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Bong Jun Kim, Youngmi Kim, Sung-Eun Kim, Jin Pyeong Jeon
OBJECTIVE: Haptoglobin (Hp) comprising two light (α) and two heavy (β) chains has an anti-oxidant effect following free hemoglobin binding. Among three phenotypes including Hp1-1 (two α1), Hp2-1 (α1 and α2), and Hp2-2 (two α2), a higher protective effect for toxic-free hemoglobin was reported for Hp2-2 than Hp1-1. However, few studies have focused on Hp2-1 in outcome. This study examined the α1 and α2 expression, and evaluated the correlation of Hp2-1 with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) outcome...
June 11, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Dandan Zhang, Juan Hu, Xiao-Yun Yang, Yanxia Wu, Wenmei Su, Chun-Yang Zhang
Fluorescent copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have received great attention due to their distinct characteristics of facile synthesis, tunable fluorescence emission, high photostability, and biological compatibility, and they have been widely used for chemical and biological analyses. Bleomycins (BLMs) are widely used antitumor agents for the clinical treatment of various cancers. Here, we develop a sensitive and label-free fluorescence method for the quantitative detection of BLM on the basis of BLM-initiated enzymatic polymerization-mediated synthesis of fluorescent CuNPs...
June 6, 2018: Nanoscale
Erhu Xiong, Xiaoxia Yan, Xiaohua Zhang, Yanmei Li, Ruiying Yang, Leixia Meng, Jinhua Chen
The sensitive and specific determination of nucleic acids is very important in clinical diagnosis and biological studies. In this work, an ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor has been developed for DNA detection based on a "signal-on" sensing strategy and a three-stage cascade signal amplification method (catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA), hybridization chain reaction (HCR) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-triggered in situ generation of ascorbic acid (AA)). Here, CHA hairpin 1 (CHA-HP1) is opened by the target DNA (T-DNA) owing to the hybridization between T-DNA and CHA-HP1, and then the opened CHA-HP1 hybridizes with CHA hairpin 2 (CHA-HP2) to displace the T-DNA, generating a CHA-HP1/CHA-HP2 complex...
June 4, 2018: Analyst
Bowen Yu, Yu An Lin, Swapnil S Parhad, Zhaohui Jin, Jinbiao Ma, William E Theurkauf, Zz Zhao Zhang, Ying Huang
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposons in germ cells to maintain genome stability and animal fertility. Rhino, a rapidly evolving heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family protein, binds Deadlock in a species-specific manner and so defines the piRNA-producing loci in the Drosophila genome. Here, we determine the crystal structures of Rhino-Deadlock complex in Drosophila melanogaster and simulans In both species, one Rhino binds the N-terminal helix-hairpin-helix motif of one Deadlock protein through a novel interface formed by the beta-sheet in the Rhino chromoshadow domain...
June 1, 2018: EMBO Reports
Takahisa Maki, Naoto Ogura, James E Haber, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Geneviève Thon
Mating-type switching in Schizosaccharomyces pombe entails programmed gene conversion events regulated by DNA replication, heterochromatin, and the HP1-like chromodomain protein Swi6. The whole mechanism remains to be fully understood. Using a gene deletion library, we screened ~ 3400 mutants for defects in the donor selection step where a heterochromatic locus, mat2-P or mat3-M, is chosen to convert the expressed mat1 locus. By measuring the biases in mat1 content that result from faulty directionality, we identified in total 20 factors required for donor selection...
May 31, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Kristoffer N Jensen, Matthew C Lorincz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Nature
Veronika Ostapcuk, Fabio Mohn, Sarah H Carl, Anja Basters, Daniel Hess, Vytautas Iesmantavicius, Lisa Lampersberger, Matyas Flemr, Aparna Pandey, Nicolas H Thomä, Joerg Betschinger, Marc Bühler
De novo mutations in ADNP, which encodes activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), have recently been found to underlie Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome, a complex neurological developmental disorder that also affects several other organ functions 1 . ADNP is a putative transcription factor that is essential for embryonic development 2 . However, its precise roles in transcriptional regulation and development are not understood. Here we show that ADNP interacts with the chromatin remodeller CHD4 and the chromatin architectural protein HP1 to form a stable complex, which we refer to as ChAHP...
