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Kris G Alavattam, Yasuko Kato, Ho-Su Sin, So Maezawa, Ian J Kowalski, Fan Zhang, Qishen Pang, Paul R Andreassen, Satoshi H Namekawa
Precise epigenetic regulation of the sex chromosomes is vital for the male germline. Here, we analyze meiosis in eight mouse models deficient for various DNA damage response (DDR) factors, including Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins. We reveal a network of FA and DDR proteins in which FA core factors FANCA, FANCB, and FANCC are essential for FANCD2 foci formation, whereas BRCA1 (FANCS), MDC1, and RNF8 are required for BRCA2 (FANCD1) and SLX4 (FANCP) accumulation on the sex chromosomes during meiosis. In addition, FA proteins modulate distinct histone marks on the sex chromosomes: FA core proteins and FANCD2 regulate H3K9 methylation, while FANCD2 and RNF8 function together to regulate H3K4 methylation independently of FA core proteins...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Jiajin Yang, Heng Ge, Caroline J Poulton, Susan L Hogan, Yichun Hu, Britta E Jones, Candace D Henderson, Elizabeth A McInnis, William F Pendergraft, J Charles Jennette, Ronald J Falk, Dominic J Ciavatta
BACKGROUND: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by destructive vascular inflammation. Two prominent ANCA autoantigens are myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3), and transcription of MPO and PRTN3, the genes encoding the autoantigens, is associated with disease activity. We investigated whether patients with AAV have alterations in histone modifications, particularly those associated with transcriptional activation, at MPO and PRTN3...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Ai-Shun Guo, Yi-Qun Huang, Xu-Dong Ma, Rui-Sheng Lin
The present study aimed to investigate the differential expression and clinical significance of histone methyltransferase G9a, histone H3K9me2 and histone H3K9me1 in human brain glioma and adjacent tissue samples. It also aimed to observe the effect and mechanism of BIX‑01294, as an inhibitor of methyltransferase G9a, on the proliferation, apoptosis, methylation of H3K9 and H3K27, and the acetylation in U251 glioma cells in vitro. The differential expression of methyltransferase G9a, histone H3K9me2 and histone H3K9me1 in in human brain glioma and adjacent tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, a growth curve of U251 cells following treatment with BIX‑01294 was determined using the MTT assay...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Fernanda Wisnieski, Mariana Ferreira Leal, Danielle Queiroz Calcagno, Leonardo Caires Santos, Carolina Oliveira Gigek, Elizabeth Suchi Chen, Ricardo Artigiani, Sâmia Demachki, Paulo Pimentel Assumpção, Laércio Gomes Lourenço, Rommel Rodriguez Burbano, Marília Cardoso Smith
Different from genetic alterations, the reversible nature of epigenetic modifications provides an interesting opportunity for the development of clinically relevant therapeutics in different tumors. In this study, we aimed to screen and validate candidate genes regulated by the epigenetic marker associated with transcriptional activation, histone acetylation, in gastric cancer (GC). We first compared gene expression profile of trichostatin A-treated and control GC cell lines using microarray assay. Among the 55 differentially expressed genes identified in this analysis, we chose the up-regulated genes BMP8B and BAMBI for further analyzes, that included mRNA and histone acetylation quantification in paired GC and nontumor tissue samples...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Xiang Yuan, Jinyu Kong, Zhikun Ma, Na Li, Ruinuo Jia, Yiwen Liu, Fuyou Zhou, Qimin Zhan, Gang Liu, Shegan Gao
Our studies investigating the existence of tumor-initiating cell (TIC) populations in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) had identified a subpopulation of cells isolated from ESCC patient-derived tumor specimens marked by an ALDH(bri+) phenotype bear stem cell-like features. Importantly, KDM4C, a histone demethylase was enhanced in ALDH(bri+) subpopulation, suggesting that strategies interfering with KDM4C may be able to target these putative TICs. In the present study, by genetic and chemical means, we demonstrated that, KDM4C blockade selectively decreased the ESCC ALDH(bri+) TICs population in vitro and specifically targeted the TICs in ALDH(bri+)-derived xenograft, retarding engraftment...
October 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
B Roche, B Arcangioli, R A Martienssen
Quiescent cells play a predominant role in most organisms. Here, we identify RNA interference (RNAi) as a major requirement for quiescence (G0) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNAi mutants lose viability at G0-entry and are unable to maintain long-term quiescence. We obtained dcr1Δ G0 suppressors, which mapped to genes involved in chromosome segregation, RNA polymerase-associated factors, and heterochromatin formation. We propose a model in which RNAi promotes RNA polymerase release in cycling and quiescent cells: (i) RNA pol II release mediates heterochromatin formation at centromeres allowing proper chromosome segregation during mitotic growth and G0-entry, and (ii) RNA pol I release prevents heterochromatin formation at rDNA during quiescence maintenance...
