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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054061/microbial-characteristics-analysis-and-kinetic-studies-on-substrate-composition-to-methane-after-microbial-and-nutritional-regulation-of-fruit-and-vegetable-wastes-anaerobic-digestion
#1
Chunhui Zhao, Hui Mu, Yuxiao Zhao, Liguo Wang, Bin Zuo
This study firstly evaluated the microbial role when choosing the acclimated anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) and waste activated sludge (WAS) as microbial and nutritional regulators to improve the biomethanation of fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW). Results showed that the enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and Firmicutes and Spirochaeta in the AGS were responsible for the enhanced methane yield. A synthetic waste representing the mixture of WAS and FVW was then used to investigate the influences of different substrate composition on methane generations...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054058/study-on-improving-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-cow-manure-and-corn-straw-by-fruit-and-vegetable-waste-methane-production-and-microbial-community-in-cstr-process
#2
Xuemei Wang, Zifu Li, Xue Bai, Xiaoqin Zhou, Sikun Cheng, Ruiling Gao, Jiachen Sun
Based on continuous anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure with available carbon slowly released corn straw, the effect of adding available carbon quickly released fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was explored, meanwhile microbial community variation was studied in this study. When the FVW added was 5% and 1%, the methane production of the cow manure and corn straw was improved, and the start-up process was shortened. With higher proportion of FVW to 5%, the performance was superior with a mean methane yield increase of 22...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053945/tree-uptake-of-excess-nutrients-and-herbicides-in-a-maize-olive-tree-cultivation-system
#3
George Pavlidis, Vassilios A Tsihrintzis, Helen Karasali, Dimitrios Alexakis
Due to the extent of non-point source agricultural pollution, protective measures to control agrochemicals from entering aquatic systems are necessary. Measures may include, among others, vegetated buffer strips (VFS), no spray buffer zones, alley crops and agroforestry systems (AFS). The scope of the present work is to examine the pollution abatement potential of a maize-olive (MO) AFS. The efficiency of a combined MO trees system in reducing nutrients and herbicides is tested through soil monitoring in an experimental plot, located in Koropi, Eastern Attica, Greece, in the period May 2015 to November 2015...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053827/comparative-evaluation-of-texture-wheat-ingredients-and-soy-proteins-in-the-quality-and-acceptability-of-emulsified-chicken-nuggets
#4
M Yeater, G Casco, R K Miller, C Z Alvarado
Chicken nuggets are commonly made with varying levels of textured vegetable proteins, such as soy and wheat, for their ability to bind water and their meat like conformation. This project compared textured wheat proteins and soy proteins at 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% in emulsified chicken nuggets. A total of 3,024 chicken nuggets were evaluated in replications for batter breader pickup (%), par fry yield (%), cook loss (%), L*, a*, b* color value, texture profile analysis, and sensory analysis. The analysis was conducted for all 4 concentrations of wheat and soy treatments then compared to each other and an all white meat chicken nugget control...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053738/neotropical-peatland-methane-emissions-along-a-vegetation-and-biogeochemical-gradient
#5
R Scott Winton, Neal Flanagan, Curtis J Richardson
Tropical wetlands are thought to be the most important source of interannual variability in atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations, yet sparse data prevents them from being incorporated into Earth system models. This problem is particularly pronounced in the neotropics where bottom-up models based on water table depth are incongruent with top-down inversion models suggesting unaccounted sinks or sources of CH4. The newly documented vast areas of peatlands in the Amazon basin may account for an important unrecognized CH4 source, but the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of CH4 dynamics from these systems remain poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053575/the-impact-of-a-weight-loss-intervention-on-diet-quality-and-eating-behaviours-in-people-with-obesity-and-copd
#6
Rebecca F McLoughlin, Vanessa M McDonald, Peter G Gibson, Hayley A Scott, Michael J Hensley, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Lisa G Wood
There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and COPD, using a low-calorie diet coupled with a partial meal replacement plan and resistance exercise training, which resulted in a 6.4% reduction in weight while maintaining skeletal muscle mass and improving health status...
