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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430189/warming-enhances-old-organic-carbon-decomposition-through-altering-functional-microbial-communities
#1
Lei Cheng, Naifang Zhang, Mengting Yuan, Jing Xiao, Yujia Qin, Ye Deng, Qichao Tu, Kai Xue, Joy D Van Nostrand, Liyou Wu, Zhili He, Xuhui Zhou, Mary Beth Leigh, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Edward Ag Schuur, Yiqi Luo, James M Tiedje, Jizhong Zhou
Soil organic matter (SOM) stocks contain nearly three times as much carbon (C) as the atmosphere and changes in soil C stocks may have a major impact on future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. Over the past two decades, much research has been devoted to examining the influence of warming on SOM decomposition in topsoil. Most SOM, however, is old and stored in subsoil. The fate of subsoil SOM under future warming remains highly uncertain. Here, by combining a long-term field warming experiment and a meta-analysis study, we showed that warming significantly increased SOM decomposition in subsoil...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430188/interactions-between-soil-and-dead-wood-inhabiting-fungal-communities-during-the-decay-of-norway-spruce-logs
#2
Raisa Mäkipää, Tiina Rajala, Dmitry Schigel, Katja T Rinne, Taina Pennanen, Nerea Abrego, Otso Ovaskainen
We investigated the interaction between fungal communities of soil and dead wood substrates. For this, we applied molecular species identification and stable isotope tracking to both soil and decaying wood in an unmanaged boreal Norway spruce-dominated stand. Altogether, we recorded 1990 operational taxonomic units, out of which more than 600 were shared by both substrates and 589 were found to exclusively inhabit wood. On average the soil was more species-rich than the decaying wood, but the species richness in dead wood increased monotonically along the decay gradient, reaching the same species richness and community composition as soil in the late stages...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430187/poorly-known-microbial-taxa-dominate-the-microbiome-of-permafrost-thaw-ponds
#3
Christian Wurzbacher, R Henrik Nilsson, Milla Rautio, Sari Peura
In the transition zone of the shifting permafrost border, thaw ponds emerge as hotspots of microbial activity, processing the ancient carbon freed from the permafrost. We analyzed the microbial succession across a gradient of recently emerged to older ponds using three molecular markers: one universal, one bacterial and one fungal. Age was a major modulator of the microbial community of the thaw ponds. Surprisingly, typical freshwater taxa comprised only a small fraction of the community. Instead, thaw ponds of all age classes were dominated by enigmatic bacterial and fungal phyla...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430186/independence-of-nutrient-limitation-and-carbon-dioxide-impacts-on-the-southern-ocean-coccolithophore-emiliania-huxleyi
#4
Marius N Müller, Thomas W Trull, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff
Future oceanic conditions induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions include warming, acidification and reduced nutrient supply due to increased stratification. Some parts of the Southern Ocean are expected to show rapid changes, especially for carbonate mineral saturation. Here we compare the physiological response of the model coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (strain EHSO 5.14, originating from 50(o)S, 149(o)E) with pH/CO2 gradients (mimicking ocean acidification ranging from 1 to 4 × current pCO2 levels) under nutrient-limited (nitrogen and phosphorus) and -replete conditions...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398350/swimming-bacteria-promote-dispersal-of-non-motile-staphylococcal-species
#5
Tahoura Samad, Nicole Billings, Alona Birjiniuk, Thomas Crouzier, Patrick S Doyle, Katharina Ribbeck
Swimming motility is considered a beneficial trait among bacterial species as it enables movement across fluid environments and augments invasion of tissues within the host. However, non-swimming bacteria also flourish in fluid habitats, but how they effectively spread and colonize distant ecological niches remains unclear. We show that non-motile staphylococci can gain motility by hitchhiking on swimming bacteria, leading to extended and directed motion with increased velocity. This phoretic interaction was observed between Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and P...
April 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398349/allelopathic-interactions-of-linoleic-acid-and-nitric-oxide-increase-the-competitive-ability-of-microcystis-aeruginosa
#6
Hao Song, Michel Lavoie, Xiaoji Fan, Hana Tan, Guangfu Liu, Pengfei Xu, Zhengwei Fu, Hans W Paerl, Haifeng Qian
The frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms are increasing worldwide with major societal and economic costs. Interactions between toxic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algal competitors can affect toxic bloom formation, but the exact mechanisms of interspecies interactions remain unknown. Using metabolomic and proteomic profiling of co-cultures of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with a green alga as well as of microorganisms collected in a Microcystis spp. bloom in Lake Taihu (China), we disentangle novel interspecies allelopathic interactions...
April 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398348/ecological-dynamics-and-co-occurrence-among-marine-phytoplankton-bacteria-and-myoviruses-shows-microdiversity-matters
#7
David M Needham, Rohan Sachdeva, Jed A Fuhrman
Numerous ecological processes, such as bacteriophage infection and phytoplankton-bacterial interactions, often occur via strain-specific mechanisms. Therefore, studying the causes of microbial dynamics should benefit from highly resolving taxonomic characterizations. We sampled daily to weekly over 5 months following a phytoplankton bloom off Southern California and examined the extent of microdiversity, that is, significant variation within 99% sequence similarity clusters, operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of bacteria, archaea, phytoplankton chloroplasts (all via 16S or intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences) and T4-like-myoviruses (via g23 major capsid protein gene sequence)...
