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Nosocomial infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726361/risk-of-spontaneous-fungal-peritonitis-sfp-in-hospitalized-cirrhotic-patients-with-ascites-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies-and-meta-analysis
#1
Marco Fiore, Paolo Chiodini, Vincenzo Pota, Pasquale Sansone, Maria B Passavanti, Sebastiano Leone, Caterina Aurilio, Maria C Pace
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous Fungal Peritonitis (SFP) is an infection of ascitic fluid occurring in cirrhotic patients. SFP prevalence varies from 0 to 41% of patients with spontaneous peritonitis (SP) and a positive ascitic fluid culture. Cirrhotic patients with SFP who fail to show improvement with empirical antibiotic therapy, before the identification of the fungal pathogen, have high mortality (89.5-100%). Although the weight of the disease is so dramatic, more recent guidelines on infections in cirrhosis do not consider SFP management...
July 20, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720216/the-effects-of-red-cell-transfusion-donor-age-on-nosocomial-infection-among-trauma-patients
#2
Tyler J Loftus, Ryan M Thomas, Travis W Murphy, Linda L Nguyen, Frederick A Moore, Scott C Brakenridge, Philip A Efron, Alicia M Mohr
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions from older donors would be associated with fewer nosocomial infections among trauma patients. METHODS: We performed a four-year retrospective analysis of 264 consecutive adult trauma patients who received ≥1 PRBC transfusion during admission. The capacity of donor age to predict nosocomial infection was assessed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Thirty-three percent of all patients developed a nosocomial infection...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717993/probing-the-binding-affinities-of-imipenem-and-ertapenem-for-outer-membrane-carboxylate-channel-d1-occd1-from-p-aeruginosa-simulation-studies
#3
Kamolrat Somboon, Jitti Niramitranon, Prapasiri Pongprayoon
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial human pathogen. The major difficulty in the fight against this pathogen is the relative impermeability of its outer membrane (OM). Only specific substrates can penetrate through the OM of P. aeruginosa via substrate-specific porins, so this has become one of the most problematic drug-resistant pathogens. Carbapenems are the most effective drugs for treating P. aeruginosa infections. One such carbapenem that is applied in cases of P. aeruginosa infection is imipenem (IMI), which uses outer membrane carboxylate channel D1 (OccD1) as a point of entry into the pathogen...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715297/cross-contamination-are-hospital-gloves-reservoirs-for-nosocomial-infections
#4
Vicki Moran, Rita Heuertz
Use of disposable nonsterile gloves in the hospital setting is second only to proper hand washing in reducing contamination during patient contact. Because proper handwashing is not consistently practiced, added emphasis on glove use is warranted. There is a growing body of evidence that glove boxes and dispensers available to healthcare workers are contaminated by daily exposure to environmental organisms. This finding, in conjunction with new and emerging antibiotic-resistant bacteria, poses a threat to patients and healthcare workers alike...
July 17, 2017: Hospital Topics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714493/handwashing-practices-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-and-neonatal-nurseries-in-patan-hospital
#5
S Joshi, P Amatya, B Poudel, S A Yadav
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene has been identified as the single most important factor in minimising hospital acquired infections. However, compliance of handwashing guidelines has remained low. The aim of this study was to study the handwashing practices in the Paediatric and Neonatal intensive care units and Neonatal nurseries in Patan Hospital, and secondly to re-evaluate the improvement on compliance of handwashing guidelines after intervention. METHODS: Pre-intervention study was conducted by covertly observing the handwashing practices by the healthcare workers...
January 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714488/nasal-carriage-rate-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-health-care-workers-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kathmandu-nepal
#6
S Khatri, N D Pant, R Bhandari, K L Shrestha, C D Shrestha, N Adhikari, A Poudel
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. Due to its multidrug resistant nature; infections due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are often very difficult to treat. Colonized health care workers are the important sources of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The objectives of this study were to determine the nasal carriage rate of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care workers at Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Nepal and to assess their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns...
January 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714331/-hand-hygiene-technique-assessment-using-electronic-equipment-in-26-hungarian-healthcare-institutions
#7
Ákos Lehotsky, Júlia Morvai, László Szilágyi, Száva Bánsághi, Alíz Benkó, Tamás Haidegger
INTRODUCTION: Hand hygiene is probably the most effective tool of nosocomial infection prevention, however, proper feedback and control is needed to develop the individual hand hygiene practice. AIM: Assessing the efficiency of modern education tools, and digital demonstration and verification equipment during their wide-range deployment. METHOD: 1269 healthcare workers took part in a training organized by our team. The training included the assessment of the participants' hand hygiene technique to identify the most often missed areas...
