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Gregory W Stull, Melanie Schori, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Our current understanding of flowering plant phylogeny provides an excellent framework for exploring various aspects of character evolution through comparative analyses. However, attempts to synthesize this phylogenetic framework with extensive morphological data sets have been surprisingly rare. Here, we explore character evolution in Asteridae (asterids), a major angiosperm clade, using an extensive morphological data set and a well-resolved phylogeny. METHODS: We scored 15 phenotypic characters (spanning chemistry, vegetative anatomy, and floral, fruit, and seed features) across 248 species for ancestral state reconstruction using a phylogenetic framework based on 73 plastid genes and the same 248 species...
April 14, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Zuzana Grösslová, Aleš Vaněk, Vendula Oborná, Martin Mihaljevič, Vojtěch Ettler, Jakub Trubač, Petr Drahota, Vít Penížek, Lenka Pavlů, Ondra Sracek, Bohdan Kříbek, Andreas Voegelin, Jörg Göttlicher, Ondřej Drábek, Václav Tejnecký, Jakub Houška, Benjamin Mapani, Tereza Zádorová
We studied arid desert soils from Namibia (Rosh Pinah) that were contaminated with up to 7 mg kg-1 of thallium (Tl) via dust emitted from a local flotation tailing dam. Chemical extractions of waste and soil materials indicated that most of the Tl is strongly bound, in accordance with X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy data that point to the predominant association of Tl with metal sulfides and phyllosilicates. The isotope fractionation factor ε205 Tl of the soil samples (from -0.4 to +3...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Dong Li, Yi Ran, Lin Chen, Qin Cao, Zhidong Li, Xiaofeng Liu
Effective process monitoring and instability diagnosis are important for stable anaerobic digestion (AD) of vegetable waste (VW). In order to evaluate the performance of thermophilic digestion of VW, to make early diagnosis for instability after organic overload, and to reveal the dynamics of microbial community under different running states, thermophilic AD of VW was carried out under improved organic loading rates (OLR) of 0.5-2.5 g volatile solid (VS)/(L ∙ d) in this study. Gaseous parameters including volumetric methane production rate (VMPR), CH4 , CO2 , and H2 concentrations, and liquid parameters including pH, oxidation-reduction potential, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and total alkalinity (TA), bicarbonate alkalinity (BA), intermediate alkalinity (IA), and ammonia, were monitored...
April 10, 2018: Water Research
Ashutosh K Pandey, Annesha Ghosh, Madhoolika Agrawal, S B Agrawal
Tropospheric ozone (O3 ) is a phytotoxic air pollutant causing a substantial damage to plants and agriculture worldwide. Plant productivity is affected by several environmental factors, which interact with each other. Studies related to interactions involving O3 and different levels of nitrogen (N) are still rare and elusive. In the present study we grew two wheat cultivars (HD2967 and Sonalika) in open top chambers (OTC) under ambient (AO) and elevated O3 (EO) (ambient + 20 ppb O3 ) and provided two levels of N fertilization; (a) recommended nitrogen (RN), (b) 1...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Paola García-Huertas, Francisco Olmo, Manuel Sánchez-Moreno, Jorge Dominguez, Rachid Chahboun, Omar Triana-Chávez
Piperaceae species are abundant in the tropics and are important components of secondary vegetation. Many of these plants have received considerable attention due to their wide range of biological activities. Here, the trypanocidal activity of extracts and fractions with different polarities obtained from Colombian Piper jericoense plant was evaluated. A furofuran lignan, (1S,3aS,4S,6aS)-1-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-(3″,4″-methylendioxyphenyl)hexahydrofuro[3,4-c]furan, (1), was isolated from Colombian Piper jericoense leaves ethyl acetate extract...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Stephanie Bell Jilcott Pitts, Qiang Wu, Jared T McGuirt, Patricia A Sharpe, Ann P Rafferty
OBJECTIVE: To examine (1) the association of a new supermarket opening with dietary intake and perceptions of healthy food availability, and (2) associations of distance to the primary food store and mean prices of fruits, vegetables, and sugary beverages with levels of consumption of these foods and body mass index in a low-income, southeastern community. METHODS: The researchers used cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire data and supermarket audit data collected in the supermarket community and comparison community before (2015) and after (2016) the supermarket opening...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Valeria De Laurentiis, Sara Corrado, Serenella Sala
According to national studies conducted in EU countries, fresh fruit and vegetables contribute to almost 50% of the food waste generated by households. This study presents an estimation of this waste flow, differentiating between unavoidable and avoidable waste. The calculation of these two flows serves different purposes. The first (21.1 kg per person per year) provides a measure of the amount of household waste intrinsically linked to the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, and which would still be generated even in a zero-avoidable waste future scenario...
