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Steve Peigneur, Jan Tytgat
Venoms from marine and terrestrial animals (cone snails, scorpions, spiders, snakes, centipedes, cnidarian, etc.) can be seen as an untapped cocktail of biologically active compounds, being increasingly recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics.
March 16, 2018: Toxins
Thomas D Whitney, Michael I Sitvarin, Edward A Roualdes, Simon J Bonner, James D Harwood
Generalist predators are capable of selective foraging, but are predicted to feed in close proportion to prey availability to maximize energetic intake especially when overall prey availability is low. By extension, they are also expected to feed in a more frequency-dependent manner during winter compared to the more favorable foraging conditions during spring, summer and fall seasons. For 18 months, we observed the foraging patterns of forest-dwelling wolf spiders from the genus Schizocosa (Araneae: Lycosidae) using PCR-based gut-content analysis and simultaneously monitored the activity-densities of two common prey: springtails (Collembola) and flies (Diptera)...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Ina Willemsen, Jan Kluytmans
Background: Infection control needs user-friendly standardized instruments to measure the compliance to guidelines and to implement targeted improvement actions. This abstract describes a tool to measure the quality of infection control and antimicrobial use, the Infection Risk Scan (IRIS). It has been applied in a hospital, several nursing homes and a rehabilitation clinic in the Netherlands. Method: The IRIS consists of a set of objective reproducible measurements, combining patient- and healthcare related variables, such as: hand hygiene compliance, environmental contamination using ATP measurements, prevalence of resistant microorganisms by active screening, availability of infection control preconditions, personal hygiene of healthcare workers, appropriate use of indwelling medical devices and appropriate use of antimicrobials...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Belén Cotes, Mónica González, Emilio Benítez, Eva De Mas, Gemma Clemente-Orta, Mercedes Campos, Estefanía Rodríguez
The promotion of native vegetation as a habitat for natural enemies, which could increase their abundance and fitness, is especially useful in highly simplified settings such as Mediterranean greenhouse landscapes. Spiders as generalist predators may also be involved in intra-guild predation. However, the niche complementarity provided by spiders as a group means that increased spider diversity may facilitate complementary control actions. In this study, the interactions between spiders, the two major horticultural pests, Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis , and their naturally occurring predators and parasitoids were evaluated in a mix of 21 newly planted shrubs selected for habitat management in a highly disturbed horticultural system...
March 14, 2018: Insects
Laura Busia, Anthony R Denice, Filippo Aureli, Colleen M Schaffner
Homosexual behavior is defined as genital contact or genital manipulation between same-sex individuals. In nonhuman primates, it may regulate social relationships by serving as a means of reconciliation, tension alleviation, or alliance formation. Grappling is a rare and complex behavior, which most frequently occurs between same-sex individuals of the genus Ateles and can include mutual manipulation of the genitalia. Here we report three cases of penile-anal intromission during grappling between wild male spider monkeys living in the natural protected area of Otoch Ma'ax Yetel Kooh, Mexico...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Sha Yan, Pengfei Huang, Ying Wang, Xiongzhi Zeng, Yiya Zhang
Spider venoms are known to contain various toxins that are used as an effective means to capture their prey or to defend themselves against predators. An investigation of the properties of Ornithoctonus huwena (O.huwena) crude venom found that the venom can block neuromuscular transmission of isolated mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm and sciatic nerve-sartorius preparations. However, little is known about its electrophysiological effects on cardiac myocytes. In this study, electrophysiological activities of ventricular myocytes were detected by 100 μg/mL venom of O...
