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Juan Chiriví, Giovanna Danies, Rocio Sierra, Nicolas Schauer, Sandra Trenkamp, Silvia Restrepo, Tatiana Sanjuan
Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently...
2017: PloS One
Brooke L Weigel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Elisa Faria de Oliveira, Angelo Pallini, Arne Janssen
It is well known that herbivore-induced plant defence alter host plant quality and can affect the behavior and performance of later arriving herbivores. Effects of sequential attacks by herbivores that either suppress or induce plant defenses are less well studied. We sequentially infested leaves of tomato plants with a strain of the phytophagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae that induces plant defenses and the closely related Tetranychus evansi, which suppresses plant defenses. Plant quality was quantified through oviposition of both spider mite species and by measuring proteinase inhibitor activity using plant material that had been sequentially attacked by both herbivore species...
June 21, 2017: Insect Science
Expert Group Of Consensus On Diagnosis And Treatment Of Black Spider Stung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Diego Gerpe, Noemí Buján, Ana L Diéguez, Aide Lasa, Jesús L Romalde
Ten Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile bacterial strains were isolated from spider crab (M27.10, M27.11a, F36.1, F36.4, M56.1, F76.17b, M146.1, M166.3 and M166.6) and pullet carpet shell clam (SBRF 1.10) collected in the coast of Galicia. Analyses of the 16S rRNA genes showed that the strains belong to the genus Kiloniella and have high similarity with the species Kiloniella spongiae (99.44-99.86%) and Kiloniella litopenaei (99.0-99.5%). Strains M56.1(T) (=CECT 9195, =LMG 29925), M146.1 (=CECT 9193, =LMG 29926) and SBRF 1...
June 10, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Mizuki Sasaki, Yasuko Akiyama-Oda, Hiroki Oda
BACKGROUND: Classical cadherins are a metazoan-specific family of homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecules that regulate morphogenesis. Type I and type IV cadherins in this family function at adherens junctions in the major epithelial tissues of vertebrates and insects, respectively, but they have distinct, relatively simple domain organizations that are thought to have evolved by independent reductive changes from an ancestral type III cadherin, which is larger than derived paralogs and has a complicated domain organization...
June 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jonas O Wolff, Milan Řezáč, Tomáš Krejčí, Stanislav N Gorb
Foraging is one of the main evolutionary driving forces shaping the phenotype of organisms. In predators, a significant, though understudied, cost of foraging is the risk of being injured by struggling prey. Hunting spiders that feed on dangerous prey like ants or other spiders are an extreme example of dangerous feeding, risking their own life over a meal. Here, we describe an intriguing example of the use of attachment silk (piriform silk) for prey immobilization that comes with the costs of reduced silk anchorage function, increased piriform silk production and additional modifications of the extrusion structures (spigots) to prevent their clogging...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Kathryn Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Shawn M Wilder, Jutta M Schneider
Sexual cannibalism has long been hypothesized to be a foraging decision in which females consume males for the nutrients in their bodies. While few studies have documented fecundity benefits of sexual cannibalism, several recent studies have documented benefits of cannibalism to egg hatching success or offspring survival. We tested if small supplements of dietary essential nutrients fed to female spiders, Argiope bruennichi, would result in increases in offspring survival similar to those seen following sexual cannibalism...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Caleb R Schlachter, Vincent Klapper, Nicky Wybouw, Taylor Radford, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Miodrag Grbic, Maksymilian Chruszcz
The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a polyphagous agricultural pest and poses a high risk to global crop production as it is rapidly developing pesticide resistance. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis has revealed the presence of a remarkable cyanase gene in T. urticae and related mite species within the Acariformes lineage. Cyanase catalyzes the detoxification of cyanate and is potentially an attractive protein target for the development of new acaricides. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that within the Acariformes, the cyanase gene originates from a single horizontal gene transfer event, preceding subsequent speciation...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Soleiman E Helaly, Wilawan Kuephadungphan, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Janet Jennifer Luangsa-Ard, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Marc Stadler
Five new compounds including the glycosylated β-naphthol (1, akanthol), a glycosylated pyrazine (2, akanthozine), and three amide derivatives including a hydroxamic acid derivative (3-5) were isolated from the spider-associated fungus Akanthomyces novoguineensis (Cordycipitaceae, Ascomycota). Their structures were elucidated by using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and NMR spectroscopy. In this study, the antimicrobial, cytotoxic, anti-biofilm, and nematicidal activities of the new compounds were evaluated...
June 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Norbert Milasowszky, Julia Bauder, Martin Hepner
The erigonine cladistic analyses of Hormiga (2000) and Miller & Hormiga (2004) demonstrated unambiguous support for a sister-taxon relationship between the genera Diplocephalus and Savignia. These genera, in addition to others, are commonly placed in the Savignia-group. Although the Savignia-group is not monophyletic as it was originally circumscribed by Millidge (1977), it contains a monophyletic core of genera that has been supported in various cladistic analyses, starting with Hormiga (2000). According to the most recent phylogenetic study (Frick et al...