April 11, 2018: Waste Management
Sulekha Adhikary, Dharmendra Choudhary, Naseer Ahmad, Anirudha Karvande, Avinash Kumar, Venkatesh Teja Banala, Prabhat Ranjan Mishra, Ritu Trivedi
OBJECTIVE: Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, has been reported to reverse osteopenic condition in ovariectomized rats. Because kaempferol is endowed with osteogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine whether it has a beneficial effect on glucocorticoid (GC)-induced bone loss. METHODS: Adult female rats were divided into four groups as control (vehicle; distilled water), methylprednisolone (MP; 5 mg•kg•d, subcutaneously), MP + kaempferol (5 mg•kg•d, oral), and MP + human parathyroid 1-34 (30 µg/kg, 5 times/wk, subcutaneously) and treated for 4 wk...
February 13, 2018: Nutrition
Magaly Aceves-Martins, Ross Whitehead, Jo Inchley, Montse Giralt, Candace Currie, Rosa Solà
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present manuscript are to analyse self-reported data on weight, including the missing data, from the 2014 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study, and to investigate whether behavioural factors related with overweight and obesity, namely dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, are associated with weight non-response. RESEARCH METHODS & PROCEDURES: 10839 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds participated in the cross-national 2014 Scottish HBSC Study...
February 12, 2018: Nutrition
Xiuzhen Qiu, Xian-Yan Xu, Yong Liang, Huishi Guo
A new route to synthesize a covalent interaction-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) material for 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) inside the nanopores of anodic alumina oxide (AAO) is presented. A series of adsorption experiments showed MIP had good extraction capacity and selectivity for 3-MCPD. In order to evaluate the usability of the MIP nanotubes membrane, a method combining AAO@MIP membrane extraction with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection was developed for determination of chloropropanols...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Chao Li, Guangping Zhang, Shangquan Wu, Qingchuan Zhang
Profenofos, a highly poisonous organophosphorus pesticide, has been widely used in agricultural production. These pesticide residues have seriously influenced food security and threatened human health, and new methods with high sensitivity are greatly needed to detect profenofos. Here, we developed an aptamer-based microcantilever-array sensor operated in stress mode to detect profenofos, with advantages of being a label-free, highly sensitive, one-step immobilization method capable of quantitative and real-time detection...
August 22, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Wei Chen, Hui Li, Enke Hou, Shengquan Wang, Guirong Wang, Mahdi Panahi, Tao Li, Tao Peng, Chen Guo, Chao Niu, Lele Xiao, Jiale Wang, Xiaoshen Xie, Baharin Bin Ahmad
The aim of the current study was to produce groundwater spring potential maps using novel ensemble weights-of-evidence (WoE) with logistic regression (LR) and functional tree (FT) models. First, a total of 66 springs were identified by field surveys, out of which 70% of the spring locations were used for training the models and 30% of the spring locations were employed for the validation process. Second, a total of 14 affecting factors including aspect, altitude, slope, plan curvature, profile curvature, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), sediment transport index (STI), lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land use, soil, distance to roads, and distance to streams was used to analyze the spatial relationship between these affecting factors and spring occurrences...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Bo Wen, Lei Li, Yu Duan, Yanyuan Zhang, Jiazhi Shen, Min Xia, Yuhua Wang, Wanping Fang, Xujun Zhu
Excessive accumulation of heavy metals in tea has certain health risk to the consumers. To discuss the spatial relationship between heavy metals in tea leaves and soil in a county scale, 74 samples of tea leaves and corresponding subsoil (15-30 cm) were collected in the tea plantations of Lishui, Nanjing, China. The total Zn, Ni, Mn, Cr, Pb and Cu in both tea leaves and soil samples, as well as pH value in soil were analyzed. The results of regression showed that the Mn and Cr in tea leaves were increased when the Mn and Cr in soil were at high levels, and higher pH decreased Zn, Ni, Mn and Cu contents in tea leaves...
