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Nicole M Hjortland, Andrew D Mesecar
USP17 is a deubiquitinating enzyme that is upregulated in numerous cancers and therefore a drug target. We developed a robust expression, purification, and assay system for USP17 enabling its enzymatic and structural characterization. USP17 was expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies and then solubilized, refolded, and purified using affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Milligram quantities of pure USP17 can be produced that is catalytically more efficient (kcat/Km = 1500 (x10(3)) M(-1) sec(-1)) than other human USPs studied to date...
October 15, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Shreya Dharadhar, Marcello Clerici, Willem J van Dijk, Alexander Fish, Titia K Sixma
Regulation of deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) activity is an essential step for proper function of cellular ubiquitin signals. UAF1 is a WD40 repeat protein, which binds and activates three important DUBs, USP1, USP12 and USP46. Here, we report the crystal structure of the USP12-Ub/UAF1 complex at a resolution of 2.8Å and of UAF1 at 2.3Å. In the complex we find two potential sites for UAF1 binding, analogous to what was seen in a USP46/UAF1 complex. In line with these observed dual binding states, we show here that USP12/UAF1 complex has 1:2 stoichiometry in solution, with a two-step binding at 4nM and 325nM respectively...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Ebru Goncu, Ramazan Uranlı, Gozde Selek, Osman Parlak
Steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone is known as the systemic regulators of insect cells; however, how to impact the fate and function of mature and stem cells is unclear. For the first time, we report ecdysone regulatory cascades in both mature midgut cell and stem cell fractions related to developmental events by using histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical and gene expression analysis methods. Ecdysone receptor-B1 (EcR-B1) and ultraspiracle 1 (USP-1) mRNAs were detected mainly in mature cells during programmed cell death (PCD)...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Lenka Wachsmannova, Sona Ciernikova, Juraj Majek, Michal Mego, Viola Stevurkova, Vladimir Zajac
OBJECTIVES: Bacteria from the intestinal tract of Slovak and American HIV/AIDS patients and Slovak colon cancer patients were tested for the capacity to be internalized by cells of the HL-60 cell line as well as by normal human lymphocytes. They were anticipated to possess a specific characteristic, i.e. a vigorous ability to be internalized by HL-60 cells and human lymphocytes. This assumption was confirmed by gentamicin protection assay. RESULTS: Internalization of bacteria from HIV/AIDS patients frequently resulted in partial (patients SKM1, SKM22) or complete lysis (patients SKK1-1, SKM12) of HL-60 cells...
July 12, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Scott Cukras, Euiho Lee, Emily Palumbo, Pamela Benavidez, George-Lucian Moldovan, Younghoon Kee
USP1 deubiquitinating enzyme and its stoichiometric binding partner UAF1 play an essential role in promoting DNA homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to various types of DNA damaging agents. Deubiquitination of FANCD2 may be attributed to the key role of USP1-UAF1 complex in regulating HR repair, however whether USP1-UAF1 promotes HR repair independently of FANCD2 deubiquitination is not known. Here we show evidence that the USP1-UAF1 complex has a FANCD2-independent function in promoting HR repair...
October 2016: Cell Cycle
Bela Keshan, Bembem Thounaojam, Sanathoibi D Kh
Insulin and ecdysone signaling play a critical role on the growth and development of insects including Bombyx mori. Our previous study showed that Bombyx larvae reached critical weight for metamorphosis between day 3.5 and 4 of the fifth larval instar. The present study showed that the effect of insulin on the accumulation of glycogen in fat body of Bombyx larvae depends on the critical growth period. When larvae are in active growth period (before reaching critical weight), insulin caused increased accumulation of glycogen, while its treatment in larvae at terminal growth period (after critical period) resulted in an increased mobilization of glycogen...
June 14, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Fengshan Liang, Simonne Longerich, Adam S Miller, Caroline Tang, Olga Buzovetsky, Yong Xiong, David G Maranon, Claudia Wiese, Gary M Kupfer, Patrick Sung
The UAF1-USP1 complex deubiquitinates FANCD2 during execution of the Fanconi anemia DNA damage response pathway. As such, UAF1 depletion results in persistent FANCD2 ubiquitination and DNA damage hypersensitivity. UAF1-deficient cells are also impaired for DNA repair by homologous recombination. Herein, we show that UAF1 binds DNA and forms a dimeric complex with RAD51AP1, an accessory factor of the RAD51 recombinase, and a trimeric complex with RAD51 through RAD51AP1. Two small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-like domains in UAF1 and a SUMO-interacting motif in RAD51AP1 mediate complex formation...
