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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356290/three-dimensional-computed-tomography-of-congenital-pulmonary-airway-malformation
#1
Hiroyuki Kubo, Koichiro Kenzaki, Yasuhide Ishikawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356286/medical-equipment-deployment-in-pediatric-emergency-prehospital-medical-units-in-japan
#2
Noriyuki Kaku, Masahiko Nitta, Takashi Muguruma, Yuichiro Hirata, Kohei Tsukahara, Emily Knaup, Nobuyuki Nosaka, Yuki Enomoto
The deployment status of pediatric emergency equipment in ambulances in Japan is unknown. To investigate the status of and issues associated with prehospital emergency medical care for pediatric patients, we conducted a descriptive epidemiological study. We carried out a Web-based survey of 767 fire defense headquarters in Japan, of which 671 responded (valid response rate, 88%). Most of the fire defense headquarters equipped all of their ambulances with oxygen masks (82%), bag-valve masks (for neonates, 83%; for children, 84%), straight laryngoscope blades (for neonates, 47%; for children 68%), blood pressure cuffs for children (91%), oximeter probes (78%), and stiff neck collars (91%); but despite the need for other equipment such as nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airways, and Magill forceps, they were insufficiently deployed...
January 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356252/white-matter-integrity-disruptions-correlate-with-cognitive-impairments-in-asthma
#3
Rongrong Bian, Yuqun Zhang, Yuan Yang, Yingying Yin, Xiaoxin Zhao, Huanxin Chen, Yonggui Yuan
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are common in asthma, which is a serious global health problem characterized by chronic airway inflammation. However, the underlying neuromechanism is still unclear. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the neuromechanism underlying cognitive impairments of asthma. We hypothesized that asthma patients exhibit altered white matter (WM) microstructures, which may contribute to their cognitive impairments. STUDY TYPE: Case-control study...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356186/the-blomia-tropicalis-allergen-blo-t-7-stimulates-innate-immune-signaling-pathways-through-tlr2
#4
Tewarit Soongrung, Karntichar Mongkorntanyatipa, Termsri Peepim, Arun Buaklin, Maxime Le Mignon, Nat Malainual, Emmanuel Nony, Alain Jacquet
BACKGROUND: Although the house dust mite species Blomia tropicalis is a leading cause of allergic diseases in tropical and subtropical regions, the identification and characterization of the allergenic proteins remains incomplete. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize a recombinant form of Blo t 7 (rBlo t 7) in terms of IgE reactivity, lipid binding activity and ability to stimulate innate immunity. METHODS: The mature Blo t 7 cDNA was cloned by PCR methods for the expression of a secreted form of the allergen in P...
January 22, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355980/branch-order-regression-for-modelling-brain-vasculature
#5
Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Sean Skwerer
PURPOSE: Many biological objects, including neuronal dendrites, blood vasculature, airways, phylogenetic trees produce tree structured data. Current methods of analysis either ignore the complex structure of trees or use distance based methods which limit the scope of multivariate modelling. METHODS: We propose a branching process model which enables analysis of both the branching structure and associated properties. Our novel parametrization preserves an important aspect of tree structure, namely its branch order...
January 22, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355593/an-approach-to-testing-undiluted-e-cigarette-aerosol-in-vitro-using-3d-reconstituted-human-airway-epithelium
#6
E Bishop, L Haswell, J Adamson, S Costigan, D Thorne, M Gaca
The data presented here show that to provide an estimate of the relative cytotoxicity and therefore potency of e-cigarettes, undiluted aerosol techniques can be used. With the emergence of electronic nicotine delivery systems, fit-for-purpose in vitro screening methods are required. Reconstituted 3D human airway epithelium, was exposed to undiluted aerosols at the air-liquid interface, using a Vitrocell VC 10. TEER, cilia beat frequency and cytotoxic responses were assessed. Using two smoking regimes (ISO and HCI) a 3R4F reference cigarette, produced IC50s of 5...
January 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355548/treating-cough-due-to-non-cf-and-cf-bronchiectasis-with-non-pharmacological-airway-clearance-chest-expert-panel-report
#7
Adam T Hill, Alan F Barker, Donald C Bolser, Paul Davenport, Belinda Ireland, Anne B Chang, Stuart B Mazzone, Lorcan McGarvey
BACKGROUND: In bronchiectasis, due to cystic fibrosis (CF) and other causes, airways clearance is one of the mainstays of management. We conducted a systematic review on airways clearance using non-pharmacological methods as recommended by international guidelines to develop recommendations or suggestions to update the 2006 CHEST guideline on cough. METHODS: The systematic search for evidence examined the question, "Is there evidence of clinically important treatment effects for non-pharmacological therapies in cough treatment for patients with bronchiectasis?"...
