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Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Carme Perez-Quilis, Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Roman Leischik, Herbert Löllgen, Enrique Serrano-Ostáriz, Alejandro Lucia
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia, the risk of which typically increases with age. This condition is commonly associated with major cardiovascular diseases and structural heart damage, while it is rarely observed in healthy young people. However, increasing evidence indicates that paroxysmal AF can also onset in young or middle-aged and otherwise healthy endurance athletes (e.g., cyclists, runners and cross-country skiers). Here we review the topic of AF associated with strenuous endurance exercise (SEE), for example cycling, running and cross-country skiing, especially at a competitive level, and we propose the definition of a new syndrome based on the accumulating data in the literature: SEE-related AF under the acronym of 'PAFIYAMA' ('paroxysmal AF in young and middle-aged athletes')...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Dong-Hyun Choi, Seong-Ho Kang, Heesang Song
Platelets are essential for progression of atherosclerotic lesions, plaque destabilization, and thrombosis. They secrete and express many substances that are crucial mediators of coagulation, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a precise measure of platelet size, and is routinely reported during complete blood count analysis. Emerging evidence supports the use of MPV as a biomarker predicting the risk of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, and as a guide for prescription of anticoagulation and rhythm-control therapy...
October 24, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Jedrzej Kosiuk, Romina Milani, Laura Ueberham, Tobias Uhe, Clara Stegmann, Gerhard Hindricks, Andreas Bollmann
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been studied in models of different cardiovascular entities. Recently, a beneficial effect of RIPC on incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in postsurgical patients has been suggested. However, the potential impact of RIPC on electrophysiological- and thrombogenesis-related parameters in the setting of paroxysmal nonvalvular AF has not been investigated. The aim of the study is to answer the following questions: (1) Does RIPC have impact on inducibility of AF in patients with known paroxysmal AF? If yes, what are the direct electrophysiological mechanisms of this phenomenon, and could RIPC be implemented to reduce AF burden? (2) Does RIPC have the potential to minimize thrombogenic effects of simulated episodes of AF? If so, what are inhibited components of thrombogenesis and can this be used to reduce thromboembolic risk related to paroxysmal AF? The presented study is a 2-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, single-center trial in a cohort of 146 patients with paroxysmal AF referred for AF ablation in sinus rhythm...
October 24, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
R-C Zhao, W Han, J Han, J Yu, J Guo, J-L Fu, Z Li, R-Z Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in patients with different forms of atrial fibrillation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: By retrospective analysis, we summarize 720 cases, where patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation in our hospital were treated with RFCA from February 2010 to October 2014. Among the cases, 425 were diagnosed with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 295 with non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (including persistent atrial fibrillation and permanent atrial fibrillation)...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Wenjun Jia, Xin Qi, Qi Li
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia affected by multiple cardiovascular risk factors. It is reported that caveolin-1 gene (CAV1) rs3807989 polymorphism might be associated with AF risk. The goal of this meta-analysis was to confirm the association between CAV1 rs3807989 polymorphism and susceptibility to AF. MATERIAL AND METHODS We carried out a comprehensive literature search through the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLIN, and Web of Science. We performed a meta-analysis of all selected studies based on CAV1 rs3807989 polymorphism genotypes, including 3758 cases and 6126 controls...
October 24, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Akshay Shekhar, Xianming Lin, Fang-Yu Liu, Jie Zhang, Huan Mo, Lisa Bastarache, Joshua C Denny, Nancy J Cox, Mario Delmar, Dan M Roden, Glenn I Fishman, David S Park
Rapid impulse propagation in the heart is a defining property of pectinated atrial myocardium (PAM) and the ventricular conduction system (VCS) and is essential for maintaining normal cardiac rhythm and optimal cardiac output. Conduction defects in these tissues produce a disproportionate burden of arrhythmic disease and are major predictors of mortality in heart failure patients. Despite the clinical importance, little is known about the gene regulatory network that dictates the fast conduction phenotype. Here, we have used signal transduction and transcriptional profiling screens to identify a genetic pathway that converges on the NRG1-responsive transcription factor ETV1 as a critical regulator of fast conduction physiology for PAM and VCS cardiomyocytes...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Murat Gül, Naci Babat, Fatih Mehmet Uçar, Mehmet Serdar Kuyumcu, Özcan Özeke
Cardiac mass can be described as an abnormal structure within or directly contiguous to the heart. Tumors and thrombi are the most common types of cardiac masses. Intracardiac thrombi have been encountered in various clinical settings and can result in severe morbidity and mortality due to embolic events. Cardiac neoplasms are extremely rare, and are usually metastatic tumors. The major primary malignancies associated with cardiac metastases include cancers of the lung, breast, stomach, and liver, and lymphoma, leukemia, and melanoma...
