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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526335/the-spider-toxin-ph%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-recombinant-possesses-strong-analgesic-activity
#1
Flavia Karine Rigo, Gabriela Trevisan, Samira Dal-Toé De Prá, Marta Nascimento Cordeiro, Marcia Helena Borges, Juliana Figueiredo Silva, Flavia Viana Santa Cecilia, Alessandra Hubner de Souza, Gabriela de Oliveira Adamante, Alessandra Marcon Milioli, Célio José de Castro Junior, Juliano Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius Gomez
The native Phα1β - a Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel (VGCC) blocker - and its Recombinant Version - were both tested in rodent pain models with an intraplantar injections of capsaicin or formalin, a chronic constriction injury, and melanoma cancer related pain. The formalin nociceptive behaviour in the neurogenic phase was not affected by the toxin pre-treatments, while in the inflammatory phase, Phα1β and the Recombinant form caused a significant reduction. The nociception that was triggered by capsaicin, an agonist of the TRPV1 vanilloid receptor, was totally blocked by 100 pmol/site, i...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518067/remote-sensing-evaluation-of-two-spotted-spider-mite-damage-on-greenhouse-cotton
#2
Daniel E Martin, Mohamed A Latheef
The objective of this study was to evaluate a ground-based multispectral optical sensor as a remote sensing tool to assess foliar damage caused by the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, on greenhouse grown cotton. TSSM is a polyphagous pest which occurs on a variety of field and horticultural crops. It often becomes an early season pest of cotton in damaging proportions as opposed to being a late season innocuous pest in the mid-southern United States. Evaluation of acaricides is important for maintaining the efficacy of and preventing resistance to the currently available arsenal of chemicals and newly developed control agents...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512299/transgenic-bt-rice-lines-producing-cry1ac-cry2aa-or-cry1ca-have-no-detrimental-effects-on-brown-planthopper-and-pond-wolf-spider
#3
Lin Niu, Amani Mannakkara, Lin Qiu, Xiaoping Wang, Hongxia Hua, Chaoliang Lei, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes, Weihua Ma
Transgenic rice expressing cry genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice) is highly resistant to lepidopteran pests. The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is the main non-target sap-sucking insect pest of Bt transgenic rice. The pond wolf spider (PWS, Pardosa pseudoannulata) is one of the most dominant predators of BPH in rice fields. Consequently, the safety evaluation of Bt rice on BPH and PWS should be conducted before commercialization. In the current study, two experiments were performed to assess the potential ecological effects of Bt rice on BPH and PWS: (1) a tritrophic experiment to evaluate the transmission of Cry1Ac, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca protein in the food chain; and (2) binding assays of Cry1Ac, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca to midgut brush border membrane proteins from BPH and PWS...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510702/linking-vegetation-structure-and-spider-diversity-in-riparian-and-adjacent-habitats-in-two-rivers-of-central-argentina-an-analysis-at-two-conceptual-levels
#4
Mariana Griotti, Christian Muñoz-Escobar, Nelson E Ferretti
The link between vegetation structure and spider diversity has been well explored in the literature. However, few studies have compared spider diversity and its response to vegetation at two conceptual levels: assemblage (species diversity) and ensemble (guild diversity). Because of this, we studied spider diversity in riparian and adjacent habitats of a river system from the Chacoan subregion in central Argentina and evaluated their linkage with vegetation structure at these two levels. To assess vegetation structure, we measured plant species richness and vegetation cover in the herb and shrub - tree layers...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509945/ant-mediated-indirect-negative-effects-of-aphids-on-spider-mites-living-on-the-same-plant
#5
Masaaki Adachi, Shuichi Yano
Some aphid species are known to have mutualistic relationships with tending ants; that is, the aphids supply the ants with honeydew and are protected by the ants. Although spider mites and honeydew-producing aphids often live on the same host plant, it has not previously been determined whether the ants tending these aphids affect spider mite survival. Using replicated microcosms, each containing an artificial ant nest, we compared experimentally the survival of two-spotted spider mites on kidney bean plants with and without cowpea aphids...
May 16, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506206/females-of-a-gift-giving-spider-do-not-trade-sex-for-food-gifts-a-consequence-of-male-deception
#6
Irene Pandulli-Alonso, Agustín Quaglia, Maria J Albo
BACKGROUND: Polyandry is commonly maintained by direct benefits in gift-giving species, so females may remate as an adaptive foraging strategy. However, the assumption of a direct benefit fades in mating systems where male gift-giving behaviour has evolved from offering nutritive to worthless (non-nutritive) items. In the spider Paratrechalea ornata, 70% of gifts in nature are worthless. We therefore predicted female receptivity to be independent of hunger in this species. We exposed poorly-fed and well-fed females to multiple males offering nutritive gifts and well-fed females to males offering worthless gifts...
