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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921430/-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Andrea Plíhalová, Kateřina Westlake, Jan Polák
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA) is a disease very frequently occurring in people with type 2 diabetes, that significantly increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In a number of studies, OSA has been identified as an independent risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Disorders of glucose homeostasis in patients with OSA are probably mediated by chronic intermittent hypoxia and/or sleep fragmentation through activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis, pro-inflammatory paths or oxidative stress...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921407/trefoil-factor-family-1-is-involved-in-airway-remodeling-of-mustard-lung
#2
Mohammad Reza Nourani, Zahra Farajpour, Ali Najafi, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
Human airway is generally destructed by inhaled factors and is the barrier to the external environment and has a crucial role in protection of the internal homeostasis of the lung. Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare that capable of producing severe chemical injuries primarily in the lungs. Trefoil factor family (TFFs) plays major roles in epithelial repair and homeostasis, particularly in the lung. This study attempted to verify the role of TFFs in airway that induced by sulfur mustard. Fifteen patients exposed to SM and 10 non-exposed subjects were enrolled in this study...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921210/tight-junctions-in-pulmonary-epithelia-during-lung-inflammation
#3
REVIEW
Oliver H Wittekindt
Inflammatory lung diseases like asthma bronchiale, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allergic airway inflammation are widespread public diseases that constitute an enormous burden to the health systems. Mainly classified as inflammatory diseases, the treatment focuses on strategies interfering with local inflammatory responses by the immune system. Inflammatory lung diseases predispose patients to severe lung failures like alveolar oedema, respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. These life-threatening syndromes are caused by increased permeability of the alveolar and airway epithelium and exudate formation...
December 5, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921186/erratum-to-obstructive-sleep-apnea-screening-and-airway-structure-characterization-during-wakefulness-using-tracheal-breathing-sounds
#4
Ahmed Elwali, Zahra Moussavi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920567/evaluation-of-bode-index-and-its-relationship-with-systemic-inflammation-mediated-by-proinflammatory-biomarkers-in-patients-with-copd
#5
Naushad Ahmad Khan, Mradul Kumar Daga, Istaq Ahmad, Govind Mawari, Suman Kumar, Naresh Kumar, Syed Akhter Husain
INTRODUCTION: BODE index, a multidimensional grading system which is based on Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea scale, and Exercise capacity, has been increasingly used for the evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many of the systemic manifestations of COPD are shown to be mediated by elevated levels of proinflammatory biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the relationship between the BODE index, its components, disease severity, and proinflammatory biomarkers like C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920092/definition-discrimination-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-central-breathing-disturbances-during-sleep
#6
Winfried Randerath, Johan Verbraecken, Stefan Andreas, Michael Arzt, Konrad E Bloch, Thomas Brack, Bertien Buyse, Wilfried De Backer, Danny Joel Eckert, Ludger Grote, Lars Hagmeyer, Jan Hedner, Poul Jennum, Maria Teresa La Rovere, Carla Miltz, Walter T McNicholas, Josep Montserrat, Matthew Naughton, Jean-Louis Pepin, Dirk Pevernagie, Bernd Sanner, Dries Testelmans, Thomy Tonia, Bart Vrijsen, Peter Wijkstra, Patrick Levy
The complexity of central breathing disturbances during sleep has become increasingly obvious. They present as central sleep apnoeas (CSAs) and hypopnoeas, periodic breathing with apnoeas, or irregular breathing in patients with cardiovascular, other internal or neurological disorders, and can emerge under positive airway pressure treatment or opioid use, or at high altitude. As yet, there is insufficient knowledge on the clinical features, pathophysiological background and consecutive algorithms for stepped-care treatment...
December 5, 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919470/spontaneous-sublingual-haematoma-in-acquired-haemophilia-case-report
#7
T Spindler, N Mc Goldrick, J McMahon, R Campbell Tait
Acquired haemophilia is a rare disease in which bleeding is more severe than in hereditary haemophilia and usually occurs in the soft tissues, the gastrointestinal tract, or the mucous membranes. There have been only a few presentations of spontaneous sublingual haematoma in acquired haemophilia, but prompt management of the airway and identification of the underlying cause was crucial in all.