March 13, 2018: Channels
Jordano Salamanca, Brígida Souza, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona
BACKGROUND: Whether tactics to manipulate natural enemies in agro-ecosystems enhance their ecosystem function and services remains debatable. We conducted field experiments in 2015-2016 to test the hypothesis that attraction of natural enemies to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), alone or in combination with companion plants, increases crop productivity. Our treatments consisted of bean plants either alone or baited with methyl salicylate (MeSA; an HIPV), or combined with coriander (a companion plant), or with both MeSA and coriander...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Manuel A Fernandez-Rojo, Evelyne Deplazes, Sandy S Pineda, Andreas Brust, Tano Marth, Patrick Wilhelm, Nick Martel, Grant A Ramm, Ricardo L Mancera, Paul F Alewood, Gregory M Woods, Katherine Belov, John J Miles, Glenn F King, Maria P Ikonomopoulou
The Tasmanian devil faces extinction due to devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a highly transmittable clonal form of cancer without available treatment. In this study, we report the cell-autonomous antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities exhibited by the spider peptide gomesin (AgGom) and gomesin-like homologue (HiGom) in DFTD cells. Mechanistically, both peptides caused a significant reduction at G0/G1 phase, in correlation with an augmented expression of the cell cycle inhibitory proteins p53, p27, p21, necrosis, exacerbated generation of reactive oxygen species and diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, all hallmarks of cellular stress...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Yann Hénaut, Bruno Corbara, Frédéric Azémar, Régis Céréghino, Olivier Dézerald, Alain Dejean
Cupiennius salei (Ctenidae) individuals frequently live in association with tank bromeliads, including Aechmea bracteata, in Quintana Roo (Mexico). Whereas C. salei females without egg sacs hunt over their entire host plant, females carrying egg sacs settle above the A. bracteata reservoirs they have partially sealed with silk. There they avoid predators that use sight to detect their prey, as is known for many bird species. Furthermore, if a danger is more acute, these females dive with their egg sacs into the bromeliad reservoir...
March 9, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Gabriella Di Lena, Irene Casini, Roberto Caproni, Elena Orban
This study investigated mercury contamination levels in eight commercially valuable Crustacean species caught off the Central Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts of Italy. Total mercury levels were measured by Thermal Decomposition-Amalgamation-Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Results showed a high variability among species with values ranging between 0.070 and 1.24 (mg kg-1 wet weight). The lowest mercury levels were detected in caramote prawn (Penaeus kerathurus), warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and European spider crab (Maja squinado), decapods living in shallow waters...
March 12, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Jake A Godfrey, Ann L Rypstra
For animals that live in association with humans, a key ecological question is how anthropogenic factors influence their life history. While major negative effects are obvious, subtle non-lethal responses to anthropogenic stimuli may provide insight into the features that lead to the success of species that thrive in habitats heavily impacted by humans. Here we explored the influence of the herbicide atrazine on various life history traits of a wolf spider that thrives in agroecosystems where it is commonly applied...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Esteban Gonzalez Ballerga, Mario Omar Pozo, Paolo Nahuel Rubatto Birri, Vanina Siham Kanoore Edul, Juan Antonio Sorda, Jorge Daruich, Arnaldo Dubin
OBJECTIVE: To assess sublingual microcirculation in cirrhotic patients and its relationship to spider angiomas, complications, and outcome. METHODS: Thirty-one cirrhotic patients were prospectively compared to 31 matched controls. Sublingual microcirculation was evaluated by videomicroscopy. We specifically looked for capillaries with increased red blood cell velocity, which was defined as a velocity higher than the percentile 100th of controls. RESULTS: Compared to controls, cirrhotic patients showed decreased total and perfused vascular density (14...
March 12, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Jessica M de Souza, Bruno D C Goncalves, Marcus V Gomez, Luciene B Vieira, Fabiola M Ribeiro
Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide. So far, no disease-modifying drug is available to treat patients, making the search for effective drugs an urgent need. Neurodegeneration is triggered by the activation of several cellular processes, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, aging, aggregate formation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and apoptosis. Therefore, many research groups aim to identify drugs that may inhibit one or more of these events leading to neuronal cell death...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Rosemary G Gillespie, Suresh P Benjamin, Michael S Brewer, Malia Ana J Rivera, George K Roderick
Insular adaptive radiations in which repeated bouts of diversification lead to phenotypically similar sets of taxa serve to highlight predictability in the evolutionary process [1]. However, examples of such replicated events are rare. Cross-clade comparisons of adaptive radiations are much needed to determine whether similar ecological opportunities can lead to the same outcomes. Here, we report a heretofore uncovered adaptive radiation of Hawaiian stick spiders (Theridiidae, Ariamnes) in which different species exhibit a set of discrete ecomorphs associated with different microhabitats...
