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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078101/intrauterine-diabetic-milieu-instigates-dysregulated-adipocytokines-production-in-f1-offspring
#1
Shady H Tawfik, Maha M Haiba, Mohamed I Saad, Taha M Abdelkhalek, Mervat Y Hanafi, Maher A Kamel
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine environment plays a pivotal role in the origin of fatal diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes is associated with low-grade inflammatory state and dysregulated adipokines production. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes on adipocytokines (adiponectin, leptin and TNF-α) production in F1 offspring in rats. METHODS: The offspring groups were as follows: F1 offspring of control mothers under control diet (CD) (CF1-CD), F1 offspring of control mothers under high caloric diet (HCD) (CF1-HCD), F1 offspring of diabetic mothers under CD (DF1-CD), and F1 offspring of diabetic mothers under HCD (DF1-HCD)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073831/deletion-of-protein-kinase-c-lambda-in-pomc-neurons-predisposes-to-diet-induced-obesity
#2
Mauricio D Dorfman, Jordan E Krull, Jarrad M Scarlett, Stephan J Guyenet, Mini P Sajan, Vincent Damian, Hong T Nguyen, Michael Leitges, Gregory J Morton, Robert V Farese, Michael W Schwartz, Joshua P Thaler
Effectors of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathway contribute to the hypothalamic regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis in divergent ways. Here we show that CNS action of the PI3K signaling intermediate atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) constrains food intake, weight gain, and glucose intolerance in both rats and mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of CNS aPKC activity acutely increases food intake and worsens glucose tolerance in chow-fed rodents and causes excess weight gain during high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
January 10, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069387/leptin-receptor-knockout-induced-depression-like-behaviors-and-attenuated-antidepressant-effects-of-exercise-are-associated-with-stat3-socs3-signaling
#3
Weina Liu, Jiatong Liu, Jie Xia, Xiangli Xue, Hongmei Wang, Zhengtang Qi, Liu Ji
Relatively little has been known about pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms in the context of metabolic syndrome. Impaired leptin signaling activation in db/db mice has been proposed as a potential link between behavioral and metabolic disorders. Our previous studies have shown that exercise has the beneficial effects on a depression-like and insulin-resistant state in mice. The present study aimed to determine whether and how leptin receptor knockout (db/db) induces depression-like behaviors, and to identify the antidepressant effects of swimming exercise in db/db mice...
January 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068626/effects-of-the-activation-of-heme-oxygenase-1-on-hormonal-and-metabolic-changes-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#4
Tomasz Szkudelski, Kamila Dłużewicz, Jan Sadoch, Katarzyna Szkudelska
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is the inducible isoform of the heme oxygenase system, which catalyzes heme degradation. Up-regulation of this enzyme under pathological conditions is associated with beneficial effects in the whole organism. However, the potential of HO-1 in the alleviation of disturbances induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) is poorly elucidated. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of pharmacological activation of HO-1 by hemin on some hormones and metabolic parameters in rats fed an HFD for 8 weeks...
January 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068281/pathophysiological-role-of-adiponectin-leptin-and-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-in-the-process-of-atherosclerosis
#5
Daniela Iv Koleva, Maria M Orbetzova, Julia G Nikolova, Tanya I Deneva
Adipose tissue is recognized as a rich source of proinflammatory mediators that may directly contribute to vascular injury, insulin resistance, and atherogenesis. Many studies have shown that adiponectin has antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin acts not only as a factor increasing insulin sensitivity, and the protective effect may result from its ability to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines. It negatively regulates the expression of TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue; reduces expression of vascular and intracellular adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1), E-selectin, interleukin-8 (IL-8)...
December 1, 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065828/adipocyte-dynamics-and-reversible-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice-with-an-inducible-adipocyte-specific-deletion-of-the-insulin-receptor
#6
Masaji Sakaguchi, Shiho Fujisaka, Weikang Cai, Jonathon N Winnay, Masahiro Konishi, Brian T O'Neill, Mengyao Li, Rubén García-Martín, Hirokazu Takahashi, Jiang Hu, Rohit N Kulkarni, C Ronald Kahn
Insulin and IGF1 signaling are important for adipose tissue development and function; however, their role in mature adipocytes is unclear. Mice with a tamoxifen-inducible knockout of insulin and/or IGF1 receptors (IR/IGF1R) demonstrate a rapid loss of white and brown fat due to increased lipolysis and adipocyte apoptosis. This results in insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hepatosteatosis, islet hyperplasia with hyperinsulinemia, and cold intolerance. This phenotype, however, resolves over 10-30 days due to a proliferation of preadipocytes and rapid regeneration of both brown and white adipocytes as identified by mTmG lineage tracing...
