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Adriana Lopes Dos Santos, Priscillia Gourvil, Margot Tragin, Mary-Hélène Noël, Johan Decelle, Sarah Romac, Daniel Vaulot
Prasinophytes clade VII is a group of pico/nano-planktonic green algae (division Chlorophyta) for which numerous ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences have been retrieved from the marine environment in the last 15 years. A large number of strains have also been isolated but have not yet received a formal taxonomic description. A phylogenetic analysis of available strains using both the nuclear 18S and plastidial 16S rRNA genes demonstrates that this group composes at least 10 different clades: A1-A7 and B1-B3. Analysis of sequences from the variable V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene collected during the Tara Oceans expedition and in the frame of the Ocean Sampling Day consortium reveal that clade VII is the dominant Chlorophyta group in oceanic waters, replacing Mamiellophyceae, which have this role in coastal waters...
October 25, 2016: ISME Journal
Friardi Ismed, Françoise Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Isabelle Rouaud, Solenn Ferron, Amri Bakhtiar, Joël Boustie
The phytochemical study of Stereocaulon montagneanum harvested in Sumatra (Indonesia) led to the isolation of 11 known compounds including two metabolites not previously described in the genus Stereocaulon, peristictic acid (8) and menegazziaic acid (10). The complete 1H and 13C NMR spectral assignments of stictic acid derivatives are reported with some revisions. Five depsidones belonging to the stictic acid chemosyndrome were superoxide anion scavengers as potent as ascorbic acid and with no toxicity on two human cell lines...
October 22, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Animesh Pardanani
: Disease overview:Systemic mastocytosis (SM) results from a clonal proliferation of abnormal mast cells (MC) in one or more extra-cutaneous organs. DIAGNOSIS: The major criterion is presence of multifocal clusters of morphologically abnormal MC in the bone marrow. Minor diagnostic criteria include elevated serum tryptase level, abnormal MC expression of CD25 and/or CD2, and presence of KITD816V. Risk stratification: The 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of SM has been shown to be prognostically relevant...
November 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Katsunori Yanagawa, Akira Ijiri, Anja Breuker, Sanae Sakai, Youko Miyoshi, Shinsuke Kawagucci, Takuroh Noguchi, Miho Hirai, Axel Schippers, Jun-Ichiro Ishibashi, Yoshihiro Takaki, Michinari Sunamura, Tetsuro Urabe, Takuro Nunoura, Ken Takai
Subseafloor microbes beneath active hydrothermal vents are thought to live near the upper temperature limit for life on Earth. We drilled and cored the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough, and examined the phylogenetic compositions and the products of metabolic functions of sub-vent microbial communities. We detected microbial cells, metabolic activities and molecular signatures only in the shallow sediments down to 15.8 m below the seafloor at a moderately distant drilling site from the active hydrothermal vents (450 m)...
October 18, 2016: ISME Journal
A Artuso, C Caimmi, G Tripi, O Viapiana, M Bonifacio, L Idolazzi, I Gavioli, D Gatti, R Zanotti, M Rossini
Systemic Mastocytosis has been long identified as a potential cause of osteoporosis; nevertheless, data regarding longitudinal variation of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) are missing . We studied BMD variation at lumbar spine and proximal hip after 30-month (±6 months) follow-up in a large cohort of patients (83) with ISM without osteoporosis, supplementated with vitamin D and/or calcium when needed. We also analyzed the correlation between variation of BMD, basal serum tryptase levels and bone turnover markers (BTM)...
October 14, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Keisuke Inomura, Jason Bragg, Michael J Follows
Nitrogen fixation is advantageous in microbial competition when bioavailable nitrogen is scarce, but has substantial costs for growth rate and growth efficiency. To quantify these costs, we have developed a model of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium that constrains mass, electron and energy flow at the scale of the individual. When tested and calibrated with laboratory data for the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, the model reveals that the direct energetic cost of nitrogen fixation is small relative to the cost of managing intracellular oxygen...
October 14, 2016: ISME Journal
Jennifer Bh Martiny, Adam C Martiny, Claudia Weihe, Ying Lu, Renaud Berlemont, Eoin L Brodie, Michael L Goulden, Kathleen K Treseder, Steven D Allison
Terrestrial ecosystem models assume that microbial communities respond instantaneously, or are immediately resilient, to environmental change. Here we tested this assumption by quantifying the resilience of a leaf litter community to changes in precipitation or nitrogen availability. By manipulating composition within a global change experiment, we decoupled the legacies of abiotic parameters versus that of the microbial community itself. After one rainy season, more variation in fungal composition could be explained by the original microbial inoculum than the litterbag environment (18% versus 5...
