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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327247/the-biasing-effects-of-appearances-go-beyond-physical-attractiveness-and-mating-motives
#1
Christopher Y Olivola, Alexander Todorov
The influence of appearances goes well beyond physical attractiveness and includes the surprisingly powerful impact of "face-ism" - the tendency to stereotype individuals based on their facial features. A growing body of research has revealed that these face-based social attributions bias the outcomes of labor markets and experimental economic games in ways that are hard to explain via evolutionary mating motives.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324976/meandered-conformai-antenna-for-ism-band-ingestible-capsule-communication-systems
#2
Md Shamsul Arefin, Jean-Michel Redoute, Mehmet Rasit Yuce
The wireless capsule has been used to measure physiological parameters in the gastrointestinal tract where communication from in-body to external receiver is necessary using a miniaturized antenna with high gain and onmidirectional radiation pattern. This paper presents a meandered conformal antenna with center frequency of 433 MHz for a wireless link between an in-body capsule system and an ex-body receiver system. The antenna is wrapped around the wireless capsule, which provides extra space for other circuits and sensors inside the capsule as well as allows it having larger dimensions compared to inner antennas...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323281/chance-and-necessity-in-the-genome-evolution-of-endosymbiotic-bacteria-of-insects
#3
Beatriz Sabater-Muñoz, Christina Toft, David Alvarez-Ponce, Mario A Fares
An open question in evolutionary biology is how does the selection-drift balance determine the fates of biological interactions. We searched for signatures of selection and drift in genomes of five endosymbiotic bacterial groups known to evolve under strong genetic drift. Although most genes in endosymbiotic bacteria showed evidence of relaxed purifying selection, many genes in these bacteria exhibited stronger selective constraints than their orthologs in free-living bacterial relatives. Remarkably, most of these highly constrained genes had no role in the host-symbiont interactions but were involved in either buffering the deleterious consequences of drift or other host-unrelated functions, suggesting that they have either acquired new roles or their role became more central in endosymbiotic bacteria...
March 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323280/defining-the-functional-traits-that-drive-bacterial-decomposer-community-productivity
#4
Rachael Evans, Anna M Alessi, Susannah Bird, Simon J McQueen-Mason, Neil C Bruce, Michael A Brockhurst
Microbial communities are essential to a wide range of ecologically and industrially important processes. To control or predict how these communities function, we require a better understanding of the factors which influence microbial community productivity. Here, we combine functional resource use assays with a biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) experiment to determine whether the functional traits of constituent species can be used to predict community productivity. We quantified the abilities of 12 bacterial species to metabolise components of lignocellulose and then assembled these species into communities of varying diversity and composition to measure their productivity growing on lignocellulose, a complex natural substrate...
March 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323279/spontaneous-mutations-of-a-model-heterotrophic-marine-bacterium
#5
Ying Sun, Kate E Powell, Way Sung, Michael Lynch, Mary Ann Moran, Haiwei Luo
Heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton populations display substantive genomic diversity that is commonly explained to be the result of selective forces imposed by resource limitation or interactions with phage and predators. Here we use a mutation-accumulation experiment followed by whole-genome sequencing of mutation lines to determine an unbiased rate and molecular spectrum of spontaneous mutations for a model heterotrophic marine bacterium in the globally important Roseobacter clade, Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3...
March 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323278/acceptable-symbiont-cell-size-differs-among-cnidarian-species-and-may-limit-symbiont-diversity
#6
Elise Biquand, Nami Okubo, Yusuke Aihara, Vivien Rolland, David C Hayward, Masayuki Hatta, Jun Minagawa, Tadashi Maruyama, Shunichi Takahashi
Reef-building corals form symbiotic relationships with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Symbiodinium are genetically and physiologically diverse, and corals may be able to adapt to different environments by altering their dominant Symbiodinium phylotype. Notably, each coral species associates only with specific Symbiodinium phylotypes, and consequently the diversity of symbionts available to the host is limited by the species specificity. Currently, it is widely presumed that species specificity is determined by the combination of cell-surface molecules on the host and symbiont...
March 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323277/an-alternative-polysaccharide-uptake-mechanism-of-marine-bacteria
#7
Greta Reintjes, Carol Arnosti, Bernhard M Fuchs, Rudolf Amann
Heterotrophic microbial communities process much of the carbon fixed by phytoplankton in the ocean, thus having a critical role in the global carbon cycle. A major fraction of the phytoplankton-derived substrates are high-molecular-weight (HMW) polysaccharides. For bacterial uptake, these substrates must initially be hydrolysed to smaller sizes by extracellular enzymes. We investigated polysaccharide hydrolysis by microbial communities during a transect of the Atlantic Ocean, and serendipitously discovered-using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy-that up to 26% of total cells showed uptake of fluorescently labelled polysaccharides (FLA-PS)...
