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Nosocomial infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650489/guiding-hand-hygiene-interventions-among-future-healthcare-workers-implications-of-knowledge-attitudes-and-social-influences
#1
Shamsul Arfin Qasmi, Sayed Mustafa Mahmood Shah, Hafiz Yahya Iftikhar Wakil, Sarmad Pirzada
BACKGROUND: Medical students in their clinical years play an important role in healthcare delivery, yet poor levels of hand hygiene (HH) compliance in this population raise the risk for propagating nosocomial infections. To date, there has been a lack of dedicated interventions showing sustainable improvements in HH in this population. METHODS: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted among 450 medical students in their clinical years (third to fifth years)...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649785/albumin-biofunctionalization-to-minimize-the-staphylococcus-aureus-adhesion-on-solid-substrates
#2
María Laura Martín, Valeria Pfaffen, Laura E Valenti, Carla E Giacomelli
Staphylococcus aureus has become the most common opportunistic microorganism related to nosocomial infections due to the bacteria capacity to form biofilms on biomedical devices and implants. Since bacterial adhesion is the first step in this pathogenesis, it is evident that inhibiting such a process will reduce the opportunity for bacterial colonization on the devices. This work is aimed at optimizing a surface biofunctionalization strategy to inhibit the adhesion of S. aureus on solid substrates. The first part of the work deals with the albumin adsorption-desorption process, studied by a factorial design of experiments to explore a wide range of experimental factors (protein concentration, pH, flow rate and adsorption time) and responses (initial adsorption rate, adsorbed amount, desorbed extent) for hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, with a reduced number of experiments...
April 3, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649276/carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens-in-a-german-university-medical-center-prevalence-clinical-implications-and-the-role-of-novel-%C3%AE-lactam-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-combinations
#3
Juri Katchanov, Lucia Asar, Eva-Maria Klupp, Anna Both, Camilla Rothe, Christina König, Holger Rohde, Stefan Kluge, Florian P Maurer
OBJECTIVES: To determine the spectrum of infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) and the clinical impact of the newly available betalactam/betalactamase inhibitor combinations ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam in a German academic tertiary care center. METHODS: Retrospective analysis. RESULTS: Between September 1, 2015 and August 31, 2016, 119 individual patients (0.22% of all hospital admissions) were colonized or infected with carbapenem-resistant MDR-GNB...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644442/-current-aspects-of-the-definition-and-diagnosis-of-sepsis-and-antibiotic-resistance
#4
REVIEW
Frank M Brunkhorst, Petra Gastmeier, Muna Abu Sin
Hospital mortality of patients with secondary sepsis remains high at around 40%. Because of the methodological deficiencies of the definitions used so far, valid epidemiological data on secondary sepsis that allow for national and international comparisons are lacking. Since 2016, new clinical diagnostic tools that are also suitable for sepsis screening outside of intensive care units have been available. To counteract the high mortality of nosocomial sepsis, new approaches to the early identification of at-risk patients are needed...
April 11, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644052/environmental-colonization-and-onward-clonal-transmission-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-crab-in-a-medical-intensive-care-unit-the-case-for-environmental-hygiene
#5
Deborah H L Ng, Kalisvar Marimuthu, Jia Jun Lee, Wei Xin Khong, Oon Tek Ng, Wei Zhang, Bee Fong Poh, Pooja Rao, Maya Devi Rajinder Raj, Brenda Ang, Partha Pratim De
Background: In May 2015, we noticed an increase in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU). To investigate this, we studied the extent of environmental contamination and subsequent onward clonal transmission of CRAB. Methods: We conducted a one-day point prevalence screening (PPS) of the patients and environment in the MICU. We screened patients using endotracheal tube aspirates and swabs from nares, axillae, groin, rectum, wounds, and exit sites of drains...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642960/cyp51-as-drug-targets-for-fungi-and-protozoan-parasites-past-present-and-future
#6
Galina I Lepesheva, Laura Friggeri, Michael R Waterman
The efficiency of treatment of human infections with the unicellular eukaryotic pathogens such as fungi and protozoa remains deeply unsatisfactory. For example, the mortality rates from nosocomial fungemia in critically ill, immunosuppressed or post-cancer patients often exceed 50%. A set of six systemic clinical azoles [sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) inhibitors] represents the first-line antifungal treatment. All these drugs were discovered empirically, by monitoring their effects on fungal cell growth, though it had been proven that they kill fungal cells by blocking the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi at the stage of 14α-demethylation of the sterol nucleus...
