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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141877/giving-invertebrates-an-eye-exam-an-ophthalmoscope-that-utilizes-the-autofluorescence-of-photoreceptors
#1
Annette Stowasser, Madeline Owens, Elke K Buschbeck
One of the most important functional features of eyes is focusing light, as both nearsightedness and farsightedness have major functional implications. Accordingly, refractive errors are frequently assessed in vertebrates, but not in the very small invertebrate eyes. We describe a micro-ophthalmoscope that takes advantage of autofluorescent properties of invertebrate photoreceptors and test the device on the relatively well-understood eyes of jumping spiders and flies. In each case, our measurements confirmed previous findings with a greater degree of accuracy...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138566/studies-on-the-use-of-recombinant-spider-silk-protein-polyvinyl-alcohol-electrospinning-membrane-as-wound-dressing
#2
Liang Zhao, Denglong Chen, Qinghua Yao, Min Li
A series of wound membranes of polyvinyl alcohol and recombinant spider silk protein (pNSR16) was prepared by electrospinning. The membrane was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The result showed that the three factors that affected average fiber diameter from high to low were, voltage, flow speed, and solidification distance; and the three factors that affected fiber uniformity from high to low were, flow speed, solidification distance, and voltage...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134072/genetic-signature-of-last-glacial-maximum-regional-refugia-in-a-circum-antarctic-sea-spider
#3
Anna Soler-Membrives, Katrin Linse, Karen J Miller, Claudia P Arango
The evolutionary history of Antarctic organisms is becoming increasingly important to understand and manage population trajectories under rapid environmental change. The Antarctic sea spider Nymphon australe, with an apparently large population size compared with other sea spider species, is an ideal target to look for molecular signatures of past climatic events. We analysed mitochondrial DNA of specimens collected from the Antarctic continent and two Antarctic islands (AI) to infer past population processes and understand current genetic structure...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134008/a-genome-wide-phylogeny-of-jumping-spiders-araneae-salticidae-using-anchored-hybrid-enrichment
#4
Wayne P Maddison, Samuel C Evans, Chris A Hamilton, Jason E Bond, Alan R Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon
We present the first genome-wide molecular phylogeny of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae), inferred from Anchored Hybrid Enrichment (AHE) sequence data. From 12 outgroups plus 34 salticid taxa representing all but one subfamily and most major groups recognized in previous work, we obtained 447 loci totalling 96,946 aligned nucleotide sites. Our analyses using concatenated likelihood, parsimony, and coalescent methods (ASTRAL and SVDQuartets) strongly confirm most previous results, resolving as monophyletic the Spartaeinae, Salticinae (with the hisponines sister), Salticoida, Amycoida, Saltafresia, and Simonida...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133662/a-tiny-tick-can-cause-a-big-health-problem
#5
Manuel John, M Raman, Keith Ryan
Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut) with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133072/treatment-of-pediatric-black-widow-spider-envenomation-a-national-poison-center-s-experience
#6
Miguel Glatstein, Gary Carbell, Dennis Scolnik, Ayelet Rimon, Christopher Hoyte
BACKGROUND: Black widow species (Latrodectus species) envenomation can produce a syndrome characterized by painful muscle rigidity and autonomic disturbances. Symptoms tend to be more severe in young children and adults. We describe black widow spider exposures and treatment in the pediatric age group, and investigate reasons for not using antivenom in severe cases. METHODS: All black widow exposures reported to the Rocky Mountain Poison Center between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015, were reviewed...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130301/omni-purpose-stretchable-strain-sensor-based-on-a-highly-dense-nanocracking-structure-for-whole-body-motion-monitoring
#7
Hyungkook Jeon, Seong Kyung Hong, Min Seo Kim, Seong J Cho, Geunbae Lim
Here, we report an omni-purpose stretchable strain sensor (OPSS sensor) based on a nanocracking structure for monitoring of whole-body motions including both joint-level and skin-level motions. By controlling and optimizing the nanocracking structure, inspired by the spider sensory system, the OPSS sensor is endowed with both high sensitivity (gauge factor ~30) and wide working range (strain up to 150%) under great linearity (R(2) = 0.9814) and fast response time (<30 ms). Furthermore, the fabrication process of the OPSS sensor has advantages of being extremely simple, patternable, IC (integrated circuit)-compatible and reliable in terms of reproducibility...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127324/stress-induced-long-range-ordering-in-spider-silk
#8
Johannes A Wagner, Sandeep P Patil, Imke Greving, Marc Lämmel, Konstantinos Gkagkas, Tilo Seydel, Martin Müller, Bernd Markert, Frauke Gräter
The emergence of order from disorder is a topic of vital interest. We here propose that long-range order can arise from a randomly arranged two-phase material under mechanical load. Using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) experiments and Molecular Dynamics based finite element (FE) models we show evidence for stress-induced ordering in spider dragline silk. Both methods show striking quantitative agreement of the position, shift and intensity increase of the long period upon stretching. We demonstrate that mesoscopic ordering does not originate from silk-specific processes such as strain-induced crystallization on the atomistic scale or the alignment of tilted crystallites...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127108/egg-case-silk-gene-sequences-from-argiope-spiders-evidence-for-multiple-loci-and-a-loss-of-function-between-paralogs
#9
R Crystal Chaw, Matthew Collin, Marjorie Wimmer, Kara-Leigh Helmrick, Cheryl Y Hayashi
Spiders swath their eggs with silk to protect developing embryos and hatchlings. Egg case silks, like other fibrous spider silks, are primarily composed of proteins called spidroins (spidroin = spider-fibroin). Silks, and thus spidroins, are important throughout the lives of spiders, yet the evolution of spidroin genes has been relatively understudied. Spidroin genes are notoriously difficult to sequence because they are typically very long (10 or more kilobases of coding sequence) and highly repetitive. Here, we investigate the evolution of spider silk genes through long-read sequencing of BAC clones...