January 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064279/the-rs1862513-variant-in-resistin-gene-modified-insulin-resistance-and-insulin-levels-after-weight-loss-secondary-to-hypocaloric-diet
#7
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, Beatriz de la Fuente, Ines Mulero, Rocío Aller
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Polymorphisms of a single nucleotide in RETN have been associated with indexes of insulin resistance. Our aim was to analyze the effects of the rs1862513 RETN gene polymorphism on insulin resistance, insulin levels, and resistin levels changes after 3 months of a low-fat hypocaloric diet. DESIGN: A Caucasian population of 133 obese patients was analyzed before and after 3 months on a low-fat hypocaloric diet. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients (42...
January 7, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054344/nutritional-effects-on-t-cell-immunometabolism
#8
Sivan Cohen, Keiko Danzaki, Nancie J MacIver
T cells are highly influenced by nutrient uptake from their environment, and changes in overall nutritional status, such as malnutrition or obesity, can result in altered T-cell metabolism and behavior. In states of severe malnutrition or starvation, T-cell survival, proliferation, and inflammatory cytokine production are all decreased, as is T-cell glucose uptake and metabolism. The altered T-cell function and metabolism seen in malnutrition is associated with altered adipokine levels, most particularly decreased leptin...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043717/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-inhibitors-as-antidiabetic-agents-a-brief-review
#9
REVIEW
Mansi Verma, Shyam Ji Gupta, Anurag Chaudhary, Vipin K Garg
Diabetes mellitus and obesity are one of the most common health issues spread throughout world and raised the medical attention to find the new effective agents to treat these disease state. Occurrence of the drug resistance to the insulin and leptin receptor is also challenging major issues. The molecules that can overcome this resistance problem could be effective for the treatment of both type II diabetes and obesity. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (PTP) has emerged as new promising targets for therapeutic purpose in recent years...
December 26, 2016: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039519/adipokines-a-possible-contribution-to-vascular-and-bone-remodeling-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#10
Evgenia A Kochetkova, Ludmila G Ugai, Yuliya V Maistrovskaia, Vera A Nevzorova
Osteoporosis is a major comorbidity of cardio-respiratory diseases, but the mechanistic links between pulmonary arterial hypertension and bone remain elusive. The purpose of the stud was to evaluate serum adipokines and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in the patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) NYHA class III-IV and to determine its associations with bone mineral density (BMD). Pulmonary and hemodynamic parameters, BMD Z-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), serum leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and endothelin-1 (ET-1), were evaluated in 32 patients with IPAH NYHA class III-IV and 30 healthy volunteers...
December 30, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035343/effects-of-different-degrees-of-insulin-resistance-on-endothelial-function-in%C3%A2-obese%C3%A2-adults-undergoing-alternate-day%C3%A2-fasting
#11
Kristin K Hoddy, Surabhi Bhutani, Shane A Phillips, Krista A Varady
BACKGROUND: Obesity can have deleterious effects on insulin sensitivity leading to endothelial dysfunction. Whether alternate day fasting (ADF) can ameliorate insulin sensitivity in a way that improves endothelial function remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of ADF on endothelium dependent flow mediated dilation (FMD) in obese subjects with different degrees of insulin resistance. METHODS: Obese non-diabetic adults (n = 54) participated in an 8-week ADF protocol (25% energy intake "fast day", alternated with ad libitum intake "feast day")...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028397/vitamin-d-status-insulin-resistance-leptin-to-adiponectin-ratio-in-adolescents-results-of-a-1-year-lifestyle-intervention
#12
Christine Rambhojan, Laurent Larifla, Josiane Clepier, Elodie Bouaziz-Amar, Fritz-Line Velayoudom-Cephise, Anne Blanchet-Deverly, Christophe Armand, Jean Plumasseau, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Lydia Foucan
AIM: We aimed to study the relationships between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], insulin resistance and leptin-to-adiponectin (L/A) ratio in Guadeloupean children and adolescents and to analyse the changes in 25(OH)D levels after a 1-year lifestyle intervention program. METHODS: 25(OH)D concentrations were measured via a chemiluminescence assay. Cardiometabolic risk factors, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and adipokines were measured...
