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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223134/rapid-soil-formation-after-glacial-retreat-shaped-by-spatial-patterns-of-organic-matter-accrual-in-microaggregates
#1
Steffen A Schweizer, Carmen Hoeschen, Steffen Schlüter, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Carsten W Mueller
Global change contributes to the retreat of glaciers at unprecedented rates. The deglaciation facilitates biogeochemical processes on glacial deposits with initiating soil formation as an important driver of evolving ecosystems. The underlying mechanisms of soil formation and the association of soil organic matter (SOM) with mineral particles remain unclear, although further insights are critical to understand carbon sequestration in soils. We investigated the microspatial arrangement of SOM coatings at intact soil microaggregate structures during various stages of ecosystem development from 15 to >700 years after deglaciation in the proglacial environment of the Damma glacier (Switzerland)...
December 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223085/global-platinum-group-element-resources-reserves-and-mining-a-critical-assessment
#2
Gavin M Mudd, Simon M Jowitt, Timothy T Werner
The platinum group elements (PGEs) are used in many technologies and products in modern society, especially auto-catalysts, chemical process catalysts and specialty alloys, yet supply is dominated by South Africa. This leads PGEs to be assessed as 'critical metals', signalling concern about the likelihood and consequences of social, environmental and economic impacts from disruptions to supply. In order to better understand the global PGE situation, this paper presents a comprehensive global assessment of PGE reserves and resources and the key mining trends which can affect supply...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223084/wetlands-receiving-water-treated-with-coagulants-improve-water-quality-by-removing-dissolved-organic-carbon-and-disinfection-byproduct-precursors
#3
Angela M Hansen, Tamara E C Kraus, Sandra M Bachand, William R Horwath, Philip A M Bachand
Constructed wetlands are used worldwide to improve water quality while also providing critical wetland habitat. However, wetlands have the potential to negatively impact drinking water quality by exporting dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that upon disinfection can form disinfection byproducts (DBPs) like trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). We used a replicated field-scale study located on organic rich soils in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to test whether constructed flow-through wetlands which receive water high in DOC that is treated with either iron- or aluminum-based coagulants can improve water quality with respect to DBP formation...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223053/pressure-induced-phase-transition-and-fracture-in-%C3%AE-moo3-nanoribbons
#4
Jose V Silveira, Luciana L Vieira, Acrisio L Aguiar, Paulo T C Freire, Josue Mendes Filho, Oswaldo L Alves, Antonio G Souza Filho
MoO3 nanoribbons were studied under different pressure conditions ranging from 0 to 21GPa at room temperature. The effect of the applied pressure on the spectroscopic and morphologic properties of the MoO3 nanoribbons was investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The pressure dependent Raman spectra of the MoO3 nanoribbons indicate that a structural phase transition occurs at 5GPa from the orthorhombic α-MoO3 phase (Pbnm) to the monoclinic MoO3-II phase (P21/m), which remains stable up to 21GPa...
November 27, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223043/affect-toward-the-self-and-self-injury-stimuli-as-potential-risk-factors-for-nonsuicidal-self-injury
#5
Kathryn R Fox, Jessica D Ribeiro, Evan M Kleiman, Jill M Hooley, Matthew K Nock, Joseph C Franklin
Few risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been identified. This study investigated diminished aversion toward self-injury (i.e., NSSI, suicide/death stimuli) and self-criticism as unique NSSI risk factors. After terminating a treatment study, 154 adults with a recent and frequent NSSI history completed self-report and computer-based measures of psychopathology, implicit and explicit self-criticism, and implicit aversion to NSSI and suicide/death. Participants were then contacted 4 weeks later to test factors predicting NSSI frequency over this follow-up period...
December 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223002/basal-and-reactivity-levels-of-cortisol-in-one-month-old-infants-born-to-overweight-or-obese-mothers-from-an-ethnically-and-racially-diverse-low-income-community-sample
#6
Karen M Jones-Mason, Michael Coccia, Stephanie Grover, Elissa Epel, Nicole R Bush
Establishing typical values of the steroid hormone cortisol at rest and after challenge is critical for understanding how environmental factors impact stress regulation and overall development, beginning at birth. Yet most extant samples are small or based upon low-risk populations, and few studies address the potential role of maternal weight during pregnancy in their study designs or sampling strategy. Here we report basal and reactivity levels of salivary cortisol within a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 132 infants approximately one month of age (Age in days: M=37...