April 12, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642449/characterization-of-a-new-staphylococcus-aureus-kayvirus-harboring-a-lysin-active-against-biofilms
#7
Luís D R Melo, Ana Brandão, Ergun Akturk, Silvio B Santos, Joana Azeredo
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most relevant opportunistic pathogens involved in many biofilm-associated diseases, and is a major cause of nosocomial infections, mainly due to the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains. Consequently, alternative methods to eradicate the pathogen are urgent. It has been previously shown that polyvalent staphylococcal kayviruses and their derived endolysins are excellent candidates for therapy. Here we present the characterization of a new bacteriophage: vB_SauM-LM12 (LM12)...
April 7, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629890/infective-complications-after-free-flaps-reconstruction-in-patients-affected-by-head-and-neck-cancer-our-experience-on-77-cases
#8
Giovanni Dell'Aversana Orabona, Raffaele Corvino, Fabio Maglitto, Vincenzo Abbate, Paola Bonavolontà, Antonio Romano, Giovanni Salzano, Luigi Califano
AIM: The success rates of free flaps in patients undergoing head and neck cancer (HNC) surgery are very high (95%- 97%) but the development of a surgical site infection (SSI) can put flap viability at risk. The aim of our study is to identify the risk factors for SSI in patients undergo free flaps reconstruction after head and neck cancer removal. MATERIAL OF STUDY: Seventyseven patients (44 male and 33 female) from April 2006 to April 2015 admitted at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Naples "Federico II" were included in this study...
2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628915/gas-plasma-pre-treatment-increases-antibiotic-sensitivity-and-persister-eradication-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Zhijie Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Hailan Chen, Michael G Kong
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of serious nosocomial infections, and recurrent MRSA infections primarily result from the survival of persister cells after antibiotic treatment. Gas plasma, a novel source of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) generation, not only inactivates pathogenic microbes but also restore the sensitivity of MRSA to antibiotics. This study further found that sublethal treatment of MRSA with both plasma and plasma-activated saline increased the antibiotic sensitivity and promoted the eradication of persister cells by tetracycline, gentamycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and vancomycin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628252/processing-and-antibacterial-properties-of-chitosan-coated-alginate-fibers
#10
Mélanie Dumont, Régis Villet, Manon Guirand, Alexandra Montembault, Thierry Delair, Stéphane Lack, Michel Barikosky, Agnès Crepet, Pierre Alcouffe, Frédéric Laurent, Laurent David
The preparation of chitosan-coated alginate fibers by a wet spin process is presented and the characterization of the antibacterial activities of these fibers is discussed. Preformed calcium alginate fibers were passed in chitosan acetate solutions. The coagulation method of the coating consisted in the immersion of fibers in a bath of calcium dihydroxide solution (0.1 M). The antibacterial evaluation was achieved by a CFU (Colony-Forming Units) counting method after 6 h of incubation at 37 °C. The incorporation of chitosan on calcium alginate fibers brings antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and various Staphylococcus aureus strains namely MSSA (Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus), CA-MRSA (Community Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and HA-MRSA (Healthcare Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) which make these chitosan-coated fibers potential candidates for wound dressing materials...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626676/current-epidemiology-genetic-evolution-and-clinical-impact-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#11
REVIEW
Yong Chong, Shinji Shimoda, Nobuyuki Shimono
The worldwide spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, is a critical concern for the development of therapies against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Since the 2000s, detection rates of CTX-M types ESBL-producing E. coli in the community have been high, possibly contributing to their nosocomial detection. Various factors, such as environmental sources, food animals, and international travel, accelerate the global ESBL spread in the community...
April 4, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626658/immunization-with-the-outer-membrane-proteins-ompk17-and-ompk36-elicits-protection-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-the-murine-infection-model
#12
Kawther E Hussein, Mohammed Bahey-El-Din, Salah A Sheweita
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium that is increasingly reported as a serious nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen. In the current study, two K. pneumoniae antigens, OmpK17 and OmpK36, as well as their fusion protein cognate F36/17 were investigated as potential vaccine candidates in a murine infection model. Three immunoadjuvants, namely the Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix (GEM) adjuvant, synthetic hemozoin (Hz) adjuvant and incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) were evaluated. Genes of OmpK17 and OmpK36 antigens as well as their fusion protein were cloned in Escherichia coli for recombinant expression...
April 4, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626241/infectious-disease-risks-in-pediatric-renal-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Felicia A Scaggs Huang, Lara Danziger-Isakov
Renal transplantation is a vital treatment option in children with ESRD with more than 10,000 pediatric kidney transplants and survival rates of greater than 80% at 10 years post-transplant in the USA alone. Despite these advances, infection remains a significant cause of morbidity in pediatric recipients. Screening potential organ donors and recipients is imperative to identify and mitigate infectious risks in the transplant patient. Despite the unique risks of each patient, the timing of many infections post-transplant is predictable...
