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Nosocomial infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458065/nosocomial-ventriculitis-caused-by-a-meticillin-and-linezolid-resistant-clone-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-in-neurosurgical-patients
#1
Carlos Rodríguez-Lucas, Javier Fernández, José Antonio Boga, Lucia López-Amor, Lorena Forcelledo, Eva Lázaro-López, M Rosario Rodicio
BACKGROUND: Post-neurosurgical ventriculitis is mainly caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. The rate of linezolid resistant S. epidermidis (LRSE) is increasing worldwide. AIMS: To report clinical and microbiological data from a series of ventriculitis cases caused by LRSE in a Spanish hospital between 2013 and 2016. METHODS: LRSE ventriculitis cases were retrospectively reviewed in a Spanish hospital during a four-year period. Clinical/epidemiological data of the infected patients were reviewed, the isolates involved were typed by PFGE and MLST, and the molecular basis of linezolid resistance was determined...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456562/colonization-with-hospital-flora-and-its-associated-risk-factors-in-neonates-hospitalized-in-neonatal-ward-of-a-teaching-center-in-isfahan-iran
#2
Kiana Shirani, Kamyar Mostafavizadeh, Behrouz Ataei, Khatere Akhani
Background: Due to the high incidence and prevalence of infection in neonatal ward, especially Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) reported by different studies and the important role of colonization with hospital germs in the development of nosocomial infections, we intended to evaluate the risk of colonization with hospital germs in neonates and its associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in 2016 in a Teaching Center in Iran...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455272/the-outcome-and-timing-of-death-of-17-767-nosocomial-bloodstream-infections-in-acute-care-hospitals-in-finland-during-1999-2014
#3
Keiju S K Kontula, Kirsi Skogberg, Jukka Ollgren, Asko Järvinen, Outi Lyytikäinen
Few studies covering all patient groups and specialties are available regarding the outcome of nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI). We analyzed the role of patient characteristics and causative pathogens of nosocomial BSIs reported by the hospitals participating in national surveillance in Finland during 1999-2014, in terms of outcome, with particular interest in those leading to death within 2 days (i.e. early death). National nosocomial BSI surveillance was laboratory-based and hospital-wide. Data on nosocomial BSIs was collected by infection control nurses, and dates of death were obtained from the national population registry with linkage to national identity codes...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455206/a-potential-mechanism-for-immune-suppression-by-beta-adrenergic-receptor-stimulation-following-traumatic-injury
#4
Nicholas J Shubin, Tam N Pham, Kristan Lea Staudenmayer, Brodie A Parent, Qian Qiu, Grant E O'Keefe
BACKGROUND: β-Adrenergic agents suppress inflammation and may play an important role in posttraumatic infections. Mechanisms may include inhibition of MAP kinase signaling. We sought to determine whether MKP-1 contributed to catecholamine suppression of innate immunity and also wanted to know whether early catecholamine treatment after traumatic injury increases the risk of later nosocomial infection. METHODS: We performed experiments using THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454824/candida-albicans-biology-molecular-characterization-pathogenicity-and-advances-in-diagnosis-and-control-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Maryam Dadar, Ruchi Tiwari, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Sandip Chakraborty, Youcef Shahali, Kuldeep Dhama
Candida albicans is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen representing an important source of invasive disease in humans and generating high healthcare costs worldwide. This fungus is frequently found in different anatomical sites of healthy persons and could induce systemic and superficial infections under optimal environmental conditions. Invasive candidiasis (IC) is an important nosocomial infection with high morbidity and mortality rates in hospitalized children. It represents a major source of prolonged infections in intensive care unit (ICU), particularly in immunosuppressed or elderly patients...
February 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453908/effective-anti-adhesives-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#6
Rosana Ribić, Tomislav Meštrović, Marijana Neuberg, Goran Kozina
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are among the most common infectious diseases in humans. Due to their frequent occurrence in the community and nosocomial settings, as well as the development of resistance to the commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents, an enormous financial burden is placed on healthcare systems around the world. Therefore, novel approaches to the prevention and treatment of UTIs are needed. Although UPEC may harbour a plethora of virulence factors, type I fimbriae and P pili are two of the most studied adhesive organelles, since the attachment to host cells in the urinary tract is a crucial step towards infection...
