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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886809/small-mammal-utilization-by-middle-stone-age-humans-at-die-kelders-cave-1-and-pinnacle-point-site-5-6-western-cape-province-south-africa
#1
Aaron Armstrong
Reported here are the results of a taphonomic analysis of the small mammals (between 0.75 kg and 4.5 kg adult body weight) and size 1 bovids (≤20 kg adult body weight) from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites of Die Kelders Cave 1 (DK1) and Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 (PP5-6), Western Cape Province, South Africa. This study provides a comprehensive taphonomic analysis of MSA small mammals with a focus on discerning the role of humans in their accumulation and the implications for human behavioral adaptations...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863375/h2o2-treatment-or-serum-deprivation-induces-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-naked-mole-rat-skin-fibroblasts-by-inhibiting-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#2
Shanmin Zhao, Li Li, Shiyong Wang, Chenlin Yu, Bang Xiao, Lifang Lin, Wei Cong, Jishuai Cheng, Wenjing Yang, Wei Sun, Shufang Cui
Naked mole-rats (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) display extreme longevity and resistance to cancer. Here, we examined whether autophagy contributes to the longevity of NMRs by assessing the effects of the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002 and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) on autophagy and apoptosis in NMR skin fibroblasts. Serum starvation, H2O2 treatment, and LY294002 treatment all increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and numbers of double-membraned autophagosomes and autophagic vacuoles, and decreased levels of p70S6K, p-AktSer473, and p-AktThr308...
November 12, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768578/a-prospective-observational-study-to-assess-the-use-of-thermography-to-predict-progression-of-discolored-intact-skin-to-necrosis-among-patients-in-skilled-nursing-facilities
#3
Jill Cox, Loretta Kaes, Miguel Martinez, Daniel Moles
Skin temperature may help prospectively determine whether an area of skin discoloration will evolve into necrosis. A prospective, observational study was conducted in 7 skilled nursing facilities to determine if skin temperature measured using infrared thermography could predict the progression of discolored intact skin (blanchable erythema, Stage 1 pressure ulcer, or sus- pected deep tissue injury [sDTI]) to necrosis and to evaluate if nurses could effectively integrate thermography into the clinical setting...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757237/coping-with-heat-behavioural-and-physiological-responses-of-savanna-elephants-in-their-natural-habitat
#4
Michael A Mole, Shaun Rodrigues DÁraujo, Rudi J van Aarde, Duncan Mitchell, Andrea Fuller
Most of southern Africa's elephants inhabit environments where environmental temperatures exceed body temperature, but we do not know how elephants respond to such environments. We evaluated the relationships between apparent thermoregulatory behaviour and environmental, skin and core temperatures for tame savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) that were free-ranging in the hot parts of the day, in their natural environment. Environmental temperature dictated elephant behaviour within a day, with potential consequences for fine-scale habitat selection, space use and foraging...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748606/ph-sensitive-nanomicelles-for-high-efficiency-sirna-delivery-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-an-insight-into-the-design-of-polycations-with-robust-cytosolic-release
#5
Junhui Zhou, Yidi Wu, Changrong Wang, Qiang Cheng, Shangcong Han, Xiaoxia Wang, Jianhua Zhang, Liandong Deng, Deyao Zhao, Lili Du, Huiqing Cao, Zicai Liang, Yuanyu Huang, Anjie Dong
The extremely low efficient cytosolic release of the internalized siRNA has emerged recently as a central issue for siRNA delivery, while there is a lack of guidelines to facilitate the cytosolic release of internalized siRNA. To address these concerns, we studied the contribution of the pH-sensitive inner core on handling the cytosolic release of siRNA delivered by a series of PG-P(DPAx-co-DMAEMAy)-PCB amphiphilic polycation nanomicelles (GDDC-Ms) with extremely low internalization (<1/4 of lipofactamine 2000 (Lipo2000))...
October 17, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689254/doctors-recognition-and-management-of-melanoma-patients-risk-an-australian-population-based-study
#6
C M Madronio, B K Armstrong, C G Watts, C Goumas, R L Morton, A Curtin, S W Menzies, G J Mann, J F Thompson, A E Cust
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend that health professionals identify and manage individuals at high risk of developing melanoma, but there is limited population-based evidence demonstrating real-world practices. OBJECTIVE: A population-based, observational study was conducted in the state of New South Wales, Australia to determine doctors' knowledge of melanoma patients' risk and to identify factors associated with better identification and clinical management. METHODS: Data were analysed for 1889 patients with invasive, localised melanoma in the Melanoma Patterns of Care study...
