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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811247/pharmacological-analysis-of-poecilotheria-spider-venoms-in-mice-provides-clues-for-human-treatment
#1
Alexander Andreev-Andrievskiy, Anfisa Popova, Evgeniia Lagereva, Daniil Osipov, Antonina Berkut, Eugene Grishin, Alexander Vassilevski
Bites of tiger spiders belonging to Poecilotheria genus cause moderate to severe pain and long-lasting local or generalized muscle cramps in humans. Bites occur in regions of the spiders' natural habitat, India and Sri Lanka, but the popularity of these colorful tarantulas as pets leads to reports of envenomation cases worldwide. Treatment is predominantly symptomatic and often inadequate since there is almost no clinical or toxicology research data available, and physicians outside India or Sri Lanka typically have no experience in treating such cases...
August 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806928/colour-polymorphic-lures-exploit-innate-preferences-for-spectral-versus-luminance-cues-in-dipteran-prey
#2
Thomas E White, Darrell J Kemp
BACKGROUND: Theory predicts that colour polymorphism may be favored by variation in the visual context under which signals are perceived. The context encompasses all environmental determinants of light availability and propagation, but also the dynamics of perception in receivers. Color vision involves the neural separation of information into spectral versus luminance channels, which often differentially guide specific tasks. Here we explicitly tested whether this discrete perceptual basis contributes to the maintenance of polymorphism in a prey-luring system...
August 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805825/the-processing-and-heterostructuring-of-silk-with%C3%A2-light
#3
Mehra S Sidhu, Bhupesh Kumar, Kamal P Singh
Spider silk is a tough, elastic and lightweight biomaterial, although there is a lack of tools available for non-invasive processing of silk structures. Here we show that nonlinear multiphoton interactions of silk with few-cycle femtosecond pulses allow the processing and heterostructuring of the material in ambient air. Two qualitatively different responses, bulging by multiphoton absorption and plasma-assisted ablation, are observed for low- and high-peak intensities, respectively. Plasma ablation allows us to make localized nanocuts, microrods, nanotips and periodic patterns with minimal damage while preserving molecular structure...
August 14, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805686/lengths-of-the-c-terminus-and-interconnecting-loops-impact-stability-of-spider-derived-gating-modifier-toxins
#4
Akello J Agwa, Yen-Hua Huang, David J Craik, Sónia T Henriques, Christina I Schroeder
Spider gating modifier toxins (GMTs) are potent modulators of voltage-gated ion channels and have thus attracted attention as drug leads for several pathophysiological conditions. GMTs contain three disulfide bonds organized in an inhibitory cystine knot, which putatively confers them with high stability; however, thus far, there has not been a focused study to establish the stability of GMTs in physiological conditions. We examined the resistance of five GMTs including GpTx-1, HnTx-IV, HwTx-IV, PaurTx-3 and SgTx-1, to pH, thermal and proteolytic degradation...
August 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805364/laser-direct-writing-of-tree-shaped-hierarchical-cones-on-a-superhydrophobic-film-for-high-efficiency-water-collection
#5
Meng Wang, Qian Liu, Haoran Zhang, Chuang Wang, Lei Wang, Bingxi Xiang, Yongtao Fan, Chuanfei Guo, Shuangchen Ruan
Directional water collection has stimulated a great deal of interests because of its potential applications in the field of microfluidics, liquid transportation, fog harvesting, and so forth. There have been some bio or bioinspired structures for directional water collection, from one-dimensional spider silk to two-dimensional star-like patterns to three-dimensional Nepenthes alata. Here we present a simple way for the accurate design and highly controllable driving of tiny droplets: by laser direct writing of hierarchical patterns with modified wettability and desired geometry on a superhydrophobic film, the patterned film can precisely and directionally drive tiny water droplets, and dramatically improve the efficiency of water collection with a factor of ~36...
August 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805010/characterization-of-hydrogels-made-of-a-novel-spider-silk-protein-emasp1s-and-evaluation-for-3d-printing
#6
Christopher Thamm, Elise DeSimone, Thomas Scheibel
Recombinantly produced spider silk proteins have high potential for bioengineering and various biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low immunogenicity. Here, the recently described small spider silk protein eMaSp1s is assembled into hydrogels, which can be 3D printed into scaffolds. Further, blending with a recombinantly produced MaSp2 derivative eADF4(C16) alters the mechanical properties of the resulting hydrogels. Different spider silk hydrogels also show a distinct recovery after a high shear stress deformation, exhibiting the tunability of their features for selected applications...
August 14, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804859/fertility-life-table-of-tetranychus-palmarum-flechtmann-noronha-acari-tetranychidae-in-oil-palm
#7
A C S Noronha, C T Ferreira, E J M Tavares, D B Lima
Some species of spider mites belonging to the Tetranychidae family are known to associate with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. - Arecaceae). The occurrence of Tetranychus palmarum Flechtmann & Noronha (Acari, Tetranychidae) was verified on oil palm seedlings under greenhouse conditions in the State of Pará in Northern Brazil. Plants with colonies of T. palmarum presented yellowish spots on leaflets and leaves with chlorosis. The objective of this study was to access the biology and fertility life table of T...
