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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789945/remote-monitoring-of-vibrational-information-in-spider-webs
#1
B Mortimer, A Soler, C R Siviour, F Vollrath
Spiders are fascinating model species to study information-acquisition strategies, with the web acting as an extension of the animal's body. Here, we compare the strategies of two orb-weaving spiders that acquire information through vibrations transmitted and filtered in the web. Whereas Araneus diadematus monitors web vibration directly on the web, Zygiella x-notata uses a signal thread to remotely monitor web vibration from a retreat, which gives added protection. We assess the implications of these two information-acquisition strategies on the quality of vibration information transfer, using laser Doppler vibrometry to measure vibrations of real webs and finite element analysis in computer models of webs...
May 22, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789768/radiological-and-clinical-findings-following-rectal-contact-x-ray-brachytherapy-papillon-technique-how-to-assess-response
#2
Matt J D Dunstan, Tim A Rockall, Kate Potter, Alexandra J Stewart
Purpose: Rectal contact X-ray brachytherapy (Papillon radiotherapy) has recently received approval from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. In particular, it is suitable for elderly patients who are high-risk for a major operation, but it may also be undertaken for patients who wish to avoid a stoma. It is imperative to be able to identify clinical response or tumor regrowth on surveillance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and sigmoidoscopy. This article aims to help clinicians to interpret MRIs and endoscopic appearances following Papillon radiotherapy...
April 2018: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789602/hygroscopic-compounds-in-spider-aggregate-glue-remove-interfacial-water-to-maintain-adhesion-in-humid-conditions
#3
Saranshu Singla, Gaurav Amarpuri, Nishad Dhopatkar, Todd A Blackledge, Ali Dhinojwala
Adhesion in humid environments is fundamentally challenging because of the presence of interfacial bound water. Spiders often hunt in wet habitats and overcome this challenge using sticky aggregate glue droplets whose adhesion is resistant to interfacial failure under humid conditions. The mechanism by which spider aggregate glue avoids interfacial failure in humid environments is still unknown. Here, we investigate the mechanism of aggregate glue adhesion by using interface-sensitive spectroscopy in conjunction with infrared spectroscopy...
May 22, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789488/superhydrophobic-natural-and-artificial-surfaces-a-structural-approach
#4
REVIEW
Roxana-Elena Avrămescu, Mihaela Violeta Ghica, Cristina Dinu-Pîrvu, Răzvan Prisada, Lăcrămioara Popa
Since ancient times humans observed animal and plants features and tried to adapt them according to their own needs. Biomimetics represents the foundation of many inventions from various fields: From transportation devices (helicopter, airplane, submarine) and flying techniques, to sports' wear industry (swimming suits, scuba diving gear, Velcro closure system), bullet proof vests made from Kevlar etc. It is true that nature provides numerous noteworthy models (shark skin, spider web, lotus leaves), referring both to the plant and animal kingdom...
May 22, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785698/specific-parasites-indirectly-influence-niche-occupation-of-non-hosts-community-members
#5
João Custódio Fernandes Cardoso, Radek Michalko, Marcelo Oliveira Gonzaga
The coexistence of phylogenetically related species is an attractive topic because of the potentially intense interspecific competition. The most often investigated mechanisms mediating coexistence of these species are environmental filtering and niche partitioning. However, the role of other factors, such as species-specific parasites, is still poorly understood. Along the riparian understory of a tropical forest, we explored niche occupation and coexistence between Chrysso intervales and Helvibis longicauda, two related syntopic web-building spiders...
