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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211848/host-specificity-of-symbiodinium-variants-revealed-by-an-its2-metahaplotype-approach
#1
Edward G Smith, Remi N Ketchum, John A Burt
Analysis of the widely used ITS region is confounded by the presence of intragenomic variants (IGVs). In Symbiodinium, the algal symbionts of reef building corals, deep-sequencing analyses are used to characterise communities within corals, yet these analyses largely overlook IGVs. Here we consider that distinct ITS2 sequences could represent IGVs rather than distinct symbiont types and argue that symbionts can be distinguished by their proportional composition of IGVs, described as their ITS2 metahaplotype...
February 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211847/syntrophic-linkage-between-predatory-carpediemonas-and-specific-prokaryotic-populations
#2
Emmo Hamann, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Dietmar Riedel, Sten Littmann, Soeren Ahmerkamp, Jianwei Chen, Philipp F Hach, Marc Strous
Most anoxic environments are populated by small (<10 μm) heterotrophic eukaryotes that prey on different microbial community members. How predatory eukaryotes engage in beneficial interactions with other microbes has rarely been investigated so far. Here, we studied an example of such an interaction by cultivating the anerobic marine flagellate, Carpediemonas frisia sp. nov. (supergroup Excavata), with parts of its naturally associated microbiome. This microbiome consisted of so far uncultivated members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Nanoarchaeota...
February 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197113/what-is-seen-is-who-you-are-are-cues-in-selfie-pictures-related-to-personality-characteristics
#3
Bojan Musil, Andrej Preglej, Tadevž Ropert, Lucia Klasinc, Nenad Č Babič
Developments and innovation in the areas of mobile information technology, digital media and social networks foster new reflections on computer-mediated communication research, especially in the field of self-presentation. In this context, the selfie as a self-portrait photo is interesting, because as a meaningful gesture, it actively and directly relates the content of the photo to the author of the picture. From the perspective of the selfie as an image and the impression it forms, in the first part of the research we explored the distinctive characteristics of selfie pictures; moreover, from the perspective of the potential reflection of a selfie image on the personality of its author, in the second part we related the characteristics of selfie pictures to various personality constructs (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195581/cultivation-and-characterization-of-candidatus-nitrosocosmicus-exaquare-an-ammonia-oxidizing-archaeon-from-a-municipal-wastewater-treatment-system
#4
Laura A Sauder, Mads Albertsen, Katja Engel, Jasmin Schwarz, Per H Nielsen, Michael Wagner, Josh D Neufeld
Thaumarchaeota have been detected in several industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), despite the fact that ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are thought to be adapted to low ammonia environments. However, the activity, physiology and metabolism of WWTP-associated AOA remain poorly understood. We report the cultivation and complete genome sequence of Candidatus Nitrosocosmicus exaquare, a novel AOA representative from a municipal WWTP in Guelph, Ontario (Canada). In enrichment culture, Ca...
February 14, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194968/pedot-pss-as-solid-contact-for-ion-selective-electrodes-the-influence-of-the-pedot-pss-film-thickness-on-the-equilibration-times
#5
Marcin Guzinski, Jennifer Marie Jarvis, Felio Perez, Bradford D Pendley, Erno Lindner, Roland de Marco, Gaston A Crespo, Robert G Acres, Raymart Walker, Josiah Luke Bishop
To understand the rate determining processes during the equilibration of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate-based (PEDOT(PSS)-based) solid contact (SC) ion-selective electrodes (ISEs), the surfaces of Pt, Au, and GC electrodes were coated with 0.1, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0μm thick galvanostatically deposited PEDOT(PSS) films. Next, potential vs. time transients were recorded with these electrodes, with and without an additional potassium ion-selective membrane (ISM) coating, following their first contact with 0...
February 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192935/pre-polarized-hydrophobic-conducting-polymer-solid-contact-ion-selective-electrodes-with-improved-potential-reproducibility
#6
Ning He, Soma Papp, Tom Lindfors, Lajos Höfler, Rose-Marie Latonen, Róbert E Gyurcsányi
Electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) are one of the most popular types of materials to interface ion-selective membranes (ISMs) with electron-conducting substrates to construct solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SCISEs). For optimal ion-to-electron transduction and potential stability, the p-doped ECPs with low oxidation potentials such as PPy need to be generally in their conducting form along with providing a sufficiently hydrophobic interface to counteract the aqueous layer formation. The first criterion requires that the ECPs are in their oxidized state, but the high charge density of this state is detrimental for the prevention of the aqueous layer formation...