November 10, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124341/phytophagy-of-omnivorous-predator-macrolophus-pygmaeus-affects-performance-of-herbivores-through-induced-plant-defences
#10
Nina Xiaoning Zhang, Gerben J Messelink, Juan M Alba, Robert C Schuurink, Merijn R Kant, Arne Janssen
Plants possess various inducible defences that result in synthesis of specialized metabolites in response to herbivory, which can interfere with the performance of herbivores of the same and other species. Much less is known of the effects of plant feeding by omnivores. We found that previous feeding of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus on sweet pepper plants significantly reduced reproduction of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis on the same plants, also on leaves that had not been exposed to the omnivore...
November 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123097/polymorphic-regenerated-silk-fibers-assembled-through-bioinspired-spinning
#11
Shengjie Ling, Zhao Qin, Chunmei Li, Wenwen Huang, David L Kaplan, Markus J Buehler
A variety of artificial spinning methods have been applied to produce regenerated silk fibers; however, how to spin regenerated silk fibers that retain the advantages of natural silks in terms of structural hierarchy and mechanical properties remains challenging. Here, we show a bioinspired approach to spin regenerated silk fibers. First, we develop a nematic silk microfibril solution, highly viscous and stable, by partially dissolving silk fibers into microfibrils. This solution maintains the hierarchical structures in natural silks and serves as spinning dope...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120094/visitor-effect-on-the-behavior-of-a-group-of-spider-monkeys-ateles-geoffroyi-maintained-at-an-island-in-lake-catemaco-veracruz-mexico
#12
Sergio Pérez-Galicia, Manuel Miranda-Anaya, Domingo Canales-Espinosa, Jairo Muñoz-Delgado
We analyzed the effect of human visitors on the behavior of a group of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) kept on a small tourist island. Although the spider monkey is a common species in zoos, there are very few specific studies on visitor effects on these monkeys. We conducted behavioral observations on the group of spider monkeys to evaluate the effect of visitors. We also used actimetry devices to measure the variations in the spider monkeys' locomotor activity associated with human presence. With regard to the effect on behavior, we found an increase in self-directed behaviors and a decrease in vocalization, both associated with human presence...
November 9, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119280/cross-talk-between-high-light-stress-and-plant-defence-to-the-two-spotted-spider-mite-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
A K Barczak-Brzyżek, M Kiełkiewicz, P Gawroński, K Kot, M Filipecki, B Karpińska
Little is known about how plants deal with arthropod herbivores under the fluctuating light intensity and spectra which occur in natural environments. Moreover, the role of simultaneous stress such as excess light (EL) in the regulation of plant responses to herbivores is poorly characterized. In the current study, we focused on a mite-herbivore, specifically, the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), which is one of the major agricultural pests worldwide. Our results showed that TSSM-induced leaf damage (visualized by trypan blue staining) and oviposition rate (measured as daily female fecundity) decreased after EL pre-treatment in wild-type Arabidopsis plants, but the observed responses were not wavelength specific...