March 1, 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453481/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-and-role-of-nurses-in-its-prevention
#7
Chadani Osti, Deepa Wosti, Bimala Pandey, Qinghua Zhao
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most frequent nosocomial infections among ventilated patients in ICUs, associated with an increase in days of ICU stay, morbidity, and mortality. Its prevention is a significant concern in every hospital. Most of the interventions and prevention strategies are part of routine nursing care. Nurses have different vital roles such as care provider, manager, educator, coordinator, and evaluator in preventing VAP. Lack of knowledge of infection prevention and proper nursing care among nurses may become a barrier in adhering to evidence-based guidelines for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452620/pathogen-specific-bacterial-imaging-in-nuclear-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Alvaro A Ordonez, Sanjay K Jain
When serious infections are suspected, patients are often treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics while awaiting results that provide information on the bacterial class and species causing the infection, as well as drug susceptibilities. For deep-seated infections, these traditional diagnostic techniques often rely on tissue biopsies to obtain clinical samples which can be expensive, dangerous, and has the potential of sampling bias. Moreover, these procedures and results can take several days and may not always provide reliable information...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452198/microbial-infection-pattern-pathogenic-features-and-resistance-mechanism-of-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-during-long-term-hospitalization
#9
Shuxian Wen, Donghua Feng, Zerong Lu, Junyan Liu, Brian M Peters, Hailing Tang, Danhong Su, Yong-Ping Lin, Ling Yang, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff, Dingqiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) have become an important cause of nosocomial infections of hospitalized patients. METHODS: To investigate the microbial infection patterns and molecular epidemiology characteristics of the carbapenem-resistant GNB isolates from a long-term hospitalized patient, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, phenotypic screening test for carbapenemase production, PCR screening and DNA sequencing of carbapenemase genes, repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR), multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) and genetic environment analysis were performed...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447024/microbiology-and-clinical-outcomes-of-puerperal-sepsis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Rumbidzai Majangara, Muchabayiwa Francis Gidiri, Zvavahera Mike Chirenje
The objectives of this study were to determine the identity and antibacterial susceptibility profiles of bacteria colonising the female genital tract and blood stream and their association with clinical outcomes in women with puerperal sepsis. A prospective descriptive cohort study was conducted at two tertiary hospitals in Zimbabwe. Endocervical swabs and blood were collected for culture and susceptibility testing from 151 consecutive women who met the World Health Organisation criteria for puerperal sepsis...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446811/nosocomial-infections-current-situation-in-a-resuscitation-unit
#11
Ahlem Trifi, Sami Abdellatif, Mouna Oueslati, Meriem Zribi, Foued Daly, Rochdi Nasri, Rahma Mannai, Chadlia Fandri, Salah Ben Lakhal
BACKGROUND: The nosocomial infection (NI) is defined as an infection that is not present or incubating on admission in establishment of care. It can be caused by the patient's germs, care personnel or hospital environment. Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are particularly common in intensive care units that lead to a serious infections and increase morbidity, mortality and cost of care. PURPOSE: To identify the epidemiological characteristics of NI, the predisposing factors, the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of isolated bacteria and the impact on morbidity and mortality...
March 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445826/genome-based-comparison-of-clostridioides-difficile-average-amino-acid-identity-analysis-of-core-genomes
#12
Adriana Cabal, Se-Ran Jun, Piroon Jenjaroenpun, Visanu Wanchai, Intawat Nookaew, Thidathip Wongsurawat, Mary J Burgess, Atul Kothari, Trudy M Wassenaar, David W Ussery
Infections due to Clostridioides difficile (previously known as Clostridium difficile) are a major problem in hospitals, where cases can be caused by community-acquired strains as well as by nosocomial spread. Whole genome sequences from clinical samples contain a lot of information but that needs to be analyzed and compared in such a way that the outcome is useful for clinicians or epidemiologists. Here, we compare 663 public available complete genome sequences of C. difficile using average amino acid identity (AAI) scores...