August 13, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803552/effect-of-acaricidal-components-isolated-from-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-on-carmine-spider-mite-tetranychus-cinnabarinus-boisd
#8
M Li, Y Zhang, W Ding, J Luo, S Li, Q Zhang
This study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal activity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) extracts against carmine spider mites (Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd.) and isolate the acaricidal components. Acaricidal activities of lettuce extracts isolated from different parts (the leaf, root and seed) using various solvents (petroleum ether, acetone and methanol) were evaluated with slide-dip bioassay and relatively high median lethal concentration (LC50) values were detected. Acetone extracts of lettuce leaves harvested in July and September were fractionated and isolated with silica gel and thin-layer chromatography...
August 14, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798475/molecular-identification-of-spiders-preying-on-empoasca-vitis-in-a-tea-plantation
#9
Ting-Bang Yang, Jie Liu, Long-Yu Yuan, Yang Zhang, Dai-Qin Li, Ingi Agnarsson, Jian Chen
Biological control using predators of key pest species is an attractive option in integrated pest management (IPM). Molecular gut analysis can provide an estimation of predator efficiency on a given prey. Here we use a combination of various experimental approaches, both in field and lab, to identify a potential biological control species of the common pest of commercially grown tea, Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera), in a Chinese plantation. We collected 2655 spiders from plantations and established relative abundances of spider species and their temporal overlap with the pest species in tea canopy...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797246/characterisation-of-protein-families-in-spider-digestive-fluids-and-their-role-in-extra-oral-digestion
#10
André Walter, Jesper Bechsgaard, Carsten Scavenius, Thomas S Dyrlund, Kristian W Sanggaard, Jan J Enghild, Trine Bilde
BACKGROUND: Spiders are predaceous arthropods that are capable of subduing and consuming relatively large prey items compared to their own body size. For this purpose, spiders have evolved potent venoms to immobilise prey and digestive fluids that break down nutrients inside the prey's body by means of extra-oral digestion (EOD). Both secretions contain an array of active proteins, and an overlap of some components has been anecdotally reported, but not quantified. We systematically investigated the extent of such protein overlap...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791761/biomimicry-of-artificial-spider-silk-spinning-assessed-by-nmr
#11
Martins Otikovs, Marlene Andersson, Qiupin Jia, Kerstin Nordling, Qing Meng, Loren B Andreas, Guido Pintacuda, Jan Johansson, Anna Rising, Kristaps Jaudzems
Biomimetic spinning of artificial spider silk requires that the terminal domains of designed minispidroins undergo specific structural changes in concert with the β-sheet conversion of the repetitive region. Here, we combine solution and solid state NMR methods to probe domain-specific structural changes in the NT2RepCT minispidroin, which allows us to assess the degree of biomimicry of artificial silk spinning. In addition, we show that the structural effects of post-spinning procedures can be examined. By studying the impact of NT2RepCT fiber drying we observed a reversible beta-to-alpha conversion...
August 9, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791161/behavioural-flexibility-in-spider-mites-oviposition-site-shifts-based-on-past-and-present-stimuli-from-conspecifics-and-predators
#12
Aoi Murase, Kazuo Fujita, Shuichi Yano
Predator-experienced individuals often change their predation avoidance response when they re-encounter the same predators or their cues. Recent reports show that behavioural change sometimes occurs even before the re-encounter. To function as an adaptive strategy in the wild, such prospective experience-induced behaviour should change flexibly in response to changing situations. We assessed flexibility of experience-induced oviposition site shift in two closely related species of spider mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and T...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771427/cystine-knot-growth-factors-and-their-functionally-versatile-proregions
#13
Elisabeth Schwarza
The cystine knot disulfide pattern has been found to be wide-spread in nature, since it has been detected in proteins from plants, marine snails, spiders and mammals. Cystine knot proteins are secreted proteins. Their functions range from defense mechanisms as toxins, e.g. ion channel or enzyme inhibitors, to hormones, blood factors and growth factors. Cystine knot proteins can be divided into two superordinate groups: (i) The cystine knot peptides, also referred to - with other non-cystine knot proteins - as knottins, with linear and cyclic polypeptide chains...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770680/evaluation-of-the-systematic-status-of-geographical-variations-in-arcuphantes-hibanus-arachnida-araneae-linyphiidae-with-descriptions-of-two-new-species
#14
Takafumi Nakano, Yoh Ihara, Yusuke Kumasaki, Yuki G Baba, Ko Tomikawa