May 23, 2018: Nature
Haifeng Wang, Danhua Jiang, Elin Axelsson, Zdravko J Lorković, Sean Montgomery, Sarah Holec, Bas J G E Pieters, Abbas H K Al Temimi, Jasmin Mecinović, Frédéric Berger
Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) is a major regulator of chromatin structure and function. In animals, the network of proteins interacting with HP1 is mainly associated with constitutive heterochromatin marked by H3K9me3. HP1 physically interacts with the putative orthologue of the SNF2 chromatin remodeler ATRX, which controls deposition of the histone variant H3.3 in mammals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the orthologue of ATRX participates in H3.3 deposition and characterize the function of conserved domains of plant ATRX...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Plant
Mikiko Soejima, Kwesi Teye, Yoshiro Koda
BACKGROUND: The serum haptoglobin (HP) level varies in various clinical conditions and among individuals. Recently, the common HP alleles, rs5472, and rs2000999 have been reported to associate with serum HP level, but no studies have been done on Africans. Here, we explored the relationship of not only these polymorphisms but also rs5470 and rs5471 to the serum HP level in 121 Ghanaians. METHODS: Genotyping of rs2000999 was performed by PCR using hydrolysis probes, while the other polymorphisms have been already genotyped...
May 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Tassa K Saldi, Patrick Gonzales, Alfonso Garrido-Lecca, Vishantie Dostal, Christine M Roberts, Leonard Petrucelli, Christopher D Link
TDP-1 is the C. elegans ortholog of mammalian TDP-43, which is strongly implicated in the etiology of Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). We discovered that deletion of the tdp-1 gene results in enhanced nuclear RNA interference (RNAi). As nuclear RNAi in C. elegans involves chromatin changes moderated by HPL-2, a homolog of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), we investigated the interaction of TDP-1 and HPL-2. We find that TDP-1 and HPL-2 interact directly, and loss of TDP-1 dramatically alters the chromatin association of HPL-2...
May 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Yu-Hsiu Su, Tai-Yun Lin, Hung-Jen Liu, Chin-Kai Chuang
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are currently believed to be involved in tumor metastasis and relapse. And treatments against CSCs are well concerned issues. Peptides targeting to mouse and human CSCs were screened from an M13 phage display library. The first subset of cancer stem cell homing peptides (CSC HPs), CSC HP-1 to -12, were screened with mouse EMT6 breast cancer stem cells. Among them, CSC HP-1, CSC HP-3, CSC HP-8, CSC HP-9, and CSC HP-10 can bind to mouse CT26 colon CSCs; CSC HP-1, CSC HP-2, CSC HP-3, and CSC HP-8 can bind to mouse Hepa1-6 liver CSCs; as well as CSC HP-1, CSC HP-2, CSC HP-3, CSC HP-8, CSC HP-9, CSC HP-10, and CSC HP-11 can bind to human PANC-1 pancreatic CSCs...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
Edward Rea, Karine G Le Roch, Rita Tewari
Understanding how malaria parasites commit to sexual development is key to the development of transmission-blocking strategies. Recent work by Filarsky and colleagues extends our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving this process by characterizing an early factor in gametocytogenesis, and showing how this fits neatly into our current knowledge of sexual commitment.
May 8, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Jiaqi Zhang, Wancun Zhang, Yueqing Gu
MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) has been regarded as a kind of potential biomarker in several types of cancers. Herein, in this study, a simple, sensitive and cost-effective miR-21 approach was developed utilizing the isothermal target-recycled enzyme-free amplification strategy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In the target-recycled enzyme-free amplification strategy, two rational designed hairpin probes (HPs, HP1 and HP2) can form into HP1-HP2 duplex in the presence of miR-21 under the isothermal condition, producing target signal in PAGE...
April 29, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Shuhei Watanabe, Yuichi Mishima, Masahiro Shimizu, Isao Suetake, Shoji Takada
Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), associated with heterochromatin formation, recognizes an epigenetically repressive marker, trimethylated lysine 9 in histone H3 (H3K9me3), and generally contributes to long-term silencing. How HP1 induces heterochromatin is not fully understood. Recent experiments suggested that not one, but two nucleosomes provide a platform for this recognition. Integrating previous and new biochemical assays with computational modeling, we provide near-atomic structural models for HP1 binding to the dinucleosomes...