April 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398347/microbial-shifts-and-signatures-of-long-term-remission-in-ulcerative-colitis-after-faecal-microbiota-transplantation
#8
Susana Fuentes, Noortje G Rossen, Mirjam J van der Spek, Jorn Ha Hartman, Laura Huuskonen, Katri Korpela, Jarkko Salojärvi, Steven Aalvink, Willem M de Vos, Geert R D'Haens, Erwin G Zoetendal, Cyriel Y Ponsioen
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may contribute towards disease remission in ulcerative colitis (UC), but it is unknown which factors determine long-term effect of treatment. Here, we aimed to identify bacterial signatures associated with sustained remission. To this end, samples from healthy donors and UC patients-grouped into responders and non-responders at a primary end point (week 12) and further stratified by sustained clinical remission and relapse assessed at ⩾1-year follow-up were analysed, comparing the efficacy of FMT from either a healthy donor or autologous faeces...
April 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398346/chemical-microenvironments-and-single-cell-carbon-and-nitrogen-uptake-in-field-collected-colonies-of-trichodesmium-under-different-pco2
#9
Meri J Eichner, Isabell Klawonn, Samuel T Wilson, Sten Littmann, Martin J Whitehouse, Matthew J Church, Marcel Mm Kuypers, David M Karl, Helle Ploug
Gradients of oxygen (O2) and pH, as well as small-scale fluxes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and O2 were investigated under different partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in field-collected colonies of the marine dinitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Microsensor measurements indicated that cells within colonies experienced large fluctuations in O2, pH and CO2 concentrations over a day-night cycle. O2 concentrations varied with light intensity and time of day, yet colonies exposed to light were supersaturated with O2 (up to ~200%) throughout the light period and anoxia was not detected...
April 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391475/a-study-on-prevalence-of-microbial-contamination-on-the-surface-of-raw-salad-vegetables
#10
Sujeet Kumar Mritunjay, Vipin Kumar
The present work evaluates the microbiological quality of raw salad vegetables (RSV) consumed in Dhanbad city, India. A total of 480 samples of 8 different raw salad vegetables from local market were examined for overall microbial quality in terms of aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic counts, yeast, mould and total coliform levels. E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella sp. were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) subsequent to isolation. Results showed that all the samples were found positive for total coliform; however, E...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387774/bacterial-carbon-use-plasticity-phylogenetic-diversity-and-the-priming-of-soil-organic-matter
#11
Ember M Morrissey, Rebecca L Mau, Egbert Schwartz, Theresa A McHugh, Paul Dijkstra, Benjamin J Koch, Jane C Marks, Bruce A Hungate
Microorganisms perform most decomposition on Earth, mediating carbon (C) loss from ecosystems, and thereby influencing climate. Yet, how variation in the identity and composition of microbial communities influences ecosystem C balance is far from clear. Using quantitative stable isotope probing of DNA, we show how individual bacterial taxa influence soil C cycling following the addition of labile C (glucose). Specifically, we show that increased decomposition of soil C in response to added glucose (positive priming) occurs as a phylogenetically diverse group of taxa, accounting for a large proportion of the bacterial community, shift toward additional soil C use for growth...
April 7, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387773/expression-patterns-of-elemental-cycling-genes-in-the-amazon-river-plume
#12
Brandon M Satinsky, Christa B Smith, Shalabh Sharma, Marine Landa, Patricia M Medeiros, Victoria J Coles, Patricia L Yager, Byron C Crump, Mary Ann Moran
Metatranscriptomics and metagenomics data sets benchmarked with internal standards were used to characterize the expression patterns for biogeochemically relevant bacterial and archaeal genes mediating carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur uptake and metabolism through the salinity gradient of the Amazon River Plume. The genes were identified in 48 metatranscriptomic and metagenomic data sets summing to >500 million quality-controlled reads from six locations in the plume ecosystem. The ratio of transcripts per gene copy (a direct measure of expression made possible by internal standard additions) showed that the free-living bacteria and archaea exhibited only small changes in the expression levels of biogeochemically relevant genes through the salinity and nutrient zones of the plume...
April 7, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387772/class-1-integrons-are-low-cost-structures-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Yohann Lacotte, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Sophie Raherison
Resistance integrons are bacterial genetic platforms that can capture and express antibiotic resistance genes embedded within gene cassettes. The capture and shuffling of gene cassettes are mediated by the integrase IntI, the expression of which is regulated by the SOS response in Escherichia coli. Gene cassettes are expressed from a common Pc promoter. Despite the clinical and environmental relevance of integrons, the selective forces responsible for their evolution and maintenance are poorly understood. Here, we conducted pairwise competition experiments in order to assess the fitness cost of class 1 integrons in E...
