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Seyyed M H Haddad, Sandeep S Dhaliwal, Brian W Rotenberg, Abbas Samani, Hanif M Ladak
Finite element (FE)-based biomechanical simulations of the upper airway are promising computational tools to study abnormal upper airway deformations under obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) conditions and to help guide minimally invasive surgical interventions in case of upper airway collapse. To this end, passive biomechanical properties of the upper airway tissues, especially oropharyngeal soft tissues, are indispensable. This research aimed at characterizing the linear elastic mechanical properties of the oropharyngeal soft tissues including palatine tonsil, soft palate, uvula, and tongue base...
July 3, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
C Yeow, L Greaney, C Foy, W King, B Patel
The Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficulties in tracheal intubation in adults have generated much discussion regarding Plan D: emergency front-of-neck access with a scalpel-bougie cricothyroidotomy technique. There is concern that this technique may not provide an adequate pathway for the bougie and subsequently the tracheal tube, especially in obese patients with deeper airway structures. This could lead to the formation of a false passage, trauma and failure. A novel cricothyroidotomy introducer, 8 mm wide and 170 mm long, with a sharp leading edge and guiding channel to pass a bougie into the trachea, has been designed to complement the scalpel cricothyroidotomy technique...
July 13, 2018: Anaesthesia
Huan Hsu, Hui-Chin Lai, Tsun-Jui Liu
Robot-assisted coronary artery bypass graft [robot-assisted (coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)] surgery is the latest treatment for coronary artery disease. However, the surgery extensively affects cardiac and pulmonary function, and the risk factors associated with peri-operative morbidity, including prolong mechanical ventilation (PMV), have not been fully examined. In this retrospective cohort study, a total of 382 patients who underwent robot-assisted internal mammary artery harvesting with mini-thoracotomy direct-vision bypass grafting surgery (MIDCABG) from 2005 to 2012 at our tertiary care hospital were included...
July 13, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Chloé Michaudel, Louis Fauconnier, Yvon Julé, Bernhard Ryffel
Environmental air pollutants including ozone cause severe lung injury and aggravate respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD. Here we compared the effect of ozone on respiratory epithelium injury, inflammation, hyperreactivity and airway remodeling in mice upon acute (1ppm, 1 h) and chronic exposure (1.5ppm, 2 h, twice weekly for 6 weeks). Acute ozone exposure caused respiratory epithelial disruption with protein leak and neutrophil recruitment in the broncho-alveolar space, leading to lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mathew S Eapen, Anudeep Kota, Howard Vindin, Kielan D McAlinden, Dia Xenaki, Brian G Oliver, Deepak A Deshpande, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Pawan Sharma
Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass is observed in COPD which is correlated with disease severity and negatively impact lung function. Thus, there is clear unmet clinical need for finding new therapies which can target airway remodeling and disease progression in COPD. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a ubiquitously expressed mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase  activated by various stress stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor-α, and lipopolysaccharide and is known to regulate cell proliferation...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Sara Invitto, Antonio Calcagnì, Giulia Piraino, Vincenzo Ciccarese, Michela Balconi, Marina De Tommaso, Domenico Maurizio Toraldo
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA) is characterized by snoring associated with repeated apnea and/or obstructive hypopnea. The nasal airways of OSA patients, measured via acoustic rhinometry, are significantly narrower than healthy subjects and this narrow nasal structure can reduce olfactory function. The relationship between nasal structure and olfactory function, assessed via behavioral test results, indicates that there is a high prevalence of nasal airflow problems. Based on these assumptions, the purpose of this study was to carry out an assessment of olfactory perception in OSA patients through the Chemosensory Event-Related Potentials (CSERP), investigating the N1 component and the Late Positive Component (LPC)...
July 10, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Gunjan S Aswal, Shashi K Mohanram, Chandrasekharan K Nair, Vishwanath Gurumurthy, Renu Rawat
Facial contractures caused by burns can collapse the nasal aperture and lead to airway obstruction. Management in such situations requires surgical and prosthetic intervention. Prosthetically, although a nasal conformer is the treatment of choice, even a well-fabricated nasal conformer may be esthetically unappealing and require an aid for enhanced retention. Expensive implant-aided conformers are not always a viable option. This article introduces a technique for fabricating a nasal conformer that is both esthetically appealing and cost-effective...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Basar Erdivanli, Ahmet Sen, Sule Batcik, Tolga Koyuncu, Hizir Kazdal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We compared the efficiency of the King Vision video laryngoscope and the Macintosh laryngoscope, when used by experienced anesthesiologists on adult patients with varying intubating conditions, in a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. METHODS: A total of 388 patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of I or II, scheduled for general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Each patient was intubated with both laryngoscopes successively, in a randomized order...
July 10, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Emily L Miedel, Natalie H Ragland, Robert W Engelman
Facility-wide Corynebacterium bovis eradication was established using vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) decontaminationguided by C. bovis PCR surveillance. Prior attempts limited to culling PCR-positive mice and decontaminating affectedrooms were ineffective in preventing recurrence. Because research aims often require trafficking to and use of proceduralcores, a 12-mo facility-wide C. bovis PCR surveillance of 2064 specimens was performed and documented that, despite thepresence of few clinically hyperkeratotic mice, 35% of the murine housing and use space was contaminated by C...