October 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053349/essential-metal-and-metalloid-elements-in-the-philippi-horticultural-area-and-their-uptake-into-selected-vegetable-crops
#7
Marÿke Malan, Francuois Müller, Lincoln Raitt, Lilburne Cyster, Luc Brendonck
This study evaluated Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Se, Sn and V status in the soils of the PHA, as well as the vegetables produced on these soils. We also determined the agronomic sources of these elements to the soils in the PHA. Farmyard manures applied as fertilizer amendments to the soils in the PHA were found to be the major agronomic sources of the metal and metalloid elements. These elements were however, retained in significantly higher concentrations in the soils compared to the concentrations found in the edible portions of the vegetable crops collected...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053340/the-beneficial-role-of-potassium-in-cd-induced-stress-alleviation-and-growth-improvement-in-gladiolus-grandiflora-l
#8
Nasim Ahmad Yasin, Malik Muhammad Zaheer, Waheed Ullah Khan, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Aqeel Ahmad, Aamir Ali, Waheed Akram
Heavy metal contaminated agricultural soils are one of the most important constraints for successful cultivation of crops. The current research was conducted to evaluate the role of potassium (K) on plant growth and amelioration of cadmium (Cd) stress in Gladiolus grandiflora under greenhouse conditions. G. grandiflora corms were sown in media contaminated with 0 (C), 50 (Cd50) and 100 (Cd100) mg Cd kg(-1) soil. The plants growing in Cd-contaminated media exhibited reduced gas exchange attributes, chlorophyll (Chl) contents, vegetative and reproductive growth as compared to control...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053190/quantitative-mesophyll-parameters-rather-than-whole-leaf-traits-predict-response-of-c3-steppe-plants-to-aridity
#9
Larissa A Ivanova, Polina K Yudina, Dina A Ronzhina, Leonid A Ivanov, Norbert Hölzel
We studied the impact of aridity on leaf and mesophyll traits in dominant and very abundant plant species of Eurasian steppe plant communities. We covered a 500-km latitudinal gradient across three vegetation zones in the Volga region of southern European Russia. Whole-leaf traits, volumetric fractions of leaf tissues, quantitative parameters of photosynthetic cells and chloroplasts, and chlorophyll, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents were analyzed and related to plant functional type (PFT), type of mesophyll anatomy, phylogeny and climate aridity...
October 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053145/geometagenomics-illuminates-the-impact-of-agriculture-on-the-distribution-and-prevalence-of-plant-viruses-at-the-ecosystem-scale
#10
Pauline Bernardo, Tristan Charles-Dominique, Mohamed Barakat, Philippe Ortet, Emmanuel Fernandez, Denis Filloux, Penelope Hartnady, Tony A Rebelo, Stephen R Cousins, François Mesleard, Damien Cohez, Nicole Yavercovski, Arvind Varsani, Gordon W Harkins, Michel Peterschmitt, Carolyn M Malmstrom, Darren P Martin, Philippe Roumagnac
Disease emergence events regularly result from human activities such as agriculture, which frequently brings large populations of genetically uniform hosts into contact with potential pathogens. Although viruses cause nearly 50% of emerging plant diseases, there is little systematic information about virus distribution across agro-ecological interfaces and large gaps in understanding of virus diversity in nature. Here we applied a novel landscape-scale geometagenomics approach to examine relationships between agricultural land use and distributions of plant-associated viruses in two Mediterranean-climate biodiversity hotspots (Western Cape region of South Africa and Rhône river delta region of France)...
October 20, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052695/alternating-horner-syndrome-with-vegetative-alterna-and-spastic-quadraparesis-after-bacterial-meningitis
#11
Adrian Budhram, Mary Feng, Rookaya Mather, Donald H Lee, Dwight E Moulin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052182/profiling-developmentally-and-environmentally-controlled-chromatin-reprogramming
#12
Clara Bourbousse, Moussa Benhamed, Fredy Barneche
Dynamic reshuffling of the chromatin landscape is a recurrent theme orchestrated in many, if not all, plant developmental transitions and adaptive responses. Spatiotemporal variations of the chromatin properties on regulatory genes and on structural genomic elements trigger the establishment of distinct transcriptional contexts, which in some instances can epigenetically be inherited. Studies on plant cell plasticity during the differentiation of stem cells, including gametogenesis, or the specialization of vegetative cells in various organs, as well as the investigation of allele-specific gene regulation have long been impaired by technical challenges in generating specific chromatin profiles in complex or hardly accessible cell populations...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052149/rare-earth-elements-in-human-colostrum-milk
#13
Barbara Poniedziałek, Paweł Rzymski, Małgorzata Pięt, Przemysław Niedzielski, Mirosław Mleczek, Maciej Wilczak, Piotr Rzymski
Rare-earth elements (REEs) are used in a growing number of applications, and their release to environment has increased over the decades. Knowledge of REEs in human milk and factors that could possibly influence their concentration is scarce. This study evaluated the concentrations of 16 REEs (Ce, Eu, Er, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sc, Sm, Dy, Ho, Lu, Tb, Tm, Y, and Yb) in human colostrum milk collected from Polish women (n = 100) with the ICP-OES technique. The concentrations (mean ± SD) of Pr (41.9 ± 13.2 μg L(-1)), Nd (11...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052112/divergences-in-learning-and-memory-among-wild-zebrafish-do-sex-and-body-size-play-a-role
#14
Tamal Roy, Anuradha Bhat
Given its diverse ecological distribution, zebrafish has great potential for investigations on the effect of habitat characteristics on cognition. Studies were conducted on four wild-caught zebrafish populations to understand the role of native habitat, sex, and body size in determining learning through a novel task associated with a food reward. The habitat variables, namely, the relative abundances of zebrafish and predatory fish and the substrate and vegetation diversity, were quantified during fish sampling...