February 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192504/compact-circularly-polarized-truncated-square-ring-slot-antenna-with-suppressed-higher-resonances
#7
Mursyidul Idzam Sabran, Sharul Kamal Abdul Rahim, Chee Yen Leow, Ping Jack Soh, Beng Wah Chew, Guy A E Vandenbosch
This paper presents a compact circularly polarized (CP) antenna with an integrated higher order harmonic rejection filter. The proposed design operates within the ISM band of 2.32 GHz- 2.63 GHz and is suitable for example for wireless power transfer applications. Asymmetrical truncated edges on a square ring create a defected ground structure to excite the CP property, simultaneously realizing compactness. It offers a 50.5% reduced patch area compared to a conventional design. Novel stubs and slot shapes are integrated in the transmission line to reduce higher (up to the third) order harmonics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192307/optical-photon-reassignment-with-increased-axial-resolution-by-structured-illumination
#8
Stephan Roth, Rainer Heintzmann
Fluorescent microscopy methods linked to the reassignment principle as image scanning microscopy (ISM), re-scan confocal (RSC), optical photon reassignment (OPRA) and instant structured illumination microscopy (iSIM) have the potential to replace confocal microscopy as the standard microscopy technique. Photon reassignment methods are known to link the most important properties in biological imaging as resolution, sensitivity, imaging speed and combinability with fluorophores in an elegant way. On the example of OPRA, we show how this method could be easily extended to the third dimension...
November 22, 2016: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186726/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-visualization-and-trapping-of-fluorescent-magnetic-microcapsules-in-a-blood-stream
#9
Denis V Voronin, Olga Sindeeva, Maxim Kurochkin, Oksana Mayorova, Ivan Fedosov, Oksana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Dmitry A Gorin, Valery V Tuchin, Gleb B Sukhorukov
Remote navigation and site specific targeting of biologically active compounds is one of the current challenges in development of drug delivery systems. Modern methods of micro- and nanofabrication allow us to make particles and capsules bearing cargo to deploy and possess magnetic properties to be externally addressed. In this work we explore multilayer composite magnetic microcapsules as targeted delivery systems under natural conditions of living organ-ism involving in vitro and in vivo studies. Herein, we demonstrate magnetic addressing of fluorescent composite microcapsules with embedded magnetite nanoparticles in a blood flow environment...
February 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186498/underlying-mechanisms-for-syntrophic-metabolism-of-essential-enzyme-cofactors-in-microbial-communities
#10
Margaret F Romine, Dmitry A Rodionov, Yukari Maezato, Andrei L Osterman, William C Nelson
Many microorganisms are unable to synthesize essential B vitamin-related enzyme cofactors de novo. The underlying mechanisms by which such microbes survive in multi-species communities are largely unknown. We previously reported the near-complete genome sequence of two ~18-member unicyanobacterial microbial consortia that maintain stable membership on defined medium lacking vitamins. Here we have used genome analysis and growth studies on isolates derived from the consortia to reconstruct pathways for biogenesis of eight essential cofactors and predict cofactor usage and precursor exchange in these communities...
February 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185408/full-field-digital-mammography-is-the-apparent-increased-detection-of-microcalcification-leading-to-over-investigation-and-over-diagnosis
#11
Alan J Porter, Elizabeth B Evans, Lisa M Erzetich
INTRODUCTION: Modern full-field digital mammography (FFDM) appears to have increased the detection of breast microcalcification. This retrospective study aimed to assess whether this is associated with over-investigation and possible over-diagnosis of breast pathology of lesser significance. METHODS: Three 2-year periods were studied, in which different mammographic technologies were used exclusively viz., classical screen-film mammography (SFM) in 2003-04, computed radiography (CR) in 2009-10 and FFDM in 2012-13...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169988/chemolithotrophic-processes-in-the-bacterial-communities-on-the-surface-of-mineral-enriched-biochars
#12
Jun Ye, Stephen D Joseph, Mukan Ji, Shaun Nielsen, David R G Mitchell, Scott Donne, Joseph Horvat, Jianli Wang, Paul Munroe, Torsten Thomas
Biochar and mineral-enriched biochar (MEB) have been used as soil amendments to improve soil fertility, sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Such beneficial outcomes could be partially mediated by soil bacteria, however little is known about how they directly interact with biochar or MEB. We therefore analyzed the diversity and functions of bacterial communities on the surfaces of one biochar and two different MEBs after a 140-day incubation in soil. The results show that the biochar and the MEBs harbor distinct bacterial communities to the bulk soil...
February 7, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157187/soil-microorganisms-can-overcome-respiration-inhibition-by-coupling-intra-and-extracellular-metabolism-13-c-metabolic-tracing-reveals-the-mechanisms
#13
Ezekiel K Bore, Carolin Apostel, Sara Halicki, Yakov Kuzyakov, Michaela A Dippold
CO2 release from soil is commonly used to estimate toxicity of various substances on microorganisms. However, the mechanisms underlying persistent CO2 release from soil exposed to toxicants inhibiting microbial respiration, for example, sodium azide (NaN3) or heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Cu), remain unclear. To unravel these mechanisms, NaN3-amended soil was incubated with position-specifically (13)C-labeled glucose and (13)C was quantified in CO2, bulk soil, microbial biomass and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs)...
