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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352934/%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-phenylacetic-acid-mesh-as-a-drug-trap
#1
Hyeong Sup Yu, Jae Min Lee, Yu Seok Youn, Kyung Taek Oh, Kun Na, Eun Seong Lee
In this study, we developed a nanoporous biodegradable mesh, bioinspired by the spider web, which is prepared via electrospinning using γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) conjugated with phenylacetic acid (PA), named γ-CDP. The resulting γ-CDP has a microfibrous or microspherical shape and contains drug trap meshlike γ-CD pores. These γ-CDP micromeshes (microspheres or microfibers) enable efficient drug capture and drug transport into deep γ-CDP nanocompartments or out of the γ-CDP web, resulting in a driving domain for a 4-week drug release...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352504/trophic-niche-capture-efficiency-and-venom-profiles-of-six-sympatric-ant-eating-spider-species-araneae-zodariidae
#2
Stano Pekár, Lenka Petráková, Ondrej Šedo, Stanislav Korenko, Zbyněk Zdráhal
The arms race between specialist predators and their prey has resulted in the evolution of a variety of specific adaptations. In venomous predators this can include venom composition, particularly if predators are specialised on dangerous prey. Here, we performed an integrative study using six species of highly specialised ant-eating spiders of the genus Zodarion in order to investigate their phylogeny, realised trophic niche, efficacy in the capture of various ant species, and venom composition. Data on natural diet obtained by next-generation sequencing and field observations showed that the six Zodarion species exploit different ant species...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351549/weeds-and-ground-dwelling-predators-response-to-two-different-weed-management-systems-in-glyphosate-tolerant-cotton-a-farm-scale-study
#3
Esteban García-Ruiz, Íñigo Loureiro, Gema P Farinós, Pablo Gómez, Elena Gutiérrez, Francisco Javier Sánchez, María Concepción Escorial, Félix Ortego, María Cristina Chueca, Pedro Castañera
The use of glyphosate, as a post-emergence broad-spectrum herbicide in genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant (GT) cotton, supposes a big change in weed management programs with respect to a conventional regime. Thus, alterations in arable flora and arthropod fauna must be considered when evaluating their potential impacts. A 3-year farm-scale study was conducted in a 2-ha GT cotton crop, in southern Spain, to compare the effects of conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes on weed abundance and diversity and their consequences for ground-dwelling predators...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347475/micromechanical-model-for-protein-materials-from-macromolecules-to-macroscopic-fibers
#4
G Puglisi, D De Tommasi, M F Pantano, N M Pugno, G Saccomandi
We propose a model for the mechanical behavior of protein materials. Based on a limited number of experimental macromolecular parameters (persistence and contour length) we obtain the macroscopic behavior of keratin fibers (human, cow, and rabbit hair), taking into account the damage and residual stretches effects that are fundamental in many functions of life. We also show the capability of our approach to describe the main dissipation and permanent strain effects observed in the more complex spider silk fibers...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342943/the-peptide-pnpp-19-a-spider-toxin-derivative-activates-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors-and-modulates-calcium-channels
#5
Ana C N Freitas, Steve Peigneur, Flávio H P Macedo, José E Menezes-Filho, Paul Millns, Liciane F Medeiros, Maria A Arruda, Jader Cruz, Nicholas D Holliday, Jan Tytgat, Gareth Hathway, Maria E de Lima
The synthetic peptide PnPP-19 comprehends 19 amino acid residues and it represents part of the primary structure of the toxin δ-CNTX-Pn1c (PnTx2-6), isolated from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer. Behavioural tests suggest that PnPP-19 induces antinociception by activation of CB1, μ and δ opioid receptors. Since the peripheral and central antinociception induced by PnPP-19 involves opioid activation, the aim of this work was to identify whether this synthetic peptide could directly activate opioid receptors and investigate the subtype selectivity for μ-, δ- and/or κ-opioid receptors...
January 15, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341927/book-lung-development-in-juveniles-and-adults-of-the-cobweb-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum-c-l-koch-1841-araneomorphae-theridiidae
#6
Roger D Farley
Light and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the development of new book lung lamellae in juvenile and adult spiders (Parasteatoda tepidariorum). As hypothesized earlier in a study of embryos, mesenchyme cells dispersed throughout the opisthosoma (EMT) are a likely source of precursor epithelial cells (MET) for the new lamellae. The precursor cells in juveniles and adults continue many of the complex activities observed in embryos, e.g., migration, alignment, lumen formation, thinning, elongation, and secretion of the cuticle of air channel walls and trabeculae...