October 14, 2016: ISME Journal
Jie Hao, Tongfang Xiao, Fei Wu, Ping Yu, Lanqun Mao
In vivo monitoring of pH in live brain remains very essential to understanding acid-base chemistry in various physiological processes. This study demonstrates a potentiometric method for in vivo monitoring of pH in the central nervous system with carbon fiber-based proton-selective electrodes (CF-H+ISEs) with high anti-fouling property. The CF-H+ISEs are prepared by formation of a H+-selective membrane (H+ISM) with polyvinyl chloride polymeric matrixes containing plasticizer bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate, H+ ionophore tridodecylamine, and ion exchanger potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate onto carbon fiber electrodes (CFEs)...
October 14, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Gabriele Cazzoli, Valerio Lattanzi, Till Kirsch, Jürgen Gauss, Belén Tercero, José Cernicharo, Cristina Puzzarini
CONTEXT: Despite the fact that many sulfur-bearing molecules, ranging from simple diatomic species up to astronomical complex molecules, have been detected in the interstellar medium, the sulfur chemistry in space is largely unknown and a depletion in the abundance of S-containing species has been observed in the cold, dense interstellar medium (ISM). The chemical form of the missing sulfur has yet to be identified. AIMS: For these reasons, in view of the fact that there is a large abundance of triatomic species harbouring sulfur, oxygen, and hydrogen, we decided to investigate the HSO radical in the laboratory to try its astronomical detection...
July 2016: Astronomy and Astrophysics
Rishi Srivastava, Deepak Bajaj, Yogesh K Sayal, Prabina K Meher, Hari D Upadhyaya, Rajendra Kumar, Shailesh Tripathi, Chellapilla Bharadwaj, Atmakuri R Rao, Swarup K Parida
The discovery and large-scale genotyping of informative gene-based markers is essential for rapid delineation of genes/QTLs governing stress tolerance and yield component traits in order to drive genetic enhancement in chickpea. A genome-wide 119169 and 110491 ISM (intron-spanning markers) from 23129 desi and 20386 kabuli protein-coding genes and 7454 in silico InDel (insertion-deletion) (1-45-bp)-based ILP (intron-length polymorphism) markers from 3283 genes were developed that were structurally and functionally annotated on eight chromosomes and unanchored scaffolds of chickpea...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Soad Ali Yehia, Sally Adel Abdel-Halim, Mary Yosry Aziz
The objective of this study is to formulate biodegradable in situ microparticles (ISM) containing lornoxicam for post-operative and arthritic pain management. ISM emulsions were prepared according to 2(5) full factorial experimental design to investigate the influence of formulation variables on the release profile of the drug. The independent variables studied are the polymer type, polymer inherent viscosity, polymer concentration, oil type and polymer:oil ratio. In vitro drug release, microscopical examination, particle size determination and syringeability measurement were selected as dependent variables...
October 21, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Manfred Weidmann, Tatjana Avsic-Zupanc, Silvia Bino, Michelle Bouloy, Felicity Burt, Sadegh Chinikar, Iva Christova, Isuf Dedushaj, Ahmed El-Sanousi, Nazif Elaldi, Roger Hewson, Frank T Hufert, Isme Humolli, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Zeliha Koçak Tufan, Gülay Korukluoglu, Pieter Lyssen, Ali Mirazimi, Johan Neyts, Matthias Niedrig, Aykut Ozkul, Anna Papa, Janusz Paweska, Amadou A Sall, Connie S Schmaljohn, Robert Swanepoel, Yavuz Uyar, Friedemann Weber, Herve Zeller
In countries from which Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is absent, the causative virus CCHF virus (CCHFV) is classified as a hazard group 4 agent and handled in containment level 4. In contrast, most endemic countries out of necessity have had to perform diagnostic tests under biosafety level (BSL) -2 or -3 conditions. In particular, Turkey and several of the Balkan countries have safely processed more than 100000 samples over many years in BSL-2 laboratories. It is therefore advocated that biosafety requirements for CCHF diagnostic procedures should be revised, to allow the required tests to be performed under enhanced BSL-2 conditions with appropriate biosafety laboratory equipment and personal protective equipment used according to standardized protocols in the affected countries...
