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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781841/carbohydrates-and-diet-patterns-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Ahlia Sekkarie, Jean A Welsh, Miriam B Vos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is lifestyle change, including a healthier diet. However, there are no agreed upon expert recommendations for a specific diet in the prevention or treatment of NAFLD. In this study, we review studies published between 2015 and 2017 contributing to further understanding of the role of diet in the development and progression of NAFLD, particularly those addressing sugars and dietary patterns...
May 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779083/identifying-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-advanced-fibrosis-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#2
Yuval A Patel, Elizabeth J Gifford, Lisa M Glass, Marsha J Turner, Byungjoo Han, Cynthia A Moylan, Steve Choi, Ayako Suzuki, Dawn Provenzale, Christine M Hunt
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Severe NAFLD with advanced fibrosis results in substantial morbidity and mortality. Associated with metabolic syndrome, NAFLD is often initially clinically silent, yet intensive lifestyle intervention with 7% or greater weight loss can improve or resolve NAFLD. Using a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) liver biopsy cohort, we evaluated simple noninvasive fibrosis scoring systems to identify NAFLD with advanced fibrosis (or severe disease) to assist providers...
May 19, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775890/triterpenic-acids-enriched-fraction-from-cyclocarya-paliurus-attenuates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-via-improving-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#3
Meng-Ge Zhao, Xue-Ping Sheng, Ya-Ping Huang, Yi-Ting Wang, Cui-Hua Jiang, Jian Zhang, Zhi-Qi Yin
The effects of triterpenic acids-enriched fraction from Cyclocarya paliurus (CPT) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated using in vivo and in vitro models. In high fat diet-induced Wister rats, CPT significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels. Moreover, CPT restored mitochondrial membrane potential dysfunction, decreased cytochrome P450 enzyme 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, improved nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase1 (HO-1) expression...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775560/pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Claudio Chiesa, Gian Marco Andreoli, Lucia Pacifico
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774589/healthcare-cost-and-utilization-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-real-world-data-from-a-large-us-claims-database
#5
Alina M Allen, Holly K Van Houten, Lindsey R Sangaralingham, Jayant A Talwalkar, Rozalina G McCoy
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing. The health care burden resulting from the multidisciplinary management of this complex disease is unknown. We assessed the total health care cost and resource utilization associated with a new NAFLD diagnosis, compared to controls with similar comorbidities. We used OptumLabs Data Warehouse, a large national administrative claims database with longitudinal health data of over 100 million individuals enrolled in private and Medicare Advantage health plans...
May 18, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769552/a-comprehensive-bioinformatics-analysis-on-multiple-gene-expression-omnibus-datasets-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#6
Shanzhou Huang, Chengjun Sun, Yuchen Hou, Yunhua Tang, Zebin Zhu, Zhiheng Zhang, Yixi Zhang, Linhe Wang, Qiang Zhao, Mao-Gen Chen, Zhiyong Guo, Dongping Wang, Weiqiang Ju, Qi Zhou, Linwei Wu, Xiaoshun He
Fatty liver disease is one of the leading causes of chronic damage in western countries. Approximately 25% of adults in the United States have fatty livers in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption, a condition termed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Little is known about the prevalence and genetic background of NAFLD or the factors that determine its development. In this study, we used the Gene-Cloud of Biotechnology Information bioinformatics platform to carry out a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs), key biological processes and intersecting pathways...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768109/effects-of-phytosterol-supplementation-on-serum-levels-of-lipid-profiles-liver-enzymes-inflammatory-markers-adiponectin-and-leptin-in-patients-affected-by-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Mohammad Ali Javanmardi, Majid Mohammad Shahi, Seyed Saeed Seyedian, Mohammad Hossein Haghighizadeh
OBJECTIVE: Considering the high prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and based on the evidence about the role of dietary cholesterol in liver inflammation, and also with regard to the effect of phytosterols on the metabolism of cholesterol, we aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of phytosterol supplementation against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. METHOD: Thirty-eight patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were randomly divided into two groups: The phytosterol group (n = 19) received a 1...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767698/mechanisms-by-which-dietary-fatty-acids-regulate-mitochondrial-structure-function-in-health-and-disease
#8
E Madison Sullivan, Edward Ross Pennington, William D Green, Melinda A Beck, David A Brown, Saame Raza Shaikh
Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles within a cell. Furthermore, mitochondria have a role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and proper calcium concentrations, building critical components of hormones and other signaling molecules, and controlling apoptosis. Structurally, mitochondria are unique because they have 2 membranes that allow for compartmentalization. The composition and molecular organization of these membranes are crucial to the maintenance and function of mitochondria. In this review, we first present a general overview of mitochondrial membrane biochemistry and biophysics followed by the role of different dietary saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in modulating mitochondrial membrane structure-function...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766802/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-related-molecular-mechanisms-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#9
Lifeng Wang, Jun Ren
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a common public health problem and a common cause of chronic liver diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to the development and progression of NAFLD remain elusive. Accumulating evidence has depicted an essential role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of steatosis and later progression into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocarcinoma. With the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, ER stress is provoked to turn on the unfolded protein response (UPR)...