January 13, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340612/rice-field-spiders-in-china-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
Huilin Yang, Yuande Peng, Jianxiang Tian, Juan Wang, Baoyang Wei, Chunliang Xie, Zhi Wang
Many laboratory and field studies have been conducted on rice field spiders in China. There are 375 species, 108 genera, and 22 families of rice field spiders distributed within the major rice growing areas and 17 dominant species. The biological and ecological characteristics of 17 rice field spider species have been reported in detail. The biology and ecology of these species show significant differences among regions, farmland habitats, and agricultural practices. Future research should focus on rice field habitat diversity, enhancing the insecticide resistance of dominant spider populations, implementing large-scale breeding of spiders and augmentative release, breeding more leaf dominant species, conducting biosafety assessment of spiders in transgenic crops...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339561/prepared-stimuli-enhance-aversive-learning-without-weakening-the-impact-of-verbal-instructions
#8
Lauren Y Atlas, Elizabeth A Phelps
Fear-relevant stimuli such as snakes and spiders are thought to capture attention due to evolutionary significance. Classical conditioning experiments indicate that these stimuli accelerate learning, while instructed extinction experiments suggest they may be less responsive to instructions. We manipulated stimulus type during instructed aversive reversal learning and used quantitative modeling to simultaneously test both hypotheses. Skin conductance reversed immediately upon instruction in both groups. However, fear-relevant stimuli enhanced dynamic learning, as measured by higher learning rates in participants conditioned with images of snakes and spiders...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338625/delivery-of-chemotherapeutics-using-spheres-made-of-bioengineered-spider-silks-derived-from-masp1-and-masp2-proteins
#9
Katarzyna Jastrzebska, Anna Florczak, Kamil Kucharczyk, Yinnan Lin, Qin Wang, Andrzej Mackiewicz, David L Kaplan, Hanna Dams-Kozlowska
AIM: Analysis of the properties and chemotherapeutics delivery potential of spheres made of bioengineered spider silks MS1 and MS2. MATERIALS & METHODS: MS1 and MS2 derived from Nephila clavipes dragline silks - MaSp1 and MaSp2, respectively - formed spheres that were compared in terms of physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity and loading/release of chemotherapeutics. RESULTS: MS2 spheres were more dispersed, smaller, of solid core, of higher beta-sheet structure content, and of opposite (negative) charge than MS1 spheres...
January 17, 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338201/self-assembly-of-spider-silk-fusion-proteins-comprising-enzymatic-and-fluorescence-activity
#10
Martin Humenik, Madeleine Mohrand, Thomas Scheibel
The recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) was genetically fused either with esterase 2 (EST2) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). The fusions EST-eADF4(C16) and GFP-eADF4(C16) were spectroscopically investigated and showed native structures of EST and GFP. The structural integrity was confirmed by the enzymatic activity of EST and the fluorescence of GFP. The spider silk moiety retained its intrinsically unstructured conformation in solution and the self-assembly into either nanofibrils or nanoparticles could be controlled by the concentration of phosphate...
January 16, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337274/species-delimitation-of-the-north-american-orchard-spider-leucauge-venusta-walckenaer-1841-araneae-tetragnathidae
#11
Jesús A Ballesteros, Gustavo Hormiga
The orchard spider, Leucauge venusta (Walckenaer, 1841) is one of the most common and abundant orb-weavers in North America. This species has a broad geographic distribution extending across tropical and temperate regions of the Americas from Canada to Brazil. Guided by a preliminary observation of the barcode gap between sequences from specimens of L. venusta collected in Florida and other North American localities, we collected across a transect through southeastern states of the USA to investigate the observed genetic divide...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336088/casual-movement-speed-but-not-maximal-locomotor-capacity-predicts-mate-searching-success
#12
Michael Kasumovic, Frank Seebacher
Maximal locomotor performance is often used as a proxy for fitness. Maximal speed may be important under high-threat conditions, such as during predator escape. However, animals do not always move at a speed that reflects their maximal physiological capacities when undisturbed. The physiological factors that determine the movement speed chosen by animals, such as minimisation of energy use, may be independent from maximal performance. As a result, the casual speed at which individuals move when undisturbed in a given context may better represent an individual's motivation to move...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330177/incidence-of-facultative-bacterial-endosymbionts-in-spider-mites-associated-with-local-environment-and-host-plant
#13
Yu-Xi Zhu, Yue-Ling Song, Yan-Kai Zhang, Ary A Hoffmann, Jin-Cheng Zhou, Jing-Tao Sun, Xiao-Yue Hong
Spider mites are frequently associated with multiple endosymbionts whose infection patterns often exhibit spatial and temporal variation. However, the association between endosymbiont prevalence and environmental factors remains unclear. Here, we surveyed endosymbionts in natural populations of the spider mite, Tetranychus truncatus, in China, screening 935 spider mites from 21 localities and 12 host plant species. Three facultative endosymbiont lineages, Wolbachia, Cardinium, and Spiroplasma, were detected at different infection frequencies (52...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324809/temporal-trends-in-arthropod-abundances-after-the-transition-to-organic-farming-in-paddy-fields
#14
Masaru H Tsutsui, Kazuhiko Kobayashi, Tadashi Miyashita