May 22, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Juan J Montero, Isabel López-Silanes, Diego Megías, Mario F Fraga, Álvaro Castells-García, Maria A Blasco
TERRAs are long non-coding RNAs generated from the telomeres. Lack of TERRA knockout models has hampered understanding TERRAs' functions. We recently identified chromosome 20q as one of the main origins of human TERRAs, allowing us to generate the first 20q-TERRA knockout models and to demonstrate that TERRAs are essential for telomere length maintenance and protection. Here, we use ALT 20q-TERRA knockout cells to address a direct role of TERRAs in telomeric heterochromatin formation. We find that 20q-TERRAs are essential for the establishment of H3K9me3, H4K20me3, and H3K27me3 heterochromatin marks at telomeres...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Kyohei Oyama, Danny El-Nachef, Chen Fang, Hidemi Kajimoto, Jeremy P Brown, Prim B Singh, W Robb MacLellan
BACKGROUND: Heterochromatin, which is formed when tri-methyl lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me3) is bound by heterochromatin 1 proteins (HP1s), plays an important role in differentiation and senescence by silencing cell cycle genes. Cardiac myocytes (CMs) accumulate heterochromatin during differentiation and demethylation of H3K9me3 inhibits cell cycle gene silencing and cell cycle exit in CMs; however, it is unclear if this process is mediated by HP1s. In this study, we created a conditional CM-specific HP1 gamma (HP1γ) knockout (KO) mouse model and tested whether HP1γ is required for cell cycle gene silencing and cardiac growth...
April 17, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Man Zou, Yilun Chen, Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse, Yuhuan Zhang, Feng Li
Chinese jujube is commonly used in folklore medicine. This study aimed to examine the in vivo immunomodulatory activity of two acidic polysaccharides, HP1 and HP2, extracted and purified from Zizyphus jujuba cv. Huizao (which remains extensively unexplored). HP1 and HP2 had the same monosaccharide species and manganese contents, but differed in their molar rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, galactose and uronic acid contents (7.32 and 35.9%, as galacturonic acid), Mw (68.7 and 111 kDa, respectively), and contents of K, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ca...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yang Zhao, Lu Tan, Xiaoshan Gao, Guifen Jie, Tingyu Huang
Herein, we successfully devised a novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) platform for ultrasensitive detection of adenosine by target-triggering cascade multiple cycle amplification based on the silver nanoparticles-assisted ion-exchange reaction with CdTe quantum dots (QDs). In the presence of target adenosine, DNA s1 is released from the aptamer and then hybridizes with hairpin DNA (HP1), which could initiate the cycling cleavage process under the reaction of nicking endonuclease. Then the product (DNA b) of cycle I could act as the "DNA trigger" of cycle II to further generate a large number of DNA s1, which again go back to cycle I, thus a cascade multiple DNA cycle amplification was carried out to produce abundant DNA c...
July 1, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ho-Jun Jeon, Young-Shin Kim, Joong-Gook Kim, Kyu Heo, Jung-Hoon Pyo, Masamitsu Yamaguchi, Joung-Sun Park, Mi-Ae Yoo
Chromatin change is one of the crucial causes of aging. Specifically, maintenance of heterochromatin stability is critical for cellular integrity, and its loss induces genomic instability and cellular aging. However, the causes and effects of heterochromatin instability in multicellular tissue aging still remain unclear. Here, in the adult Drosophila midgut, we report age-related loss of heterochromatin stability in enterocytes (ECs) due to the loss and dispersion of tri-methylated histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9me3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)...
April 3, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Paolo Ascenzi, Giovanna De Simone, Fabio Polticelli, Magda Gioia, Massimo Coletta
Haptoglobin (Hp) sequesters hemoglobin (Hb) preventing the Hb-based damage occurring upon its physiological release into plasma. Here, reductive nitrosylation of ferric human hemoglobin [Hb(III)] bound to human haptoglobin (Hp) 1-1 and 2-2 [Hp1-1:Hb(III) and Hp2-2:Hb(III), respectively] has been investigated between pH 7.5 and 9.5, at T=20.0 °C. Over the whole pH range explored, only one process is detected reflecting NO binding to Hp1-1:Hb(III) and Hp2-2:Hb(III). Values of the pseudo-first-order rate constant for Hp1-1:Hb(III) and Hp2-2:Hb(III) nitrosylation (k) do not depend linearly on the ligand concentration but tend to level off...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
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