October 2016: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Attila Nemes, Tamás Forster
Echocardiographic assessment of the right atrium is a great challenge in present practice and only limited opportunities are available. Technical improvements in the last decades enable volumetric and functional analysis of the complex right atrial cardiac cyclic movements. The aim of the present review is to demonstrate the most recent three-dimensional and/or speckle tracking echocardiographic techniques over routine methodologies in the evaluation of the right atrium. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(43), 1698-1707...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Eiichiro Yamamoto, Yoshihiro Hirata, Takanori Tokitsu, Hiroaki Kusaka, Noriaki Tabata, Kenichi Tsujita, Megumi Yamamuro, Koichi Kaikita, Hiroshi Watanabe, Seiji Hokimoto, Toru Maruyama, Hisao Ogawa
AIMS: Although inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF), the precise pathophysiological role of inflammation in HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) still remains unclear. Hence, we examined the clinical significance of plasma neopterin, an inflammatory biomarker, in HFpEF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we recruited consecutive HFpEF patients hospitalized in Kumamoto University Hospital, and further measured plasma neopterin by high-performance liquid chromatography and serum derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites (DROM), a new biomarker of reactive oxygen species...
March 2016: ESC Heart Failure
Line Lisbeth Olesen, Andreas Andersen
AIMS: Due to the demographic development there is an increasing number of senior citizens with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), defined as ejection fraction (EF) < 40%. Unfortunately there are under-diagnosis and under-treatment in the elderly of this serious condition. Echocardiography is the gold standard to diagnose LVSD, but access is limited. Simple screening methods may ensure reduction of undetected cases, and this study investigates if electrocardiogram (ECG) can be used to screen for LVSD in the geriatric population...
March 2016: ESC Heart Failure
Rayan Yousefzai, Setu Trivedi, Renuka Jain, Omar M Cheema, John D Crouch, Vinay Thohan, Bijoy K Khandheria
We present a 71-year-old male, who had had a heart transplantation 24 years prior, who came to our clinic with a low-grade fever and a new II/VI holosystolic murmur. Echocardiography showed a large mass in the right atrium with attachment near the junction of the right atrium and superior vena cava. The patient was taken to the operating room for resection of the mass. Microscopic evaluation was consistent with thrombus. Differential diagnosis of cardiac masses after cardiac transplant includes tumour, thrombus, and vegetation...
December 2015: ESC Heart Failure
Pupalan Iyngkaran, Samia R Toukhsati, Merlin C Thomas, Michael V Jelinek, David L Hare, John D Horowitz
BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers (BBs) are the mainstay prognostic medication for all stages of chronic heart failure (CHF). There are many classes of BBs, each of which has varying levels of evidence to support its efficacy in CHF. However, most CHF patients have one or more comorbid conditions such as diabetes, renal impairment, and/or atrial fibrillation. Patient enrollment to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) often excludes those with certain comorbidities, particularly if the symptoms are severe...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
Ravi B Patel, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Sanjiv J Shah, Javed Butler
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) often coexist, and the outcomes of patients who have both AF and HF are considerably worse than those with either condition in isolation. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous clinical entity and accounts for approximately one-half of current HF. At least one-third of patients with HFpEF are burdened by comorbid AF. The current understanding of the relationship between AF and HFpEF is limited, but the clinical implications are potentially important...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Lasse Skibsbye, Thomas Jespersen, Torsten Christ, Mary M Maleckar, Jonas van den Brink, Pasi Tavi, Jussi T Koivumäki
BACKGROUND: Refractoriness of cardiac cells limits maximum frequency of electrical activity and protects the heart from tonic contractions. Short refractory periods support major arrhythmogenic substrates and augmentation of refractoriness is therefore seen as a main mechanism of antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
L A Pérula-de Torres, V González-Blanco V, R Luque-Montilla, E Martín-Rioboó, M A Martínez-Adell, J Ruiz-de Castroviejo
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent arrhythmia in clinical practice and has important prognostic implications. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the validity and the reliability of taking the arterial pulse (TAP) in patients over 65 years for detecting in AF and other rhythm disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive, observational, multicentre study to validate a diagnostic test within in a controlled clinical trial. SETTING: 39 Primary Care Centres in the Spanish National Health Service...
