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Zhe Liu, Shuo Du, Ajuan Cui, Zhancheng Li, Yuancheng Fan, Shuqi Chen, Wuxia Li, Junjie Li, Changzhi Gu
With unusual electromagnetic radiation properties and great application potentials, optical toroidal moments have received increasing interest in recent years. 3D metamaterials composed of split ring resonators with specific orientations in micro-/nanoscale are a perfect choice for toroidal moment realization in optical frequency considering the excellent magnetic confinement and quality factor, which, unfortunately, are currently beyond the reach of existing micro-/nanofabrication techniques. Here, a 3D toroidal metamaterial operating in mid-infrared region constructed by metal patterns and dielectric frameworks is designed, by which high-quality-factor toroidal resonance is observed experimentally...
February 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jason W Rocks, Nidhi Pashine, Irmgard Bischofberger, Carl P Goodrich, Andrea J Liu, Sidney R Nagel
Recent advances in designing metamaterials have demonstrated that global mechanical properties of disordered spring networks can be tuned by selectively modifying only a small subset of bonds. Here, using a computationally efficient approach, we extend this idea to tune more general properties of networks. With nearly complete success, we are able to produce a strain between any two target nodes in a network in response to an applied source strain on any other pair of nodes by removing only ∼1% of the bonds...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Borislav Vasić, Dimitrios C Zografopoulos, Goran Isić, Romeo Beccherelli, Radoš Gajić
Large birefringence and its electrical modulation by means of Fréedericksz transition makes nematic liquid crystals (LCs) a promising platform for tunable terahertz (THz) devices. The thickness of standard LC cells is in the order of the wavelength, requiring high driving voltages and allowing only a very slow modulation at THz frequencies. Here, we first present the concept of overcoupled metal-isolator-metal (MIM) cavities that allow for achieving simultaneously both very high phase difference between orthogonal electric field components and large reflectance...
February 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
Jacob B Khurgin
Noble metals that currently dominate the fields of plasmonics and metamaterials suffer from large ohmic losses. Some of the new plasmonic materials, such as doped oxides and nitrides, have smaller material loss, and using them in place of metals carries the promise of reduced-loss plasmonic and metamaterial structures, with sharper resonances and higher field concentrations. This promise is put to a rigorous analytical test in this work, which reveals that having low material loss is not sufficient to have reduced modal loss in plasmonic structures...
March 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
J B Berger, H N G Wadley, R M McMeeking
A wide variety of high-performance applications require materials for which shape control is maintained under substantial stress, and that have minimal density. Bio-inspired hexagonal and square honeycomb structures and lattice materials based on repeating unit cells composed of webs or trusses, when made from materials of high elastic stiffness and low density, represent some of the lightest, stiffest and strongest materials available today. Recent advances in 3D printing and automated assembly have enabled such complicated material geometries to be fabricated at low (and declining) cost...
February 20, 2017: Nature
Junhua Gao, Xingzhi Wu, Qiuwu Li, Shiyu Du, Feng Huang, Lingyan Liang, Hongliang Zhang, Fei Zhuge, Hongtao Cao, Yinglin Song
Currently, the limitations of conventional methods for fabricating metamaterials composed of well-aligned nanoscale inclusions either lack the necessary freedom to tune the structural geometry or are difficult for large-area synthesis. In this Communication, the authors propose a fabrication route to create well-ordered silver nano forest/ceramic composite single-layer or multi-layer vertically stacked structures, as a distinctive approach to make large-area nanoscale metamaterials. To take advantage of direct growth, the authors fabricate single-layer nanocomposite films with a well-defined sub-5 nm interwire gap and an average nanowire diameter of ≈3 nm...
