Read by QxMD icon Read

histone methylation

Man Liu, Jingying Zhou, Zhiwei Chen, Alfred Sze-Lok Cheng
The tumour microenvironment plays an instrumental role in cancer development, progression and treatment response/resistance. Accumulating evidence underscores the fundamental importance of epigenetic regulation in tumour immune evasion. Following many pioneering discoveries demonstrating malignant transformation through epigenetic anomalies ("epimutations"), there is also growing emphasis on elucidating aberrant epigenetic mechanisms that reprogramme the milieu of tumour-associated immune and stromal cells toward an immunosuppressive state...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Martine Boccara, Alexis Sarazin, Bernard Billoud, Agnes Bulski, Louise Chapell, David Baulcombe, Vincent Colot
Epigenetic response to stress in plants involves changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and expression of small noncoding RNAs (sRNA). Here we present the method of analysis of differential expression of sRNA populations using DNA tiling arrays. sRNA extracted from Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to pathogen elicitor or control plants were reverse-transcribed into cDNAs, and subsequently hybridized after labeling to a custom-made DNA tiling array covering Arabidopsis chromosome 4. We first designed a control experiment with eight cDNA clones corresponding to sequences located on chromosome 4 and obtained robust and specific hybridization signals...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Paule V Joseph, Sarah K Abey, Wendy A Henderson
Nutrition is a factor involved in inflammation and a modulator of risk toward some cancers, and the complexity of linkages between dietary components and epigenetics mechanisms (e.g., DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling) may affect the inflammation phenotype and the development of cancer. An increasing number of studies support the role of diet in cancer development, prevention, and treatment. Although current knowledge regarding nutri-epigenetics is expanding, more work is needed, and nurse scientists have the potential to significantly contribute to the expansion of this knowledge...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Caitlin G Howe, Xinhua Liu, Megan N Hall, Vesna Ilievski, Marie A Caudill, Olga Malysheva, Angela M Lomax-Luu, Faruque Parvez, Abu B Siddique, Hasan Shahriar, Mohammad N Uddin, Tariqul Islam, Joseph H Graziano, Max Costa, Mary V Gamble
BACKGROUND: Posttranslational histone modifications (PTHMs) are altered by arsenic, an environmental carcinogen. PTHMs are also influenced by nutritional methyl donors involved in one-carbon metabolism (OCM), which may protect against epigenetic dysregulation. METHODS: We measured global levels of three PTHMs, which are dysregulated in cancers (H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K79me2), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 324 participants enrolled in the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Siroon Bekkering, Inge van den Munckhof, Tim Nielen, Evert Lamfers, Charles Dinarello, Joost Rutten, Jacqueline de Graaf, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Marc E R Gomes, Niels P Riksen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We have recently reported that monocytes can undergo functional and transcriptional reprogramming towards a long-term pro-inflammatory phenotype after brief in vitro exposure to atherogenic stimuli such as oxidized LDL. This process is termed 'trained immunity', and is mediated by epigenetic remodeling and a metabolic switch towards increased aerobic glycolysis. We hypothesize that trained immunity contributes to atherogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the inflammatory phenotype and epigenetic remodeling of monocytes from patients with and without established atherosclerosis...
October 12, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Xianbo Liu, Xiangjin Wei, Zhonghua Sheng, Guiai Jiao, Shaoqing Tang, Ju Luo, Peisong Hu
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2) protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type...
2016: PloS One
Inderjeet Kaur, Mohammad Zeeshan, Ekta Saini, Abhinav Kaushik, Asif Mohmmed, Dinesh Gupta, Pawan Malhotra
Post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications play a major role in Plasmodium life cycle regulation. Lysine methylation of histone proteins is well documented in several organisms, however in recent years lysine methylation of proteins outside histone code is emerging out as an important post-translational modification (PTM). In the present study we have performed global analysis of lysine methylation of proteins in asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum development. We immunoprecipitated stage specific Plasmodium lysates using anti-methyl lysine specific antibodies that immunostained the asexual blood stage parasites...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Adil El Taghdouini, Leo A van Grunsven
Chronic liver injury to hepatocytes or cholangiocytes, when left unmanaged, leads to the development of liver fibrosis, a condition characterized by the excessive intrahepatic deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Activated hepatic stellate cells constitute the predominant source of extracellular matrix in fibrotic livers and their transition from a quiescent state during fibrogenesis is associated with important alterations in their transcriptional and epigenetic landscape. Areas covered: We briefly describe the processes involved in hepatic stellate cell activation and discuss our current understanding of alterations in the epigenetic landscape, i...
