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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150932/high-fat-diet-induced-oxidative-stress-blocks-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-4%C3%AE-and-leads-to-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice
#1
Dongsheng Yu, Gang Chen, Minglin Pan, Jia Zhang, Wenping He, Yang Liu, Xue Nian, Liang Sheng, Bin Xu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease with manifestation of over-accumulation of fat in liver. Increasing evidences indicate that NAFLD may be in part caused by malfunction of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), a nuclear receptor protein, plays an important role in sustain hepatic lipid homeostasis via transcriptional regulation of genes involved in secretion of VLDL, such as apolipoprotein B (ApoB). However, the exact functional change of HNF4α in NAFLD remains to be elucidated...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149924/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-disease-in-spondyloarthritis
#2
REVIEW
Liron Caplan, Kristine A Kuhn
The association of inflammatory arthritis with intestinal pathology extends back more than 100 years. This association is now supported by epidemiologic studies demonstrating an elevated prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in spondyloarthritis and vice versa, compared with the general population. Genetic and intestinal microbiome studies have further linked these diseases. Although diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease disproportionately affect individuals with psoriatic arthritis, diseases of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and liver are not particularly common in spondyloarthritis...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142166/fish-oil-feeding-reverses-hepatomegaly-and-disrupted-hepatic-function-due-to-the-lack-of-fxr-signaling
#3
Masaaki Miyata, Kouhei Shinno, Tomoki Kinoshita, Yuichi Kinoshita, Yoshimasa Sugiura
Mice lacking farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are used as a model for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease because their livers exhibit hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, and hepatic inflammation. The influence of fish oil feeding on hepatomegaly and disrupted hepatic function was investigated using female Fxr-null mice and wild-type mice fed a fish oil diet (2% fish oil and 2% corn oil) or a control diet (4% corn oil) for 4 weeks. Hepatic n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, including 22:6 n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 20:5 n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly higher in the fish oil group than those in the control group of Fxr-null mice and wild-type mice...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142082/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy
#4
Robert D Guber, Varun Takyar, Angela Kokkinis, Derrick A Fox, Hawwa Alao, Ilona Kats, Dara Bakar, Alan T Remaley, Stephen M Hewitt, David E Kleiner, Chia-Ying Liu, Colleen Hadigan, Kenneth H Fischbeck, Yaron Rotman, Christopher Grunseich
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and features of fatty liver disease in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). METHODS: Two groups of participants with SBMA were evaluated. In the first group, 22 participants with SBMA underwent laboratory analysis and liver imaging. In the second group, 14 participants with SBMA were compared to 13 female carriers and 23 controls. Liver biopsies were done in 4 participants with SBMA. RESULTS: Evidence of fatty liver disease was detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in all participants with SBMA in the first group, with an average dome intrahepatic triacylglycerol of 27% (range 6%-66%, ref ≤5...
November 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137912/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-increases-risk-of-incident-chronic-kidney-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Alessandro Mantovani, Gianluigi Zaza, Christopher D Byrne, Amedeo Lonardo, Giacomo Zoppini, Enzo Bonora, Giovanni Targher
BACKGROUND: Recent studies examined the prognostic impact of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on the risk of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the extent to which NAFLD may confer risk of incident CKD is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies to quantify the magnitude of the association between NAFLD and risk of incident CKD. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science from January 1, 2000 to August 31, 2017 using pre-defined keywords to identify large observational cohort studies with a follow-up duration of at least 1 year, in which NAFLD was diagnosed by biochemistry, fatty liver index or ultrasonography...
November 11, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135945/nutritional-profile-and-dietary-patterns-of-lebanese-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-patients-a-case-control-study
#6
Nicole Fakhoury-Sayegh, Hassan Younes, Gessica N H A Heraoui, Raymond Sayegh
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common liver disease in the world. Dietary habits have a significant impact on the biological and physical profile of patients and increase the risk of NAFLD. The overall pattern of diet intake is more associated with health outcomes than nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile and the dietary patterns of Lebanese NAFLD patients and compare it with controls. During this study; 112 NAFLD Lebanese adult patients (55 men and 57 women); and 110 controls (44 men and 66 women) were recruited...
November 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133343/clinical-and-histologic-characterization-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-african-american-patients
#7
Fernando Bril, Paola Portillo-Sanchez, I-Chia Liu, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Kristin Dayton, Kenneth Cusi
OBJECTIVE: There has been a widespread misconception among physicians that African Americans are protected from developing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, a formal histologic and metabolic comparison against well-matched Caucasians has never been performed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty-seven African American patients were matched 2:1 to Caucasians (n = 134) for age, sex, BMI, hemoglobin A1c, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Screening for NASH included measurement of intrahepatic triglyceride content by proton MRS ((1)H-MRS), followed by a liver biopsy if patients had hepatic steatosis...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132522/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
Patrick H Sweet, Teresa Khoo, Steven Nguyen
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a condition of hepatic steatosis with or without hepatic injury. NAFLD is increasing in prevalence worldwide and presents a public health burden. Most patients are asymptomatic, although some present with fatigue and right upper quadrant pain. NAFLD is discovered incidentally when patients have elevated liver enzymes or fatty liver is seen on imaging modalities. Imaging studies can confirm fatty deposits in the liver, but needle biopsy is needed to determine degree of inflammation...
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132235/a-cell-based-assay-to-investigate-hypolipidemic-effects-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-therapeutics
#9
Tapan Dave, Arno William Tilles, Muralikrishna Vemula
In the recent past, there has been a growing interest in developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) therapeutics. As a result, a need for in vitro cell models of human hepatic steatosis and high-throughput assays to measure intracellular lipid levels has arisen. To address this growing need, we optimized the conditions based on the current literature to fatten HepG2 hepatocytes by adding a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (oleate/palmitate, 2:1 molar ratio) without inducing any overt cytotoxicity...
