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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915292/news-views-and-reviews-a-tool-for-my-laser-practice-i-simply-can-t-do-without-shining-a-light-on-my-favorite-light-source
#1
Eric F Bernstein
With laser surgery, what you see is what you get. Visualizing the target for treatment, be it a port-wine stain, a cluster of spider veins, a tattoo or freckles, or simply photodamaged skin requires seeing through surface reflections, dry skin, and often quite dark laser goggles. The tool that has been indispensable to me in my practice is the Syris v900L polarizing and magnifying headlamp. This indispensable tool makes laser treatment more precise, effective, and easier by truly shining a light on the subject of a laser treatment...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904754/interactive-effects-of-leg-autotomy-and-incline-on-locomotor-performance-and-kinematics-of-the-cellar-spider-pholcus-manueli
#2
Gary W Gerald, Moriah M Thompson, Todd D Levine, Kerri M Wrinn
Leg autotomy can be a very effective strategy for escaping a predation attempt in many animals. In spiders, autotomy can be very common (5-40% of individuals can be missing legs) and has been shown to reduce locomotor speeds, which, in turn, can reduce the ability to find food, mates, and suitable habitat. Previous work on spiders has focused mostly on the influence of limb loss on horizontal movements. However, limb loss can have differential effects on locomotion on the nonhorizontal substrates often utilized by many species of spiders...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904391/exposure-to-genetically-engineered-olive-fly-bactrocera-oleae-has-no-negative-impact-on-three-non-target-organisms
#3
Thea Marubbi, Clare Cassidy, Esther Miller, Martha Koukidou, Enca Martin-Rendon, Simon Warner, Augusto Loni, Camilla Beech
Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) remains a major pest of olive fruit production worldwide. Current pest management programs largely depend on chemical insecticides, resulting in high economic and environmental costs. Alternative pest control approaches are therefore highly desirable. We have created a conditional female-specific self-limiting strain of B. oleae (OX3097D-Bol) that could be applied for sustainable pest control. OX3097D-Bol olive fly carries a fluorescent marker (DsRed2) for identification and a self-limiting genetic trait that is repressed by tetracycline...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902470/female-fecundity-and-offspring-survival-are-not-increased-through-sexual-cannibalism-in-the-spider-larinioides-sclopetarius
#4
S A Deventer, M E Herberstein, D Mayntz, J C O'Hanlon, J M Schneider
Many hypotheses explaining the evolution and maintenance of sexual cannibalism incorporate the nutritional aspect of the consumption of males. Most studies have focused on a fecundity advantage through consumption of a male, however recent studies have raised the intriguing possibility that consumption of a male may also affect offspring quality. In particular, recent studies suggest prolonged survival for offspring from sexually cannibalistic females. Here we measured the protein and lipid content of males compared to insect prey (crickets), quantified female nutrient intake of both prey types, and finally assessed how sexual cannibalism affects female fecundity and spiderling quality in the orb-web spider Larinioides sclopetarius...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894524/spider-bite-in-iran
#5
EDITORIAL
Hossein Sanaei-Zadeh
Some of the world's most dangerous spiders have been certified in some areas of Iran. Spider bites are common in some geographical areas, and are sporadic in some regions. Spider bites can be classified as latrodectism or loxoscelism. If the patient had not seen the spider, the clinical manifestations of latrodectism could be easily mistaken for other types of bite or sting; or an infectious disease, and withdrawal symptoms, and also loxoscelism could be mistaken for cellulitis, various types of skin infection, or even a sting from a Gadim scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus)...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893566/does-fear-extinction-in-the-laboratory-predict-outcomes-of-exposure-therapy-a-treatment-analog-study
#6
Eduard Forcadell, David Torrents-Rodas, Bram Vervliet, David Leiva, Miquel Tortella-Feliu, Miquel A Fullana
Fear extinction models have a key role in our understanding of anxiety disorders and their treatment with exposure therapy. Here, we tested whether individual differences in fear extinction learning and fear extinction recall in the laboratory were associated with the outcomes of an exposure therapy analog (ETA). Fifty adults with fear of spiders participated in a two-day fear-learning paradigm assessing fear extinction learning and fear extinction recall, and then underwent a brief ETA. Correlational analyses indicated that enhanced extinction learning was associated with better ETA outcome...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893204/predicted-networks-of-protein-protein-interactions-in-stegodyphus-mimosarum-by-cross-species-comparisons
#7
Xiu Wang, Yongfeng Jin
BACKGROUND: Stegodyphus mimosarum is a candidate model organism belonging to the class Arachnida in the phylum Arthropoda. Studies on the biology of S. mimosarum over the past several decades have consisted of behavioral research and comparison of gene sequences based on the assembled genome sequence. Given the lack of systematic protein analyses and the rich source of information in the genome, we predicted the relationships of proteins in S. mimosarum by bioinformatics comparison with genome-wide proteins from select model organisms using gene mapping...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890848/urbanization-alters-communities-of-flying-arthropods-in-parks-and-gardens-of-a-medium-sized-city
#8
Edward Lagucki, Justin D Burdine, Kevin E McCluney
Urbanization transforms undeveloped landscapes into built environments, causing changes in communities and ecological processes. Flying arthropods play important roles in these processes as pollinators, decomposers, and predators, and can be important in structuring food webs. The goal of this study was to identify associations between urbanization and the composition of communities of flying (and floating) arthropods within gardens and parks in a medium-sized mesic city. We predicted that flying arthropod abundance and diversity would respond strongly to percent impervious surface and distance to city center, measurements of urbanization...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889903/instructed-fear-stimuli-bias-visual-attention
#9
Berre Deltomme, Gaetan Mertens, Helen Tibboel, Senne Braem
We investigated whether stimuli merely instructed to be fear-relevant can bias visual attention, even when the fear relation was never experienced before. Participants performed a dot-probe task with pictures of naturally fear-relevant (snake or spider) or -irrelevant (bird or butterfly) stimuli. Instructions indicated that two pictures (one naturally fear-relevant and one fear-irrelevant) could be followed by an electrical stimulation (i.e., instructed fear). In reality, no stimulation was administered. During the task, two pictures were presented on each side of the screen, after which participants had to determine as fast as possible on which side a black dot appeared...
