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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432834/molecular-control-of-gut-formation-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#1
Natália Martins Feitosa, Matthias Pechmann, Evelyn E Schwager, Vitória Tobias-Santos, Alistair P McGregor, Wim G M Damen, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca
The development of a digestive system is an essential feature of bilaterians. Studies of the molecular control of gut formation in arthropods have been studied in detail in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, little is known in other arthropods, especially in noninsect arthropods. To better understand the evolution of arthropod alimentary system, we investigate the molecular control of gut development in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Pt), the primary chelicerate model species for developmental studies...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432470/male-behavioural-plasticity-depends-on-maternal-mating-status-in-the-two-spotted-spider-mite
#2
Keiko Oku, Tom P G van den Beuken
In haplodiploid organisms including the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), both unmated and mated females can produce male offspring. A previous study reported that males produced by unmated females (UM males) find pre-reproductive females more quickly than males produced by mated females (M males) in T. urticae. However, it remains unclear what factors cause the difference. We investigated effects of maternal mating status on mate-searching behaviour of their sons by changing the sons' developmental environment...
April 21, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431496/the-phylogeny-of-fossil-whip-spiders
#3
Russell J Garwood, Jason A Dunlop, Brian J Knecht, Thomas A Hegna
BACKGROUND: Arachnids are a highly successful group of land-dwelling arthropods. They are major contributors to modern terrestrial ecosystems, and have a deep evolutionary history. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi), are one of the smaller arachnid orders with ca. 190 living species. Here we restudy one of the oldest fossil representatives of the group, Graeophonus anglicus Pocock, 1911 from the Late Carboniferous (Duckmantian, ca. 315 Ma) British Middle Coal Measures of the West Midlands, UK...
April 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431105/extinction-vs-rapid-radiation-the-juxtaposed-evolutionary-histories-of-coelotine-spiders-support-the-eocene-oligocene-orogenesis-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#4
Zhe Zhao, Shuqiang Li
Evolutionary biology has long been concerned with how changing environments affect and drive the spatiotemporal development of organisms. Coelotine spiders (Agelenidae: Coelotinae) are common species in the temperate and subtropical areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Their long evolutionary history and the extremely imbalanced distribution of species richness suggest that Eurasian environments, especially since the Cenozoic, are the drivers of their diversification. We use phylogenetics, molecular dating, ancestral area reconstructions, diversity, and ecological niche analyses to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of 286 coelotine species from throughout the region...
April 20, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430165/treatments-for-latrodectism-a-systematic-review-on-their-clinical-effectiveness
#5
REVIEW
Nicole M Ryan, Nicholas A Buckley, Andis Graudins
Latrodectism or envenomation by widow-spiders is common and clinically significant worldwide. Alpha-latrotoxin is the mammalian-specific toxin in the venom that results in toxic effects observed in humans. Symptoms may be incapacitating and include severe pain that can persist for days. The management of mild to moderate latrodectism is primarily supportive while severe cases have variously been treated with intravenous calcium, muscle relaxants, widow-spider antivenom and analgesic opioids. The object of this systematic review is to examine the literature on the clinical effectiveness of past and current treatments for latrodectism...