February 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
Zheng Li, Dan-Qing Yang, Shi-Lei Liu, Si-Yuan Yu, Ming-Hui Lu, Jie Zhu, Shan-Tao Zhang, Ming-Wei Zhu, Xia-Sheng Guo, Hao-Dong Wu, Xin-Long Wang, Yan-Feng Chen
High-quality broadband ultrasound transducers yield superior imaging performance in biomedical ultrasonography. However, proper design to perfectly bridge the energy between the active piezoelectric material and the target medium over the operating spectrum is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate a new anisotropic cone-structured acoustic metamaterial matching layer that acts as an inhomogeneous material with gradient acoustic impedance along the ultrasound propagation direction. When sandwiched between the piezoelectric material unit and the target medium, the acoustic metamaterial matching layer provides a broadband window to support extraordinary transmission of ultrasound over a wide frequency range...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marshall Schaeffer, Giuseppe Trainiti, Massimo Ruzzene
We report on a Digital Image Correlation-based technique for the detection of in-plane elastic waves propagating in structural lattices. The experimental characterization of wave motion in lattice structures is currently of great interest due its relevance to the design of novel mechanical metamaterials with unique/unusual properties such as strongly directional behaviour, negative refractive indexes and topologically protected wave motion. Assessment of these functionalities often requires the detection of highly spatially resolved in-plane wavefields, which for reticulated or porous structural assemblies is an open challenge...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ke Chen, Yijun Feng, Li Cui, Junming Zhao, Tian Jiang, Bo Zhu
The asymmetric transmission of electromagnetic (EM) wave can be fully manipulated by chiral metamaterials, but little can achieve real-time and high efficient tunability due to challenges in practically deployable solutions. Here, we proposed a new scheme for flexibly and dynamically controlling the asymmetric EM wave transmission at microwave frequencies using planar metamaterial of deep subwavelength thickness incorporated with active components of PIN diodes. The asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized EM wave exhibits a high efficiency and a pronounced real-time continuous tunability controlled by the external stimulation of voltage biasing...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Reed Hodges, Cleon Dean, Maxim Durach
We show that it is possible to design an invisible wavelength-sized metal-dielectric metamaterial object without evoking cloaking. Our approach is an extension of the neutral inclusion concept by Zhou and Hu [Phys. Rev. E74, 026607 (2006)PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.74.026607] to Mie scatterers. We demonstrate that an increase of metal fraction in the metamaterial leads to a transition from dielectric-like to metal-like scattering, which proceeds through invisibility or optical neutrality of the scatterer...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Yifan Wang, Ian C Jenkins, James T McGinley, Talid Sinno, John C Crocker
Future optical materials promise to do for photonics what semiconductors did for electronics, but the challenge has long been in creating the structure they require-a regular, three-dimensional array of transparent microspheres arranged like the atoms in a diamond crystal. Here we demonstrate a simple approach for spontaneously growing double-diamond (or B32) crystals that contain a suitable diamond structure, using DNA to direct the self-assembly process. While diamond symmetry crystals have been grown from much smaller nanoparticles, none of those previous methods suffice for the larger particles needed for photonic applications, whose size must be comparable to the wavelength of visible light...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
Corentin Coulais, Dimitrios Sounas, Andrea Alù
Reciprocity is a general, fundamental principle governing various physical systems, which ensures that the transfer function-the transmission of a physical quantity, say light intensity-between any two points in space is identical, regardless of geometrical or material asymmetries. Breaking this transmission symmetry offers enhanced control over signal transport, isolation and source protection. So far, devices that break reciprocity (and therefore show non-reciprocity) have been mostly considered in dynamic systems involving electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical wave propagation associated with fields varying in space and time...
February 13, 2017: Nature
Sukmo Koo, Daniel R Mason, Yunjung Kim, Namkyoo Park
A meta-atom platform providing decoupled tuning for the constitutive wave parameters remains as a challenging problem, since the proposition of Pendry. Here we propose an electromagnetic meta-atom design of internal anisotropy (εr ≠ εθ), as a pathway for decoupling of the effective- permittivity εeff and permeability μeff. Deriving effective parameters for anisotropic meta-atom from the first principles, and then subsequent inverse-solving the obtained decoupled solution for a target set of εeff and μeff, we also achieve an analytic, top-down determination for the internal structure of a meta-atom...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yao Zhai, Yaoguang Ma, Sabrina N David, Dongliang Zhao, Runnan Lou, Gang Tan, Ronggui Yang, Xiaobo Yin
Passive radiative cooling draws heat from surfaces and radiates it into space as infrared radiation to which the atmosphere is transparent. However, the energy density mismatch between solar irradiance and the low infrared radiation flux from a near-ambient-temperature surface require materials that strongly emit thermal energy and barely absorb sunlight. We embedded resonant polar dielectric microspheres randomly in a polymeric matrix, resulting in a metamaterial that is fully transparent to the solar spectrum while having an infrared emissivity greater than 0...