September 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Mieke Veltman, Marta Stolarczyk, Danuta Radzioch, Gabriella Wojewodka, Juan B De Sanctis, Willem A Dik, Oleh Dzyubachyk, Tamas Oravecz, Ismé De Kleer, Bob J Scholte
Progressive lung disease with early onset is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in Cystic Fibrosis patients. Here we report a reduction of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) in the lung of unchallenged Cftrtm1EUR F508del CFTR mutant mice. This correlates with enhanced infiltration by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressing granulocytes, B- and T-cells. Furthermore, the ratio of macrophage derived dendritic cells (MoDC) to conventional dendritic cells (cDC) is higher in mutant mouse lung, consistent with unprovoked inflammation...
September 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Olaya Rendueles, Gregory J Velicer
Evolutionary adaptation can be achieved by mechanisms accessible to all organisms, including faster growth and interference competition, but self-generated motility offers additional possibilities. We tested whether 55 populations of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus that underwent selection for increased fitness at the leading edge of swarming colonies adapted by swarming faster toward unused resources or by other means. Populations adapted greatly but diversified markedly in both swarming phenotypes and apparent mechanisms of adaptation...
September 23, 2016: ISME Journal
Ovidiu Popa, Giddy Landan, Tal Dagan
Bacteriophages are recognized DNA vectors and transduction is considered as a common mechanism of lateral gene transfer (LGT) during microbial evolution. Anecdotal events of phage-mediated gene transfer were studied extensively, however, a coherent evolutionary viewpoint of LGT by transduction, its extent and characteristics, is still lacking. Here we report a large-scale evolutionary reconstruction of transduction events in 3982 genomes. We inferred 17 158 recent transduction events linking donors, phages and recipients into a phylogenomic transduction network view...
September 20, 2016: ISME Journal
Alexander B Bochdansky, Melissa A Clouse, Gerhard J Herndl
In the bathypelagic realm of the ocean, the role of marine snow as a carbon and energy source for the deep-sea biota and as a potential hotspot of microbial diversity and activity has not received adequate attention. Here, we collected bathypelagic marine snow by gentle gravity filtration of sea water onto 30 μm filters from ~1000 to 3900 m to investigate the relative distribution of eukaryotic microbes. Compared with sediment traps that select for fast-sinking particles, this method collects particles unbiased by settling velocity...
September 20, 2016: ISME Journal
Marlies Meisel, Toufic Mayassi, Hannah Fehlner-Peach, Jason C Koval, Sarah L O'Brien, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Kathryn Lesko, Sangman Kim, Romain Bouziat, Li Chen, Christopher R Weber, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Bana Jabri, Dionysios A Antonopoulos
Dysbiosis resulting in gut-microbiome alterations with reduced butyrate production are thought to disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis and promote complex immune disorders. However, whether and how dysbiosis develops before the onset of overt pathology remains poorly defined. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is upregulated in distressed tissue and its overexpression is thought to predispose susceptible individuals to and have a role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the immunological roles of IL-15 have been largely studied, its potential impact on the microbiota remains unexplored...
September 20, 2016: ISME Journal
Orly Sarid, Julie Cwikel, Johanna Czamanski-Cohen, Ephrat Huss
This paper presents an overview of a combined, evaluated protocol, cognitive behavioural and art therapy treatment (CB-ART), for the treatment of women with perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs). The protocol integrates cognitive behavioural interventions and art therapy. CB-ART focuses on changing distressing image, symptom or memory (ISM) that interferes with functioning. The method directs clients to identify compositional elements that characterize their stressful ISM and to alter the element in their imagination, in bodily sensations and on the page...
September 19, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Ashley Shade
Local diversity (within-sample or alpha diversity) is often implicated as a cause of success or failure of a microbial community. However, the relationships between diversity and emergent properties of a community, such as its stability, productivity or invasibility, are much more nuanced. I argue that diversity without context provides limited insights into the mechanisms underpinning community patterns. I provide examples from traditional and microbial ecology to discuss common complications and assumptions about within-sample diversity that may prevent us from digging deeper into the more specific mechanisms underpinning community outcomes...
September 16, 2016: ISME Journal
Xénia Nagy, Lajos Höfler
An amperometric method is reported that compensates for the interference from marginally discriminated interfering ions when using traditional polymeric ion-selective membrane (ISM) electrodes. The concept involves utilizing two ISMs in a three-compartment electrochemical cell configuration. The two ISMs are identical in composition except for the addition of an ionophore to one of the membranes. Initially, all three compartments contain the same concentration of interfering ion and the membrane does not contain primary ions...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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