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Fetal medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211155/utah-obstetricians-opinions-of-planned-home-birth-and-conflicting-nice-acog-guidelines-a-qualitative-study
#1
Emily Rainey, Sara Simonsen, Joseph Stanford, Kimberley Shoaf, Jami Baayd
BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recently published recommendations that support planned home birth for low-risk women. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) remains wary of planned home birth, asserting that hospitals and birthing centers are the safest birth settings. Our objective was to examine opinions of obstetricians in Salt Lake City, Utah about home birth in the context of rising home birth rates and conflicting guidelines...
February 17, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211140/anesthesia-for-fetal-surgery
#2
REVIEW
Monica A Hoagland, Debnath Chatterjee
Fetal therapy is an exciting and growing field of medicine. Advances in prenatal imaging and continued innovations in surgical and anesthetic techniques have resulted in a wide range of fetal interventions including minimally invasive, open mid-gestation, and ex-utero intrapartum treatment procedures. The potential for maternal morbidity is significant and must be carefully weighed against claimed benefits to the fetus. Appropriate patient selection is critical, and a multidisciplinary team-based approach is strongly recommended...
February 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210497/onset-of-labor-in-post-term-pregnancy-by-chamomile
#3
Fereshte Gholami, Leila Neisani Samani, Maryam Kashanian, Mohsen Naseri, Agha Fateme Hosseini, Seyed Abbas Hashemi Nejad
BACKGROUND: Post-term pregnancy is an important factor in perinatal mortality and morbidity. Generally, to reduce perinatal mortality in pregnancy, the delivery is done before adverse perinatal morbidity occurs. To prevent prolonged pregnancy, labor is induced with chemical drugs and complementary therapies. Due to the side effects and contraindications of chemical medicine, the use of herbs has been investigated in the induction of labor in post-term pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: This study was done to identify the effect of chamomile on inducing labor in women with post-term pregnancy of Shahid Akbarabadi hospital in Tehran in 2013...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205414/avoidance-of-maternal-cell-contamination-and-overgrowth-in-isolating-fetal-chorionic-villi-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-human-term-placenta
#4
Varda S Sardesai, Abbas Shafiee, Nicholas M Fisk, Rebecca A Pelekanos
Human placenta is rich in mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), with their origin widely presumed fetal. Cultured placental MSCs are confounded by a high frequency of maternal cell contamination. Our recent systematic review concluded that only a small minority of placental MSC publications report fetal/maternal origin, and failed to discern a specific methodology for isolation of fetal MSC from term villi. We determined isolation conditions to yield fetal and separately maternal MSC during ex vivo expansion from human term placenta...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199003/applications-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-technologies-in-spinal-cord-injury
#5
REVIEW
Narihito Nagoshi, Hideyuki Okano
Numerous basic research studies have suggested the potential efficacy of neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, in most such studies the origin of the cells used was mainly fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, both of which carry potential ethical concerns with respect to clinical use. The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opened a new path toward regenerative medicine for SCI. iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells by induction of transcription factors, and induced to differentiate into NPCs with characteristics of cells of the central nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198038/likelihood-of-cesarean-delivery-after-applying-leading-active-labor-diagnostic-guidelines
#6
Jeremy L Neal, Nancy K Lowe, Julia C Phillippi, Sharon L Ryan, Amy M Knupp, Mary S Dietrich, Stephen F Thung
BACKGROUND: Friedman, the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists/Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (ACOG/SMFM) support different active labor diagnostic guidelines. Our aims were to compare likelihoods for cesarean delivery among women admitted before vs in active labor by diagnostic guideline (within-guideline comparisons) and between women admitted in active labor per one or more of the guidelines (between-guideline comparisons)...