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919270/delayed-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-for-air-emboli-after-open-heart-surgery-case-report-and-review-of-a-success-story
#8
Eva Niyibizi, Guillaume Elyes Kembi, Claude Lae, Rodrigue Pignel, Tornike Sologashvili
BACKGROUND: The current case describes a rare diagnosis of iatrogenic air emboli after elective cardiopulmonary bypass that was successfully treated with delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy, with good clinical evolution in spite of rare complications. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35 years old male was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for post-operative management after being placed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for an elective ventricular septal defect closure and aortic valvuloplasty...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919253/cystic-fibrosis-lung-environment-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#9
Anjali Y Bhagirath, Yanqi Li, Deepti Somayajula, Maryam Dadashi, Sara Badr, Kangmin Duan
BACKGROUND: The airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are highly complex, subject to various environmental conditions as well as a distinct microbiota. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognized as one of the most important pulmonary pathogens and the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality in CF. A multifarious interplay between the host, pathogens, microbiota, and the environment shapes the course of the disease. There have been several excellent reviews detailing CF pathology, Pseudomonas and the role of environment in CF but only a few reviews connect these entities with regards to influence on the overall course of the disease...
December 5, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919249/-the-microbiome-and-the-pathophysiology-of-asthma
#10
REVIEW
Ashley Sullivan, Eoin Hunt, John MacSharry, Desmond M Murphy
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose prevalence is increasing in the western world. Recently research has begun to focus on the role the microbiome plays in asthma pathogenesis in the hope of further understanding this respiratory disorder. Considered sterile until recently, the lungs have revealed themselves to contain a unique microbiota. A shift towards molecular methods for the quantification and sequencing of microbial DNA has revealed that the airways harbour a unique microbiota with apparent, reproducible differences present between healthy and diseased lungs...
December 5, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918754/interventions-to-improve-rates-of-successful-extubation-in-preterm-infants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Kristin N Ferguson, Calum T Roberts, Brett J Manley, Peter G Davis
Importance: Clinicians aim to extubate preterm infants as early as possible, to minimize the risks of mechanical ventilation. Extubation is often unsuccessful owing to lung disease or inadequate respiratory drive. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions to improve rates of successful extubation in preterm infants. Data Sources: Searches were undertaken in PubMed and The Cochrane Library. Study Selection: The review was conducted using the methods of the Cochrane Collaboration and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
December 5, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918385/neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-in-preterm-infants-with-established-or-evolving-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-on-high-intensity-mechanical-ventilatory-support-a-single-center-experience
#12
Young Hwa Jung, Han-Suk Kim, Juyoung Lee, Seung Han Shin, Ee-Kyung Kim, Jung-Hwan Choi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to report possible improvements in ventilator variables associated with a transition from synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation to neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia who required a high level of mechanical ventilatory support in a single center. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Neonatal ICU. PATIENTS: Twenty-nine preterm infants with a median gestational age of 25...
December 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918306/targeting-integrin-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-ameliorates-severe-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-experimental-asthma
#13
Aparna Sundaram, Chun Chen, Amin Khalifeh-Soltani, Amha Atakilit, Xin Ren, Wenli Qiu, Hyunil Jo, William DeGrado, Xiaozhu Huang, Dean Sheppard
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918221/neutrophilic-inflammation-in-asthma-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-considerations
#14
Hun Soo Chang, Tae-Hyeong Lee, Ji Ae Jun, Ae Rin Baek, Jong-Sook Park, So My Koo, Yang-Ki Kim, Ho Sung Lee, Choon-Sik Park
Neutrophilic airway inflammation represents a pathologically distinct form of asthma and frequently appears in symptomatic adulthood asthmatics. However, clinical impacts and mechanisms of the neutrophilic inflammation have not been thoroughly evaluated up to date. Areas covered: Currently, distinct clinical manifestations, triggers, and molecular mechanisms of the neutrophilic inflammation (namely Toll-like receptor, Th1, Th17, inflammasome) are under investigation in asthma. Furthermore, possible role of the neutrophilic inflammation is being investigated in respect to the airway remodeling...