February 3, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140394/sticking-together-inter-species-aggregation-of-bacteria-isolated-from-iron-snow-is-controlled-by-chemical-signaling
#14
Jiro F Mori, Nico Ueberschaar, Shipeng Lu, Rebecca E Cooper, Georg Pohnert, Kirsten Küsel
Marine and lake snow is a continuous shower of mixed organic and inorganic aggregates falling from the upper water where primary production is substantial. These pelagic aggregates provide a niche for microbes that can exploit these physical structures and resources for growth, thus are local hot spots for microbial activity. However, processes underlying their formation remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of chemical signaling between two co-occurring bacteria that each make up more than 10% of the community in iron-rich lakes aggregates (iron snow)...
January 31, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140393/archaea-and-bacteria-mediate-the-effects-of-native-species-root-loss-on-fungi-during-plant-invasion
#15
Steven D Mamet, Eric G Lamb, Candace L Piper, Tristrom Winsley, Steven D Siciliano
Although invasive plants can drive ecosystem change, little is known about the directional nature of belowground interactions between invasive plants, native roots, bacteria, archaea and fungi. We used detailed bioinformatics and a recently developed root assay on soils collected in fescue grassland along a gradient of smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) invasion to examine the links between smooth brome shoot litter and root, archaea, bacteria and fungal communities. We examined (1) aboveground versus belowground influences of smooth brome on soil microbial communities, (2) the importance of direct versus microbe-mediated impacts of plants on soil fungal communities, and (3) the web of roots, shoots, archaea, bacteria and fungi interactions across the A and B soil horizons in invaded and non-invaded sites...
January 31, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133388/high-energy-electron-irradiation-of-interstellar-carbonaceous-dust-analogs-cosmic-ray-effects-on-the-carriers-of-the-3-4-%C3%A2%C2%B5m-absorption-band
#16
Belén Maté, Germán Molpeceres, Miguel Jiménez-Redondo, Isabel Tanarro, Víctor J Herrero
The effects of cosmic rays on the carriers of the interstellar 3.4 μm absorption band have been investigated in the laboratory. This band is attributed to stretching vibrations of CH3 and CH2 in carbonaceous dust. It is widely observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), but disappears in dense clouds. Destruction of CH3 and CH2 by cosmic rays could become relevant in dense clouds, shielded from the external ultraviolet field. For the simulations, samples of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) have been irradiated with 5 keV electrons...
November 1, 2016: Astrophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129185/integral-sliding-mode-fault-tolerant-control-for-uncertain-linear-systems-over-networks-with-signals-quantization
#17
Li-Ying Hao, Ju H Park, Dan Ye
In this paper, a new robust fault-tolerant compensation control method for uncertain linear systems over networks is proposed, where only quantized signals are assumed to be available. This approach is based on the integral sliding mode (ISM) method where two kinds of integral sliding surfaces are constructed. One is the continuous-state-dependent surface with the aim of sliding mode stability analysis and the other is the quantization-state-dependent surface, which is used for ISM controller design. A scheme that combines the adaptive ISM controller and quantization parameter adjustment strategy is then proposed...
June 13, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117833/a-fungal-wheat-pathogen-evolved-host-specialization-by-extensive-chromosomal-rearrangements
#18
Fanny E Hartmann, Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Bruce A McDonald, Daniel Croll
Fungal pathogens can rapidly evolve virulence towards resistant crops in agricultural ecosystems. Gains in virulence are often mediated by the mutation or deletion of a gene encoding a protein recognized by the plant immune system. However, the loci and the mechanisms of genome evolution enabling rapid virulence evolution are poorly understood. We performed genome-wide association mapping on a global collection of 106 strains of Zymoseptoria tritici, the most damaging pathogen of wheat in Europe, to identify polymorphisms linked to virulence on two wheat varieties...
January 24, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117832/salivary-mucins-promote-the-coexistence-of-competing-oral-bacterial-species
#19
Erica Shapiro Frenkel, Katharina Ribbeck
Mucus forms a major ecological niche for microbiota in various locations throughout the human body such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and oral cavity. The primary structural components of mucus are mucin glycoproteins, which crosslink to form a complex polymer network that surrounds microbes. Although the mucin matrix could create constraints that impact inhabiting microbes, little is understood about how this key environmental factor affects interspecies interactions. In this study, we develop an experimental model using gel-forming human salivary mucins to understand the influence of mucin on the viability of two competing species of oral bacteria...
January 24, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113558/the-fabrication-implantation-and-stability-of-intraspinal-microwire-arrays-in-the-spinal-cord-of-cat-and-rat
#20
Jeremy Bamford, R Lebel, Kian Parseyan, Vivian Mushahwar
Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is currently under investigation for its ability to restore function following spinal cord injury and aid in addressing basic investigations of the spinal cord in feline and murine (rat) models. In this report we describe the procedures for fabricating and implanting intraspinal microwires, with special emphasis on the rat model. Furthermore, we report our results on targeting success and long-term stability and functionality of the implants. Early targeting with implants fabricated based on general 'average' dimensions of the spinal cord was approximately 50% successful in reaching the proper targets within the ventral grey matter in cats...
April 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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