October 20, 2016: Semergen
Murat Biteker, Kadir Kayataş, Özcan Başaran, Volkan Dogan, Eda Özlek, Bülent Özlek
BACKGROUND: Although an enlarged left atrium has recently emerged as a marker of adverse outcomes in various diseases, its discriminatory value and prognostic role in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are not well studied. We studied whether left atrial volume index (LAVI) predicts mortality and discriminates stroke subtypes after AIS. METHODS: We prospectively followed 310 consecutive first-ever AIS patients aged 50 years or older who were admitted to the hospital within 24 hours of the onset of stroke symptoms...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Asit Das, Suvro Banerjee, S C Mandal
BACKGROUND: Pacing in the Bachmann's bundle (BB) area (upper atrial septum) appears superior to right atrial appendage or free wall stimulation for the prevention of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with atrial conduction delay. However, insertion of active fixation lead in the upper atrial septal position is difficult and time consuming with conventional stylet, inhibiting application of this pacing method in routine practice. METHODS: The technique of positioning the atrial lead in BB with hand-made stylet is presented with emphasis on electrocardiographic P-wave pattern and fluoroscopic landmarks...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Vinoth Kumar Vilvanathan, Budunur C Srinivas Prabhavathi Bhat, Manjunath Cholenahally Nanjappa, Bharathi Pandian, Vithal Bagi, Sridhar Kasturi, Shiva Kumar Bandimida
OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia in patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD). This study was conducted to determine the maintenance of sinus rhythm with amiodarone therapy following DC cardioversion (DCCV), early after successful balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV). METHODS: Patients were randomized to amiodarone group and placebo group and their baseline characteristics were recorded. DCCV was done 48h after BMV. After cardioversion, oral amiodarone was started initially 200mg three times a day for 2 weeks, then 200mg twice daily for two weeks followed by 200mg once daily for 12 months...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
C Narasimhan, Jagmohan Singh Verma, A G Ravi Kishore, Balbir Singh, Sameer Dani, Kamaldeep Chawala, Azizul Haque, Aftab Khan, Mohan Nair, Amit Vora, V Rajasekhar, Joy M Thomas, Anoop Gupta, Ajay Naik, V S Prakash, Lisa Naditch, P Gabriel Steg
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia with high risk for many cardiovascular (CV) complications. Adherence to recommended management guidelines is important to avoid complications. In India, there is little knowledge on how AF is managed in real world. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of patients in India enrolled in RealiseAF survey between February 2010 and March 2010 with a diagnosis of AF within the last 12 months...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Gopalan Nair Rajesh, Pradeep Sreekumar, Vellani Haridasan, C G Sajeev, Cicy Bastian, D Vinayakumar, P Kadermuneer, Dolly Mathew, Biju George, M N Krishnan
AIM: Mitral stenosis (MS) is found to produce left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in some studies. We sought to study the left ventricular function in patients with rheumatic MS undergoing balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV). Ours is the first study to analyze effect of BMV on mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE), and to quantify prevalence of longitudinal left ventricular dysfunction in rheumatic MS. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we included 43 patients with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis undergoing BMV...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
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