December 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222929/hiv-deceased-donor-referrals-a-national-survey-of-organ-procurement-organizations
#7
Ayla Cash, Xun Luo, Eric K H Chow, Mary Grace Bowring, Ashton A Shaffer, Brianna Doby, Corey E Wickliffe, Charles Alexander, Deborah McRann, Aaron A R Tobian, Dorry L Segev, Christine M Durand
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected (HIV+) donor organs can be transplanted into HIV+ recipients under the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act. Quantifying HIV+ donor referrals received by Organ Procurement Organizations (OPOs) is critical for HOPE Act implementation. METHODS: We surveyed the 58 US OPOs regarding HIV+ referral records and newly discovered HIV+ donors. Using data from OPOs that provided exact records and CDC HIV prevalence data, we projected a national estimate of HIV+ referrals...
December 9, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222926/depressive-personality-vulnerability-in-chronic-physical-pain-centrality-of-sociotropy
#8
Golan Shahar, Sheera F Lerman, Maayan Topaz, Silviu Brill, Hadar Shalev, Zvia Rudich
BACKGROUND: Chronic physical pain is one of modern medicine's principal challenges. Recently, there has been a keen research interest in the role of Depressive Personality Vulnerability (DPV) in the course of chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: This is the first attempt to examine the role of three leading DPV dimensions - sociotropy, autonomy, and self-criticism - in chronic pain. METHOD: Chronic pain patients (N = 428) were assessed four times as to their pain, disability, anxious-depression, and pain-based catastrophizing...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222906/low-maternal-folate-concentrations-and-maternal-mthfr-c677t-polymorphism-are-associated-with-an-increased-risk-for-neural-tube-defects-in-offspring-a-case-control-study-among-pakistani-case-and-control-mothers
#9
Nuzhat Nauman, Samina Jalali, Sajjad Shami, Shireen Rafiq, Greta Große, Alina C Hilger, Rhong Zhang, Saira Mansoor, Michael Ludwig, Heiko Reutter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is considerable evidence that periconceptional maternal folate deficiency and coding variants in maternal genes coding for critical enzymes in the folate pathway are associated with neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. In a case-control study we investigated C677T polymorphism in the 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in case and control mothers of Pakistani origin, and compared these with the respective maternal folate concentrations measured at the time of delivery...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222877/critical-examination-of-evidence-for-the-nutritional-status-of-children-in-papua-new-guinea-a-systematic-review
#10
Peter J McGlynn, Andre μΝ Renzaho, Minh D Pham, Mike Toole, Jane Fisher, Stanley Luchters
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Undernutrition remains a significant cause of childhood illness, poor growth, development, and death in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Studies on child nutritional outcomes in PNG vary by design, measurement protocols and quality. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for the prevalence of child undernutrition across different study populations, geographical locations and time periods. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Six electronic databases and additional grey literature were searched for articles describing the nutritional status by wasting, stunting and underweight, of PNG children under five years of age, published between 1990 and April 2015...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222857/serum-levels-of-the-s100b-protein-and-neuron-specific-enolase-are-associated-with-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients
#11
Izabela Duda, Łukasz Krzych, Halina Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
INTRODUCTION: Evaluation of the prognostic potential of the S100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) as predictors of mortality in critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 62 patients. Basic clinical variables and blood samples for S100B and NSE level testing were obtained during the first four days after admission. Mortality was described as the patient's death during hospitalization in the ICU...
December 10, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222832/written-action-plans-for-children-with-long-term-conditions-a-systematic-review-and-synthesis-of-qualitative-data
#12
REVIEW
Andrea Waldecker, Alice Malpass, Anna King, Matthew J Ridd
BACKGROUND: Long-term conditions (LTCs) in children require a high level of self-management. Written action plans (WAPs) have been advocated to guide decision-making and support self-management but there is uncertainty about how WAPs "work" and what aspects are important for successful implementation. OBJECTIVE: To review and synthesize existing qualitative evidence about the design and use of WAPs across childhood LTCs. METHOD: We undertook a systematic search of the literature (Medline, EMBASE, CiNAHL, PsycInfo, Web of science) from inception to May 2015; critically appraised included studies; and synthesized the findings, drawing on normalisation process theory...
December 9, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222831/a-review-of-structural-brain-abnormalities-in-pallister-killian-syndrome
#13
Cathryn Poulton, Gareth Baynam, Clarissa Yates, Hamid Alinejad-Rokny, Simon Williams, Helen Wright, Karen J Woodward, Soruba Sivamoorthy, Joanne Peverall, Peter Shipman, David Ravine, John Beilby, Julian Ik-Tsen Heng
BACKGROUND: Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare multisystem developmental syndrome usually caused by mosaic tetrasomy of chromosome 12p that is known to be associated with neurological defects. METHODS: We describe two patients with PKS, one of whom has bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (PMG), the other with macrocephaly, enlarged lateral ventricles and hypogenesis of the corpus callosum. We have also summarized the current literature describing brain abnormalities in PKS...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222806/identification-of-udp-glucose-binding-site-in-glycosyltransferase-domain-of-sucrose-phosphate-synthase-from-sugarcane-saccharum-officinarum-by-structure-based-site-directed-mutagenesis
#14
REVIEW
Widhi Dyah Sawitri, Siti Nurul Afidah, Atsushi Nakagawa, Toshiharu Hase, Bambang Sugiharto
Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is believed to be the key enzyme for controlling the biosynthesis of sucrose. SPSs consist of a functional glycosyltransferase domain that shares conserved residues with the glycosyltransferase domain of sucrose biosynthesis-related protein. The formation of sucrose-6-phosphate is catalyzed by SPS with the transfer of a glycosyl group of uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-G) as an activated donor sugar to a fructose-6-phosphate as a sugar acceptor. However, understanding of the mechanism of catalytic and substrate binding in SPS is very limited...