February 14, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445648/importance-of-prevention-and-control-of-nosocomial-infections-in-iran
#13
Salman Khazaei, Somayeh Khazaei, Erfan Ayubi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444837/whole-genome-sequence-analysis-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-that-cause-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-infections
#14
Bin Chang, Masatomo Morita, Ken-Ichi Lee, Makoto Ohnishi
Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharyngeal mucus in healthy individuals and can cause otitis media, pneumonia, and invasive pneumococcal diseases. In this study, we analyzed the S. pneumoniae strains that caused 19 pneumonia episodes in long-term inpatients with severe underlying disease in a hospital during a period of 14 months (from January 2014 to February 2015). Serotyping and whole genome sequencing analyses revealed that 18 of the 19 pneumonia cases were caused by S. pneumoniae strains belonging to 3 genetically distinct groups: clonal complex (CC) 9999, sequence type (ST) 282, and ST166...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442713/antibacterial-activities-of-bacteriagenic-silver-nanoparticles-against-nosocomial-acinetobacter-baumannii
#15
Richa Singh, Jeet Vora, Shradhda B Nadhe, Sweety A Wadhwani, Utkarsha U Shedbalkar, Balu A Chopade
Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens implicated in variety of severe infections and mortality. It is rapidly developing multi-drug resistance and also possesses surface colonization ability, which make it most difficult to treat through traditional antibiotics. This is an extensive study to describe the antibacterial activity of bacteriagenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against A. baumannii AIIMS 7 in planktonic and biofilm mode. Minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics were in the range of 1 to 4096 μg/ml whereas AgNPs inhibited planktonic bacteria at concentration of 16 μg/ml...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442542/comparison-of-the-nephrotoxicity-of-vancomycin-in-combination-with-cefepime-meropenem-or-piperacillin-tazobactam-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#16
Brandon P Mullins, C Joseph Kramer, Billie J Bartel, Jennifer S Catlin, Richard E Gilder
BACKGROUND: Patients often receive broad-spectrum antibiotics for nosocomial infections commonly with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Previous retrospective and/or single-center studies have suggested that the combination of vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam might be associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury. OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving intravenous vancomycin in combination with cefepime, meropenem, or piperacillin/tazobactam...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438671/the-structure-of-the-biofilm-controlling-response-regulator-bfmr-from-acinetobacter-baumannii-reveals-details-of-its-dna-binding-mechanism
#17
G Logan Draughn, Morgan E Milton, Erik A Feldmann, Benjamin G Bobay, Braden M Roth, Andrew L Olson, Richele J Thompson, Luis A Actis, Christopher Davies, John Cavanagh
The rise of drug-resistant bacterial infections coupled with decreasing antibiotic efficacy poses a significant challenge to global healthcare. Acinetobacter baumannii is an insidious, emerging bacterial pathogen responsible for severe nosocomial infections aided by its ability to form biofilms. The response regulator BfmR, from the BfmR/S two-component system, is the master regulator of biofilm initiation in A. baumannii and is a tractable therapeutic target. Here we present the structure of A. baumannii BfmR using a hybrid approach combining X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical crosslinking mass spectrometry, and molecular modeling...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438544/emergence-and-control-of-linezolid-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-in-an-icu-of-a-german-hospital
#18
Christina Weßels, Birgit Strommenger, Ingo Klare, Jennifer Bender, Sabine Messler, Frauke Mattner, Michael Krakau, Guido Werner, Franziska Layer
Objectives: To investigate an outbreak of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (LRSE) in an interdisciplinary ICU, linezolid consumption and infection control measures taken. Methods: Routine surveillance of nosocomial infections revealed colonization and infection with LRSE affecting 14 patients during a 15 month period. LRSE isolates were analysed with respect to their clonal relatedness, antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of cfr and/or mutations in the 23S rRNA, rplC, rplD and rplV genes...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431875/phytosynthesized-silver-nanoparticles-as-anti-quorum-sensing-and-antibiofilm-agent-against-the-nosocomial-pathogen-serratia-marcescens-an-in-vitro-study
#19
Durgadevi Ravindran, Srinivasan Ramanathan, Kannappan Arunachalam, Godfred Ponraj Jeyaraj, Karutha Pandian Shunmugiah, Veera Ravi Arumugam
AIM: Serratia marcescens is an important multidrug-resistant human pathogen. The pathogenicity of S. marcescens mainly depends on the Quorum Sensing (QS) mechanism, which regulates the virulence factors production and biofilm formation. Hence, targeting QS mechanism in S. marcescens will ultimately pave the way to combat its pathogenicity. Thus, the present study is intended to evaluate the efficacy of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potent anti-QS and antibiofilm agent against S...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431872/interventions-to-prevent-hypothermia-at-birth-in-preterm-and-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#20
REVIEW
Emma M McCall, Fiona Alderdice, Henry L Halliday, Sunita Vohra, Linda Johnston
BACKGROUND: Newborn admission temperature is a strong predictor of outcomes across all gestations. Hypothermia immediately after birth remains a worldwide issue and, if prolonged, is associated with harm. Keeping preterm infants warm is difficult even when recommended routine thermal care guidelines are followed in the delivery room. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of interventions designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room, compared with routine thermal care or any other single/combination of intervention(s) also designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room...
February 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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