December 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676207/immunohistochemical-localization-of-androgen-receptors-in-female-mole-rat-spalax-leucodon-tissues
#7
F M Gur, S Timurkaan
Androgens exert their effects through androgen receptors (AR) in tissues. We investigated the distribution of AR in female mole rat tissues. Tissues were excised, fixed with 10% formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections were stained after microwave antigen retrieval for immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining of AR immunostaining was detected in the nucleus or cytoplasm of the cells in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, anterior pituitary, lung, liver, uterus and skin. Granulosa and some thecal cells in the ovary, cardiac muscle cells and adipose cells exhibited a nuclear reaction for AR...
October 2016: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646736/nevi-and-pregnancy
#8
REVIEW
Amy Kalowitz Bieber, Kathryn J Martires, Marcia S Driscoll, Jane M Grant-Kels, Miriam Keltz Pomeranz, Jennifer A Stein
Changes in the moles of pregnant women are frequently attributed to pregnancy, but recent studies suggest that pregnancy does not induce significant physiologic changes in nevi. It is common for nevi on the breasts and abdomen to grow with normal skin expansion, but studies that have examined melanocytic nevi on the backs or lower extremities have found no significant changes in size during pregnancy. Several studies have also investigated the belief that moles darken during pregnancy and have found insufficient evidence to support this idea...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606221/does-hearing-about-cancer-influence-stimulus-control-an-exploratory-study-of-verbal-modulation-of-stimulus-generalization
#9
Thomas S Critchfield, Derek D Reed
Participants first became familiar with an image showing moderate symptoms of the skin cancer melanoma. In a generalization test, they indicated whether images showing more and less pronounced symptoms were "like the original." Some groups (cancer context) were told that the images depicted melanoma and that the disease is deadly unless detected early. Control groups were not told what the images depicted. For control groups, generalization gradients were fairly typical of what is normally reported in the generalization literature, but for cancer context groups, gradients were shifted such that highly symptomatic moles were identified as "like the original" more than normal and subtly symptomatic ones were endorsed less than normal...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517357/melanocytic-nevi-in-children-a-review
#10
Rebecca Levy, Irene Lara-Corrales
Common moles on the skin, known scientifically as melanocytic nevi, are seen frequently in the pediatric population. They are broadly grouped into two groups: congenital (generally present at birth or in infancy) or acquired. Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are classified based on size and morphologic features. Neurocutaneous melanosis and melanoma represent two important complications, with overall risk affected by nevus size, location, appearance, and number of satellite lesions. Regular lifelong skin surveillance is required for high-risk CMN...
August 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382567/computer-aided-diagnosis-of-micro-malignant-melanoma-lesions-applying-support-vector-machines
#11
Joanna Jaworek-Korjakowska
Background. One of the fatal disorders causing death is malignant melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. The aim of the modern dermatology is the early detection of skin cancer, which usually results in reducing the mortality rate and less extensive treatment. This paper presents a study on classification of melanoma in the early stage of development using SVMs as a useful technique for data classification. Method. In this paper an automatic algorithm for the classification of melanomas in their early stage, with a diameter under 5 mm, has been presented...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337542/visual-exemplification-and-skin-cancer-the-utility-of-exemplars-in-promoting-skin-self-exams-and-atypical-nevi-identification
#12
Andy J King
The present article reports an experiment investigating untested propositions of exemplification theory in the context of messages promoting early melanoma detection. The study tested visual exemplar presentation types, incorporating visual persuasion principles into the study of exemplification theory and strategic message design. Compared to a control condition, representative visual exemplification was more effective at increasing message effectiveness by eliciting a surprise response, which is consistent with predictions of exemplification theory...
July 2016: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27137695/-zika-virus-an-emerging-threat
#13
Sara Salinas, Vincent Foulongne, Fabien Loustalot, Chantal Fournier-Wirth, Jean-Pierre Molès, Laurence Briant, Nicolas Nagot, Philippe Van de Perre, Yannick Simonin
Zika virus, discovered in 1947, is particularly publicized because of its involvement in a major epidemic that began in 2015 and which epicenter is located in Latin America, mainly in Brazil. In the majority of cases (70-80 %) the infection is asymptomatic, however in some patients, moderate fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis and myalgia may occur. More alarming, neurological complications are reported, in particular cases of microcephaly probably resulting from the infection of women in the first or second trimester of pregnancy...
April 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129918/four-cases-of-spontaneous-neoplasia-in-the-naked-mole-rat-heterocephalus-glaber-a-putative-cancer-resistant-species
#14
Kyle R Taylor, Nicholas A Milone, Carlos E Rodriguez
The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is widely acclaimed to be cancer-resistant and of considerable research interest based on a paucity of reports of neoplasia in this species. We have, however, encountered four spontaneous cases of neoplasia and one presumptive case of neoplasia through routine necropsy and biopsy of individuals in a zoo collection of nonhybrid naked mole-rats bred from a single pair. One case each of metastasizing hepatocellular carcinoma, nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor), and multicentric lymphosarcoma, as well as presumptive esophageal adenocarcinoma (Barrett's esophagus-like) was identified postmortem among 37 nonautolyzed necropsy submissions of naked mole-rats over 1-year-old that were submitted for necropsy between 1998 and August 2015...