May 22, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784785/trait-overdispersion-and-the-role-of-sociality-in-the-assembly-of-social-spider-communities-across-the-americas
#6
Philippe Fernandez-Fournier, Jennifer Guevara, Catherine Hoffman, Leticia Avilés
Among the factors that may lead to differences in resource use among closely related species, body size and morphology have been traditionally considered to play a role in community assembly. Here we argue that for animals that live and forage in groups, level of sociality, reflecting differences in group size and cooperative tendencies, can be an additional and powerful dimension separating species in niche space. We compare 50+ communities of the social spider genus Anelosimus across the Americas against a null model that accounts for known effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the distribution of social systems in the genus...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783636/transcriptomic-analysis-of-pseudoscorpion-venom-reveals-a-unique-cocktail-dominated-by-enzymes-and-protease-inhibitors
#7
Carlos E Santibáñez-López, Andrew Z Ontano, Mark S Harvey, Prashant P Sharma
Transcriptomic and genomic analyses have illuminated the diversity of venoms in three of the four venomous arachnid orders (scorpions, spiders, and ticks). To date, no venom gland transcriptome analysis has been available for pseudoscorpions, the fourth venomous arachnid lineage. To redress this gap, we sequenced an mRNA library generated from the venom glands of the species Synsphyronus apimelus (Garypidae). High-throughput sequencing by the Illumina protocol, followed by de novo assembly, resulted in a total of 238,331 transcripts...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782985/facile-preparation-of-recombinant-spider-eggcase-silk-spheres-via-an-hfip-on-oil-approach
#8
Jianming Chen, Jinlian Hu, Peijun Zuo, Jingyu Shi, Mo Yang
Versatile spider silk proteins have been prepared by various methods in morphology of spheres for functional applications. Inspired from natural spinning process, a facile approach for the fabrication of silk spheres is described. Distinct from the traditional emulsification method, silk spheres were assembled as rapidly as 10 s by using the HFIP-on-Oil method without any surfactants and agitation used. Notably, a series of factors, such as evaporation rate of HFIP, polarity and molecular weight of oils play central roles on the final silk morphologies...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782373/compliance-and-high-reliability-in-a-complex-healthcare-organization
#9
Maxine dellaBadia Simon
When considering the impact of regulation on healthcare, visualize a spider's web. The spider weaves sections together to create the whole, with each fiber adding to the structure to support its success or lead to its failure. Each section is dependent on the others, and all must be aligned to maintain the structure. Outside forces can cause a shift in the web's fragile equilibrium.The interdependence of the sections of the spider's web is similar to the way hospital departments and services work together. An organization's structure must be shaped to support its mission and vision...
2018: Frontiers of Health Services Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781251/de-novo-design-of-recombinant-spider-silk-proteins-for-material-applications
#10
REVIEW
Ke Zheng, Shengjie Ling
Spider silks are well known for their superior mechanical properties that are stronger and tougher than steel despite being assembled at close to ambient conditions and using water as the solvent. However, it is a significant challenge to utilize spider silks for practical applications due to their limited sources. Fortunately, genetic engineering techniques offer a promising approach to produce useable amounts of spider silk variants. Starting from these recombinant spider silk proteins, a series of experiments and simulations strategies were developed to improve the recombinant spider silk proteins (RSSP) material design and fabrication with the aim of biomimicking the structure-property-function relationships of spider silks...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778724/a-tangle-of-forms-and-phylogeny-extensive-morphological-homoplasy-and-molecular-clock-heterogeneity-in-bonnetina-and-related-tarantulas
#11
David Ortiz, Oscar F Francke, Jason E Bond
Tarantula spider systematics has long been considered problematic. Species diagnosis and phylogenetic hypotheses have historically relied on morphological features, which are known to be relatively conserved and/or highly homoplastic across the family. Morphology-based attempts to clarify the phylogeny of the highly diverse New World Theraphosinae, have only been moderately successful, and the time-frame of tarantulas' evolution is nearly terra incognita. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Theraphosinae genus Bonnetina and related lineages, employing one mitochondrial (COI) and five nuclear (ITS1, EF1G, MID1IP1, MRPL44, and I3568) loci...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778723/paleocene-eocene-and-plio-pleistocene-sea-level-changes-as-species-pumps-in-southeast-asia-evidence-from-althepus-spiders
#12
Fengyuan Li, Shuqiang Li
Sea-level change has been viewed as a primary driver in the formation of biodiversity. Early studies confirmed that Plio-Pleistocene sea-level changes led to the isolation and subsequent genetic differentiation of Southeast (SE) Asian organisms over short geological timescales. However, long-time consequences of sea-level fluctuations remain unclear. Herein, we analyze the evolutionary history of Althepus (spiders) whose distribution encompasses Indo-Burma and the Sunda shelf islands to understand how sea-level changes over shallow and deep timescales effected their history...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775504/biomimetic-supramolecular-fibers-exhibit-water-induced-supercontraction
#13
Yuchao Wu, Darshil U Shah, Baoyuan Wang, Ji Liu, Xiaohe Ren, Michael H Ramage, Oren A Scherman
Spider silk is a fascinating material, combining high strength and elasticity that outperforms most synthetic fibers. Another intriguing feature of spider silk is its ability to "supercontract," shrinking up to 50% when exposed to water. This is likely on account of the entropy-driven recoiling of secondary structured proteins when water penetrates the spider silk. In contrast, humidity-driven contraction in synthetic fibers is difficult to achieve. Here, inspired by the spider silk model, a supercontractile fiber (SCF), which contracts up to 50% of its original length at high humidity, comparable to spider silk, is reported...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773959/conservation-systematics-of-the-shield-backed-trapdoor-spiders-of-the-nigrum-group-mygalomorphae-idiopidae-idiosoma-integrative-taxonomy-reveals-a-diverse-and-threatened-fauna-from-south-western-australia