June 7, 2016: Cell Reports
Müge Ogrunc, Ricardo Ivan Martinez-Zamudio, Paul Ben Sadoun, Gregory Dore, Helene Schwerer, Philippe Pasero, Jean-Marc Lemaitre, Anne Dejean, Oliver Bischof
Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is a potent barrier for the transformation of pre-cancerous cells. The molecular pathways involved in the execution of OIS are still incompletely understood, but they include chronic DNA damage signaling and post-translational modifications of key factors. Here, we show that OIS-associated transcriptional downregulation of deubiquitinating enzyme USP1 triggers and maintains a DNA damage checkpoint response with atypical DNA lesions that is dependent on functional FANCD2-FI-ATR-CHK1-p53-CDKN1A signaling...
May 17, 2016: Cell Reports
Xiaoshan Zhang, Xiaoyan Lu, Shamima Akhter, Maria-Magdalena Georgescu, Randy J Legerski
Akt is a critical mediator of the oncogenic PI3K pathway, and its activation is regulated by kinases and phosphatases acting in opposition. We report here the existence of a novel protein complex that is composed minimally of Akt, PHLPP1, PHLPP2, FANCI, FANCD2, USP1 and UAF1. Our studies show that depletion of FANCI, but not FANCD2 or USP1, results in increased phosphorylation and activation of Akt. This activation is due to a reduction in the interaction between PHLPP1 and Akt in the absence of FANCI. In response to DNA damage or growth factor treatment, the interactions between Akt, PHLPP1 and FANCI are reduced consistent with the known phosphorylation of Akt in response to these stimuli...
2016: Cell Cycle
Gilbert J Rahme, Zhonghua Zhang, Alison L Young, Chao Cheng, Eric J Bivona, Steven N Fiering, Yasuyuki Hitoshi, Mark A Israel
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and responds poorly to currently available therapies. Transcriptomic characterization of glioblastoma has identified distinct molecular subtypes of glioblastoma. Gain-of-function alterations leading to enhanced platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling are commonly observed in the proneural subtype of glioblastoma and can drive gliomagenesis. However, little is known about the downstream effectors of PDGF signaling in glioblastoma. Using a mouse model of proneural glioma and comparative transcriptomics, we determined that PDGF signaling upregulated ubiquitin-specific peptidase 1 (Usp1) to promote the survival of murine proneural glioma cells...
May 15, 2016: Cancer Research
Mei-Juan Cai, Wen-Li Zhao, Yu-Pu Jing, Qian Song, Xiao-Qian Zhang, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
Insulin inhibits transcription factor Forkhead box O (FoxO) activity, and the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) activates FoxO; however, the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that 20E upregulates phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase (PTEN) expression to activate FoxO, thereby promoting proteolysis during molting in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. FoxO expression is increased during molting and metamorphosis. The knockdown of FoxO in fifth instar larvae results in larval molting failure...
March 15, 2016: Development
Jin Ki Jung, Seok-Won Jang, Jung Min Kim
Defects in the regulation of centrosome duplication lead to tumorigenesis through abnormal cell division and resulting chromosome missegregation. Therefore, maintenance of accurate centrosome number is critical for cell fate. The deubiquitinating enzyme USP1 plays important roles in DNA repair and cell differentiation. Importantly, increased levels of USP1 are detected in certain types of human cancer, but little is known about the significance of USP1 overexpression in cancer development. Here we show that Usp1 plays a novel role in regulating centrosome duplication...
2016: Cell Cycle
Anne Olazabal-Herrero, Iraia García-Santisteban, Jose Antonio Rodríguez
Ubiquitin-specific protease (USP)1 is a member of the USP family of deubiquitinating enzymes. Efficient USP1 activity requires binding to its cofactor USP1-associated factor 1 (UAF1), and the USP1-UAF1 deubiquitinase complex has important roles in regulating DNA damage-related processes. USPs show common folding of their catalytic domain, with three subdomains termed Thumb, Palm, and Fingers. The Fingers subdomain appears to be the primary site for ubiquitin binding. In USP1, the Fingers subdomain also mediates its interaction with UAF1, and thus represents a crucial, but poorly characterized, motif in USP1...