December 8, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222770/ocular-nerve-growth-factor-ngf-and-ngf-eye-drop-application-as-paradigms-to-investigate-ngf-neuroprotective-and-reparative-actions
#15
Paola Tirassa, Pamela Rosso, Angela Iannitelli
The eye is a central nervous system structure that is uniquely accessible to local treatment. Through the ocular surface, it is possible to access the retina, optic nerve, and brain. Animal models of retina degeneration or optic nerve crush could thus serve as tools to investigate whether and how factors, which are anterogradely or retrogradely transported through the optic nerve, might contribute to activate neuroprotection and eventually regeneration. Among these factors, nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role during development of the visual system, as well as during the entire life span, and in pathological conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222762/dynamic-flux-balance-analysis-using-dfbalab
#16
Jose Alberto Gomez, Paul I Barton
Bioprocesses are of critical importance in several industries such as the food and pharmaceutical industries. Despite their importance and widespread application, bioprocess models remain rather simplistic and based on unstructured models. These simple models have limitations, making it very difficult to model complex bioprocesses. With dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA) more comprehensive bioprocess models can be obtained. DFBA simulations are difficult to carry out because they result in dynamic systems with linear programs embedded...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222705/tai-chi-and-qigong-for-cancer-related-symptoms-and-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Peter M Wayne, M S Lee, J Novakowski, K Osypiuk, J Ligibel, L E Carlson, R Song
PURPOSE: This study aims to summarize and critically evaluate the effects of Tai Chi and Qigong (TCQ) mind-body exercises on symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in cancer survivors. METHODS: A systematic search in four electronic databases targeted randomized and non-randomized clinical studies evaluating TCQ for fatigue, sleep difficulty, depression, pain, and QOL in cancer patients, published through August 2016. Meta-analysis was used to estimate effect sizes (ES, Hedges' g) and publication bias for randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222693/neuroblastoma-pathogenesis-deregulation-of-embryonic-neural-crest-development
#18
REVIEW
Julie A Tomolonis, Saurabh Agarwal, Jason M Shohet
Neuroblastoma (NB) is an aggressive pediatric cancer that originates from neural crest tissues of the sympathetic nervous system. NB is highly heterogeneous both from a clinical and a molecular perspective. Clinically, this cancer represents a wide range of phenotypes ranging from spontaneous regression of 4S disease to unremitting treatment-refractory progression and death of high-risk metastatic disease. At a cellular level, the heterogeneous behavior of NB likely arises from an arrest and deregulation of normal neural crest development...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222686/eeg-source-imaging-indices-of-cognitive-control-show-associations-with-dopamine-system-genes
#19
G McLoughlin, J Palmer, S Makeig, N Bigdely-Shamlo, T Banaschewski, M Laucht, D Brandeis
Cognitive or executive control is a critical mental ability, an important marker of mental illness, and among the most heritable of neurocognitive traits. Two candidate genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and DRD4, which both have a roles in the regulation of cortical dopamine, have been consistently associated with cognitive control. Here, we predicted that individuals with the COMT Met/Met allele would show improved response execution and inhibition as indexed by event-related potentials in a Go/NoGo task, while individuals with the DRD4 7-repeat allele would show impaired brain activity...
December 8, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222670/venetoclax-for-treating-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#20
REVIEW
Hema Mistry, Chidozie Nduka, Martin Connock, Jill Colquitt, Theodoros Mantopoulos, Emma Loveman, Renata Walewska, James Mason
Venetoclax is licensed to treat relapsed or refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). As part of the Single Technology Appraisal (STA) ID944, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited AbbVie, the manufacturer, to submit evidence on the use of venetoclax, within its licensed indication. The Evidence Review Group (ERG), Warwick Evidence, was asked to provide an independent and critical review of the submitted evidence. Evidence came from three single-arm trials in CLL patients with or without 17p deletion [del(17p])/TP53 chromosomal abnormalities...
December 8, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
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