March 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304370/identification-of-dimethylamine-monooxygenase-in-marine-bacteria-reveals-a-metabolic-bottleneck-in-the-methylated-amine-degradation-pathway
#8
Ian Lidbury, Michaela A Mausz, David J Scanlan, Yin Chen
Methylated amines (MAs) are ubiquitous in the marine environment and their subsequent flux into the atmosphere can result in the formation of aerosols and ultimately cloud condensation nuclei. Therefore, these compounds have a potentially important role in climate regulation. Using Ruegeria pomeroyi as a model, we identified the genes encoding dimethylamine (DMA) monooxygenase (dmmABC) and demonstrate that this enzyme degrades DMA to monomethylamine (MMA). Although only dmmABC are required for enzyme activity in recombinant Escherichia coli, we found that an additional gene, dmmD, was required for the growth of R...
March 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304369/the-role-of-adaptive-immunity-as-an-ecological-filter-on-the-gut-microbiota-in-zebrafish
#9
Keaton Stagaman, Adam R Burns, Karen Guillemin, Brendan Jm Bohannan
All animals live in intimate association with communities of microbes, collectively referred to as their microbiota. Certain host traits can influence which microbial taxa comprise the microbiota. One potentially important trait in vertebrate animals is the adaptive immune system, which has been hypothesized to act as an ecological filter, promoting the presence of some microbial taxa over others. Here we surveyed the intestinal microbiota of 68 wild-type zebrafish, with functional adaptive immunity, and 61 rag1(-) zebrafish, lacking functional B- and T-cell receptors, to test the role of adaptive immunity as an ecological filter on the intestinal microbiota...
March 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291233/lysogeny-in-nature-mechanisms-impact-and-ecology-of-temperate-phages
#10
Cristina Howard-Varona, Katherine R Hargreaves, Stephen T Abedon, Matthew B Sullivan
Viruses that infect bacteria (phages) can influence bacterial community dynamics, bacterial genome evolution and ecosystem biogeochemistry. These influences differ depending on whether phages establish lytic, chronic or lysogenic infections. Although the first two produce virion progeny, with lytic infections resulting in cell destruction, phages undergoing lysogenic infections replicate with cells without producing virions. The impacts of lysogeny are numerous and well-studied at the cellular level, but ecosystem-level consequences remain underexplored compared to those of lytic infections...
March 14, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289945/a-novel-representation-of-inter-site-tumour-heterogeneity-from-pre-treatment-computed-tomography-textures-classifies-ovarian-cancers-by-clinical-outcome
#11
Hebert Alberto Vargas, Harini Veeraraghavan, Maura Micco, Stephanie Nougaret, Yulia Lakhman, Andreas A Meier, Ramon Sosa, Robert A Soslow, Douglas A Levine, Britta Weigelt, Carol Aghajanian, Hedvig Hricak, Joseph Deasy, Alexandra Snyder, Evis Sala
PURPOSE: To evaluate the associations between clinical outcomes and radiomics-derived inter-site spatial heterogeneity metrics across multiple metastatic lesions on CT in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). METHODS: IRB-approved retrospective study of 38 HGSOC patients. All sites of suspected HGSOC involvement on preoperative CT were manually segmented. Gray-level correlation matrix-based textures were computed from each tumour site, and grouped into five clusters using a Gaussian Mixture Model...
March 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288771/cattle-breeding-trypanosomosis-prevalence-and-drug-resistance-in-northern-togo
#12
E Tchamdja, A E Kulo, H S Vitouley, K Batawui, A A Bankolé, K Adomefa, G Cecchi, A Hoppenheit, P H Clausen, R De Deken, J Van Den Abbeele, T Marcotty, V Delespaux
African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is a major disease of cattle in Togo and its control is essentially based on chemotherapy. However, because of excessive use of trypanocides during the past decades, chemo-resistance in the parasites has developed. In order to assess the current situation of AAT and resistance to trypanocidal drugs in Northern Togo, a study was conducted on cattle from December 2012 to August 2013 in the regions of Kara and Savanes. An initial cross-sectional survey was carried out in 40 villages using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique (HCT)...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282042/divergent-extremes-but-convergent-recovery-of-bacterial-and-archaeal-soil-communities-to-an-ongoing-subterranean-coal-mine-fire
#13
Sang-Hoon Lee, Jackson W Sorensen, Keara L Grady, Tammy C Tobin, Ashley Shade
Press disturbances are stressors that are extended or ongoing relative to the generation times of community members, and, due to their longevity, have the potential to alter communities beyond the possibility of recovery. They also provide key opportunities to investigate ecological resilience and to probe biological limits in the face of prolonged stressors. The underground coal mine fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania has been burning since 1962 and severely alters the overlying surface soils by elevating temperatures and depositing coal combustion pollutants...