November 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131401/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-the-development-of-reflux-esophagitis-a-cohort-study
#10
Yang Won Min, Youngha Kim, Geum-Youn Gwak, Seonhye Gu, Danbee Kang, Soo Jin Cho, Eliseo Guallar, Juhee Cho, Dong Hyun Sinn
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease in cross-sectional studies, but a prospective association has not been evaluated. The current study aimed to determine whether NAFLD increases the risk of incident reflux esophagitis in a large cohort study. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of 34,063 men and women without reflux esophagitis or other upper gastrointestinal disease at baseline who underwent health check-up examinations between January 2003 and December 2013...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130075/association-between-cytokines-and-liver-histology-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Emily R Perito, Veeral Ajmera, Nathan M Bass, Philip Rosenthal, Joel E Lavine, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Katherine P Yates, Anna Mae Diehl, Jean P Molleston, Karen F Murray, Ann Scheimann, Ryan Gill, David Glidden, Bradley Aouizerat
Background: Reliable non-invasive markers to characterize inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, and fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are lacking. We investigated the relationship between plasma cytokine levels and features of NAFLD histology to gain insight into cellular pathways driving NASH and to identify potential non-invasive discriminators of NAFLD severity and pattern. Methods: Cytokines were measured from plasma obtained at enrollment in pediatric participants in NASH Clinical Research Network studies with liver biopsy-proven NAFLD...
September 2017: Hepatol Commun
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129819/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-7-subunit-improves-energy-homeostasis-and-inhibits-inflammation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Dong-Jie Li, Jian Liu, Xia Hua, Hui Fu, Fang Huang, Yi-Bo Fei, Wen-Jie Lu, Fu-Ming Shen, Pei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide; yet, the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit (α7nAChR) plays an indispensable role in the vagus nerve-regulated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the key role of α7nAChR in NAFLD development. Male wild-type (WT) and α7nAChR knockout (α7nAChR(-/-)) mice were fed a normal chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to induce NAFLD...
November 9, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128391/preclinical-models-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Prasanna K Santhekadur, Divya P Kumar, Arun J Sanyal
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can manifest as nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is often associated with progressive fibrosis which can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (HCC). NASH is increasing as an etiology for end-stage liver disease as well as HCC. There are currently no approved therapies for NASH. A major barrier to development of therapeutics for NASH is the lack of preclinical models of disease that are appropriately validated to represent the biology and outcomes of human disease...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128353/pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4-mediates-lipogenesis-and-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#14
Ming Zhang, Yujie Zhao, Zhen Li, Congying Wang
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive disease and poses a high risk of severe liver damage. However, the pathogenesis of NASH is still unclear. Accumulation of lipid droplets and insulin resistance is the hallmark of NASH. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (PDK4) plays key role in glucose metabolism via regulating the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). Here, we demonstrated a novel of PDK4 in NASH by regulating hepatic steatosis and insulin signaling pathway in methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet induced NASH model...
November 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128064/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-expanding-health-care-epidemic
#15
EDITORIAL
David E Bernstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128063/radiologic-imaging-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#16
REVIEW
Yonah B Esterson, Gregory M Grimaldi
The article reviews the multimodality (ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance [MR]) imaging appearance of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and discusses the radiologic diagnostic criteria as well as the sensitivity and specificity of these imaging methods. The authors review the role of both ultrasound and MR elastography for the diagnosis of fibrosis and for the longitudinal evaluation of patients following therapeutic intervention. Lastly, the authors briefly discuss the screening and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with NAFLD, as there are special considerations in this population...
February 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128062/diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-including-noninvasive-biomarkers-and-transient-elastography
#17
REVIEW
Eugenia Tsai, Tai-Ping Lee
The incidence and prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are increasing and identification of people at risk of disease progression is extremely important. The current gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is by liver biopsy, but it has several limitations. Noninvasive tests via biomarkers and transient elastography to assess NAFLD/NASH are being used in clinical practice. The most validated diagnostic panels include the NAFLD fibrosis score, FIB-4 (Fibrosis-4), and FibroMeter...
February 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128061/the-genetics-of-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
REVIEW
Nidhi P Goyal, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in children. Severe fibrosis and cirrhosis are potential consequences of pediatric NAFLD and can occur within a few years of diagnosis. Observations suggest that genetics may be a strong modifying factor in the presentation, severity, and natural history of the disease. There is increasing interest in determining at-risk populations based on genetics in the hope of finding genotypes that correlate to NAFLD phenotype. Ultimately, the hope is to be able to tailor therapeutics to genetic predispositions and decrease disease morbidity in children with NAFLD...
February 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128060/risk-factors-for-the-development-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-including-genetics
#19
REVIEW
Huei-Wen Lim, David E Bernstein
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is emerging as the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. This trend is, in part, secondary, to the growing incidence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Other risk factors include age, gender, race/ethnicity, genetic predisposition, and polycystic ovarian disease. With the introduction of genome-wide association studies, genetic mutations contributing to inherited susceptibility to steatosis have been identified, which hold keys to future improvement in diagnosis and management...
February 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128059/pathophysiology-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#20
REVIEW
Vignan Manne, Priya Handa, Kris V Kowdley
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of liver disorders ranging from hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and ultimately may lead to cirrhosis. Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver is defined as increased accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes and results from increased production or reduced clearance of hepatic triglycerides or fatty acids. Fatty liver can progress to NASH in a significant proportion of subjects. NASH is a necroinflammatory liver disease governed by multiple pathways that are not completely elucidated...
February 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
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