November 8, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118750/an-rna-virome-associated-to-the-golden-orb-weaver-spider-nephila-clavipes
#14
Humberto J Debat
The golden orb-weaver spider Nephila clavipes, known for its sexual size dimorphism, is abundant and widespread in the New World. The first annotated genome of orb-weaver spiders, exploring N. clavipes, has recently been reported. The study, focused primarily on the diversity of silk specific genes, shed light into the complex evolutionary history of spiders. Furthermore, a robust transcriptome analysis provided a massive resource for N. clavipes RNA survey. Here, I present evidence of viral sequences corresponding to the first 10 extant virus species associated to N...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117519/high-tensile-strength-of-engineered-%C3%AE-solenoid-fibrils-via-sonication-and-pulling
#15
Zeyu Peng, Amanda S Parker, Maria D R Peralta, Krishnakumar M Ravikumar, Daniel L Cox, Michael D Toney
We present estimates of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) for two engineered β-solenoid protein mutant fibril structures (spruce budworm and Rhagium inquisitor antifreeze proteins) derived from sonication-based measurements and from force pulling molecular dynamics simulations, both in water. Sonication experiments generate limiting scissioned fibrils with a well-defined length-to-width correlation for the mutant spruce budworm protein and the resultant UTS estimate is 0.66 ± 0.08 GPa. For fibrils formed from engineered R...
November 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116381/expression-and-function-of-the-zinc-finger-transcription-factor-sp6-9-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#16
Tatiana Königsmann, Natascha Turetzek, Matthias Pechmann, Nikola-Michael Prpic
Zinc finger transcription factors of the Sp6-9 group are evolutionarily conserved in all metazoans and have important functions in, e.g., limb formation and heart development. The function of Sp6-9-related genes has been studied in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, but data from chelicerates (spiders and allies) was lacking so far. We have isolated the ortholog of Sp6-9 from the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum and the cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides. We show that the Sp6-9 gene in these spider species is expressed in the developing appendages thus suggesting a conserved role in limb formation...
November 7, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115956/de-novo-characterization-of-venom-apparatus-transcriptome-of-pardosa-pseudoannulata-and-analysis-of-its-gene-expression-in-response-to-bt-protein
#17
Rong Li, Zhenzhen Yan, Juan Wang, Qisheng Song, Zhi Wang
BACKGROUND: Pardosa pseudoannulata is a prevailing spider species, and has been regarded as an important bio-control agent of insect pests in farmland of China. However, the available genomic and transcriptomic databases of P. pseudoannulata and their venom are limited, which severely hampers functional genomic analysis of P. pseudoannulata. Recently high-throughput sequencing technology has been proved to be an efficient tool for profiling the transcriptome of relevant non-target organisms exposed to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein through food webs...
November 7, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108930/effects-of-age-on-the-courtship-copulation-and-fecundity-of-pardosa-pseudoannulata-araneae-lycosidae
#18
Xinyi Jiang, Yao Zhao, Qian Yan, Changchun Li, Qinghong Jiang, Yueli Yun, Yu Peng
According to sexual selection theory, age affects the preference of mate choice, and this preference ultimately influences the fecundity of the female. Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae) is a valued predator in many cropping systems. By determining oviposition rate, egg hatching rate, and also the number and carapace width of the 2nd instar spiderlings of the F1 generation, we explored the effects of age on fecundity of the female spider. There were no significant effects of age on courtship duration, sexual cannibalism rate, mating rate, oviposition rate, egg hatching rate, or the number and carapace width of 2nd instar spiderings of P...
November 3, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107378/the-role-of-the-indoor-environment-residential-determinants-of-allergy-asthma-and-pulmonary-function-in-children-from-a-us-mexico-border-community
#19
Erik R Svendsen, Melissa Gonzales, Adwoa Commodore
The El Paso Children's Health Study examined environmental risk factors for allergy and asthma among fourth and fifth grade schoolchildren living in a major United States-Mexico border city. Complete questionnaire information was available for 5210 children, while adequate pulmonary function data were available for a subset of 1874. Herein we studied indoor environmental health risk factors for allergy and asthma. Several indoor environmental risk factors were associated with allergy and asthma. In particular, we found that ant and spider pest problems, pet dogs, fireplace heat, central air conditioning, humidifier use, and cooking with gas stoves were positively associated with both allergy and asthma prevalence...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107247/agroinfiltration-based-expression-of-hairpin-rna-in-soybean-plants-for-rna-interference-against-tetranychus-urticae
#20
Vimal Kumar Dubey, Ung Gyu Lee, Deok Ho Kwon, Si Hyeock Lee
The coatomer subunit alpha (COPA) and aquaporin 9 (AQ9) genes from the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, were previously determined to exhibit RNA interference (RNAi)-based lethality when their double-stranded RNAs were systemically delivered via multi-unit chambers (Kwon et al., 2016 [8]). In current study, the hairpin RNAs of the COPA and AQ9 were transiently expressed in soybean plants by agroinfiltration. When T. urticae was fed with the soybean plants agroinfiltrated with the COPA and AQ9 hairpin RNA cassettes, the cumulative mortality increased significantly at 6days post-infestation...
October 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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