March 2016: FEBS Journal
A Mercuri, R Fares, M Bresciani, N Fotaki
The impact of hydrodynamics and media composition on nifedipine dissolution profile from IR (immediate release) soft capsules was investigated using dissolution apparatus USP1, USP2, USP3 and USP4 (United State Pharmacopoeia). Media composition was varied in terms of pH and content, to mimic the dosage form intake with water or non-alcoholic beverages (orange juice) and alcoholic beverages (orange juice/ethanol mixture (47% v/v)). Through construction of in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) with corresponding in vivo data from the literature, it was possible to evaluate the in vitro conditions that are likely to simulate the in vivo formulation behaviour...
February 29, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Shu-ichiro Kashiwaba, Rie Kanao, Yuji Masuda, Rika Kusumoto-Matsuo, Fumio Hanaoka, Chikahide Masutani
Mono-ubiquitinated PCNA activates error-prone DNA polymerases; therefore, strict regulation of PCNA mono-ubiquitination is crucial in avoiding undesired mutagenesis. In this study, we used an in vitro assay system to identify USP7 as a deubiquitinating enzyme of mono-ubiquitinated PCNA. Suppression of USP1, a previously identified PCNA deubiquitinase, or USP7 increased UV- and H2O2-induced PCNA mono-ubiquitination in a distinct and additive manner, suggesting that USP1 and USP7 make different contributions to PCNA deubiquitination in human cells...
December 15, 2015: Cell Reports
Jianping Yin, Allyn J Schoeffler, Katherine Wickliffe, Kim Newton, Melissa A Starovasnik, Erin C Dueber, Seth F Harris
Protein ubiquitination patterns are an important component of cellular signaling. The WD-repeat protein WDR48 (USP1-associated factor UAF-1) stimulates activity of ubiquitin-specific proteases USP1, USP12, and USP46. To understand how WDR48 exerts its effect on the USP scaffold, we determined structures of the ternary WDR48:USP46:ubiquitin complex. WDR48 interacts with the USP46 fingers subdomain via a relatively small, highly polar surface on the top center of the WDR48 β propeller. In addition, WDR48 has a novel ancillary domain and a C-terminal SUMO-like domain encircling the USP46-bound ubiquitin...
November 3, 2015: Structure
Du-Juan Dong, Yu-Pu Jing, Wen Liu, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and the serine/threonine Ste20-like kinase Hippo signal promote programmed cell death (PCD) during development, although the interaction between them remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that 20E up-regulates Hippo to induce PCD during the metamorphic development of insects. We found that Hippo is involved in 20E-induced metamorphosis via promoting the phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention of Yorkie (Yki), causing suppressed expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), thereby releasing its inhibitory effect on caspase...
October 9, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Atsuko Niimi, Suzanna R Hopkins, Jessica A Downs, Chikahide Masutani
Monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a critical regulator of post replication repair (PRR). The depletion of BAF180, a unique subunit of the PBAF chromatin remodeling complex in human cells results in reduced PCNA ubiquitination leading to less efficient fork progression following DNA damage, but little is known about the mechanism. Here, we report that the expression of exogenous BAF180 in cells promotes PCNA ubiquitination during S-phase after UV irradiation and it persists for many hours...
September 2015: Mutation Research
Jin-Ku Lee, Nakho Chang, Yeup Yoon, Heekyoung Yang, Heejin Cho, Eunhee Kim, Yongjae Shin, Wonyoung Kang, Young Taek Oh, Gyeong In Mun, Kyeung Min Joo, Do-Hyun Nam, Jeongwu Lee
BACKGROUND: Clinical benefits from standard therapies against glioblastoma (GBM) are limited in part due to intrinsic radio- and chemoresistance of GBM and inefficient targeting of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs). Novel therapeutic approaches that overcome treatment resistance and diminish stem-like properties of GBM are needed. METHODS: We determined the expression levels of ubiquitination-specific proteases (USPs) by transcriptome analysis and found that USP1 is highly expressed in GBM...
January 2016: Neuro-oncology
A P Bertolin, S F Mansilla, V Gottifredi
Over the past half-century, we have become increasingly aware of the ubiquity of DNA damage. Under the constant exposure to exogenous and endogenous genomic stress, cells must attempt to replicate damaged DNA. The encounter of replication forks with DNA lesions triggers several cellular responses, including the activation of translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), which largely depends upon specialized DNA polymerases with flexible active sites capable of accommodating bulky DNA lesions. A detrimental aspect of TLS is its intrinsic mutagenic nature, and thus the activity of the TLS polymerases must ideally be restricted to synthesis on damaged DNA templates...
August 2015: DNA Repair
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