July 13, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Sinem Koc-Günel, Ralf Schubert, Stefan Zielen, Martin Rosewich
BACKGROUND: Sputum induction is an important noninvasive method for analyzing bronchial inflammation in patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. Most frequently, ultrasonic nebulizers are used for sputum induction, but breath-controlled nebulizers may target the small airways more efficiently. This treatment may produce a cell distribution similar to bronchoalveolar lavage (less neutrophils and more macrophages) and provide deeper insights into the underlying lung pathology...
July 13, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Sissel Kronborg-White, Claudia Ravaglia, Alessandra Dubini, Sara Piciucchi, Sara Tomassetti, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Venerino Poletti
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibroelastosis (iPPFE) is a rare lung lesion characterized by pleural and subpleural parenchymal thickening due to accumulation of fibroelastotic tissue. Only recently, a few cases with a peribronchiolar distribution of fibroelastotic tissue have been reported. These lesions are more prominent in the upper lobes. Even though high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan features are considered characteristic, a histological confirmation is suggested, mainly when the clinical setting is not clearly defined...
July 13, 2018: Respiratory Research
Diogo Sobreira-Fernandes, Laetitia Teixeira, Tiago S Lemos, Liliana Costa, Manuela Pereira, António C Costa, Paula S Couto
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, risk factors, and predictors of survival of perioperative cardiac arrests (PCAs) occurring in patients who underwent non-cardiac and non-obstetric surgery from January 2008 to May 2015 at a tertiary hospital; determine the incidence and risk factors of anesthesia-related PCA. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Operating room and postoperative recovery area. PATIENTS: Sixty-two PCA cases from an anesthesia database of 122,289 anesthetics...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
T Brett Kothe, Emily Royse, Matthew W Kemp, Haruo Usuda, Masatoshi Saito, Gabrielle C Musk, Alan H Jobe, Noah H Hillman
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is important for airway branching and lung maturation. Mechanical ventilation of preterm lambs causes increases in EGFR and EGFR ligand mRNA in the lung. Abnormal EGFR signaling may contribute to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. HYPOTHESIS: Inhibition of EGFR signaling will decrease airway epithelial cell proliferation and lung inflammation caused by mechanical ventilation in preterm, fetal sheep...
2018: PloS One
Chiao Yen Shih, Chia Ming Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jörg Thomas, Markus Weiss, Vincenzo Cannizzaro, Christian Peter Both, Alexander Robert Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, cuffed endotracheal tubes are increasingly used in pediatric anesthesia and also in pediatric intensive care. However, the smaller inner diameter of cuffed endotracheal tubes and, implicitly, the increased endotracheal tube resistance is still a matter of debate. AIMS: This in vitro study investigated work of breathing and inspiratory airway pressures in cuffed and uncuffed endotracheal tubes and the impact of pressure support ventilation and automatic tube compensation...
July 13, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
N F Majola, V Y Kong, H Mangray, V Govindasamy, G L Laing, D L Clarke
BACKGROUND: The ingestion or aspiration of foreign bodies (FBs) by children is a common problem around the world. Our centre in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, has a dedicated paediatric surgical service, and all patients with an ingested or aspirated FB are managed under the direct care of a paediatric surgeon. OBJECTIVES: To review our centre's experience with this problem by means of a retrospective audit and use the data to develop and refine appropriate local management guidelines...
February 27, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Indranil Das, Ram Narayan Das, Biswanath Paul, Bappa Mandal, Suchandra Mukherjee, Uttara Chatterjee
Context: Neonatal period is the single most hazardous period of life. The major causes of neonatal death are prematurity and respiratory distress syndrome. We report a series of neonatal autopsies in our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with special emphasis on pulmonary pathology. The spectrum of pathological changes in the lungs and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) expression was studied in detail with reference to its spatial distribution. Aims: This study aims to analyze the causes of neonatal death with special attention to pulmonary pathology along with associated histopathological changes in lungs...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Marcia A Ciccone, Marianne S Hom, Elise B Morocco, Laila I Muderspach, Koji Matsuo
•Experienced prolonged intubation after robotic hysterectomy for endometrial cancer•Risk triad: Trendelenburg position, high pneumo-pressure, and excess hydration•Recognition of the risk triad is key to avoiding airway complications in robotic surgery.•Introduction of a 5-step method to prevent airway complications in robotic surgery.
August 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Janusz R Włodarczyk, Jarosław Kużdżał
Introduction: Proximally located oesophageal cancer poses an especially difficult problem in terms of restoration of patency and the stenting procedure. Supplementary percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) may be useful in these patients. Aim: To assess the safety of the stenting procedure in the proximal oesophagus in patients with unresectable upper oesophageal cancer, performed simultaneously with PEG insertion. Material and methods: Patients with obstructing upper oesophageal tumours were scheduled for an oesophageal stenting procedure and simultaneous PEG insertion...
June 2018: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
Vladimir Zugic, Natasa Mujovic, Sanja Hromis, Jelena Jankovic, Mirjana Drvenica, Aleksandra Perovic, Ivan Kopitovic, Aleksandra Ilic, Dejan Nikolic
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish whether non-atopic patients with cough variant asthma (CVA) have different pattern of response to direct bronchoconstrictors than non-atopic patients with classic asthma (CA). METHOD: A total of 170 patients of both sexes with stable CVA and CA were screened for the study and 153 were included. Patients with proven atopy were not included and 17 patients with worsening of their condition or with verified bronchial obstruction during screening were excluded...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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