May 16, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766801/naringenin-and-its-nano-formulations-for-fatty-liver-cellular-modes-of-action-and-clinical-perspective
#10
Mahdi Zobeiri, Tarun Belwal, Fatemeh Parvizi, Rozita Naseri, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease mainly caused by high fat diets and sudden feed changes, vitamin and energy deficiency, and inflammatory processes. Fatty liver leads to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma as well as liver failure. Lifestyle-modifying such as weight loss and healthy diet have an inverse correlation with the risk of fatty liver. The promising effect of a diet rich in vegetables and fruits against fatty liver has been evidenced by several empirical studies focused on flavonoids...
May 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764990/ire1%C3%AE-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-by-processing-and-promoting-the-degradation-of-select-micrornas
#11
Jie-Mei Wang, Yining Qiu, Zhao Yang, Hyunbae Kim, Qingwen Qian, Qinghua Sun, Chunbin Zhang, Lei Yin, Deyu Fang, Sung Hong Back, Randal J Kaufman, Ling Yang, Kezhong Zhang
Obesity or a high-fat diet represses the endoribonuclease activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), a transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An impaired UPR is associated with hepatic steatosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is caused by lipid accumulation in the liver. We found that IRE1α was critical to maintaining lipid homeostasis in the liver by repressing the biogenesis of microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate lipid mobilization...
May 15, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762096/us-time-harmonic-elastography-detection-of-liver-fibrosis-in-adolescents-with-extreme-obesity-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Christian A Hudert, Heiko Tzschätzsch, Jing Guo, Birgit Rudolph, Hendrik Bläker, Christoph Loddenkemper, Werner Luck, Hans-Peter Müller, Daniel C Baumgart, Bernd Hamm, Jürgen Braun, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Susanna Wiegand, Ingolf Sack
Purpose To measure in vivo liver stiffness by using US time-harmonic elastography in a cohort of pediatric patients who were overweight to extremely obese with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to evaluate the diagnostic value of time-harmonic elastography for differentiating stages of fibrosis associated with progressive disease. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 67 consecutive adolescents (age range, 10-17 years; mean body mass index, 34.7 kg/m2 ; range, 21.4-50.4 kg/m2 ) with biopsy-proven NAFLD were enrolled...
May 15, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761170/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate-reduced-oxidase-2-modulates-inflammatory-vigor-during-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression-in-mice
#13
Rajib Mukherjee, Maria E Moreno-Fernandez, Daniel A Giles, Monica Cappelletti, Traci E Stankiewicz, Calvin C Chan, Senad Divanovic
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a disease spectrum ranging from benign steatosis to life-threatening cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exacerbated inflammatory responses have been implicated in NAFLD progression. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) oxidase 2 (NOX2; also known as gp91Phox ), the main catalytic subunit of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) oxidase complex, modulates ROS production, immune responsiveness, and pathogenesis of obesity-associated metabolic derangements...
May 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760542/mouse-models-for-investigating-the-underlying-mechanisms-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-derived-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
REVIEW
Kazuki Takakura, Tsunekazu Oikawa, Yoichi Tomita, Yusuke Mizuno, Masanori Nakano, Chisato Saeki, Yuichi Torisu, Masayuki Saruta
As the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by infection with the hepatotropic viruses hepatitis B and hepatitis C decreases, greater attention has become focused on HCC caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an advanced form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease which has shown increasing prevalence in correspondence with the overall increase in metabolic syndrome over the recent decades. Several clinical population studies have shown a positive relationship between NASH and HCC, while also providing initial insights into the underlying mechanisms of HCC development from NASH...