May 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Maria Rita M Poeta, Renato Augusto Teixeira
The male of Eustala vellardi Mello-Leitão, 1924 and the female of E. delasmata Bryant, 1945 are described for the first time and new distribution records are provided. The types of E. tridentata (C.L. Koch, 1838), E. tristis (Blackwall, 1862), E. essequibensis (Hingston, 1932), E. uncicurva Franganillo, 1936, E. nigerrima Mello-Leitão, 1940, and E. albicans (Caporiacco, 1954), are apparently lost, and those names are therefore, considered nomina dubia. Eustala andina Chamberlin, 1916, which is based on an immature female is also considered a nomen dubium...
June 1, 2017: Zootaxa
Pradeep M Sankaran, Pothalil A Sebastian
The genus Zoica Simon, 1898 comprises the smallest members of the family Lycosidae (Lehtinen & Hippa 1979; Framenau et al. 2009) and all the members are vagrant (Lehtinen & Hippa 1979). The genus was revised by Lehtinen & Hippa (1979) and currently has 12 described species (World Spider Catalog 2017). The species Zoica puellula (Simon, 1898) was based on an unspecified number of female specimens from Sri Lanka, and its original description (Simon 1898) is inadequate and lacks illustrations. The male and female genitalia of this species were subsequently illustrated several times (Roewer 1960; Lehtinen & Hippa 1979; Tikader & Malhotra 1980); however these illustrations are insufficient for proper identification and the internal female genitalia of this species have not been illustrated...
June 9, 2017: Zootaxa
Ricardo Ott, Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues
The araneid genus Larinia Simon currently includes 56 species, eleven of them with New World distribution (World Spider Catalog, 2016). North American species of the genus were revised first time by Levi (1975) and South American species by Harrod et al. (1991). According to these authors there are four species known from subtropical South America (Larinia bivittata Keyserling 1885; L. montecarlo (Levi, 1988); L. t-notata (Tullgren, 1905); L. tucuman Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991) and also four species known from tropical South America (L...
March 23, 2017: Zootaxa
Jober Fernando Sobczak, Yuri Fanchini Messas, Diego Galvão DE Pádua
Ichneumonid wasps of the Polysphincta genus-group (Polysphinctini sensu Townes hereafter "polysphinctine wasps") are exclusively koinobiont ectoparasitoids of spiders (Fitton et al. 1987; Gauld 2006). Since the first report of a spider's behavior being manipulated by a polysphinctine wasp (Eberhard 2000), several studies have since focused on unravelling the mechanisms and evolution of this association (e.g. Gonzaga & Sobczak 2007; Matsumoto 2009; Sobczak et al. 2009; Eberhard 2010; Gonzaga & Sobczak 2011; Korenko & Pekár 2011; Korenko et al...
March 23, 2017: Zootaxa
John T D Caleb, G B Pravalikha, Benaiah Ebenezer Johnson, Mitemlu Manyu, Soreiphy Mungkung, Manu Thomas Mathai
The genus Hersilia was established by Audouin in 1826 with H. caudata Audouin, 1826 as the type species. It is the most speciose hersiliid genus presently comprising 79 described species worldwide (World Spider Catalog 2017, version 18). There are seven species known from India: H. aadi Pravalikha, Srinivasulu & Srinivasulu, 2014, H. longivulva Sen et al., 2010, H. orvakalensis Javed et al., 2010, H. savignyi Lucas, 1836, H. striata Wang & Yin, 1985, H. sumatrana (Thorell, 1890), H. tibialis Baehr & Baehr, 1993...
April 18, 2017: Zootaxa
Rafael P Indicatti, João L Chavari, Maurílio Zucatelli-Júnior, Sylvia M Lucas, Antonio D Brescovit
A new diagnosis for the genus Stenoterommata Holmberg, 1881 is presented and six new species are described from Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil: S. pavesii sp. nov. and S. leticiae sp. nov. from Blumenau and Balneário Camboriú; S. sevegnaniae sp. nov. from Blumenau; S. gugai sp. nov., S. peri sp. nov. and S. pescador sp. nov. from Santa Catarina Island, Florianópolis. New records of S. palmar Goloboff, 1995 from southern Brazil are provided. Information on the natural history and habitat are included for all the species...
April 19, 2017: Zootaxa
Níthomas M Feitosa, Daniella F Moss, Gustavo R S Ruiz, Alexandre B Bonaldo
Twenty-seven new species of the genus Neoxyphinus are described, all from Brazil, raising the total number of species of the genus to 48. The new species with the respective geographic distribution and known sexes are: N. capiranga sp. nov. (♂♀) from Amazonas, Pará, Mato Grosso and Rondônia; N. caprichoso sp. nov. (♂♀) and N. garantido sp. nov. (♂♀) from Amazonas and Pará; N. crasto sp. nov. (♂♀) from Bahia and Sergipe; N. murici sp. nov. (♂♀) from Alagoas and Sergipe; N. meurei sp. nov...
May 4, 2017: Zootaxa
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