April 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429798/sensory-system-plasticity-in-a-visually-specialized-nocturnal-spider
#6
Jay A Stafstrom, Peter Michalik, Eileen A Hebets
The interplay between an animal's environmental niche and its behavior can influence the evolutionary form and function of its sensory systems. While intraspecific variation in sensory systems has been documented across distant taxa, fewer studies have investigated how changes in behavior might relate to plasticity in sensory systems across developmental time. To investigate the relationships among behavior, peripheral sensory structures, and central processing regions in the brain, we take advantage of a dramatic within-species shift of behavior in a nocturnal, net-casting spider (Deinopis spinosa), where males cease visually-mediated foraging upon maturation...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428866/capture-efficiency-and-trophic-adaptations-of-a-specialist-and-generalist-predator-a-comparison
#7
Ondřej Michálek, Lenka Petráková, Stano Pekár
Specialist true predators are expected to exhibit higher capture efficiencies for the capture of larger and dangerous prey than generalist predators due to their possession of specialized morphological and behavioral adaptations. We used an araneophagous spider (Lampona murina) and a generalist spider (Drassodes lapidosus) as phylogenetically related model species and investigated their realized and fundamental trophic niches and their efficacy with respect to prey capture and prey handling. The trophic niche of both species confirmed that Lampona had a narrow trophic niche with a predominance of spider prey (including conspecifics), while the niche of Drassodes was wide, without any preference...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428547/the-tarantula-toxin-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-trtx-pre1a-highlights-the-importance-of-the-s1-s2-voltage-sensor-region-for-sodium-channel-subtype-selectivity
#8
Joshua S Wingerd, Christine A Mozar, Christine A Ussing, Swetha S Murali, Yanni K-Y Chin, Ben Cristofori-Armstrong, Thomas Durek, John Gilchrist, Christopher W Vaughan, Frank Bosmans, David J Adams, Richard J Lewis, Paul F Alewood, Mehdi Mobli, Macdonald J Christie, Lachlan D Rash
Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are essential for the transmission of pain signals in humans making them prime targets for the development of new analgesics. Spider venoms are a rich source of peptide modulators useful to study ion channel structure and function. Here we describe β/δ-TRTX-Pre1a, a 35-residue tarantula peptide that selectively interacts with neuronal NaV channels inhibiting peak current of hNaV1.1, rNaV1.2, hNaV1.6, and hNaV1.7 while concurrently inhibiting fast inactivation of hNaV1.1 and rNaV1...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428132/novel-properties-of-hippophae-rhamnoides-l-twig-and-leaf-extracts-anti-virulence-action-and-synergy-with-antifungals-studied-in%C3%A2-vitro-on-candida-spp-model
#9
Beata Sadowska, Aleksandra Budzyńska, Anna Stochmal, Jerzy Żuchowski, Barbara Różalska
Original, chemically characterized Sea buckthorn (SBT) twig and leaf extracts were in vitro studied in terms of anti-Candida activity. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts against C. albicans ATCC 10231 ranged: 250 μg/ml (twig), 31.5 μg/ml (leaf), and against C. glabrata G1 (clinical isolate) - 15.6 μg/ml (twig), 3.9 μg/ml (leaf). Next the extracts have been used at their subMIC. Both extracts significantly enhanced activity of fluconazole (FLC) and caspofungin (CAS) against C...
April 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422977/defining-the-complex-phenotype-of-severe-systemic-loxoscelism-using-a-large-electronic-health-record-cohort
#10
Jamie R Robinson, Vanessa E Kennedy, Youssef Doss, Lisa Bastarache, Joshua Denny, Jeremy L Warner
OBJECTIVE: Systemic loxoscelism is a rare illness resulting from the bite of the recluse spider and, in its most severe form, can lead to widespread hemolysis, coagulopathy, and death. We aim to describe the clinical features and outcomes of the largest known cohort of individuals with moderate to severe loxoscelism. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, cross sectional study from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2015, at a tertiary-care academic medical center, to determine individuals with clinical records consistent with moderate to severe loxoscelism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421370/the-current-state-of-knowledge-on-the-neuroactive-compounds-that-affect-the-development-mating-and-reproduction-of-spiders-araneae-compared-to-insects
#11
REVIEW
Marta Sawadro, Agata Bednarek, Agnieszka Babczyńska
The neuroendocrine system of insects, including the presence of the main neuroactive compounds, and their role in ontogenesis are probably best understood of all the arthropods. Development, metamorphosis, the maturation of the gonads, vitellogenesis and egg production are regulated by hormones (juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids) and neuropeptides. However, knowledge about their presence and functions in spiders is fragmentary. In this paper, we present a summary of the current data about the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids and neuropeptides in selected groups of arthropods, with particular emphasis on spiders...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419239/quantitative-analysis-of-long-term-mass-rearing-of-neoseiulus-californicus-acari-phytoseiidae-on-almond-pollen
#12
Mostafa Khanamani, Yaghoub Fathipour, Ali Asghar Talebi, Mohammad Mehrabadi
Long-term feeding effects of the almond pollen on the life table parameters of Neoseiulus californicus McGregor were assessed after 5, 10, and 20 generations after introduction in the rearing arena. Furthermore, to evaluate behavioral characteristics of the mass-reared predator (strain A) in face with the real prey, functional and numerical responses of the predator to different densities of the twospotted spider mite nymphs were determined, and the obtained data were compared with those reared on twospotted spider mite (strain T)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416444/the-pharmacology-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-activators
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer R Deuis, Alexander Mueller, Mathilde R Israel, Irina Vetter
Toxins and venom components that target voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels have evolved numerous times due to the importance of this class of ion channels in the normal physiological function of peripheral and central neurons as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle. NaV channel activators in particular have been isolated from the venom of spiders, wasps, snakes, scorpions, cone snails and sea anemone and are also produced by plants, bacteria and algae. These compounds have provided key insight into the molecular structure, function and pathophysiological roles of NaV channels and are important tools due to their at times exquisite subtype-selectivity...