October 19, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052101/effects-of-hydraulic-soil-properties-on-vegetation-pattern-formation-in-sloping-landscapes
#15
Gerardo Severino, Francesco Giannino, Fabrizio Cartení, Stefano Mazzoleni, Daniel M Tartakovsky
Current models of vegetation pattern formation rely on a system of weakly nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations that are coupled by their source terms. While these equations, which are used to describe a spatiotemporal planar evolution of biomass and soil water, qualitatively capture the emergence of various types of vegetation patterns in arid environments, they are phenomenological and have a limited predictive power. We ameliorate these limitations by deriving the vertically averaged Richards' equation to describe flow (as opposed to "diffusion") of water in partially saturated soils...
October 19, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052079/contemporary-changes-to-herding-systems-in-china-and-effects-on-pasture-quality-a-case-study-in-gansu-province-2000-2012
#16
Gregory Veeck, Zhou Li, Fawen Yu, Charles Emerson
Post-2000 efforts to protect China's pastoral areas are distinct from earlier efforts in that funding for the most recent round of policies and programs is commensurate with the task. Even with appropriate funding, however, effective methods of mitigating pasture degradation are widely disputed. The most controversial of the current policies include herding family resettlement, pasture fallow programs (herding "bans"), and the promotion of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Ideally, the policies are intended to protect grassland ecological systems while assuring acceptable revenues to affected families and regions...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052047/an-alternative-approach-for-estimating-above-ground-biomass-using-resourcesat-2-satellite-data-and-artificial-neural-network-in-bundelkhand-region-of-india
#17
Dibyendu Deb, J P Singh, Shovik Deb, Debajit Datta, Arunava Ghosh, R S Chaurasia
Determination of above ground biomass (AGB) of any forest is a longstanding scientific endeavor, which helps to estimate net primary productivity, carbon stock and other biophysical parameters of that forest. With advancement of geospatial technology in last few decades, AGB estimation now can be done using space-borne and airborne remotely sensed data. It is a well-established, time saving and cost effective technique with high precision and is frequently applied by the scientific community. It involves development of allometric equations based on correlations of ground-based forest biomass measurements with vegetation indices derived from remotely sensed data...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051769/osgif1-positively-regulates-the-sizes-of-stems-leaves-and-grains-in-rice
#18
Zhongshan He, Jing Zeng, Yun Ren, Dan Chen, Wenjie Li, Fengyan Gao, Ye Cao, Tao Luo, Guoqiang Yuan, Xianghong Wu, Yueyang Liang, Qiming Deng, Shiquan Wang, Aiping Zheng, Jun Zhu, Huainian Liu, Lingxia Wang, Ping Li, Shuangcheng Li
Growth-regulating factor (GRF) interacting factors (GIFs) are involved in several developmental processes in Arabidopsis. We previously showed that upregulation of OsGIF1 expression improves rice grain size. However, whether OsGIF1 is involved in other developmental processes remains unclear. Here, we report pleiotropic effects of OsGIF1 on rice organ size regulation. Overexpression and functional knock-out via a CRISPR/Cas9 strategy revealed that OsGIF1 not only positively regulates the sizes of rice leaf, stem, and grain but also influences rice reproduction...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051656/antimicrobial-resistance-in-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-from-ready-to-eat-foods
#19
Cíntia Matos Lima, Ingrid Evelyn Gomes Lima Souza, Taila Dos Santos Alves, Clícia Capibaribe Leite, Norma Suely Evangelista-Barreto, Rogeria Comastri de Castro Almeida
Certain subgroups of Escherichia coli have congenital or acquired virulence properties that allow them to cause a wide spectrum of disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of diarrheagenic E. coli strains in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods produced in institutional, commercial and hotel restaurants in Salvador, Brazil. The presence of virulent isolates and antimicrobial resistance were evaluated. Four hundred forty-six samples were collected and grouped into cereals and vegetables, meat-based preparations, cooked salads, raw salads, garnishes, soups and sauces, desserts and juices...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051612/the-orbiting-carbon-observatory-oco-2-tracks-2-3-peta-gram-increase-in-carbon-release-to-the-atmosphere-during-the-2014-2016-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#20
Prabir K Patra, David Crisp, Johannes W Kaiser, Debra Wunch, Tazu Saeki, Kazuhito Ichii, Takashi Sekiya, Paul O Wennberg, Dietrich G Feist, David F Pollard, David W T Griffith, Voltaire A Velazco, M De Maziere, Mahesh K Sha, Coleen Roehl, Abhishek Chatterjee, Kentaro Ishijima
The powerful El Niño event of 2015-2016 - the third most intense since the 1950s - has exerted a large impact on the Earth's natural climate system. The column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction (XCO2) observations from satellites and ground-based networks are analyzed together with in situ observations for the period of September 2014 to October 2016. From the differences between satellite (OCO-2) observations and simulations using an atmospheric chemistry-transport model, we estimate that, relative to the mean annual fluxes for 2014, the most recent El Niño has contributed to an excess CO2 emission from the Earth's surface (land + ocean) to the atmosphere in the range of 2...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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