July 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713357/extensively-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-causing-nosocomial-bloodstream-infections-in-china-molecular-investigation-of-antibiotic-resistance-determinants-informing-therapy-and-clinical-outcomes
#8
Wenzi Bi, Haiyang Liu, Rhys A Dunstan, Bin Li, Von Vergel L Torres, Jianming Cao, Lijiang Chen, Jonathan J Wilksch, Richard A Strugnell, Trevor Lithgow, Tieli Zhou
The rise in diversity of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes seen in Klebsiella pneumoniae is becoming a serious antibiotic management problem. We sought to investigate the molecular characteristics and clinical implications of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) K. pneumoniae isolated from different nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) patients from July 2013 to November 2015. Even in combination treatment, meropenem did not protect against mortality of BSIs patients (P = 0.015). In contrast, tigecycline in combination with other antimicrobial agents significantly protected against mortality (P = 0...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712963/anti-quorum-sensing-activity-of-pistacia-atlantica-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1-and-identification-of-its-bioactive-compounds
#9
H Kordbacheh, F Eftekhar, S N Ebrahimi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a multidrug resistant opportunistic pathogen and an important cause of nosocomial infections. Quorum-sensing (QS) is a process in which bacterial cell-cell communication can regulates production of many virulence factors including pigment formation and the ability to form biofilm which is essential for establishment of chronic infections. We examined the inhibitory effect of Pistacia atlantica (Anacardiaceae) methanolic leaf extract and its bioactive components on biofilm formation and pigment production by P...
July 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709485/biofilm-colonization-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-new-threat-in-hospital-acquired-surgical-site-infection
#10
Roumi Ghosh, Soumen Das, Harish Kela, Asmita De, Jayeeta Haldar, Prasanta Kumar Maiti
INTRODUCTION: Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are hazardous cause of post-operative soft tissue infection leading to nosocomial outbreaks following various surgical procedures, especially laparoscopic surgeries using heat sensitive, non-autoclavable surgical instruments. METHODOLOGY: Surgery department of our hospital noticed increase in rate of post-laparoscopic abdominal port site infection (PSI) and informed the Microbiology Department. A prospective investigational study of defined cases with the aim of source tracing and formulation of infection control measures was initiated...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708463/epidemiological-trends-observed-from-molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-blood-cultures-at-a-japanese-university-hospital-2012-2015
#11
Yuri Miura, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Itaru Nakamura, Shinobu Koyama, Kiyoko Tamai, Takashi Okanda, Tetsuya Matsumoto
Despite increasing reports of skin and soft tissue infections caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Japan, the extent to which these strains cause nosocomial infections remains unknown, and this is especially true for bloodstream infections. In this study, we molecularly characterized MRSA isolates from Japanese blood samples. Among the 151 MRSA isolates collected from 53 medical facilities in 2011, 115 (76%) and 30 (20%) were classified as staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types II and IV, respectively, while the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was detected in only two isolates...
July 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708453/virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-enterococci-isolated-from-healthy-breastfed-infants
#12
José M Landete, Ángela Peirotén, Margarita Medina, Juan L Arqués, Eva Rodríguez-Mínguez
Pathogenic ability has been extensively studied in clinical enterococci, but to a lesser extent in community-derived ones. Most studies to date in enterococci from healthy infants have been focused on Enterococcus faecalis, despite the growing concern about nosocomial infections caused by E. faecium. In this work, we studied the antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants of 26 E. faecalis and 15 E. faecium intestinal isolates from Spanish healthy breastfed infants. Overall, commensal enterococci studied contained antibiotic resistance and virulence genes, although their patterns were not according to those described for antibiotic-resistant hospital-associated enterococci...
July 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707337/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-efficacy-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-recurrent-and-refractory-clostridium-difficile-infection
#13
REVIEW
M N Quraishi, M Widlak, N Bhala, D Moore, M Price, N Sharma, T H Iqbal
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the commonest nosocomial cause of diarrhoea. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an approved treatment for recurrent or refractory CDI but there is uncertainty about its use. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of FMT in treating recurrent and refractory CDI and investigate outcomes from modes of delivery and preparation. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, trial registers and conference proceedings were searched...