December 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028078/ire1%C3%AE-in-pomc-neurons-is-required-for-thermogenesis-and-glycemia
#13
Ting Yao, Zhuo Deng, Yong Gao, Jia Sun, Xingxing Kong, Yiru Huang, Zhenyan He, Yanchao Xu, Yongsheng Chang, Kai-Jiang Yu, Brianna G Findley, Eric D Berglund, Rui-Tao Wang, Hongbo Guo, Hong Chen, Xu Li, Randal J Kaufman, Jianqun Yan, Tiemin Liu, Kevin W Williams
Whether neuronal inositol-requiring enzyme 1(Ire1) is required for the proper regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis is unclear. We found that pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc)-specific deficiency of Ire1α accelerated diet-induced obesity concomitant with a decrease in energy expenditure. This hypometabolic phenotype included deficits in thermogenic responses to diet and cold exposure as well as 'beiging' of white adipose tissue. We also demonstrate that loss of Ire1α in Pomc neurons impaired whole-body glucose and insulin tolerance as well as hepatic insulin sensitivity...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027637/sexual-dimorphism-in-interleukin-17a-and-adipocytokines-and-their-association-with-insulin-resistance-among-obese-adolescents-in-yogyakarta-indonesia
#14
Rina Susilowati, Dian Caturini Sulistyoningrum, Ni Putu Diah Witari, Emy Huriyati, Harry Freitag Luglio, Madarina Julia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 17A (IL-17), leptin, and adiponectin have been associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Moreover, differences in sex and ethnicity as well as plasma concentration of adipocytokines and cytokines have been associated with the risk of insulin resistance. This study was conducted to elucidate whether sex differences exist in the risk of insulin resistance in Indonesian adolescents and to determine how plasma leptin, adiponectin, and IL-17 predict insulin resistance...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017965/exercise-adipokines-and-pediatric-obesity-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
A García-Hermoso, R J M Ceballos-Ceballos, C E Poblete-Aro, A C Hackney, J Mota, R Ramírez-Vélez
Background/ObjectiveAdipokines are involved in the etiology of diabetes, insulin resistance, and the development of atherosclerosis and other latent-onset complications. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on adipokines in pediatric obesity.Subjects/MethodA computerized search was made using three databases. The analysis was restricted to studies that examined the effect of exercise interventions on adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin) in pediatric obesity (6-18 years old)...
December 26, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017785/hepatic-lipid-metabolism-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-aging
#16
Zhenwei Gong, Emir Tas, Shoshana Yakar, Radhika Muzumdar
Aging is associated with dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Various factors that contribute to the dysregulation include both modifiable (e.g. obesity, insulin resistance) and non-modifiable risk factors (age-associated physiologic changes). Although there is no linear relationship between aging and prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, current data strongly suggests that advanced age leads to more severe histological changes and poorer clinical outcomes. Hepatic lipid accumulation could lead to significant hepatic and systemic consequences including steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, impairment of systemic glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome, thereby contributing to age-related diseases...
December 22, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008865/the-relationship-of-serum-zonulin-level-with-clinical-and-laboratory-parameters-in-childhood-obesity
#17
Tuncay Küme, Sezer Acar, Hale Tuhan, Gönül Çatlı, Ahmet Anık, Özlem Gürsoy Çalan, Ece Böber, Ayhan Abacı
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between zonulin and clinical laboratory parameters in childhood obesity. METHODS: The study included obese children with a body mass index >95th percentile and healthy children who were similar age and gender distribution. Clinical (body mass index, waist circumferences, mid arm circumference, triceps skin fold, percentage of body fat, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure) and biochemical (glucose, insulin, lipids, thyroid function tests, cortisol, zonulin and leptin levels) parameters were measured...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008171/induction-of-lipogenesis-in-white-fat-during-cold-exposure-in-mice-link-to-lean-phenotype
#18
P Flachs, K Adamcova, P Zouhar, C Marques, P Janovska, I Viegas, J G Jones, K Bardova, M Svobodova, J Hansikova, O Kuda, M Rossmeisl, U Liisberg, A G Borkowska, K Kristiansen, L Madsen, J Kopecky
Background/ObjectiveFutile substrate cycling based on lipolytic release of fatty acids (FA) from intracellular triacylglycerols (TAG) and their re-esterification (TAG/FA cycling), as well as de novo FA synthesis (DNL), represent the core energy-consuming biochemical activities of white adipose tissue (WAT). We aimed to characterize their roles in cold-induced thermogenesis and energy homeostasis.MethodsMale obesity-resistant A/J and obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice maintained at 30 °C were exposed to 6 °C for 2 or 7 days...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001453/insulin-resistance-is-associated-with-smaller-cortical-bone-size-in-non-diabetic-men-at-the-age-of-peak-bone-mass
#19
Charlotte Verroken, Hans-Georg Zmierczak, Stefan Goemaere, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Bruno Lapauw
CONTEXT: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fracture risk is increased despite preserved areal bone mineral density. Although this apparent paradox may in part be explained by insulin resistance affecting bone structure and/or material properties, few studies have investigated the association between insulin resistance and bone geometry. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore this association in a cohort of non-diabetic men at the age of peak bone mass. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 996 non-diabetic men aged 25-45 years were recruited in a cross-sectional, population-based sibling-pair study at a university research center...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998647/glucose-metabolism-during-the-acute-prostate-cancer-treatment-trajectory-the-influence-of-age-and-obesity
#20
Katie M Di Sebastiano, Kirsten E Bell, Andrew S Mitchell, Joe Quadrilatero, Joel A Dubin, Marina Mourtzakis
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and age, key risk factors for aggressive prostate cancer, are associated with insulin resistance. Glucose-related parameters in patients with aggressive prostate cancer were compared with 2 reference groups: men of similar age and body mass index (BMI) without cancer, and healthy young men. Acute changes in these parameters following radiation treatment were also evaluated. METHODS: Nine patients with aggressive prostate cancer underwent metabolic assessments prior to treatment (baseline), 7 and 33 weeks post-baseline (post-treatment initiation)...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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