May 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505425/a-refined-crystal-structure-of-samia-cynthia-ricini-silk-fibroin-revealed-by-solid-state-nmr-investigations
#7
Tetsuo Asakura, Akio Nishimura, Shunsuke Kametani, Shuto Kawanishi, Akihiro Aoki, Furitsu Suzuki, Hironori Kaji, Akira Naito
Samia cynthia ricini is one of the wild silkworms and its silk fibroin (SF) consists of alternatively repeating poly-L-alanine (PLA) sequences as crystalline domain and glycine-rich sequences as non-crystalline domain; the structure is similar to those of spider silk and other wild silkworm silks. In this paper, we proposed a new staggered model for the packing arrangement of the PLA sequence through the use of the Cambridge Serial Total Energy Package program and a comparison of the observed and calculated chemical shifts of the PLA sequence with the Gauge Including Projector Augmented Wave method...
May 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503370/cave-features-seasonality-and-subterranean-distribution-of-non-obligate-cave-dwellers
#8
Enrico Lunghi, Raoul Manenti, Gentile Francesco Ficetola
Seasonality impacts species distributions through changes of the environmental conditions that affect the presence of individuals at a given place. Although the dynamics of cave microclimates are well known, only a few studies have evaluated the effects of such dynamics on non-strictly cave species. Here we assessed if species exploiting subterranean environments show changes in habitat occupation related to seasonal variation of cave microclimates. We surveyed 16 caves in central Italy every month for one year...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502868/no-pain-no-gain-male-plasticity-in-burrow-digging-according-to-female-rejection-in-a-sand-dwelling-wolf-spider
#9
Matilde Carballo, Fabiana Baldenegro, Fedra Bollatti, Alfredo V Peretti, Anita Aisenberg
Behavioral plasticity allows individuals to reversibly respond to short-term variations in their ecological and social environment in order to maximize their fitness. Allocosa senex is a burrow-digging spider that inhabits the sandy coasts of South America. This species shows a reversal in typical sex roles expected in spiders: females are wanderers that visit males at their burrows and initiate courtship. They prefer males with long burrows for mating, and males prefer virgin over mated females. We tested whether female sexual rejection induced males to enlarge their burrows and if female reproductive status affected males' responses...
May 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502184/promoting-community-malaria-control-in-rural-myanmar-through-an-active-community-participation-program-using-the-participatory-learning-approach
#10
Chan Nyein Maung, Than Tun Sein, Thaung Hlaing, Kamolnetr Okanurak, Tassanee Silawan, Jaranit Kaewkungwal
INTRODUCTION: Malaria is prevalent in more than 80% of townships in Myanmar. The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) has been implementing community-based malaria control programs nationwide. However, these programs are mostly developed and directed by health authorities, while communities are passively involved. This study aimed to increase community participation in malaria control and promote community malaria control knowledge and practice in rural Myanmar. METHODS: A community-based study, which employed a mixed method approach, collecting data quantitatively and qualitatively, was conducted in two rural villages...
April 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499023/the-chilean-recluse-spider-araneae-sicariidae-displays-behavioral-responses-to-conspecific-odors-but-not-to-several-general-odorants
#11
Victor Manuel Calbiague, Jesus Olivares, Erick Olivares, Oliver Schmachtenberg
Spiders of the family Sicariidae pose a serious threat to affected populations, and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) is considered the most venomous species. Development of nontoxic olfaction-based spider repellents or traps is hindered by a current lack of knowledge regarding olfactory system function in arachnids. In the present study, general plant odorants and conspecific odors were tested for behavioral responses in L. laeta. Although general odorants triggered neither attraction nor aversion, conspecific odor of the opposite sex caused aversion in females, and attraction in males...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497266/an-insecticidal-toxin-from-nephila-clavata-spider-venom
#12
Lin Jin, Mingqian Fang, Mengrou Chen, Chunling Zhou, Rose Ombati, Md Abdul Hakim, Guoxiang Mo, Ren Lai, Xiuwen Yan, Yumin Wang, Shilong Yang
Spiders are the most successful insect predators given that they use their venom containing insecticidal peptides as biochemical weapons for preying. Due to the high specificity and potency of peptidic toxins, discoveries of insecticidal toxins from spider venom have provided an opportunity to obtain natural compounds for agricultural applications without affecting human health. In this study, a novel insecticidal toxin (μ-NPTX-Nc1a) was identified and characterized from the venom of Nephila clavata. Its primary sequence is GCNPDCTGIQCGWPRCPGGQNPVMDKCVSCCPFCPPKSAQG which was determined by automated Edman degradation, cDNA cloning, and MS/MS analysis...
May 11, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493463/main-predators-of-insect-pests-screening-and-evaluating-through-comprehensive-indexes
#13
Tingbang Yang, Jie Liu, Longyu Yuan, Yang Zhang, Yu Peng, Daiqin Li, Jian Chen
BACKGROUND: Predatory natural enemies play key functional roles in integrated pest management (IPM). However, the screening and evaluating of the main predators of insect pests has seldom been reported in the field. Here, we employed comprehensive indexes for evaluating the predation of a common pest (Ectropis obliqua) by nine common spider species in Chinese tea plantations. RESULTS: We established the relative dominance of spider species and their phenological overlap with the pest species, and analyzed DNA from these nine spider species using targeted RQ-PCR to identify residual DNA of E...