October 20, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Lisa Marx-Blümel, Christian Marx, Marie Kühne, Jürgen Sonnemann
The chromatin contains the genetic and the epigenetic information of a eukaryotic organism. Posttranslational modifications of histones, such as acetylation and methylation, regulate their structure and control gene expression. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) acetylate lysine residues in histones while histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove this modification. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) can alter gene expression patterns and induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Here we provide an overview of methods to determine the cytotoxic effects of HDACi treatment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xiaolu Zhao, Yuanyuan Wang, Yurui Wang, Yifan Liu, Shan Gao
DNA replication elongation is tightly controlled by histone-modifying enzymes. Our previous studies showed that the histone methytransferase TXR1 (Tetrahymena Trithorax related protein 1) specifically catalyzes H3K27 monomethylation and affects DNA replication elongation in Tetrahymena thermophila. In this study, we investigated whether TXR1 has a substrate preference to the canonical H3 over the replacement variant H3.3. We demonstrated by histone mutagenesis that K27Q mutation in H3.3 further aggravated the replication stress phenotype of K27Q mutation in canonical H3, supporting H3...
October 17, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Olga Ruiz-Andres, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Juan Antonio Moreno, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Adrian Mario Ramos, Ana Belén Sanz, Alberto Ortiz
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated to an increased risk of death, CKD progression and acute kidney injury (AKI) even from early stages, when glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is preserved. The link between early CKD and these risks is unclear, since there is no accumulation of uremic toxins. However, pathological albuminuria and kidney inflammation are frequent features of early CKD and the production of kidney protective factors may be decreased. Indeed, Klotho expression is already decreased in CKD category G1 (normal GFR)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Brianna J Klein, Xiaoyan Wang, Gaofeng Cui, Chao Yuan, Maria Victoria Botuyan, Kevin Lin, Yue Lu, Xiaolu Wang, Yue Zhao, Christiane J Bruns, Georges Mer, Xiaobing Shi, Tatiana G Kutateladze
PHF20 is a core component of the lysine acetyltransferase complex MOF (male absent on the first)-NSL (non-specific lethal) that generates the major epigenetic mark H4K16ac and is necessary for transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. The role of PHF20 in the complex remains elusive. Here, we report on functional coupling between methylation readers in PHF20. We show that the plant homeodomain (PHD) finger of PHF20 recognizes dimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me2) and represents an example of a native reader that selects for this modification...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Kris G Alavattam, Yasuko Kato, Ho-Su Sin, So Maezawa, Ian J Kowalski, Fan Zhang, Qishen Pang, Paul R Andreassen, Satoshi H Namekawa
Precise epigenetic regulation of the sex chromosomes is vital for the male germline. Here, we analyze meiosis in eight mouse models deficient for various DNA damage response (DDR) factors, including Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins. We reveal a network of FA and DDR proteins in which FA core factors FANCA, FANCB, and FANCC are essential for FANCD2 foci formation, whereas BRCA1 (FANCS), MDC1, and RNF8 are required for BRCA2 (FANCD1) and SLX4 (FANCP) accumulation on the sex chromosomes during meiosis. In addition, FA proteins modulate distinct histone marks on the sex chromosomes: FA core proteins and FANCD2 regulate H3K9 methylation, while FANCD2 and RNF8 function together to regulate H3K4 methylation independently of FA core proteins...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Shigeo Ohba, Joydeep Mukherjee, Tor-Christian Johannessen, Andrew Mancini, Tracy T Chow, Matthew Wood, Lindsey Jones, Tali Mazor, Roxanne E Marshall, Pavithra Viswanath, Kyle M Walsh, Arie Perry, Robert J A Bell, Joanna J Phillips, Joseph F Costello, Sabrina M Ronen, Russell O Pieper
Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene IDH1 are common in lower-grade glioma where they result in the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), disrupted patterns of histone methylation and gliomagenesis. IDH1 mutations also co-segregate with mutations in the ATRX gene and the TERT promoter, suggesting that IDH mutation may drive the creation or selection of telomere-stabilizing events as part of immortalization/transformation process. To determine if and how this may occur, we investigated the phenotype of pRb/p53-deficient human astrocytes engineered with IDH1 wild-type (WT) or R132H mutant (IDH1mut) genes as they progressed through their lifespan...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Research