October 13, 2016: Science
Ermelinda Lomazzo, Florian König, Leila Abassi, Ruth Jelinek, Beat Lutz
Persistent stress triggers a variety of mechanisms, which may ultimately lead to the occurrence of anxiety- and depression-related disorders. Epigenetic modifications represent a mechanism by which chronic stress mediates long-term effects. Here, we analyzed brain tissue from mice exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which induced impaired emotional and nociceptive behaviors. As endocannabinoid (eCB) and neuropeptide-Y (Npy) systems modulate emotional processes, we hypothesized that CUS may affect these systems through epigenetic mechanisms...
October 10, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Daisuke Muramatsu, Hiroshi Kimura, Kaoru Kotoshiba, Makoto Tachibana, Yoichi Shinkai
Pericentric regions form epigenetically organized, silent heterochromatin structures that accumulate histone H3 lysine 9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), a methylated H3K9-binding protein. At pericentric regions, Suv39h is the major enzyme that generates H3K9me3. Suv39h also interacts directly with HP1. However, the importance of HP1 interaction for Suv39h-mediated H3K9me3 formation at the pericentromere is not well characterized. To address this question, we introduced HP1 binding-defective, N-terminally truncated mouse Suv39h1 (ΔN) into Suv39h-deficient cells...
October 12, 2016: Cell Structure and Function
Richard T Timms, Iva A Tchasovnikarova, Robin Antrobus, Gordon Dougan, Paul J Lehner
The histone methyltransferase SETDB1 plays a central role in repressive chromatin processes, but the functional requirement for its binding partner ATF7IP has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that ATF7IP is essential for SETDB1 stability: nuclear SETDB1 protein is degraded by the proteasome upon ablation of ATF7IP. As a result, ATF7IP is critical for repression that requires H3K9 trimethylation by SETDB1, including transgene silencing by the HUSH complex. Furthermore, we show that loss of ATF7IP phenocopies loss of SETDB1 in genome-wide assays...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Wei-Lin Chen, Zhi-Hui Wang, Tao-Tao Feng, Dong-Dong Li, Chu-Hui Wang, Xiao-Li Xu, Xiao-Jin Zhang, Qi-Dong You, Xiao-Ke Guo
Protein lysine methyltransferase G9a is widely considered as an appealing antineoplastic target. Herein we present an integrated workflow combining shape-based virtual screening and structure-based molecular modification for the identification of novel G9a inhibitors. The shape-based similarity screening through ROCS overlay on the basis of the structure of UNC0638 was performed to identify CPUY074001 contained a 6H-anthra[1,9-cd]isoxazol-6-one scaffold as a hit. Analysis of the binding mode of CPUY074001 with G9a and 3D-QSAR results, two series compounds were designed and synthesized...
September 30, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Louisiana Carolina Ferreira de Meireles, Karine Bertoldi, Laura Reck Cechinel, Bruna Luisa Schallenberger, Vanessa Kappel da Silva, Nadja Schröder, Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira
Physical exercise and the aging process have been shown to induce opposite effects on epigenetic marks, such as histone acetylation. The impact of exercise on hippocampal histone acetylation on specific lysine residues, especially during the aging process, is rarely studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise (20min/day during 2 weeks) on H3K9, H4K5 and H4K12 acetylation levels in hippocampi of young adult and aged rats. Male Wistar rats aged 3 or 20-21 months were assigned to sedentary and exercise groups...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Valentina Damiano, Giulia Brisotto, Silvia Borgna, Alessandra di Gennaro, Michela Armellin, Tiziana Perin, Michela Guardascione, Roberta Maestro, Manuela Santarosa
Loss of expression of miR-200 family members has been implicated in cellular plasticity, a phenomenon that accounts for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem-like features of many carcinomas and is considered a major cause of tumor aggressiveness and drug resistance. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of miR-200 downregulation in breast cancer are still largely unknown. Here we show that miR-200c expression inversely correlates with miR-200c/miR-141 locus methylation in triple-negative breast tumors (TNBC)...