April 7, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387771/who-lives-in-a-fungus-the-diversity-origins-and-functions-of-fungal-endobacteria-living-in-mucoromycota
#14
Paola Bonfante, Alessandro Desirò
Bacterial interactions with plants and animals have been examined for many years; differently, only with the new millennium the study of bacterial-fungal interactions blossomed, becoming a new field of microbiology with relevance to microbial ecology, human health and biotechnology. Bacteria and fungi interact at different levels and bacterial endosymbionts, which dwell inside fungal cells, provide the most intimate example. Bacterial endosymbionts mostly occur in fungi of the phylum Mucoromycota and include Betaproteobacteria (Burkhoderia-related) and Mollicutes (Mycoplasma-related)...
April 7, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387770/amphibian-skin-microbiota-exhibits-temporal-variation-in-community-structure-but-stability-of-predicted-bd-inhibitory-function
#15
Molly C Bletz, R G Bina Perl, Bianca Tc Bobowski, Laura M Japke, Christoph C Tebbe, Anja B Dohrmann, Sabin Bhuju, Robert Geffers, Michael Jarek, Miguel Vences
Host-associated microbiomes are increasingly recognized to contribute to host disease resistance; the temporal dynamics of their community structure and function, however, are poorly understood. We investigated the cutaneous bacterial communities of three newt species, Ichthyosaura alpestris, Lissotriton vulgaris and Triturus cristatus, at approximately weekly intervals for 3 months using 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing. We hypothesized cutaneous microbiota would vary across time, and that such variation would be linked to changes in predicted fungal-inhibitory function...
April 7, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378015/explaining-recurring-maser-flares-in-the-ism-through-large-scale-entangled-quantum-mechanical-states
#16
Fereshteh Rajabi, Martin Houde
We apply Dicke's theory of superradiance (introduced in 1954) to the 6.7-GHz methanol and 22-GHz water spectral lines, often detected in molecular clouds as signposts for the early stages of the star formation process. We suggest that superradiance, characterized by burst-like features taking place over a wide range of time scales, may provide a natural explanation for the recent observations of periodic and seemingly alternating methanol and water maser flares in G107.298+5.639. Although these observations would be very difficult to explain within the context of maser theory, we show that these flares may result from simultaneously initiated 6...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376818/smokers-making-a-quit-attempt-using-e-cigarettes-with-or-without-nicotine-or-prescription-nicotine-replacement-therapy-impact-on-cardiovascular-function-isme-nrt-a-study-protocol
#17
Markos Klonizakis, Helen Crank, Anil Gumber, Leonie S Brose
BACKGROUND: The estimated number of cigarette smokers in the world is 1.3 billion, expected to rise to 1.7 billion by 2025, with 10 million smokers living in the U.K. Smoking is the leading, preventable death-cause worldwide, being responsible for almost 650,000 deaths in the E.U. annually. A combination of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural support is the most effective approach to smoking cessation. However, even the best methods have high relapse rates of approximately 75% within 6 months...
April 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375214/the-evolution-of-bacterial-cell-size-the-internal-diffusion-constraint-hypothesis
#18
Romain Gallet, Cyrille Violle, Nathalie Fromin, Roula Jabbour-Zahab, Brian J Enquist, Thomas Lenormand
Size is one of the most important biological traits influencing organismal ecology and evolution. However, we know little about the drivers of body size evolution in unicellulars. A long-term evolution experiment (Lenski's LTEE) in which Escherichia coli adapts to a simple glucose medium has shown that not only the growth rate and the fitness of the bacterium increase over time but also its cell size. This increase in size contradicts prominent 'external diffusion' theory (EDC) predicting that cell size should have evolved toward smaller cells...
April 4, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375213/niche-partitioning-of-diverse-sulfur-oxidizing-bacteria-at-hydrothermal-vents
#19
Dimitri V Meier, Petra Pjevac, Wolfgang Bach, Stephane Hourdez, Peter R Girguis, Charles Vidoudez, Rudolf Amann, Anke Meyerdierks
At deep-sea hydrothermal vents, primary production is carried out by chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, with the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds being a major driver for microbial carbon fixation. Dense and highly diverse assemblies of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are observed, yet the principles of niche differentiation between the different SOB across geochemical gradients remain poorly understood. In this study niche differentiation of the key SOB was addressed by extensive sampling of active sulfidic vents at six different hydrothermal venting sites in the Manus Basin, off Papua New Guinea...
April 4, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375212/faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-treatment-improves-hepatic-health-and-reduces-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#20
Eveliina Munukka, Anniina Rintala, Raine Toivonen, Matts Nylund, Baoru Yang, Anna Takanen, Arno Hänninen, Jaana Vuopio, Pentti Huovinen, Sirpa Jalkanen, Satu Pekkala
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is considered as one of the most important bacterial indicators of a healthy gut. We studied the effects of oral F. prausnitzii treatment on high-fat fed mice. Compared to the high-fat control mice, F. prausnitzii-treated mice had lower hepatic fat content, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and increased fatty acid oxidation and adiponectin signaling in liver. Hepatic lipidomic analyses revealed decreases in several species of triacylglycerols, phospholipids and cholesteryl esters...
April 4, 2017: ISME Journal
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