January 17, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355509/severe-asthma-in-primary-care-identification-and-management
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer L Trevor, Bradley E Chipps
Most patients with asthma are managed by primary care providers. Severe asthma is associated with substantial morbidity and health care resource use, and long-term sequelae of severe asthma include airway remodeling and a greater risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These consequences highlight the importance of early identification and improved management of patients with severe asthma. Although treatment guidelines can be confusing and it can be difficult to keep abreast of updates, routine assessments of lung function, frequency and severity of exacerbations, symptom control, and medication adherence in the primary care setting provide the necessary information for identifying severe asthma and determining appropriate management strategies...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355504/parp-1-inhibition-ameliorates-elastase-induced-lung-inflammation-and-emphysema-in-mice
#9
Vivek Dharwal, Amarjit S Naura
COPD is associated with high morbidity and mortality and no effective treatment is available till date. We have previously reported that PARP-1 plays an important role in the establishment of airway inflammation associated with asthma and ALI. In the present work, we have evaluated the beneficial effects of PARP-1 inhibition on COPD pathogenesis utilizing elastase induced mouse model of the disease. Our data show that PARP-1 inhibition by olaparib significantly reduced the elastase-induced recruitment of inflammatory cells particularly neutrophils in the lungs of mice when administered at dose of 5mg/kg b...
January 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355460/infantile-intrathoracic-large-airway-obstruction-in-a-setting-with-a-high-prevalence-of-tuberculosis-hiv
#10
Benjamin Wybrand Barnard, Anne-Marie Du Plessis, Pierre Goussard, Richard Denys Pitcher
Background There has been no detailed analysis of the cause of intrathoracic large airway obstruction in infants in a resource-limited environment with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Aim To define the aetiology and severity of intrathoracic large airway obstruction in infants in a tertiary South African hospital with a high prevalence of PTB and HIV. Methods A retrospective study of infants was conducted with computerised tomography (CT) evidence of intrathoracic large airway obstruction from 1 January 2011 to 31 May 2014...
January 22, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354674/differences-in-respiratory-symptoms-and-lung-structure-between-hispanic-and-non-hispanic-white-smokers-a-comparative-study
#11
Alejandro A Diaz, Farbod N Rahaghi, Tracy J Doyle, Thomas P Young, Erick S Maclean, Carlos H Martinez, Raul San José Estépar, Stefano Guerra, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Ivan O Rosas, George R Washko, David O Wilson
Background: Prior studies have demonstrated that U.S. Hispanic smokers have a lower risk of decline in lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW). This suggests there might be racial-ethnic differences in susceptibility in cigarette smoke-induced respiratory symptoms, lung parenchymal destruction, and airway and vascular disease, as well as in extra-pulmonary manifestations of COPD. Therefore, we aimed to explore respiratory symptoms, lung function, and pulmonary and extra-pulmonary structural changes in Hispanic and NHW smokers...
September 5, 2017: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354672/impact-of-heated-humidified-high-flow-air-via-nasal-cannula-on-respiratory-effort-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
Charles W Atwood, Sharon Camhi, Kathryn C Little, Colleen Paul, Hobart Schweikert, Nicholas J Macmillan, Thomas L Miller
Background: High flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) has been widely adopted for respiratory distress, and evidence suggests that purging dead space of the upper airway improves gas fractions in the lung. This study tests the hypothesis that HFNC with room air could be as effective as low flow oxygen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Thirty-two COPD patients prescribed 1 - 2 L/min of oxygen were studied. The conditions tested consisted of a control (CTRL; no therapy), then in random order HFNC and prescribed low flow oxygen (LFO)...
August 15, 2017: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354670/effect-of-roflumilast-on-airway-blood-flow-in-copd-a-pilot-study
#13
Eliana S Mendes, Patricia Rebolledo, Lilian Cadet, Johana Arana, Andreas Scmid, Adam Wanner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2017: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354485/is-forced-oscillation-technique-the-next-respiratory-function-test-of-choice-in-childhood-asthma
#14
REVIEW
Afaf Alblooshi, Alia Alkalbani, Ghaya Albadi, Hassib Narchi, Graham Hall
Respiratory diseases, especially asthma, are common in children. While spirometry contributes to asthma diagnosis and management in older children, it has a limited role in younger children whom are often unable to perform forced expiratory manoeuvre. The development of novel diagnostic methods which require minimal effort, such as forced oscillation technique (FOT) is, therefore, a welcome and promising addition. FOT involves applying external, small amplitude oscillations to the respiratory system during tidal breathing...