December 5, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917798/examination-of-insert-ear-interaural-attenuation-ia-values-in-audiological-evaluations
#15
Nebi M Gumus, Merve Gumus, Selim Unsal, Mustafa Yuksel, Mehmet Gunduz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate Interaural Attenuation (IA) in frequency base in the insert earphones that are used in audiological assessments. METHODS: Thirty healthy subjects between 18-65 years of age (14 female and 16 male) participated in our study. Otoscopic examination was performed on all participants. Audiological evaluations were performed using the Interacoustics AC40 clinical audiometer and ER-3A insert earphones. IA value was calculated by subtracting good ear bone conduction hearing thresholds of the worst airway hearing threshold...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917628/association-between-ptpn22-ctla-4-gene-polymorphism-and-allergic-rhinitis-with-asthma-in-children
#16
Shang Hua Song, Xiao Qiang Wang, Yang Shen, Su Ling Hong, Xia Ke
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an IgE-mediated upper airway disease, and its impact on asthma has been widely recognized. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) gene and the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) gene polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with several immune-related diseases. Here we investigated the reffect of these two genes' polymorphisms on the risk of AR and asthma in Chinese Han children. A total of 106 AR patients, 112 AR with asthma patients, and 109 healthy children were enrolled in the study...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917175/nuclear-localization-of-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-1-regulates-local-immunity-in-the-lung
#17
Jana Zimmer, Michael Weitnauer, Sébastien Boutin, Günter Küblbeck, Sabrina Thiele, Patrick Walker, Felix Lasitschka, Lars Lunding, Zane Orinska, Christina Vock, Bernd Arnold, Michael Wegmann, Alexander Dalpke
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a negative feedback inhibitor of cytoplasmic Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling. SOCS1 also contains a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), yet, the in vivo importance of nuclear translocation is unknown. We generated transgenic mice containing mutated Socs1ΔNLS that fails to translocate in the cell nucleus (MGL(tg) mice). Whereas mice fully deficient for SOCS1 die within the first 3 weeks due to excessive interferon signaling and multiorgan inflammation, mice expressing only non-nuclear Socs1ΔNLS (Socs1(-/-)MGL(tg) mice) were rescued from early lethality...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916734/azithromycin-ameliorates-airway-remodeling-via-inhibiting-airway-epithelium-apoptosis
#18
Yuanqi Liu, Yue Pu, Diandian Li, Liming Zhou, Lihong Wan
AIMS: Azithromycin can benefit treating allergic airway inflammation and remodeling. In the present study, we hypothesized that azithromycin alleviated airway epithelium injury through inhibiting airway epithelium apoptosis via down regulation of caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in vivo and in vitro. MAIN METHODS: Ovalbumin induced rat asthma model and TGF-β1-induced BEAS-2B cell apoptosis model were established, respectively. In vivo experiments, airway epithelium was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) to histologically evaluate the airway inflammation and remodeling...
December 1, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916586/selaginella-uncinata-flavonoids-ameliorated-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-asthma
#19
Bing Yu, Wei Cai, Huan-Huan Zhang, Yu-Sen Zhong, Jie Fang, Wen-You Zhang, Li Mo, Lu-Chen Wang, Chen-Huan Yu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Selaginella uncinata (Desv.) Spring, known as "Cuiyuncao" is a perennial herb widely distributed in the Southeast Asian countries. In the folk medicine, the local minority commonly use it to treat cough and asthma for centuries. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was carried out to investigate the protective mechanisms of total flavonoids from S. uncinata (SUF) on airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokine release and bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) signaling with emphasis on inflammatory responses in a rat model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916272/regulation-and-function-of-anaphylatoxins-and-their-receptors-in-allergic-asthma
#20
Yves Laumonnier, Anna V Wiese, Julia Figge, Christian Karsten
Allergic asthma is a disease of the airways driven by maladaptive T helper 2 (Th2) and Th17 immune response against harmless, airborne substances. The hallmarks of this disease are airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation and mucus overproduction. Distinct dendric cell (DC) subsets together with airway epithelial and pulmonary vascular endothelial cells play critical roles in allergen sensing and in driving T cell differentiation towards Th2 and Th17 effector or regulatory T cells (Treg)...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Immunology
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