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Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Jörn Diedrichsen
High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e...
October 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Louise J Walport, Richard J Hopkinson, Rasheduzzaman Chowdhury, Rachel Schiller, Wei Ge, Akane Kawamura, Christopher J Schofield
While the oxygen-dependent reversal of lysine N(ɛ)-methylation is well established, the existence of bona fide N(ω)-methylarginine demethylases (RDMs) is controversial. Lysine demethylation, as catalysed by two families of lysine demethylases (the flavin-dependent KDM1 enzymes and the 2-oxoglutarate- and oxygen-dependent JmjC KDMs, respectively), proceeds via oxidation of the N-methyl group, resulting in the release of formaldehyde. Here we report detailed biochemical studies clearly demonstrating that, in purified form, a subset of JmjC KDMs can also act as RDMs, both on histone and non-histone fragments, resulting in formaldehyde release...
2016: Nature Communications
Pallab Kanti Podder, Manoranjan Paul, Manzur Murshed
The emerging High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard introduces a number of innovative and powerful coding tools to acquire better compression efficiency compared to its predecessor H.264. The encoding time complexities have also increased multiple times that is not suitable for realtime video coding applications. To address this limitation, this paper employs a novel coding strategy to reduce the time complexity in HEVC encoder by efficient selection of appropriate block-partitioning modes based on human visual features (HVF)...
2016: PloS One
Shoubing Zhou, Shiya Zheng, Yongfeng Shan, Lulu Li, Xiu Zhang, Cailian Wang
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most important medicines used for the treatment for B cell lymphoma, yet its clinical efficacy is often limited by severe adverse effects. Drug-loaded microbubbles, combined with ultrasound (US) irradiation, has shown great promise in reducing DOX-induced side effects and improving therapeutic efficacy. Nevertheless, these drug-loaded microbubbles are non-targeted microbubbles with comparatively suboptimal efficiency. Therefore, we synthesized targeted and DOX-loaded microbubbles (DMs), combined with US irradiation, for triggering drug release in lymphoma B cells...
February 2016: Oncology Reports
Seyed-Mahdi Khaligh-Razavi, Johan Carlin, Radoslaw Martin Cichy, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
Visual processing involves feedforward and recurrent signals. Understanding which computations are performed in the feedforward sweep and which require recurrent processing has been challenging. We used fMRI and MEG to characterize the spatial and temporal components of human visual object representations. In the fMRI experiment, we used brief stimulus presentation (16.7ms) and a backward masking paradigm with short and long interstimulus intervals (ISI) to distinguish the contributions of feedforward and recurrent processing...
2015: Journal of Vision
Nisha Dalal, Virginia Flanagin, Stefan Glasauer
INTRODUCTION: The hippocampus interacts with early visual cortex in a stimulus-dependent way. Previously our lab reported that when participants watched movement through a virtual tunnel there was a weaker correlation between the hippocampus and primary visual cortex than with videos where the phase content was scrambled (Figure S1). The hippocampus may provide an important function in interpreting unpredictable input. Here, we test this hypothesis using a similar fMRI paradigm, together with univariate and representational similarity analyses...
2015: Journal of Vision
David Herrera, Mario Treviño
In two-alternative discrimination tasks, experimenters usually randomize the location of the rewarded stimulus so that systematic behavior with respect to irrelevant stimuli can only produce chance performance on the learning curves. One way to achieve this is to use random numbers derived from a discrete binomial distribution to create a 'full random training schedule' (FRS). When using FRS, however, sporadic but long laterally-biased training sequences occur by chance and such 'input biases' are thought to promote the generation of laterally-biased choices (i...
2015: PloS One
Linda Henriksson, Seyed-Mahdi Khaligh-Razavi, Kendrick Kay, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
Intrinsic cortical dynamics are thought to underlie trial-to-trial variability of visually evoked responses in animal models. Understanding their function in the context of sensory processing and representation is a major current challenge. Here we report that intrinsic cortical dynamics strongly affect the representational geometry of a brain region, as reflected in response-pattern dissimilarities, and exaggerate the similarity of representations between brain regions. We characterized the representations in several human visual areas by representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) constructed from fMRI response-patterns for natural image stimuli...
July 1, 2015: NeuroImage
Antony C Moss, Ian P Albery, Kyle R Dyer, Daniel Frings, Karis Humphreys, Thomas Inkelaar, Emily Harding, Abbie Speller
AIMS: Four experiments were conducted to assess the acute impact of context and exposure to responsible drinking messages (RDMs) on attentional allocation and drinking behaviour of younger drinkers and to explore the utility of lab-based methods for the evaluation of such materials. METHODS: A simulated bar environment was used to examine the impact of context, RDM posters, and brief online responsible drinking advice on actual drinking behaviour. Experiments one (n = 50) and two (n = 35) comprised female non-problem drinkers, whilst Experiments three (n = 80) and 4 (n = 60) included a mixed-gender sample of non-problem drinkers, recruited from an undergraduate student cohort...