February 9, 2017: Science
N Francois, H Xia, H Punzmann, P W Fontana, M Shats
The control of matter motion at liquid-gas interfaces opens an opportunity to create two-dimensional materials with remotely tunable properties. In analogy with optical lattices used in ultra-cold atom physics, such materials can be created by a wave field capable of dynamically guiding matter into periodic spatial structures. Here we show experimentally that such structures can be realized at the macroscopic scale on a liquid surface by using rotating waves. The wave angular momentum is transferred to floating micro-particles, guiding them along closed trajectories...
February 9, 2017: Nature Communications
Cheng Huang, Bo Sun, Wenbo Pan, Jianhua Cui, Xiaoyu Wu, Xiangang Luo
Recently, a concept of digital metamaterials has been proposed to manipulate field distribution through proper spatial mixtures of digital metamaterial bits. Here, we present a design of 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface that can effectively modulate the scattered electromagnetic wave and realize different far-field beams. Each meta-atom of this metasurface integrates two pin diodes, and by tuning their operating states, the metasurface has four phase responses of 0, π/2, π, and 3π/2, corresponding to four basic digital elements "00", "01", "10", and "11", respectively...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yukun Zhao, Feng Yun, Yi Huang, Shuai Wang, Lungang Feng, Yufeng Li, Maofeng Guo, Wen Ding, Ye Zhang
In this paper, a novel array of quasi-three-dimensional (quasi-3D) bowtie nanoantennas has been investigated numerically and experimentally. A low-cost and facile method has been designed and implemented to fabricate the quasi-3D bowtie nanoantennas. The fabrication processes containing laser patterning and wet etching have demonstrated the advantages of easily tuning the periodic and diameter of microhole arrays. According to the simulated results, the electric and magnetic resonances at visible wavelengths are obtained in the tips and contours of the metamaterials made of the quasi-3D bowtie nanoantennas, respectively...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Travis M Shaffer, Edwin C Pratt, Jan Grimm
The characteristic blue glow of Cerenkov luminescence (CL) arises from the interaction between a charged particle travelling faster than the phase velocity of light and a dielectric medium, such as water or tissue. As CL emanates from a variety of sources, such as cosmic events, particle accelerators, nuclear reactors and clinical radionuclides, it has been used in applications such as particle detection, dosimetry, and medical imaging and therapy. The combination of CL and nanoparticles for biomedicine has improved diagnosis and therapy, especially in oncological research...
February 7, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Francesco Monticone, Andrea Alù
The field of metamaterials has opened landscapes of possibilities in basic science, and a paradigm shift in the way we think about and design emergent material properties. In many scenarios, metamaterial concepts have helped overcome long-held scientific challenges, such as the absence of optical magnetism and the limits imposed by diffraction in optical imaging. As the potential of metamaterials, as well as their limitations, become clearer, these advances in basic science have started to make an impact on several applications in different areas, with far-reaching implications for many scientific and engineering fields...
February 6, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Wei-Yi Tsai, Chih-Ming Wang, Ching-Fu Chen, Pin Chieh Wu, Yi-Hao Chen, Ting-Yu Chen, Pei Ru Wu, Jia-Wern Chen, Din Ping Tsai
A high Q-value reflective type metasurface consisting of 1D Au nanorods, a SiO2 spacer and a Au back reflector is demonstrated. It is shown that the sideband of the resonant mode can be suppressed as the resonant wavelength close to the phonon absorption of SiO2. By combining both designed structured resonance and inherent property of the based materials, a low angle-dependent metasurface with a Q-value of 40 has been demonstrated. The proposed structure will be useful for high sensitivity sensing and narrow band thermal emitter...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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