September 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887952/evaluating-adhesion-and-alignment-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-to-a-spider-silk-substrate-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#10
Katherine Hafner, Dallas Montag, Hannah Maeser, Congyue Peng, William R Marcotte, Delphine Dean, Marian S Kennedy
A proposed source of stem cells for nerve regeneration are dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), based on their close embryonic origin to neurons and the ease with which DPSCs can be obtained from a donor. This study evaluated the response of human DPSCs to spider dragline silk fibers, a potential substrate material for tissue regeneration. The DPSCs' morphology and spread pattern were characterized after these cells were plated onto Nephila clavipes dragline fibers in media. In addition, the responses of two other well established cell lines, osteoblasts (7F2s), and fibroblasts (3T3s), were also studied under identical conditions...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886058/sparse-trees-and-shrubs-confers-a-high-biodiversity-to-pastures-case-study-on-spiders-from-transylvania
#11
Róbert Gallé, István Urák, Gallé-Szpisjak Nikolett, Tibor Hartel
The integration of food production and biodiversity conservation represents a key challenge for sustainability. Several studies suggest that even small structural elements in the landscape can make a substantial contribution to the overall biodiversity value of the agricultural landscapes. Pastures can have high biodiversity potential. However, their intensive and monofunctional use typically erodes its natural capital, including biodiversity. Here we address the ecological value of fine scale structural elements represented by sparsely scattered trees and shrubs for the spider communities in a moderately intensively grazed pasture in Transylvania, Eastern Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885064/araniella-cucurbitina-the-first-molecular-evidence-of-a-palearctic-species-of-genus-araniella-inhabiting-india
#12
Ankita Rajpoot, Ved Prakash Kumar, Archana Bahuguna, Pallab Maity, Dhyanendra Kumar
The present study represents first genetic record of single spider species Araniella cucurbitina, genus Araniella from Uttarakhand, India. There are 12 identified species under Araniella genus and they are distributed in Palearctic region. Here, we used known N = 47 (2 from present study and 45 from GenBank) cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) sequences of A. cucurbitina representing seven different geographical groups, additionally 23 sequences of eight Araniella species were used for phylogenetic relationship...
September 8, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882653/behavioural-responses-of-two-spotted-spider-mites-induced-by-predator-borne-and-prey-borne-cues
#13
Enikő Gyuris, Erna Szép, Jenő Kontschán, Attila Hettyey, Zoltán Tóth
Applying predatory mites as biological control agents is a well established method against spider mites which are major pests worldwide. Although antipredator responses can influence the outcome of predator-prey interactions, we have limited information about what cues spider mites use to adjust their behavioural antipredator responses. We experimentally exposed two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) to different predator-borne cues (using a specialist predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, or a generalist predator, Amblyseius swirskii), conspecific prey-borne cues, or both, and measured locomotion and egg-laying activity...
