate compounds...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914038/serotonin-5-ht6-receptor-antagonists-in-alzheimer-s-disease-therapeutic-rationale-and-current-development-status
#4
Hilda Ferrero, Maite Solas, Paul T Francis, Maria J Ramirez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly people. Because of the lack of effective treatments for this illness, research focused on identifying compounds that restore cognition and functional impairments in patients with AD is a very active field. Since its discovery in 1993, the serotonin 5-HT6 receptor has received increasing attention, and a growing number of studies supported 5-HT6 receptor antagonism as a target for improving cognitive dysfunction in AD. This article reviews the rationale behind investigations into the targeting of 5-HT6 receptors as a symptomatic treatment for cognitive and/or behavioral symptoms of AD...
December 3, 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914034/identification-of-oxidized-phosphatidylinositols-present-in-oxldl-and-human-atherosclerotic-plaque
#5
Devin Hasanally, Andrea Edel, Rakesh Chaudhary, Amir Ravandi
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) plays an important role in initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Proatherogenic effects of OxLDL have been attributed to bioactive phospholipids generated during LDL oxidation. It is unknown what effect oxidation has on the phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) molecules in LDL, even though PtdIns is 6% of the total LDL phospholipid pool. We sought to identify and quantitate oxidized phosphatidylinositol (OxPtdIns) species in OxLDL and human atherosclerotic plaque. Bovine liver PtdIns was subjected to non-enzymatic and lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation...
December 2, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914030/active-compounds-extracted-from-extra-virgin-olive-oil-counteract-mesothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-peritoneal-mesothelium-cells-exposed-to-conventional-peritoneal-dialysate-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evidences
#6
S Lupinacci, G Toteda, D Vizza, A Perri, C Benincasa, A Mollica, A La Russa, P Gigliotti, F Leone, D Lofaro, M Bonofiglio, E Perri, R Bonofiglio
During peritoneal dialysis (PD), peritoneal mesothelial cells undergo a transition from an epithelial phenotype to a mesenchymal phenotype that, together with the inflammatory process, promotes tissue fibrosis and a failure of peritoneal membrane function. To date, there is no definitive treatment for the progressive thickening and angiogenesis of the peritoneal membrane associated with PD. In this study we tested, in vitro and in vivo, the ability of active compounds extracted from extra virgin olive oil (AC-EVOO) to counteract the mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition process (MMT) observed in mesothelial cells chronically exposed to the conventional peritoneal dialysate (DL)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914004/hybrid-receptor-bound-mm-gbsa-per-residue-energy-based-pharmacophore-modelling-enhanced-approach-for-identification-of-selective-lta4h-inhibitors-as-potential-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#7
Patrick Appiah-Kubi, Mahmoud Soliman
Leukotriene A4 hydrolase has been identified as an enzyme with dual anti- and pro-inflammatory role, thus, the conversion of leukotriene to leukotriene B4 in the initiation stage of inflammation and the removal of the chemotactic Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide. These findings make leukotriene A4 hydrolase an attractive drug target: suggesting an innovative approach towards the identification and design of novel class of compounds that can selectively inhibit leukotriene B4 synthesis while sparing the aminopeptidase activity...
December 2, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913954/the-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-two-major-withanolides-from-physalis-minima-via-acting-on-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-stat3-and-ho-1-in-lps-stimulated-raw264-7-cells
#8
Rui-Jun Li, Cai-Yun Gao, Chao Guo, Miao-Miao Zhou, Jun Luo, Ling-Yi Kong
Physalis minima has been traditionally used as a folk herbal medicine in China for the treatment of many inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about its anti-inflammatory constituents and associated molecular mechanisms. In our study, withaphysalin A (WA) and 2, 3-dihydro-withaphysalin C (WC), two major withanolide-type compounds, were obtained from the anti-inflammatory fraction of P. minima. Both WA and WC significantly inhibited the production of nitrite oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264...