February 27, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Teresa Napiórkowska, Jarosław Kobak
The brain of arachnids contains a special neuropil area called the arcuate body (AB), whose function has been widely discussed. Its growth and proportion in the brain volume during postembryogenesis have been investigated only in several spider species. Our allometric study is aimed at determining to what extent the development of the AB in Eratigena atrica, a spider with unique biology and behaviour, is similar to the development of this body in other species. We put forward a hypothesis of allometric growth of this body in relation to the volume of the central nervous system (CNS) and its neuropil as well as in relation to the volume of the brain and its neuropil...
March 10, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Nina Alexeeva, Yuta Tamberg, Natalia Shunatova
Sea spiders form a small, enigmatic group of recent chelicerates, with an unusual bodyplan, oligosegmented larvae and a postembryonic development that is punctuated by many moults. To date, only a few papers examined the anatomical and ultrastructural modifications of the larvae and various instars. Here we traced both internal and external events of the whole postembryonic development in Nymphon brevirostre HODGE 1863 using histology, SEM, TEM and confocal microscopy. During postembryonic development, larvae of this species undergo massive reorganization: spinning apparatus and chelar glands disappear; larval legs redifferentiate; three new segments and abdomen are formed with their corresponding internal organs and appendages; circulatory and reproductive systems develop anew and the digestive and the nervous systems change dramatically...
March 7, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Marie Shoorooei, Abdul Hadi Hoseinzadeh, Reza Maali-Amiri, Hossein Allahyari, Masoud Torkzadeh-Mahani
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus uticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is globally one of the most devastating pests that feed on numerous crops, including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of genotype and morphological attributes of common bean on T. uticae. Forty common bean accessions were used to investigate antixenosis and antibiosis through assessing mite feeding preference and reproduction under laboratory conditions. Three resistant (i.e., 56, 63, 238) and two susceptible (i...
March 9, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Chang Jia, Kai Zhang, Dan Zhang, Qilin Yu, Qiang Zhao, Chenpeng Xiao, Yijie Dong, Maoping Chu, Mingchun Li
The vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) is known to be associated with various cellular processes. Several V-ATPase subunits have been identified in C. albicans. However, there are still a few V-ATPase subunits and assembly factors that remain uncharacterized. In this study, we identified one of putative V-ATPase assembly factors, Vph2, and V0 subunit, Vma6, and explored their potential functions in C. albicans. Our results revealed that Vph2 and Vma6 were required for the correct distribution of V0 subunit Vph1 and V1 subunit Tfp1...
March 6, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Moosa Saber, Zeinab Ahmadi, Gholamreza Mahdavinia
Two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the economically most important pests on a wide range of crops in greenhouses and orchards worldwide. Control of T. urticae has been largely based on the use of acaricides. Sublethal effects of spirodiclofen, pyridaben and abamectin were studied on life-table parameters of T. urticae females treated with the acaricides. LC25 values of spirodiclofen, abamectin and pyridaben (3.84, 0.04 and 136.96 µg a.i./ml, respectively) were used for sublethal studies...
March 8, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Zhiwen Zou, Jianfei Xi, Ge Liu, Shuxian Song, Tianrong Xin, Bin Xia
The effect of five constant temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28 and 32 °C) on the development, survival and reproduction of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) [= Tetranychus urticae Koch (red form)] fed on cassava leaves was examined in the laboratory at 85% relative humidity. Development time of various immature stages decreased with increasing temperature, with total egg-to-adult development time varying from 27.7 to 6.7 days. The lower thermal threshold for development was 10.8 °C and the thermal constant from egg to adult was 142...
March 7, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
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