May 11, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490605/adhesion-modulation-using-glue-droplet-spreading-in-spider-capture-silk
#14
Gaurav Amarpuri, Ci Zhang, Todd A Blackledge, Ali Dhinojwala
Orb web spiders use sticky capture spiral silk to retain prey in webs. Capture spiral silk is composed of an axial fibre of flagelliform silk covered with glue droplets that are arranged in a beads-on-a-string morphology that allows multiple droplets to simultaneously extend and resist pull off. Previous studies showed that the adhesion of capture silk is responsive to environmental humidity, increasing up to an optimum humidity that varied among different spider species. The maximum adhesion was hypothesized to occur when the viscoelasticity of the glue optimized contributions from glue spreading and bulk cohesion...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484645/gene-expression-profiling-of-the-optic-nerve-head-of-patients-with-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#15
Xinrong Wang, Ke Gong, Haiyan Li, Congyi Wang, Chaoyi Qu, Hui Li
Background. The pressure-induced axonal injury of the vulnerable ONH has led many researchers to view glaucoma from the perspective of the genetic basis of the angle of the ONH. However, genetic studies on POAG from this perspective are limited. Methods. Microarray dataset GSE45570 of the ONH of healthy individuals and POAG patients were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. After screening for the DEGs using the limma package, enrichment analysis was performed using DAVID. The DEG interaction network was constructed using cancer spider at BioProfiling...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479976/representation-of-different-exact-numbers-of-prey-by-a-spider-eating-predator
#16
Fiona R Cross, Robert R Jackson
Our objective was to use expectancy-violation methods for determining whether Portia africana, a salticid spider that specializes in eating other spiders, is proficient at representing exact numbers of prey. In our experiments, we relied on this predator's known capacity to gain access to prey by following pre-planned detours. After Portia first viewed a scene consisting of a particular number of prey items, it could then take a detour during which the scene went out of view. Upon reaching a tower at the end of the detour, Portia could again view a scene, but now the number of prey items might be different...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475843/ultrastrong-and-bioactive-nanostructured-bio-based-composites
#17
Nitesh Mittal, Ronnie Jansson, Mona Widhe, Tobias Benselfelt, Karl M O Håkansson, Fredrik Lundell, My Hedhammar, L Daniel Söderberg
Nature's design of functional materials relies on smart combinations of simple components to achieve desired properties. Silk and cellulose are two clever examples from nature - spider silk being tough due to high extensibility, whereas cellulose possesses unparalleled strength and stiffness among natural materials. Unfortunately, silk proteins cannot be obtained in large quantities from spiders and recombinant production processes are so far rather expensive. We have therefore combined small amounts of functionalized recombinant spider silk proteins (RSP) with the most abundant structural component on earth (cellulose nanofibrils (CNF)) to fabricate isotropic as well as anisotropic hierarchical structures...
May 5, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475112/insect-active-toxins-with-promiscuous-pharmacology-from-the-african-theraphosid-spider-monocentropus-balfouri
#18
Jennifer J Smith, Volker Herzig, Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Sławomir Dziemborowicz, Frank Bosmans, Graham M Nicholson, Glenn F King
Many chemical insecticides are becoming less efficacious due to rising resistance in pest species, which has created much interest in the development of new, eco-friendly bioinsecticides. Since insects are the primary prey of most spiders, their venoms are a rich source of insect-active peptides that can be used as leads for new bioinsecticides or as tools to study molecular receptors that are insecticidal targets. In the present study, we isolated two insecticidal peptides, µ/ω-TRTX-Mb1a and -Mb1b, from venom of the African tarantula Monocentropus balfouri...
May 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472105/coexistence-of-zoophytophagous-and-phytozoophagous-strategies-linked-to-genotypic-diet-specialization-in-plant-bug
#19
François Dumont, Eric Lucas, Denis Réale
Zoophytophagous predators can substitute zoophagy for phytophagy to complete their development and reproduction. In such predators, variation in feeding behaviour is observed both across and within populations. This may be caused by genetic variation in diet specialization, some genotypes specializing on plant resources, whereas others rely mostly on prey to meet their energy and nutriment requirements. We tested the hypothesis that genotypes specialize either on prey or plant resources in the zoophytophagous mullein bug Campylomma verbasci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470835/the-chemical-web-of-a-spider-orchid-sulfurous-semiochemicals-seduce-male-wasp-pollinator
#20
Björn Bohman, Ryan D Phillips, Gavin R Flematti, Russell A Barrow, Rod Peakall
One of the most intriguing natural observations is the pollination of orchids by sexual deception. Here, we identify floral semiochemicals from Caladenia (spider orchids) for the first time. We demonstrate that C. crebra, attracts its single pollinator species with a unique system of (methylthio)phenols, three of which are new natural products. Furthermore, the same compounds constitute the sex pheromone of the pollinator, the thynnine wasp Campylothynnus flavopictus, representing the first occurrence of sulfurous sex pheromones in Hymenoptera...
May 4, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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