May 2015: Addictive Behaviors
Seyed-Mahdi Khaligh-Razavi, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
Inferior temporal (IT) cortex in human and nonhuman primates serves visual object recognition. Computational object-vision models, although continually improving, do not yet reach human performance. It is unclear to what extent the internal representations of computational models can explain the IT representation. Here we investigate a wide range of computational model representations (37 in total), testing their categorization performance and their ability to account for the IT representational geometry. The models include well-known neuroscientific object-recognition models (e...
November 2014: PLoS Computational Biology
Resa E Lewiss, Michael Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2014: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Romolo J Gaspari, John Bailitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2014: Annals of Emergency Medicine
F Alauzet, M-C Banide, C Pailhes, S Blanc, I Montaudié, C Piccini-Bailly, M Berlioz-Baudoin, M Bégassat, M Albertini, L Giovannini-Chami
CONTEXT AND AIM: Guidelines have been published regularly since 2010 by the ANSM (the Health Products Safety Agency) advising against antitussive drugs for infants because of their inefficacy and their side effects (convulsions, respiratory congestion). Antihistamines, mucolytics, and terpene-based suppositories have theoretically disappeared from infant pharmacopoeia. We assessed the degree of compliance with these guidelines on the part of health professionals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 2012 to August 2012, 198 general practitioners and 44 pediatricians were assessed in the Alpes-Maritimes department of France by means of questionnaires...
May 2014: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Gergely Gidofalvi, David A Mazziotti
Molecule-optimized basis sets, based on approximate natural orbitals, are developed for accelerating the convergence of quantum calculations with strongly correlated (multireferenced) electrons. We use a low-cost approximate solution of the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation (ACSE) for the one- and two-electron reduced density matrices (RDMs) to generate an approximate set of natural orbitals for strongly correlated quantum systems. The natural-orbital basis set is truncated to generate a molecule-optimized basis set whose rank matches that of a standard correlation-consistent basis set optimized for the atoms...
January 16, 2014: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Roberto C Bochicchio, Ramón A Miranda-Quintana, Diego Rial
Grand-canonical like descriptions of many electron atomic and molecular open systems which are characterized by a non-integer number of electrons are presented. Their associated reduced density matrices (RDMs) are obtained by introducing the contracting mapping for this type of distributions. It is shown that there is loss of information when connecting RDMs of different order by partial contractions. The energy convexity property of these systems simplifies the description. Consequently, this formulation opens the possibility to a new look for chemical descriptors such as chemical potential and reactivity among others...
November 21, 2013: Journal of Chemical Physics
Abdul M Kazi, Thomas J MacVittie, Giovanni Lasio, Wei Lu, Karl L Prado
Dose-related radiobiological research results can only be compared meaningfully when radiation dosimetry is standardized. To this purpose, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological Threats (MCART) consortium recently created a Radiation Physics Core (RPC) as an entity to assume responsibility of standardizing radiation dosimetry practices among its member laboratories. The animal research activities in these laboratories use a variety of ionizing photon beams from several irradiators such as 250-320 kVp x-ray generators, Cs irradiators, Co teletherapy machines, and medical linear accelerators (LINACs)...
January 2014: Health Physics
Yuxia Zhang, Jovana Maksimovic, Gaetano Naselli, Junyan Qian, Michael Chopin, Marnie E Blewitt, Alicia Oshlack, Leonard C Harrison
Regulatory T cells (Treg) prevent the emergence of autoimmune disease. Prototypic natural Treg (nTreg) can be reliably identified by demethylation at the Forkhead-box P3 (FOXP3) locus. To explore the methylation landscape of nTreg, we analyzed genome-wide methylation in human naive nTreg (rTreg) and conventional naive CD4(+) T cells (Naive). We detected 2315 differentially methylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides (CpGs) between these 2 cell types, many of which clustered into 127 regions of differential methylation (RDMs)...
October 17, 2013: Blood
Masaaki Saitow, Yuki Kurashige, Takeshi Yanai
We report development of the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method that can use active space scalable to much larger size references than has previously been possible. The recent development of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method in multireference quantum chemistry offers the ability to describe static correlation in a large active space. The present MRCI method provides a critical correction to the DMRG reference by including high-level dynamic correlation through the CI treatment...
July 28, 2013: Journal of Chemical Physics
Zhenhua Chen, Xun Chen, Wei Wu
In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function...
April 28, 2013: Journal of Chemical Physics
Christine A Schwerdtfeger, David A Mazziotti
Treatment of two-electron excitations is a fundamental but computationally expensive part of ab initio calculations of many-electron correlation. In this paper we develop a low-rank spectral expansion of two-electron excitations for accelerated electronic-structure calculations. The spectral expansion differs from previous approaches by relying upon both (i) a sum of three expansions to increase the rank reduction of the tensor and (ii) a factorization of the tensor into geminal (rank-two) tensors rather than orbital (rank-one) tensors...
December 28, 2012: Journal of Chemical Physics
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