April 29, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26938746/pigmentary-markers-in-danes-associations-with-quantitative-skin-colour-nevi-count-familial-atypical-multiple-mole-and-melanoma-syndrome
#15
Peter Johansen, Jeppe Dyrberg Andersen, Linnea Nørgård Madsen, Henrik Ullum, Martin Glud, Claus Børsting, Robert Gniadecki, Niels Morling
To investigate whether pigmentation genes involved in the melanogenic pathway (melanogenesis) contributed to melanoma predisposition, we compared pigmentary genetics with quantitative skin pigmentation measurements, the number of atypical nevi, the total nevus count, and the familial atypical multiple mole and melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome. We typed 32 pigmentary SNP markers and sequenced MC1R in 246 healthy individuals and 116 individuals attending periodic control for malignant melanoma development, 50 of which were diagnosed with FAMMM...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892650/hereditary-melanoma-update-on-syndromes-and-management-genetics-of-familial-atypical-multiple-mole-melanoma-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Efthymia Soura, Philip J Eliades, Kristen Shannon, Alexander J Stratigos, Hensin Tsao
Malignant melanoma is considered the most lethal skin cancer if it is not detected and treated during its early stages. About 10% of melanoma patients report a family history of melanoma; however, individuals with features of true hereditary melanoma (ie, unilateral lineage, multigenerational, multiple primary lesions, and early onset of disease) are in fact quite rare. Although many new loci have been implicated in hereditary melanoma, CDKN2A mutations remain the most common. Familial melanoma in the presence of multiple atypical nevi should raise suspicion for a germline CDKN2A mutation...
March 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26885520/automatic-classification-of-specific-melanocytic-lesions-using-artificial-intelligence
#17
Joanna Jaworek-Korjakowska, Paweł Kłeczek
BACKGROUND: Given its propensity to metastasize, and lack of effective therapies for most patients with advanced disease, early detection of melanoma is a clinical imperative. Different computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed to increase the specificity and sensitivity of melanoma detection. Although such computer programs are developed for different diagnostic algorithms, to the best of our knowledge, a system to classify different melanocytic lesions has not been proposed yet...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26840917/dispelling-myths-concerning-pigmented-skin-lesions
#18
REVIEW
V Piccolo, T Russo, J Giacomel, A Lallas, R Alfano, G Argenziano
The history of medicine is replete with examples of debunked myths, and in daily clinical dermatological practice, we must still counter many misconceptions regarding pigmented lesions, both with patients and other medical practitioners. Debunking myths and attempting to explain the reasons for these erroneous beliefs are the purposes of this review. The literature review has been partially guided by the results obtained from an online questionnaire conducted on an Italian website (www.vediamocichiara.it) from February 15, 2015 to March 15, 2015...
June 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26813075/somatosensory-organ-topography-across-the-star-of-the-star-nosed-mole-condylura-cristata
#19
Eva K Sawyer, Kenneth C Catania
Quantifying somatosensory receptor distribution in glabrous skin is usually difficult because of the diversity of skin receptor subtypes and their location within the dermis and epidermis. However, the glabrous noses of moles are an exception. In most species of moles, the skin on the nose is covered with domed mechanosensory units known as an Eimer's organs. Eimer's organs contain a stereotyped array of different mechanosensory neurons, meaning that the distribution of mechanosensitive nerve endings can be inferred by visual inspection of the skin surface...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26803347/acral-melanocytic-lesions-in-the-united-states-prevalence-awareness-and-dermoscopic-patterns-in-skin-of-color-and-non-hispanic-white-patients
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Reshmi Madankumar, Priyanka V Gumaste, Kathryn Martires, Panta R Schaffer, Sonal Choudhary, Leyre Falto-Aizpurua, Harleen Arora, Penelope J Kallis, Shailee Patel, Shadi Damanpour, Margaret I Sanchez, Natalie Yin, Aegean Chan, Miguel Sanchez, David Polsky, Holly Kanavy, James M Grichnik, Jennifer A Stein
BACKGROUND: Acral lentiginous melanoma has increased mortality compared with other melanoma subtypes and disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Acral melanocytic lesions have not been well studied in diverse populations of the United States. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns of acral melanocytic lesions in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients. METHODS: We prospectively examined the palms and soles of 1052 patients presenting to dermatology clinics in New York, NY, and Miami, FL, from October 2013 to April 2015...
April 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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