December 2, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913934/neuroprotective-effect-of-antioxidants-and-moderate-hypoxia-as-combined-preconditioning-in-cerebral-ischemia
#9
O S Levchenkova, V E Novikov, E A Parfenov, K N Kulagin
We studied combined effect of moderate hypoxia and compounds pQ-4, pQ-915, pQ-1032, and pQ-1104 on neurological deficit and survival of rats after bilateral ligation of common carotid arteries. Preconditioning including moderate hypoxia and treatment with compound pQ-4 produced a neuroprotective effect and increased animal survival during the early (by 51%) and late (by 33.5%) periods of modeled ischemia and reduced neurological deficit (by 50% and 41%, respectively). Moreover, this combination of preconditioning factors prevented postischemic excessive activation of free radical oxidation in brain hemispheres and blood serum...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913919/a-critical-overview-on-the-biological-and-molecular-features-of-red-and-processed-meat-in-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Arunan Jeyakumar, Lakal Dissabandara, Vinod Gopalan
A recent investigation by the World Health Organisation (WHO) has found that the consumption of processed meat and potentially red meat promotes carcinogenesis and can increase the risk of colorectal cancer. This literature review aims to summarise both the red and processed meat molecules associated with colorectal carcinogenesis and investigate their relationship with the pathogenic process of colorectal cancer. Literature relating to the carcinogenic effect of red and processed meat molecules was critically reviewed...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913906/synergistic-mitotoxicity-of-chloromethanes-and-fullerene-c60-nanoaggregates-in-daphnia-magna-midgut-epithelial-cells
#11
Mariana Seke, Milica Markelic, Arian Morina, Danica Jovic, Aleksandra Korac, Dragana Milicic, Aleksandar Djordjevic
Adsorption of non-polar compounds by suspended fullerene nanoaggregates (nC60) may enhance their toxicity and affect the fate, transformation, and transport of non-polar compounds in the environment. The potential of stable fullerene nanoaggregates as contaminant carriers in aqueous systems and the influence of chloromethanes (trichloromethane and dichloromethane) were studied on the midgut epithelial cells of Daphnia magna by light and electron microscopy. The size and shape of fullerene nanoaggregates were observed and measured using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and low vacuum scanning electron microscopy...
December 3, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913892/early-harvest-effects-on-hydrophilic-phenolic-components-of-extra-virgin-olive-oils-cvs-ayval%C3%A4-k-memecik-and-topaka%C3%A5-%C3%A4
#12
Fatma Yıldırım, Adnan Nurhan Yıldırım, Gülcan Özkan, Bekir Şan, Mehmet Polat, Hatice Aşık, Yaşar Karakurt, Sezai Ercişli
The study was conducted to determine the effects of cultivar, harvest period, and their interaction on the hydrophilic phenolic components extra virgin olive oils of the cultivars 'Ayvalık,' 'Memecik,' and 'Topakaşı.' Olives were collected at three different harvesting periods: (1) early harvest period-1 (Beginning of spotting), (2) early harvest period-2 (End of spotting), and (3) optimum harvest period. Oils were extracted using the Abencor system. HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatograph) technique was used to quantify the phenolic compounds including tyrosol (p-HPEA), hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA), luteolin, rutin, quercetin, catechin, sinapinic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, vanillin, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and gallic acid...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913850/two-novel-cyclic-hexapeptides-from-the-genetically-engineered-actinosynnema-pretiosum
#13
Chunhua Lu, Fei Xie, Chuan Shan, Yuemao Shen
Two novel cyclic hexapeptides designated actinosynneptides A (1) and B (2), together with three tryptophan containing diketopiperazines, namely cyclo(L-Trp-L-Trp) (3), cyclo(L-Trp-N-MeL-Trp) (4), and cyclo(N-MeL-Trp-N-MeL-Trp) (5), were isolated from the culture of the genetically engineered strain HGF052::asm18 derived from Actinosynnema pretiosum ATCC31565. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffractions. Compound 1 is the first example of 3-amino-6-hydroxy-2-piperidone-containing cyclic peptides, and 1 and 2 showed moderate cytotoxic activities against HeLa and PC3 cell lines...
December 2, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913846/potent-mutagenicity-of-some-non-planar-tri-and-tetrachlorinated-biphenyls-in-mammalian-cells-human-cyp2e1-being-a-major-activating-enzyme
#14
Yungang Liu, Keqi Hu, Hansi Jia, Guifang Jin, Hansruedi Glatt, Hao Jiang
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been classified as human carcinogens. Mutagenicity of lower chlorinated biphenyls as well as activation of transcription factors by some other congeners may contribute to the carcinogenicity of PCBs. Recently, we reported that human CYP2E1 activates mono- and dichlorobiphenyls to mutagens. However, mutagenicity of other PCBs and the involvement of other CYPs remained unknown. In this study, Chinese hamster V79-derived cell lines genetically engineered for expression of individual human CYP enzymes and a human hepatocyte (L-02) line endogenously expressing various CYPs were used to determine the activities of several tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls to induce micronuclei and gene mutations...