February 15, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191905/st-elevation-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-pregnancy-2016-update
#7
REVIEW
Sahar Ismail, Cynthia Wong, Priya Rajan, Mladen I Vidovich
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during pregnancy or the early postpartum period is rare, but can be devastating for both the mother and the fetus. There have been major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndromes in the general population, but there is little consensus on the approach to diagnosis and treatment of pregnant women. This article reviews the literature relating to the pathophysiology of AMI in pregnant patients and the challenges in diagnosis and treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in this unique population...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191781/direct-isolation-and-characterization-of-human-nephron-progenitors
#8
Stefano Da Sacco, Matthew E Thornton, Astgik Petrosyan, Maria Lavarreda-Pearce, Sargis Sedrakyan, Brendan H Grubbs, Roger E De Filippo, Laura Perin
Mature nephrons originate from a small population of uninduced nephrogenic progenitor cells (NPs) within the cap mesenchyme. These cells are characterized by the coexpression of SIX2 and CITED1. Many studies on mouse models as well as on human pluripotent stem cells have advanced our knowledge of NPs, but very little is known about this population in humans, since it is exhausted before birth and strategies for its direct isolation are still limited. Here we report an efficient protocol for direct isolation of human NPs without genetic manipulation or stepwise induction procedures...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191778/generation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-bona-fide-neural-stem-cells-for-ex-vivo-gene-therapy-of-metachromatic-leukodystrophy
#9
Vasco Meneghini, Giacomo Frati, Davide Sala, Silvia De Cicco, Marco Luciani, Chiara Cavazzin, Marianna Paulis, Wieslawa Mentzen, Francesco Morena, Serena Giannelli, Francesca Sanvito, Anna Villa, Alessandro Bulfone, Vania Broccoli, Sabata Martino, Angela Gritti
Allogeneic fetal-derived human neural stem cells (hfNSCs) that are under clinical evaluation for several neurodegenerative diseases display a favorable safety profile, but require immunosuppression upon transplantation in patients. Neural progenitors derived from patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be relevant for autologous ex vivo gene-therapy applications to treat genetic diseases with unmet medical need. In this scenario, obtaining iPSC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) showing a reliable "NSC signature" is mandatory...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191758/preclinical-analysis-of-fetal-human-mesencephalic-neural-progenitor-cell-lines-characterization-and-safety-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Jisook Moon, Sigrid C Schwarz, Hyun-Seob Lee, Jun Mo Kang, Young-Eun Lee, Bona Kim, Mi-Young Sung, Günter Höglinger, Florian Wegner, Jin Su Kim, Hyung-Min Chung, Sung Woon Chang, Kwang Yul Cha, Kwang-Soo Kim, Johannes Schwarz
We have developed a good manufacturing practice for long-term cultivation of fetal human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells. The generation of human dopaminergic neurons may serve as a tool of either restorative cell therapies or cellular models, particularly as a reference for phenotyping region-specific human neural stem cell lines such as human embryonic stem cells and human inducible pluripotent stem cells. We cultivated 3 different midbrain neural progenitor lines at 10, 12, and 14 weeks of gestation for more than a year and characterized them in great detail, as well as in comparison with Lund mesencephalic cells...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191646/non-invasive-evaluation-of-blood-oxygen-saturation-and-hematocrit-from-t1-and-t2-relaxation-times-in-vitro-validation-in-fetal-blood
#11
Sharon Portnoy, Mike Seed, John G Sled, Christopher K Macgowan
PURPOSE: We propose an analytical method for calculating blood hematocrit (Hct) and oxygen saturation (sO2 ) from measurements of its T1 and T2 relaxation times. THEORY: Through algebraic substitution, established two-compartment relationships describing R1=T1-1 and R2=T2-1 as a function of hematocrit and oxygen saturation were rearranged to solve for Hct and sO2 in terms of R1 and R2 . Resulting solutions for Hct and sO2 are the roots of cubic polynomials. METHODS: Feasibility of the method was established by comparison of Hct and sO2 estimates obtained from relaxometry measurements (at 1...
February 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188771/twin-vaginal-delivery-innovate-or-abdicate
#12
REVIEW
Sarah Rae Easter, Laura Taouk, Jay Schulkin, Julian N Robinson
Neonatal safety data along with national guidelines have prompted renewed interest in vaginal delivery of twins-particularly in the case of the noncephalic second twin. Yet the rising rate of twin cesarean deliveries, coupled with the national decline in operative obstetrics, raise concerns about the availability of providers skilled in twin vaginal birth. Providers are key stakeholders for increasing rates of twin vaginal delivery. We surveyed a group of practicing obstetricians to explore potential barriers to vaginal birth of twins with a focus on delivery of the noncephalic second twin...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188592/redirecting-reproductive-immunology-research-toward-pregnancy-as-a-period-of-temporary-immune-tolerance
#13
Norbert Gleicher, Vitaly A Kushnir, David H Barad
Referring to two recent publications, we here propose that clinical reproductive immunology has for decades stagnated because reproductive medicine, including assisted reproduction (AR), has failed to accept embryo implantation as an immune system-driven process, dependent on establishment of maternal tolerance toward the implanting fetal semi-allograft (and complete allograft in cases of oocyte donation). Pregnancy represents a biologically unique period of temporary (to the period of gestation restricted) tolerance, otherwise only known in association with parasitic infections...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188034/follistatin-like-1-expression-is-decreased-in-the-alveolar-epithelium-of-hypoplastic-rat-lungs-with-nitrofen-induced-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#14
Toshiaki Takahashi, Julia Zimmer, Florian Friedmacher, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH), characterized by incomplete alveolar development, remains a major therapeutic challenge associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a crucial regulator of alveolar formation and maturation, which is strongly expressed in distal airway epithelium. Fstl1-deficient mice exhibit reduced airspaces, impaired alveolar epithelial cell differentiation, and insufficient production of surfactant proteins similar to PH in human CDH...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187889/gift-cloud-a-data-sharing-and-collaboration-platform-for-medical-imaging-research
#15
Tom Doel, Dzhoshkun I Shakir, Rosalind Pratt, Michael Aertsen, James Moggridge, Erwin Bellon, Anna L David, Jan Deprest, Tom Vercauteren, Sébastien Ourselin
OBJECTIVES: Clinical imaging data are essential for developing research software for computer-aided diagnosis, treatment planning and image-guided surgery, yet existing systems are poorly suited for data sharing between healthcare and academia: research systems rarely provide an integrated approach for data exchange with clinicians; hospital systems are focused towards clinical patient care with limited access for external researchers; and safe haven environments are not well suited to algorithm development...