April 6, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626024/pyrexia-of-unknown-origin
#14
Cristina Fernandez, Nick J Beeching
The syndrome of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) was first defined in 1961 but remains a clinical challenge for many physicians. Different subgroups with PUO have been suggested, each requiring different investigative strategies: classical, nosocomial, neutropenic and HIV-related. This could be expanded to include the elderly as a fifth group. The causes are broadly divided into four groups: infective, inflammatory, neoplastic and miscellaneous. Increasing early use of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and the development of new molecular and serological tests for infection have improved diagnostic capability, but up to 50% of patients still have no cause found despite adequate investigations...
March 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624945/the-threat-of-aerobic-vaginitis-to-pregnancy-and-neonatal-morbidity
#15
REVIEW
Eveline Kaambo, Charlene W J Africa
Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an endogenous opportunistic infection brought about by the disruption of the normal vaginal microbiota. Its early diagnosis and treatment during pregnancy may reduce the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this review was to report on the aerobic bacteria most prevalent in AV and to provide evidence of the threat of untreated AV on pregnancy outcomes. More than 300 papers on preterm delivery were extracted from several research domains and filtered to include only AV-associated bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Group B streptococci and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes...
June 2017: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623211/-shewanella-spp-infections-in-gran-canaria-spain-retrospective-analysis-of-31-cases-and-a-literature-review
#16
Alberto J Martín-Rodríguez, Oriol Martín-Pujol, Fernando Artiles-Campelo, Margarita Bolaños-Rivero, Ute Römling
Introduction: Shewanella spp. can cause severe skin and soft-tissue infections, gastrointestinal infections, otitis and bacteraemia, generally upon contact with seawater or consumption of raw seafood. Recently, a new condition termed 'patera foot' characterized by acute skin and soft-tissue infection has been described in irregular immigrants arriving to the Canary Islands, Spain, in rudimentary boats. Most infections are caused by a single species, Shewanella algae . The improvement of the diagnostic capabilities in clinical microbiology laboratories has resulted in a growing number of cases being reported worldwide, most of them coming from warm regions...
December 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622605/complete-genome-sequences-of-two-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-isolates-of-multilocus-sequence-type-25-first-detected-by-shotgun-metagenomics
#17
Natacha Couto, Monika A Chlebowicz, Erwin C Raangs, Alex W Friedrich, John W Rossen
The emergence of nosocomial infections by multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates has been reported in several European countries. Here, we report the first two complete genome sequences of S. haemolyticus sequence type 25 (ST25) isolates 83131A and 83131B. Both isolates were isolated from the same clinical sample and were first identified through shotgun metagenomics.
April 5, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621600/nosocomial-transmission-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-an-italian-university-hospital-a-molecular-epidemiological-study
#18
Giovanni Sotgiu, Bianca Maria Are, Lucia Pesapane, Alessandra Palmieri, Narcisa Muresu, Andrea Cossu, Marco Dettori, Antonio Azara, Ida Iolanda Mura, Clementina Cocuzza, Stefano Aliberti, Andrea Piana
AIM: To describe the phenotypic and genotypic profiles of Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase-producing K. pneumonia (KPC-Kp) strains isolated from patients with invasive infections at an Italian university hospital in order to assess the epidemiological trend. METHODS: An observational prospective study was carried out at the University Hospital of Sassari, Italy, to detect KPC-Kp strains in patients with invasive bacteraemia. Isolates were identified phenotypically; carbapenemase production was assessed using phenotypic and genotypic methods...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618503/defining-and-evaluating-a-core-genome-multilocus-sequence-typing-scheme-for-genome-wide-typing-of-clostridium-difficile
#19
Stefan Bletz, Sandra Janezic, Dag Harmsen, Maja Rupnik, Alexander Mellmann
Clostridium difficile , recently renamed to Clostridioides difficile , is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated nosocomial gastrointestinal infections worldwide. To differentiate endogenous infections and transmission events, a highly discriminatory subtyping is necessary. Today, methods based on whole genome sequencing data are increasingly used to subtype bacterial pathogens; however, frequently a standardized methodology and typing nomenclature is missing. Here we report a core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) approach developed for C...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616195/the-atp-p2x-7-signaling-axis-is-an-essential-sentinel-for-intracellular-clostridium-difficile-pathogen-induced-inflammasome-activation
#20
Ya-Hui Liu, Yung-Chi Chang, Liang-Kuei Chen, Po-An Su, Wen-Chien Ko, Yau-Sheng Tsai, Yi-Hsuan Chen, Hsin-Chih Lai, Cheng-Yeu Wu, Yuan-Pin Hung, Pei-Jane Tsai
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of nosocomial infection in hospitalized patients receiving long-term antibiotic treatment. An excessive host inflammatory response is believed to be the major mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection, and various proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β are detected in patients with C. difficile infection. IL-1β is known to be processed by caspase-1, a cysteine protease that is regulated by a protein complex called the inflammasome, which leads to a specialized form of cell death called pyroptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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