March 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282041/habitat-specific-patterns-and-drivers-of-bacterial-%C3%AE-diversity-in-china-s-drylands
#14
Xiao-Bo Wang, Xiao-Tao Lü, Jing Yao, Zheng-Wen Wang, Ye Deng, Wei-Xin Cheng, Ji-Zhong Zhou, Xing-Guo Han
The existence of biogeographic patterns among most free-living microbial taxa has been well established, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms that shape these patterns. Here, we examined soil bacterial β-diversity across different habitats in the drylands of northern China. We evaluated the relative importance of environmental factors versus geographic distance to a distance-decay relationship, which would be explained by the relative effect of basic ecological processes recognized as drivers of diversity patterns in macrobial theoretical models such as selection and dispersal...
March 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282040/impact-of-water-heater-temperature-setting-and-water-use-frequency-on-the-building-plumbing-microbiome
#15
Pan Ji, William J Rhoads, Marc A Edwards, Amy Pruden
Hot water plumbing is an important conduit of microbes into the indoor environment and can increase risk of opportunistic pathogens (for example, Legionella pneumophila). We examined the combined effects of water heater temperature (39, 42, 48, 51 and 58 °C), pipe orientation (upward/downward), and water use frequency (21, 3 and 1 flush per week) on the microbial composition at the tap using a pilot-scale pipe rig. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing indicated that bulk water and corresponding biofilm typically had distinct taxonomic compositions (R(2)Adonis=0...
March 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282039/membrane-vesicle-mediated-bacterial-communication
#16
Masanori Toyofuku, Kana Morinaga, Yohei Hashimoto, Jenny Uhl, Hiroko Shimamura, Hideki Inaba, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Leo Eberl, Nobuhiko Nomura
The classical quorum-sensing (QS) model is based on the assumption that diffusible signaling molecules accumulate in the culture medium until they reach a critical concentration upon which expression of target genes is triggered. Here we demonstrate that the hydrophobic signal N-hexadecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, which is produced by Paracoccus sp., is released from cells by the aid of membrane vesicles (MVs). Packed into MVs, the signal is not only solubilized in an aqueous environment but is also delivered with varying propensities to different bacteria...
March 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278038/an-ism-and-dematel-method-approach-for-the-analysis-of-barriers-of-waste-recycling-in-india
#17
Ankur Chauhan, Amol Singh, Sanjay Jharkharia
Increasing amount of wastes is posing great difficulties for all countries across the world. The problem of waste management is more severe in developing countries like India where the rates of economic growth and urbanization are increasing at a fast pace. The governments in these countries are often constrained by limited technical and financial capabilities, which prevent them from effectively addressing these problems. There is a limited participation from the private players too in terms of setting up of waste recycling units...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276966/in-situ-forming-biodegradable-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-microsphere-systems-a-challenge-for-transarterial-embolization-therapy-in-vitro-and-preliminary-ex-vivo-studies
#18
Andrea Salis, Elena P Porcu, Elisabetta Gavini, Giulia R Fois, Antonia Icaro Cornaglia, Giovanna Rassu, Marco Diana, Marcello Maestri, Paolo Giunchedi, Ioannis Nikolakakis
BACKGROUND: In situ forming biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microspheres (PCL-ISM) system was developed as a novel embolic agent for transarterial embolization (TAE) therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ibuprofen sodium (Ibu-Na) was loaded on this platform to evaluate its potential for the treatment of post embolization syndrome. METHODS: The influence of formulation parameters on the size/shape, encapsulation efficiency and drug release was investigated using mixture experimental design...
March 1, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269421/hardware-design-for-a-cable-free-fully-insertable-wireless-laparoscopic-robotic-camera
#19
Ning Li, Gregory J Mancini, Jindong Tan
The field of insertable laparoscopic robotic camera is gaining increasing attentions from researchers, surgeons, and also patients. Although many insertable laparoscope prototypes have been introduced, few of them get rid of the encumbrance tethering cable. In this paper, we proposed a hardware architecture for a magnetic actuated robotic surgical (MARS) camera, which facilitates a cable-free fully insertable laparoscopic surgical robotic camera with adequate in-vivo mobility. Modular design and preliminary test of on-board functional payloads have shown feasibility of a cable-free insertable wireless laparoscopic surgical camera based on off-the-shelf electronics and industrial wireless standards operating in ISM frequency bands at 2...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267153/seasonal-patterns-in-arctic-prasinophytes-and-inferred-ecology-of-bathycoccus-unveiled-in-an-arctic-winter-metagenome
#20
Nathalie Joli, Adam Monier, Ramiro Logares, Connie Lovejoy
Prasinophytes occur in all oceans but rarely dominate phytoplankton populations. In contrast, a single ecotype of the prasinophyte Micromonas is frequently the most abundant photosynthetic taxon reported in the Arctic from summer through autumn. However, seasonal dynamics of prasinophytes outside of this period are little known. To address this, we analyzed high-throughput V4 18S rRNA amplicon data collected from November to July in the Amundsen Gulf Region, Beaufort Sea, Arctic. Surprisingly during polar sunset in November and December, we found a high proportion of reads from both DNA and RNA belonging to another prasinophyte, Bathycoccus...
March 7, 2017: ISME Journal
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