December 26, 2017: World Journal of Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353904/differences-in-return-of-spontaneous-circulation-in-early-vs-late-endotracheal-intubation-among-patients-in-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#15
Battu Kumar Shrestha, Apurb Sharma, Parbesh Kumar Gyawali
BACKGROUND: Common airway management strategies during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are bag- mask-valve ventilation followed by endotracheal intubation. Timing of endotracheal intubation is controversial. This study was designed to compare the effect of early vs late endotracheal intubation in terms of return of spontaneous circulation. METHODS: This is an observational retrospective study done at tertiary center for the period of two years. The study population was inpatient, adult and pediatric with witnessed cardiac arrest in whom airway management was initially done with bag-valve-mask ventilation followed by endotracheal intubation...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353903/evaluation-of-endotracheal-tube-cuff-pressure-in-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-and-postoperative-sore-throat
#16
Gajal Lakhe, Surendra Mohan Sharma
BACKGROUND: The use of nitrous oxide and carboperitoneum in laparoscopic cholecystectomy lead to increase in endotracheal tube cuff pressure. It may impair tracheal mucosal perfusion with subsequent tracheal damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cuff pressure and incidence of post-operative sore throat in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 128 patients aged 18-65 years of American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status I and II undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled and allocated alternately into two groups, Study Group (Maintenance of anesthesia with sevoflurane 1-2%, oxygen/nitrous oxide mixture; 40/60), Control Group (Maintenance of anesthesia with sevoflurane 1-2%, oxygen/air mixture; 40/60) were analysed and comapared...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353510/effects-of-passive-smoking-on-lung-function-tests-in-preschool-children-born-late-preterm-a-preventable-health-priority
#17
Ayla Gunlemez, İlkay Er, Canan Baydemir, Ayse Arisoy
OBJECTIVE: Late-preterm delivery is known to be associated with potential adverse effects on lung development. Passive smoking may result in alterations of pulmonary function in infants born late-preterm. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a noninvasive, rapid and practicable technique that can assess lung function. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of passive smoking on lung function tests in preschool children born late-preterm using IOS. METHODS: The study population consisted of a total of 139 children between 3 and 7 years of age born late-preterm who were being followed-up at our outpatient unit at the time of study period...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353289/the-new-agreement-of-the-international-riga-consensus-conference-on-nasal-airway-function-tests
#18
K Vogt, G Bachmann-Harildstad, A Lintermann, A Nechyporenko, F Peters, K D Wernecke
The report reflects an agreement based on the consensus conference of the International Standardization Committee on the Objective Assessment of the Nasal Airway in Riga, 2nd Nov. 2016. The aim of the conference was to address the existing nasal airway function tests and to take into account physical, mathematical and technical correctness as a base of international standardization as well as the requirements of the Council Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices. Rhinomanometry, acoustic rhinometry, peak nasal inspiratory flow, Odiosoft-Rhino, optical rhinometry, 24-h measurements, computational fluid dynamics, nasometry and the mirrow test were evaluated for important diagnostic criteria, which are the precision of the equipment including calibration and the software applied; validity with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, reliability with intra-individual and inter-individual reproducibility and responsiveness in clinical studies...
January 21, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352860/towards-targeting-resolution-pathways-of-airway-inflammation-in-asthma
#19
REVIEW
Cindy Barnig, Nelly Frossard, Bruce D Levy
Asthma is a chronic disorder characterized by persistent inflammation of the airways with mucosal infiltration of eosinophils, T lymphocytes, and mast cells, and release of proinflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators. The natural resolution of airway inflammation is now recognized as an active host response, with highly coordinated cellular events under the control of endogenous pro-resolving mediators that enable the restoration of tissue homeostasis. Lead members of proresolving mediators are enzymatically derived from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived E-series resolvins, and docosahexaenoic acid-derived D-series resolvins, protectins, and maresins...
January 17, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352616/assessing-advanced-airway-management-performance-in-a-national-cohort-of-emergency-medical-services-agencies
#20
Henry E Wang, John P Donnelly, Dustin Barton, Jeffrey L Jarvis
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Although often the focus of quality improvement efforts, emergency medical services (EMS) advanced airway management performance has few national comparisons, nor are there many assessments with benchmarks accounting for differences in agency volume or patient mix. We seek to assess variations in advanced airway management and conventional intubation performance in a national cohort of EMS agencies. METHODS: We used EMS data from ESO Solutions, a national EMS electronic health record system...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
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