December 2, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913811/discovery-of-piperlongumine-as-a-potential-novel-lead-for-the-development-of-senolytic-agents
#15
Yingying Wang, Jianhui Chang, Xingui Liu, Xuan Zhang, Suping Zhang, Xin Zhang, Daohong Zhou, Guangrong Zheng
Accumulating evidence indicates that senescent cells play an important role in many age-associated diseases. The pharmacological depletion of senescent cells (SCs) with a "senolytic agent", a small molecule that selectively kills SCs, is a potential novel therapeutic approach for these diseases. Recently, we discovered ABT-263, a potent and highly selective senolytic agent, by screening a library of rationally-selected compounds. With this screening approach, we also identified a second senolytic agent called piperlongumine (PL)...
November 19, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913670/screening-for-chemical-modulators-for-lrrk2
#16
REVIEW
Heather Mortiboys
After the discovery of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) as a risk factor for sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) and mutations in LRRK2 as a cause of some forms of familial PD, there has been substantial interest in finding chemical modulators of LRRK2 function. Most of the pathogenic mutations in LRRK2 are within the enzymatic cores of the protein; therefore, many screens have focused on finding chemical modulators of this enzymatic activity. There are alternative screening approaches that could be taken to investigate compounds that modulate LRRK2 cellular functions...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913567/drug-repositioning-screens-identify-triamterene-as-a-selective-drug-for-the-treatment-of-dna-mismatch-repair-deficient-cells
#17
Delphine Guillotin, Philip Austin, Rumena Begum, Marta O Freitas, Ashirwad Merve, Tim Brend, Susan C Short, Silvia Marino, Sarah A Martin
PURPOSE: The DNA Mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is required for the maintenance of genome stability. Unsurprisingly, mutations in MMR genes occur in a wide range of different cancers. Studies thus far have largely focused on specific tumor types or MMR mutations, however it is becoming increasingly clear that a therapy targeting MMR-deficiency in general would be clinically very beneficial. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Based on a drug-repositioning approach, we screened a large panel of cell lines with various MMR deficiencies from a range of different tumor types with a compound drug library of previously approved drugs...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913472/novel-agents-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#18
Nicole Lamanna, Susan O'Brien
The advent of novel small-molecule inhibitors has transformed the treatment approaches for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These therapies are becoming increasingly used in patients with relapsed disease, patients with 17p deletion, and, as of recently, also in the frontline setting for previously untreated patients with CLL. Moreover, many of these are oral therapies that are significantly less myelosuppressive than chemoimmunotherapy. However, these agents have their own set of unique toxicities with which providers must gain familiarity...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913457/treatment-of-blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-neoplasm
#19
Jill M Sullivan, David A Rizzieri
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare myeloid malignancy with no defined standard of care. BPDCN presents most commonly with skin lesions with or without extramedullary organ involvement before leukemic dissemination. As a result of its clinical ambiguity, differentiating BPDCN from benign skin lesions or those of acute myeloid leukemia with leukemia cutis is challenging. BPDCN is most easily defined by the phenotype CD4(+)CD56(+)CD123(+)lineage(-)MPO(-), although many patients will present with variable expression of CD4, CD56, or alternate plasmacytoid markers, which compounds the difficulty in differentiating BPDCN from other myeloid or lymphoid malignancies...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913419/benzene-degradation-by-variovorax-sp-within-a-coal-tar-contaminated-groundwater-microbial-community
#20
Kevin M Posman, Christopher M DeRito, Eugene L Madsen
: Investigations of environmental microbial communities are crucial for the discovery of populations capable of degrading hazardous compounds and may lead to improved bioremediation strategies. The goal of this study was to identify microorganisms responsible for aerobic benzene degradation in coal-tar contaminated groundwater. Benzene degradation was monitored in laboratory incubations of well waters using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments using (13)C-benzene allowed us to obtain (13)C-labled community DNA; from this, 16S rRNA clone libraries identified γ- and β-Proteobacteria as the active benzene metabolizing microbial populations...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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