September 4, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880874/discovery-and-mode-of-action-of-a-novel-analgesic-%C3%AE-toxin-from-the-african-spider-ceratogyrus-darlingi
#14
Silmara R Sousa, Joshua S Wingerd, Andreas Brust, Christopher Bladen, Lotten Ragnarsson, Volker Herzig, Jennifer R Deuis, Sebastien Dutertre, Irina Vetter, Gerald W Zamponi, Glenn F King, Paul F Alewood, Richard J Lewis
Spider venoms are rich sources of peptidic ion channel modulators with important therapeutical potential. We screened a panel of 60 spider venoms to find modulators of ion channels involved in pain transmission. We isolated, synthesized and pharmacologically characterized Cd1a, a novel peptide from the venom of the spider Ceratogyrus darlingi. Cd1a reversibly paralysed sheep blowflies (PD50 of 1318 pmol/g) and inhibited human Cav2.2 (IC50 2.6 μM) but not Cav1.3 or Cav3.1 (IC50 > 30 μM) in fluorimetric assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880078/the-role-of-disulfide-bond-replacements-in-analogues-of-the-tarantula-toxin-protx-ii-and-their-effects-on-inhibition-of-the-voltage-gated-sodium-ion-channel-nav1-7
#15
Zoë V F Wright, Stephen McCarthy, Rachael Dickman, Francis E Reyes, Silvia Sanchez-Martinez, Adam Cryar, Ian Kilford, Adrian Hall, Andrew K Takle, Maya Topf, Tamir Gonen, Konstantinos Thalassinos, Alethea B Tabor
Spider venom toxins, such as Protoxin-II (ProTx-II), have recently received much attention as selective Nav1.7 channel blockers, with potential to be developed as leads for the treatment of chronic nocioceptive pain. ProTx-II is a 30-amino acid peptide with three disulfide bonds that has been reported to adopt a well-defined inhibitory cystine knot (ICK) scaffold structure. Potential drawbacks with such peptides include poor pharmacodynamics and potential scrambling of the disulfide bonds in vivo. In order to address these issues, in the present study we report the solid-phase synthesis of lanthionine-bridged analogues of ProTx-II, in which one of the three disulfide bridges is replaced with a thioether linkage, and evaluate the biological properties of these analogues...
September 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878255/adaptive-aggregation-by-spider-mites-under-predation-risk
#16
Lena Dittmann, Peter Schausberger
Grouping together is a commonly observed anti-predator strategy. Possible anti-predator benefits of aggregation include the encounter/avoidance effect for visually hunting predators and the dilution effect, together dubbed attack abatement. Possible costs opposing the dilution effect are easier detection of aggregated than scattered individuals. The benefits of attack abatement, and opposing costs after group detection, are poorly understood for chemosensory predator-prey interactions. We tackled this issue by assessing the aggregation behavior of spider mites Tetranychus urticae under predation risk emanating from predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877214/direct-versus-indirect-actions-of-ghrelin-on-hypothalamic-npy-neurons
#17
Hiroshi Hashiguchi, Zhenyu Sheng, Vanessa Routh, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard, Joseph Bryan
OBJECTIVES: Assess direct versus indirect action(s) of ghrelin on hypothalamic NPY neurons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electrophysiology was used to measure ion channel activity in NPY-GFP neurons in slice preparations. Ca2+ imaging was used to monitor ghrelin activation of isolated NPY GFP-labeled neurons. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize Trpm4, SUR1 and Kir6.2 in the hypothalamus. RESULTS: Acylated ghrelin depolarized the membrane potential (MP) of NPY-GFP neurons in brain slices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873690/nutritional-compound-analysis-and-morphological-characterization-of-spider-plant-cleome-gynandra-an-african-indigenous-leafy-vegetable
#18
Emmanuel O Omondi, Christof Engels, Godfrey Nambafu, Monika Schreiner, Susanne Neugart, Mary Abukutsa-Onyango, Traud Winkelmann
Spider plant is among the important indigenous African leafy vegetables having the potential to contribute to food and nutritional security in sub-Saharan Africa. The main objective of this study was to quantify the mineral concentration, to identify and quantify glucosinolates and flavonoids in spider plant and further to characterize spider plant entries using important morphological traits. Thirty spider plant entries from different African countries, comprising of farmers' cultivars, gene bank accessions and advanced lines were grown in a field experiment and harvested for leaves, stems, flowers and siliques at different developmental stages...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872862/packing-arrangements-and-inter-sheet-interaction-of-alanine-oligopeptides-as-revealed-by-relaxation-parameters-obtained-from-high-resolution-13-c-solid-state-nmr
#19
Akira Naito, Yugo Tasei, Akio Nishimura, Tetsuo Asakura
Alanine oligopeptides provide a key structure of the crystalline domains of the silks from spiders and wild silkworm, and also the sequences included in proteins such as antifreeze proteins and amyloids. In this paper, the local dynamics of alanine oligopeptides, (Ala)3, (Ala)4 and (Ala)6 were examined by high-resolution (13)C solid-state NMR. The (13)C spin-lattice relaxation times (T1's) for the Cβ4 carbons of antiparallel (AP)-β-sheet (Ala)4 significantly prolonged and the correlation time was estimated as 3...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866287/dangerous-arachnids-fake-news-or-reality
#20
REVIEW
Tobias J Hauke, Volker Herzig
The public perception of spiders and scorpions is skewed towards the potential harm they can inflict in humans, despite recent scientific evidence that arachnid venom components might be useful as bioinsecticides or even human therapeutics. Nevertheless, arachnids are becoming more popular as pets in Europe, America and Asia, raising the question for regulatory agencies in these regions as to whether they need to take measurements to protect their citizens. In order to decide upon the necessary regulatory steps, they first need to determine which arachnids are actually dangerous to humans...
September 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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