April 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413898/erp-correlates-of-attentional-processing-in-spider-fear-evidence-of-threat-specific-hypervigilance
#14
Rebecca Venetacci, Amber Johnstone, Kenneth C Kirkby, Allison Matthews
Attentional bias towards threat can be demonstrated by enhanced processing of threat-related targets and/or greater interference when threat-related distractors are present. These effects are argued to reflect processing within the orienting and executive control networks of the brain respectively. This study investigated behavioural (RT) and electrophysiological correlates of early selective attention and top-down attentional control among females with high (n = 16) or low (n = 16) spider fear (Mean age = 22 years)...
April 17, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412280/evaluation-of-sample-preparation-protocols-for-spider-venom-profiling-by-maldi-tof-ms
#15
Ondřej Bočánek, Ondrej Šedo, Stano Pekár, Zbyněk Zdráhal
Spider venoms are highly complex mixtures containing biologically active substances with potential for use in biotechnology or pharmacology. Fingerprinting of venoms by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a thriving technology, enabling the rapid detection of peptide/protein components that can provide comparative information. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sample preparation procedures on MALDI-TOF mass spectral quality to establish a protocol providing the most reliable analytical outputs...
April 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412236/are-dental-and-jaw-changes-more-prevalent-in-a-brazilian-population-with-sickle-cell-anemia
#16
Halinna Larissa Cruz Correia de Carvalho, José Yagoh Saraiva Rolim, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Soraia de Fátima Carvalho Souza
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of dental and jaw changes in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) compared with a control group from a Brazilian population. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Participants were divided into 2 groups: SCA and control (123 patients per group). Intraoral periapical radiographs were taken. Changes in bone pattern and dental changes were investigated by using the following radiographic parameters: (1) trabecular bone (step-ladder or spider web); (2) integrity of the lamina dura (loss of sharpness and continuity, partial or complete absence, and increased thickness); and (3) dental changes (pulp chamber, root surface, periapex, dental form, number, and position)...
March 9, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411932/arthropod-envenomation-in-north-america
#17
REVIEW
Timothy B Erickson, Navneet Cheema
Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411713/cosmetic-sclerotherapy
#18
Jennifer J Watson, M Ashraf Mansour
Telangiectasias and spider veins are considered a common cosmetic concern for both women and men. Sclerotherapy is a frequently used, low-risk, and highly successful method to treat these venous problems. This article reviews the pathophysiology and diagnosis of telangiectasias and reticular veins as well as the currently available agents and techniques of sclerotherapy. The possible complications and adverse outcomes of sclerotherapy are described. Standard care and follow-up for patients after the procedure are outlined...
May 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411438/quantifying-a-threat-evidence-of-a-numeric-processing-bias
#19
Karina A Hamamouche, Laura Niemi, Sara Cordes
Humans prioritize the processing of threats over neutral stimuli; thus, not surprisingly, the presence of threats has been shown to alter performance on both perceptual and cognitive tasks. Yet whether the quantification process is disrupted in the presence of threat is unknown. In three experiments, we examined numerical estimation and discrimination abilities in adults in the context of threatening (spiders) and non-threatening (e.g., flowers) stimuli. Results of the numerical estimation task (Experiment 1) showed that participants underestimated the number of threatening relative to neutral stimuli...
April 12, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409405/transgenerational-loss-and-recovery-of-early-learning-ability-in-foraging-predatory-mites
#20
Marliza B Reichert, Inga C Christiansen, Michael Seiter, Peter Schausberger
The ability to learn is ubiquitous in animals but highly variable within and between species, populations and individuals. Diet-related circumstances, such as diet quantity and quality can influence both long-term constitutive (genetic; by selection) and short-term operational (non-genetic; by the immediate circumstances) learning performance. Here, we scrutinized the causes of loss of learning ability, following multi-generational feeding on pollen, in a line of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii, which was previously well able to learn prey during early life, enhancing foraging later in life...
April 13, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
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