Organic farming aims to reduce the effect on the ecosystem and enhance biodiversity in agricultural areas, but the long-term effectiveness of its application is unclear. Assessments have rarely included various taxonomic groups with different ecological and economic roles. In paddy fields with different numbers of years elapsed since the transition from conventional to organic farming, we investigated changes in the abundance of insect pests, generalist predators, and species of conservation concern. The abundance of various arthropods exhibited diverse trends with respect to years elapsed since the transition to organic farming...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321876/effects-of-social-information-on-life-history-and-mating-tactics-of-males-in-the-orb-web-spider-argiope-bruennichi
#15
Anna-Lena Cory, Jutta M Schneider
Informed mating decisions are often based on social cues providing information about prospective mating opportunities. Social information early in life can trigger developmental modifications and influence later mating decisions. A high adaptive value of such adjustments is particularly obvious in systems where potential mating rates are extremely limited and have to be carried out in a short time window. Males of the sexually cannibalistic spider Argiope bruennichi can achieve maximally two copulations which they can use for one (monogyny) or two females (bigyny)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317353/the-sensory-equipment-of-a-spider-a-morphological-survey-of-different-sensilla-types-in-both-sexes-of-argiope-bruennichi-araneae-araneidae
#16
Anne-Sarah Ganske, Gabriele Uhl
Spiders show a wide range of sensory capabilities as evidenced by behavioural observations. Accordingly, spiders possess diverse sensory structures like mechano-, hygro-, thermo- or chemoreceptive sensilla. As to chemoreceptive structures, only trichoid tip-pore sensilla were found so far that were tested for gustation. That spiders are also able to receive airborne signals is corroborated by numerous behavioural experiments but the responsible structures have not been determined yet. Here, we provide sensilla distribution maps of pedipalps and walking legs of both sexes of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi whose biology and mating system is well explored...
January 6, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314840/development-of-stem-cell-mobilizing-agents-targeting-cxcr4-receptor-for-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-transplantation-and-beyond
#17
Chien-Huang Wu, Jen-Shin Song, Hsuan-Hao Kuan, Szu-Huei Wu, Ming-Chen Chou, Jiing-Jyh Jan, Lun Kelvin Tsou, Yi-Yu Ke, Chiung-Tong Chen, Kai-Chia Yeh, Sing-Yi Wang, Teng-Kuang Yeh, Chen-Tso Tseng, Chen-Lung Huang, Mine-Hsine Wu, Po-Chu Kuo, Chia-Jui Lee, Kak-Shan Shia
The function of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis accounts for many disease indications, including tissue/nerve regeneration, cancer metastasis and inflammation. Blocking CXCR4 signaling with its antagonists may lead to moving out CXCR4+ cell types from bone marrow to peripheral circulation. We have discovered a novel series of pyrimidine-based CXCR4 antagonists, a representative (i.e., 16) of which was tolerated at a higher dose and showed better HSC-mobilizing ability at the maximal response dose relative to the approved drug 1 (AMD3100), and thus considered a potential drug candidate for PBSCT indication...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312818/pupillometry-reveals-the-physiological-underpinnings-of-the-aversion-to-holes
#18
Vladislav Ayzenberg, Meghan R Hickey, Stella F Lourenco
An unusual, but common, aversion to images with clusters of holes is known as trypophobia. Recent research suggests that trypophobic reactions are caused by visual spectral properties also present in aversive images of evolutionary threatening animals (e.g., snakes and spiders). However, despite similar spectral properties, it remains unknown whether there is a shared emotional response to holes and threatening animals. Whereas snakes and spiders are known to elicit a fear reaction, associated with the sympathetic nervous system, anecdotal reports from self-described trypophobes suggest reactions more consistent with disgust, which is associated with activation of the parasympathetic nervous system...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309619/natural-compounds-as-spider-repellents-fact-or-myth
#19
Andreas Fischer, Manfred Ayasse, Maydianne C B Andrade
Although some spiders are globally invasive, found at high densities, and may be considered pests (particularly those that are toxic to humans), there are few pest management methods based on experimental data. 'Common wisdom' and advertisements on internet websites assert that a number of natural substances repel spiders. We tested whether the three substances cited most frequently (lemon oil, peppermint oil, and chestnut-fruits) effectively repelled female spiders or whether these were myths. We presented each of the putative repellents versus a control in a two-choice assay and tested responses of females of three invasive spider species in two different families: theridiids, Latrodectus geometricus C...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306023/short-versions-of-two-specific-phobia-measures-the-snake-and-the-spider-questionnaires
#20
Andras N Zsido, Nikolett Arato, Orsolya Inhof, Jozsef Janszky, Gergely Darnai
Zoophobias are the most prevalent form of specific phobia worldwide. Two of the most widely used measures, the Snake Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Spider Questionnaire (SPQ) are good indicators of specific fears, but researchers have recognised that shorter, yet nevertheless reliable measures are needed. Hence the aims of this research were to develop short forms of the SNAQ and SPQ using item response theory and to use receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to determine cut-offs for use in future research...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
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