September 22, 2016: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Salil Saurav Pathak, Swati Maitra, Sumana Chakravarty, Arvind Kumar
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is debilitating mental illness and is one of the leading contributors to global burden of disease, but unfortunately newer and better drugs are not forthcoming. The reason is lack of complete understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the development of this disorder. Recent research shows dysregulation in epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, particularly the transcriptionally repressive di- and tri-methylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2/me3) in nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical region of the reward pathway involved in the development of anhedonia, the hallmark of depression...
October 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Adriana Gonzalez-Sandoval, Susan M Gasser
In eukaryotic organisms, gene regulation occurs in the context of chromatin. In the interphase nucleus, euchromatin and heterochromatin occupy distinct space during cell differentiation, with heterochromatin becoming enriched at the nuclear and nucleolar peripheries. This organization is thought to fine-tune gene expression. To elucidate the mechanisms that govern this level of genome organization, screens were carried out in C. elegans which monitored the loss of heterochromatin sequestration at the nuclear periphery...
2016: Worm
Zahra Eelaminejad, Raha Favaedi, Niloofar Sodeifi, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Maryam Shahhoseini
JMJD1A (jumonji domain-containing 1A), a known histone H3K9 demethylase, has been identified as a critical epigenetic regulator in male germ cells, activating the sperm chromatin-packaging genes encoding protamines (PRM) and transition proteins (TNP) required for spermatid elongation and condensation. This research investigated the expression pattern of JMJD1A protein in testicular biopsies of 79 infertile men who had undergone testicular sperm extraction. Samples were classified into obstructive azoospermia (OA, n = 26), round spermatid maturation arrest (SMA, n = 29) and Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS, n = 24)...
September 22, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Shinji Honda, Vincent T Bicocca, Jordan D Gessaman, Michael R Rountree, Ayumi Yokoyama, Eun Y Yu, Jeanne M L Selker, Eric U Selker
DNA methylation, heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, histone deacetylation, and highly repeated sequences are prototypical heterochromatic features, but their interrelationships are not fully understood. Prior work showed that H3K9 methylation directs DNA methylation and histone deacetylation via HP1 in Neurospora crassa and that the histone deacetylase complex HCHC is required for proper DNA methylation. The complex consists of the chromodomain proteins HP1 and chromodomain protein 2 (CDP-2), the histone deacetylase HDA-1, and the AT-hook motif protein CDP-2/HDA-1-associated protein (CHAP)...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rentian Wu, Zhiquan Wang, Honglian Zhang, Haiyun Gan, Zhiguo Zhang
DNA replication is tightly regulated to occur once and only once per cell cycle. How chromatin, the physiological substrate of DNA replication machinery, regulates DNA replication remains largely unknown. Here we show that histone H3 lysine 9 demethylase Kdm4d regulates DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Depletion of Kdm4d results in defects in DNA replication, which can be rescued by the expression of H3K9M, a histone H3 mutant transgene that reverses the effect of Kdm4d on H3K9 methylation. Kdm4d interacts with replication proteins, and its recruitment to DNA replication origins depends on the two pre-replicative complex components (origin recognition complex [ORC] and minichromosome maintenance [MCM] complex)...
September 26, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Hong-Ren Yu, You-Lin Tain, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, Mao-Meng Tiao, Chih-Cheng Chen, Ho-Chang Kuo, Pi-Lien Hung, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Li-Tung Huang
Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14-21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Peter Zeller, Jan Padeken, Robin van Schendel, Veronique Kalck, Marcel Tijsterman, Susan M Gasser
Histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation is a conserved modification that generally represses transcription. In Caenorhabditis elegans it is enriched on silent tissue-specific genes and repetitive elements. In met-2 set-25 double mutants, which lack all H3K9 methylation (H3K9me), embryos differentiate normally, although mutant adults are sterile owing to extensive DNA-damage-driven apoptosis in the germ line. Transposons and simple repeats are derepressed in both germline and somatic tissues. This unprogrammed transcription correlates with increased rates of repeat-specific insertions and deletions, copy number variation, R loops and enhanced sensitivity to replication stress...
September 26, 2016: Nature Genetics
Ryusuke Nakajima, Hideyuki Okano, Toshiaki Noce
Jmjd1C is one of the Jmjd1 family genes that encode putative demethylases against histone H3K9 and non-histone proteins and has been proven to play an indispensable role in mouse spermatogenesis. Here, we analyzed a newly-bred transgenic mouse strain carrying a Jmjd1C loss-of-function allele in which a β-geo cassette was integrated into the intron of the Jmjd1C locus. Jmjd1C gene-trap homozygous testes exhibited malformations in postmeiotic processes and a deficiency in the long-term maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia...
2016: PloS One
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