May 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759071/metformin-attenuates-triglyceride-accumulation-in-hepg2-cells-through-decreasing-stearyl-coenzyme-a-desaturase-1-expression
#15
Xiaopeng Zhu, Hongmei Yan, Mingfeng Xia, Xinxia Chang, Xi Xu, Liu Wang, Xiaoyang Sun, Yan Lu, Hua Bian, Xiaoying Li, Xin Gao
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased worldwide. Metformin decreases triglyceride (TG) accumulation in hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro. Stearyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) knockout mice also show decreased liver TG accumulation; however, whether SCD1 plays a role in the effect of metformin on TG accumulation is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether SCD1 mediated the effect of metformin on TG accumulation...
May 14, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752170/treating-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-improves-the-severity-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#16
Shikha S Sundaram, Ann C Halbower, Jelena Klawitter, Zhaoxing Pan, Kristen Robbins, Kelley E Capocelli, Ronald J Sokol
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of treating obstructive sleep apnea/nocturnal hypoxia on pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity and oxidative stress. STUDY DESIGN: Biopsy proven participants (n = 9) with NAFLD and obstructive sleep apnea/hypoxia were studied before and after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for sleep disordered breathing, including laboratory testing and markers of oxidative stress, urine F(2)-isoprostanes...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751874/nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-histopathology-basics-within-a-broader-context
#17
REVIEW
Michael H Schild, Cynthia D Guy
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health concern and the prevalence continues to increase in many industrialized and developing countries around the world. NAFLD affects adults and children. NAFLD-related cirrhosis is expected to become the top indication for liver transplantation in the near future, and the incidence of NAFLD-related hepatocellular carcinoma is also increasing. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is the more severe form of NAFLD. The pathogenesis of NALFD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is complex and new concepts continue to evolve...
June 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751074/effects-of-high-fructose-intake-on-liver-injury-progression-in-high-fat-diet-induced-fatty-liver-disease-in-ovariectomized-female-mice
#18
Tomoko Ohashi, Masaki Kato, Akihiro Yamasaki, Akifumi Kuwano, Hideo Suzuki, Motoyuki Kohjima, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Epidemiology shows that the morbidity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increased in postmenopausal women and chronic high fructose intake induces NAFLD progression. To analyze the effects of high fructose intake on estrogen deficiency, we evaluated liver disease progression using ovariectomized mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Hepatic steatosis developed in all HFD groups. Fructose intake significantly increased the liver weight and serum alanine aminotransferase, which was not exacerbated by ovariectomy alone...
May 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749571/hepatic-irs1-and-%C3%A3-catenin-expression-is-associated-with-histological-progression-and-overt-diabetes-emergence-in-nafld-patients
#19
Kenichiro Enooku, Mayuko Kondo, Naoto Fujiwara, Takayoshi Sasako, Junji Shibahara, Akira Kado, Kazuya Okushin, Hidetaka Fujinaga, Takeya Tsutsumi, Ryo Nakagomi, Tatsuya Minami, Masaya Sato, Hayato Nakagawa, Yuji Kondo, Yoshinari Asaoka, Ryosuke Tateishi, Kohjiro Ueki, Hitoshi Ikeda, Haruhiko Yoshida, Kyoji Moriya, Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi, Takashi Kadowaki, Masashi Fukayama, Kazuhiko Koike
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between NAFLD and impaired glucose metabolism in terms of insulin receptor substrate 1 and 2 (IRS1 and IRS2) expression in the liver. METHODS: Liver biopsy was performed at the University of Tokyo Hospital between November 2011 and March 2016 on 146 patients with NAFLD who were not being treated with any diabetes or dyslipidemia drugs...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749323/effects-of-delta-tocotrienol-supplementation-on-liver-enzymes-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Muhammad Amjad Pervez, Dishad Ahmet Khan, Aamir Ijaz, Shamrez Khan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing public health problem worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for this disease. δ-Tocotrienol has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and may reduce liver injury in NAFLD. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of δ-tocotrienol in the treatment of NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study conducted in patients aged > 20 years, belonging to both sexes, having ultrasound-proven fatty liver disease, having a fatty liver index (FLI) of ≥ 60, and persistent elevation of alanine transaminase...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
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