The systematic status of geographical variants of Arcuphantes hibanus Saito, 1992 belonging to the A. longiscapus species group, indigenous to western Honshu and Shikoku, Japan, was evaluated using morphological and molecular data. Two species, A. enmusubi Ihara, Nakano and Tomikawa, sp. nov. and A. occidentalis Ihara, Nakano and Tomikawa, sp. nov., are described, and A. hibanus is redescribed with redefinition of its taxonomic status. These three species are diagnosed by the characteristics of paracymbium, pseudolamella, and epigynal basal part...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770049/short-range-phenotypic-divergence-among-genetically-distinct-parapatric-populations-of-an-australian-funnel-web-spider
#15
Mark K L Wong, James D Woodman, David M Rowell
Speciation involves divergence at genetic and phenotypic levels. Where substantial genetic differentiation exists among populations, examining variation in multiple phenotypic characters may elucidate the mechanisms by which divergence and speciation unfold. Previous work on the Australian funnel-web spider Atrax sutherlandi Gray (2010; Records of the Australian Museum62, 285-392; Mygalomorphae: Hexathelidae: Atracinae) has revealed a marked genetic structure along a 110-kilometer transect, with six genetically distinct, parapatric populations attributable to past glacial cycles...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769705/a-new-species-of-the-genus-parachemmis-chickering-1937-from-colombia-araneae-corinnidae-corinninae
#16
Leonel Martinez, Eduardo Villarreal, Neis Martinez
The spider genus Parachemmis Chickering, 1937 (Araneae: Corinnidae: Corinninae) is reported from Colombia for the first time. Parachemmis julioblancoisp. n. Martinez-G & Villarreal is described and illustrated from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Magdalena department. The exclusive morphology of the short and apically truncated retrolateral tibial apophysis and club-like tegular laminar process of the male palp indicates that the specimens described herein belong to a new species of Parachemmis. A map of the distribution of species in the genus is included...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769617/a-survey-of-five-pireneitega-species-agelenidae-coelotinae-from-china
#17
Xiaoqing Zhang, Zhe Zhao, Guo Zheng, Shuqiang Li
Five species of Pireneitega spiders from China are surveyed, of which three are new to science: P. huashanensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), P. lushuiensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), P. xiyankouensis Zhao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀). Two known species are redescribed: P. liansui (Bao & Yin, 2004) and P. triglochinata (Zhu & Wang, 1991). The males of P. liansui and P. triglochinata (Zhu & Wang, 1991) are described for the first time. DNA barcodes for five species are documented for future use and as proof of molecular differences between species...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769602/taxonomic-notes-on-the-armored-spiders-of-the-families-pacullidae-and-tetrablemmidae-arachnida-araneae-from-singapore
#18
Yucheng Lin, Joseph K H Koh, Seppo Koponen, Shuqiang Li
Eight species of armored spiders belonging to two families, Pacullidae Simon, 1894 and Tetrablemmidae O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1873, are reported from Singapore. Five species are documented as new to science: Paculla bukittimahensis Lin & Li, sp. n. (male and female), Paculla globosa Lin & Li, sp. n. (male and female), Ablemma malacca Lin & Li, sp. n. (male and female), Singaporemma lenachanae Lin & Li, sp. n. (male and female), and Sulaimania brevis Lin & Li, sp. n. (male). The three known species are Brignoliella besutensis Lin, Li & Jäger, 2012, Brignoliella michaeli Lehtinen, 1981, and Singaporemma singulare Shear, 1978, of which the female of Brignoliella besutensis is described for the first time...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767894/comparative-toxicity-of-essential-oil-and-blends-of-selected-terpenes-of-ocotea-species-from-pernambuco-brazil-against-tetranychus-urticae-koch
#19
Marcilio M DE Moraes, Claudio A G DA Camara, Milena M C DA Silva
Essential oils from the leaves of two species of the genus Ocotea that occur in the Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acaricidal activity of these oils as well as 11 selected components and blends were evaluated in fumigation and residual contact tests against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). Sixty-seven constituents were identified, totaling 97.3 ± 0.3% and 97.8 ± 0.5% of the oils from O. duckei and O. glomerata, respectively...
July 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767648/across-the-indian-ocean-a-remarkable-example-of-trans-oceanic-dispersal-in-an-austral-mygalomorph-spider
#20
Sophie E Harrison, Mark S Harvey, Steve J B Cooper, Andrew D Austin, Michael G Rix
The Migidae are a family of austral trapdoor spiders known to show a highly restricted and disjunct distribution pattern. Here, we aim to investigate the phylogeny and historical biogeography of the group, which was previously thought to be vicariant in origin, and examine the biogeographic origins of the genus Moggridgea using a dated multi-gene phylogeny. Moggridgea specimens were sampled from southern Australia and Africa, and Bertmainus was sampled from Western Australia. Sanger sequencing methods were used to generate a robust six marker molecular dataset consisting of the nuclear genes 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS rRNA, XPNPEP3 and H3 and the mitochondrial gene COI...
2017: PloS One
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