Amel Dudakovic, Emily T Camilleri, Scott M Riester, Christopher R Paradise, Martina Gluscevic, Thomas M O'Toole, Roman Thaler, Jared M Evans, Huihuang Yan, Malayannan Subramaniam, John R Hawse, Gary S Stein, Martin A Montecino, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Jennifer J Westendorf, Andre J van Wijnen
Perturbations in skeletal development and bone degeneration may result in reduced bone mass and quality leading to greater fracture risk. Bone loss is mitigated by bone protective therapies, but there is a clinical need for new bone-anabolic agents. Previous work has demonstrated that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), a histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methyltransferase, suppressed differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. Here, we investigated if inhibition of Ezh2 can be leveraged for bone stimulatory applications...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Steven C L Ho, Esther Y C Koh, Benjamin P C Soo, Mariati, Sheng-Hao Chao, Yuansheng Yang
BACKGROUND: Methylated CpG dinucleotides in promoters are associated with the loss of gene expression in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells during large-scale commercial manufacturing. We evaluated a promoter devoid of CpG dinucleotides, CpGfree, in parallel with a similar CpG containing promoter, CpGrich, for their ability to maintain the expression of recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) after 8 weeks of culturing. RESULTS: While the promoters gave similar transient expression levels, CpGfree clones had significantly higher average stable expression possibly due to increased resistance to early silencing during integration into the chromosome...
October 18, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
Ming Liu, Lihua Li, Jihong Chu, Guoliang Dai, Wenzheng Ju, Zhenxing Wang, Zhuyuan Fang
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is a novel histone methylation modulator that regulates energy metabolism, and NNMT knockdown prevents diet-induced obesity in mice. However, whether NNMT plays a role in human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains to be elucidated. NNMT catalyzes methylation of nicotinamide to generate N-methylnicotinamide (me-NAM). We aimed to investigate the associations of serum me-NAM with obesity and T2DM in Chinese. DESIGN AND METHOD: The study subjects (n = 1160) were recruited from Dali, a city of Yunan province, in southwest China...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Peter F Davies, Elisabetta Manduchi, Christian J Stoeckert, Yi-Zhou Jiang
Hemodynamics creates a constantly changing physical and chemical environment to which the arterial endothelium is exquisitely sensitive. Biomechanical stresses are intrinsic to blood flow characteristics and blood pressure and therefore are important considerations in hypertension. Near branching anatomical sites in arteries, blood flow separates from the main flow to undergo complex multi-directional characteristics for a part of each cardiac cycle (collectively referred to as disturbed flow). Atherosclerosis and aneurysmal pathology develop preferentially at disturbed flow locations, particularly when an additional cardiovascular risk factor such as hypercholesterolemia or high blood pressure are present...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nathan De Vries, Priscilla Prestes, Indrajeet Rana, Stephen B Harrap, Fadi J Charchar
OBJECTIVE: The 'legacy effect' of hypertension treatment is where short term treatment with blood pressure (BP) lowering drugs such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) is followed by a persistent reduction in BP, reduced cardiovascular complications and increased lifespan. However, the involvement of epigenetics mechanisms remains unclear. DNA methylation is the binding of a methyl group to DNA which inhibits gene transcription. The aim of this study is to investigate DNA methylation changes after short term treatment with ACEi...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Frank Cackowski, Matthew R Eber, James Rhee, Ann Decker, Kenji Yumoto, Janice E Berry, Eunsohl Lee, Yusuke Shiozawa, Younghun Jung, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Russell S Taichman
Many prostate cancer (PCa) recurrences are thought to be due to reactivation of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs). We previously found a role of the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases TYRO3, AXL and MERTK in PCa dormancy regulation. However, the mechanism and contributions of the individual TAM receptors is largely unknown. Knockdown of MERTK, but not AXL or TYRO3 by shRNA in PCa cells induced a decreased ratio of P-Erk1/2 to P-p38, increased expression of p27, NR2F1, SOX2, and NANOG, induced higher levels of histone H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, and induced a G1/G0 arrest, all of which are associated with dormancy...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"