July 14, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706393/cotrimoxazole-a-wonder-drug-in-the-era-of-multiresistance-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#14
Priyam Batra, Vishant Deo, Purva Mathur, Amit Kumar Gupta
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide. The rate of development of newer antibiotics is much slower than the rate of development of antibiotic resistance. A survey reported that it takes 15 years and US$800 million (including preclinical and clinical costs) to bring a single drug to the market, whereas the reuse of the older drugs for antimicrobial use takes $17 million, thereby circumventing 40% of the overall cost. The first case is a patient with nosocomial pyrexia of unknown origin who was given treatment with tigecycline and cefepime/tazobactam but failed to respond to the same...
July 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705748/effect-of-secondary-metabolite-of-actinidia-deliciosa-on-the-biofilm-and-extra-cellular-matrix-components-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#15
Vishvanath Tiwari, Deepika Tiwari, Varsha Patel, Monalisa Tiwari
Acinetobacter baumannii, opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, increases gradually in the clinical setup. The high level of resistance mechanisms acquired by these bacteria makes their eradication difficult and biofilm formation is one of them. Biofilm comprises of closely packed bacterial population crowded together by extra-cellular matrix (ECM). ECM contains bacterial secreted polymers such as exopolysaccharides (EPS), proteins and extracellular-DNA (e-DNA) and rarely amyloidogenic proteins. Biofilm offers protection of underlying bacterial population against chemotherapeutic agents and host immune system...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705201/genotypic-diversity-among-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-species-at-mulago-hospital-in-kampala-uganda
#16
David P Kateete, Ritah Nakanjako, Moses Okee, Moses L Joloba, Christine F Najjuka
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species are common causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Recently we reported the occurrence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, but the isolates were not analyzed for genetic relatedness. Herein we report the intra-species genotypic diversity among P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from hospitalized patients and the environment at Mulago Hospital, using repetitive elements-based PCR (Rep-PCR) genotyping...
July 14, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704546/epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-burn-unit-of-a-tertiary-care-center-in-ghana
#17
Nana Ama Amissah, Lieke van Dam, Anthony Ablordey, Opoku-Ware Ampomah, Isaac Prah, Caitlin S Tetteh, Tjip S van der Werf, Alexander W Friedrich, John W Rossen, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Ymkje Stienstra
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, hospitalized burn victims are at high risk of nosocomial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Risk factors include poor infection control practices, prolonged hospitalisation and limited capacity for laboratory microbiological analyses. These problems are compounded by widespread use of antibiotics that drives the spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria. METHODS: During the study period (November 2014-June 2015), nasal and invasive S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704538/intestinal-calcium-and-bile-salts-facilitate-germination-of-clostridium-difficile-spores
#18
Travis J Kochan, Madeline J Somers, Alyssa M Kaiser, Michelle S Shoshiev, Ada K Hagan, Jessica L Hastie, Nicole P Giordano, Ashley D Smith, Alyxandria M Schubert, Paul E Carlson, Philip C Hanna
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is an anaerobic gram-positive pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial bacterial infection globally. C. difficile infection (CDI) typically occurs after ingestion of infectious spores by a patient that has been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. While CDI is a toxin-mediated disease, transmission and pathogenesis are dependent on the ability to produce viable spores. These spores must become metabolically active (germinate) in order to cause disease. C. difficile spore germination occurs when spores encounter bile salts and other co-germinants within the small intestine, however, the germination signaling cascade is unclear...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702199/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistance-and-macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin-b-resistance-in-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-among-clinical-strains-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-thailand
#19
S Teeraputon, P Santanirand, T Wongchai, W Songjang, N Lapsomthob, D Jaikrasun, S Toonkaew, P Tophon
Staphylococcus spp. is a major cause of nosocomial infection and sepsis. However, increasing drug resistance is becoming a challenge to microbiologists. The purpose of this study was to identify and determine antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and drug resistance genes of clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates at Mae Sot Hospital in Tak province, Thailand. A total of 229 CoNS isolates were collected from clinical specimens during two periods in 2014 and in 2015. Staphylococcus haemolyticus was the most prevalent species (37...
September 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702145/catheter-related-urinary-nosocomial-infections-in-intensive-care-units-an-epidemiologic-study-in-north-of-iran
#20
Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Masoumeh Bagheri-Nesami, Attieh Nikkhah
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of nosocomial catheter- associated UTI and its related factors in hospitalized patients in intensive care units of hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2014. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who were admitted in hospitals and urinary catheterization was performed for them...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
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