#14
Michael G Rix, Joel A Huey, Steven J B Cooper, Andrew D Austin, Mark S Harvey
The aganippine shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the monophyletic nigrum -group of Idiosoma Ausserer s. l. are revised, and 15 new species are described from Western Australia and the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia: I. arenaceum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. corrugatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. clypeatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. dandaragan Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. gardneri Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. gutharuka Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. incomptum Rix & Harvey, sp...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769620/carvacrol-and-linalool-co-loaded-in-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-grafted-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-sustainable-biopesticide-aiming-pest-control
#15
Estefânia V R Campos, Patrícia L F Proença, Jhones L Oliveira, Anderson E S Pereira, Lígia Nunes de Morais Ribeiro, Fabrício O Fernandes, Kelly C Gonçalves, Ricardo A Polanczyk, Tatiane Pasquoto-Stigliani, Renata Lima, Cirano C Melville, Jaqueline F Della Vechia, Daniel J Andrade, Leonardo F Fraceto
Pesticides are the main tactics for pest control because they reduce the pest population very fast and their efficiency does not depend on abiotic factors. However, the indiscriminate use of these substances can speed up the development of resistant populations and causing environmental contamination. Therefore, alternative methods of pest control are sought, such as the use of botanical compounds. Nanoencapsulation of volatile compounds has been shown to be an important tool that can be used to overcome the lack of stability of these compounds...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768878/nano-nets-covered-composite-nanofibers-with-enhanced-biocompatibility-and-mechanical-properties-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#16
Arjun Prasad Tiwari, Mahesh Kumar Joshi, Chan Hee Park, Cheol Sang Kim
Enhancing the biocompatibility profiles including cell attachment, growth, and viability and mechanical properties of designed synthetic scaffolds have an essential role in tissue engineering applications. Polymer blending is one of the most effective methods for providing new anticipated biomaterials for tissue scaffolds. Here, the blend solution of the different mass weight ratio of polycaprolactone (PCL) to human serum albumin (HSA) was subjected to fabricate nanocomposite spider-web-like membranes using electrospinning process...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768484/herbivory-responsive-calmodulin-like-protein-cml9-does-not-guide-jasmonate-mediated-defenses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Monika Heyer, Sandra S Scholz, Dagmar Voigt, Michael Reichelt, Didier Aldon, Ralf Oelmüller, Wilhelm Boland, Axel Mithöfer
Calcium is an important second messenger in plants that is released into the cytosol early after recognition of various environmental stimuli. Decoding of such calcium signals by calcium sensors is the key for the plant to react appropriately to each stimulus. Several members of Calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) act as calcium sensors and some are known to mediate both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Here, we study the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana CML9 in different stress responses. CML9 was reported earlier as defense regulator against Pseudomonas syringae...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765810/construction-of-a-synthetic-araneus-ventricosus-dragline-silk-gene-multimer-and-its-expression-in-escherichia-coli
#18
Tingting Liu, Anwen Liang, Ziqiang Liang, Guanghong Li, Fanghai Wang
One of the most representative core gene sequence of Araneus ventricosus dragline silk protein partial cDNA monomer (JN857964.2) was selected and multimerized using a "head-to-tail" strategy by compatible but nonregenerable sites at both ends resulting in a concatemer of 16 contiguous monomers. This concatemer was cloned into pET-28a(+) expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli . A 52.6 kDa silk protein was successfully expressed and detected by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by Western blotting...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765663/categorizing-experience-based-foraging-plasticity-in-mites-age-dependency-primacy-effects-and-memory-persistence
#19
Peter Schausberger, Undarmaa Davaasambuu, Stéphanie Saussure, Inga C Christiansen
Behavioural plasticity can be categorized into activational (also termed contextual) and developmental plasticity. Activational plasticity allows immediate contextual behavioural changes, whereas developmental plasticity is characterized by time-lagged changes based on memory of previous experiences (learning). Behavioural plasticity tends to decline with age but whether this holds true for both plasticity categories and the effects of first-in-life experiences is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by assessing the foraging plasticity of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii , on thrips and spider mites following age-dependent prey experience, i...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763387/spider-peptide-toxin-lycosin-i-induces-apoptosis-and-inhibits-migration-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#20
Hongwei Shen, Yuan Xie, Senlin Ye, Kancheng He, Lu Yi, Rongrong Cui
Spider toxins are molecularly diverse and some display not only a strong antibacterial effect but also exhibit significant inhibition of tumor growth and promote tumor cell apoptosis. The aim of the present investigation was to explore different antitumor effects of the spider peptide toxin lycosin-I through different pathways at different concentrations. It was found that by inactivating STAT3 pathway, high concentrations of lycosin-I induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and low concentrations of lycosin-I inhibit the migration of prostate cancer cells...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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