February 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180199/ultrasound-and-mri-comprehensive-approach-in-prenatal-diagnosis-of-fetal-osteochondrodysplasias-cases-series
#16
Costin Berceanu, Ioana Andreea Gheonea, Simona Vlădăreanu, Monica Mihaela Cîrstoiu, Radu Vlădăreanu, Claudia Mehedinţu, Sabina Berceanu, Răzvan Ciortea, Elvira Brătilă
AIM: To present the systematic ultrasonographic assessment in fetal osteochondrodysplasias and to evaluate the fetal MRI intake, as a complementary exploration to US, in the prenatal diagnosis and perinatal prognosis of fetal nonlethal osteochondrodysplasias. Material and methods: In this tertiary multicentre study were included 37 cases diagnosed prenatally with various entities in the category of nonlethal fetal osteochondrodysplasias. The initial diagnosis was carried out by the routine or detailed ultrasound examination...
January 31, 2017: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180146/-i-think-we-ve-got-too-many-tests-prenatal-providers-reflections-on-ethical-and-clinical-challenges-in-the-practice-integration-of-cell-free-dna-screening
#17
B L Gammon, S A Kraft, M Michie, M Allyse
BACKGROUND: The recent introduction of cell-free DNA-based non-invasive prenatal screening (cfDNA screening) into clinical practice was expected to revolutionize prenatal testing. cfDNA screening for fetal aneuploidy has demonstrated higher test sensitivity and specificity for some conditions than conventional serum screening and can be conducted early in the pregnancy. However, it is not clear whether and how clinical practices are assimilating this new type of testing into their informed consent and counselling processes...
July 2016: Ethics, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179267/obesity-and-pregnancy-mechanisms-of-short-term-and-long-term-adverse-consequences-for-mother-and-child
#18
REVIEW
Patrick M Catalano, Kartik Shankar
Obesity is the most common medical condition in women of reproductive age. Obesity during pregnancy has short term and long term adverse consequences for both mother and child. Obesity causes problems with infertility, and in early gestation it causes spontaneous pregnancy loss and congenital anomalies. Metabolically, obese women have increased insulin resistance in early pregnancy, which becomes manifest clinically in late gestation as glucose intolerance and fetal overgrowth. At term, the risk of cesarean delivery and wound complications is increased...
February 8, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168777/tissue-oxygen-saturation-levels-from-fetus-to-neonate
#19
Mari Mukai, Toshiyuki Uchida, Hiroaki Itoh, Hikaru Suzuki, Masatsugu Niwayama, Naohiro Kanayama
AIM: Oxygen saturation during the term of delivery to the first cry, when fetal circulation dynamically changes, has not yet been examined. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether the continuous measurement of regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2 ) from crowning until 5 min after delivery is possible using fetal tissue oximetry with a sensor attached to the examiner's finger. METHODS: Oxygen saturation levels in fetal cranial tissue between the second stage of delivery to crowning and up to 5 min after delivery were measured using fetal tissue oximetry with a sensor attached to the examiner's finger...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168362/practical-methods-for-handling-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-in-serum-free-and-serum-containing-culture-conditions-under-hypoxia-implications-for-regenerative-medicine
#20
Dai Murabayashi, Mai Mochizuki, Yuichi Tamaki, Taka Nakahara
Stem cell-based therapies depend on the reliable expansion of patient-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. The supplementation of cell culture media with serum is associated with several risks; accordingly, serum-free media are commercially available for cell culture. Furthermore, hypoxia is known to accelerate the expansion of MSCs. The present study aimed to characterize the properties of periodontal ligament-derived MSCs (PDLSCs) cultivated in serum-free and serum-containing media, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions...
February 6, 2017: Human Cell
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