April 6, 2018: Chemosphere
J A Acosta, A Abbaspour, G R Martínez, S Martínez-Martínez, R Zornoza, M Gabarrón, A Faz
Mine tailings have adverse chemical and physical conditions, including high concentrations of metals and salts, low organic matter content, and unbalanced rates of nutrients which limit the development of vegetation. A large scale field experiment was conducted to reclaim a tailing pond by triggering the growth of native species by spontaneous colonization by tilling (TL) the tailing pond surface and using marble waste (CaCO3 ; MW), pig slurry (PS) and their combination (MW + PS) as soil amendments. Soil physicochemical properties and water and DTPA extractable metal concentrations of bulk and rhizosphere soils were analyzed after five year from the application of the treatments...
April 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Mohamed A El Mubarak, Charikleia Danika, Nikolaos S Vlachos, Konstantinos Farsalinos, Konstantinos Poulas, Gregory Sivolapenko
Aldehydes are produced in e-cigarette aerosols, as a result of the thermal decomposition of vegetable glycerin, propylene glycerol and flavorings in the atomizer. These aldehydes were collected with derivatization into 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine using impinger trapping. A new methodology for simultaneous quantitative analysis of aldehydes in base liquids was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Jupiter Proteo 90A column, with the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile, at a flow rate of 0...
April 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
M Dolores Paredes, Paola Romecín, Noemí M Atucha, Francisco O'Valle, Julián Castillo, M Clara Ortiz, Joaquín García-Estañ
BACKGROUND: we have evaluated the antihypertensive effect of several flavonoid extracts in a rat model of arterial hypertension caused by chronic administration (6 weeks) of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, L-NAME. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats received L-NAME alone or L-NAME plus flavonoid-rich vegetal extracts (Lemon, Grapefruit + Bitter Orange, and Cocoa) or purified flavonoids (Apigenin and Diosmin) for 6 weeks. RESULTS: L-NAME treatment resulted in a marked elevation of blood pressure, and treatment with Apigenin, Lemon Extract, and Grapefruit + Bitter Orange extracts significantly reduced the elevated blood pressure of these animals...
April 13, 2018: Nutrients
Kate Gawlik, Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk, Alai Tan, Megan Amaya
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationships between the cardiovascular health, lifestyle behaviors, and lifestyle beliefs among college-age students. PARTICIPANTS: 729 college-aged students participated between October 2016 and April 2017. METHODS: Heart Checks, consisting of a cross-sectional survey and biometric screening, were conducted on a large Midwestern university campus. RESULTS: A small proportion of students (24...
April 13, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Narayan Paudyal, Hang Pan, Xiayi Liao, Xian Zhang, Xiaoliang Li, Weihuan Fang, Min Yue
Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in food commodities in China have been reported in numerous publications over time. However, the results are scattered and varied. To calculate a robust point estimate with a higher statistical power, we applied meta-analytic approach for investigating the prevalence of common foodborne pathogens in major food items in China. Data, on prevalence of bacteria in various food commodities were extracted and analyzed from 361 (132 English and 229 Chinese) publications. Prevalence of eight most frequently reported pathogens on six broad food categories was used for pooled and subgroup meta-analysis by DerSimonian-Laird method in random-effects model...
April 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Benjamin Chapman, Chris Gunter
Foodborne disease causes an estimated 48 million illnesses and 3,000 deaths annually (Scallan E, et al., Emerg Infect Dis 17:7-15, 2011), with U.S. economic costs estimated at $152 billion to $1.4 trillion annually (Roberts T, Am J Agric Econ 89:1183-1188, 2007; Scharff RL,, 2010). An increasing number of these illnesses are associated with fresh fruits and vegetables. An analysis of outbreaks from 1990 to 2003 found that 12% of outbreaks and 20% of outbreak-related illnesses were associated with produce (Klein S, Smith DeWaal CS, Center for Science in the Public Interest, https://cspinet...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Emily A Rue, Michael D Rush, Richard B van Breemen
Procyanidins are polyphenols abundant in dietary fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, and grains with a variety of chemopreventive biological effects. Rapid structure determination of these compounds is needed, notably for the more complex polymeric procyanidins. We review the recent developments in the structure elucidation of procyanidins with a focus on mass spectrometric approaches, especially liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) MS/MS...
February 2018: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
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