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Leptin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143290/increased-free-testosterone-levels-in-men-with-uncontrolled-type-2-diabetes-five-years-after-randomization-to-bariatric-surgery
#1
Nathan H Pham, James Bena, Deepak L Bhatt, Laurence Kennedy, Philip R Schauer, Sangeeta R Kashyap
Hypogonadism frequently occurs in male patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and is linked to insulin resistance and inflammation. Testosterone levels rise acutely in obese patients following bariatric surgery, though long-term changes have not been investigated in a randomized controlled trial. This study evaluated obese men with T2DM randomized to either bariatric surgery or medical therapy. Testosterone, gonadotropins, body composition, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers were evaluated in 32 patients at baseline and at 5 years...
November 15, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141853/the-effects-of-resistance-exercise-on-biomarkers-of-breast-cancer-prognosis-a-pooled-analysis-of-three-randomized-trials
#2
Kerri Winters-Stone, Lisa J Wood, Sydnee Stoyles, Nathan Dieckmann
BACKGROUND: Using a secondary data analysis from randomized controlled trials comparing one year of resistance exercise (N=109) to a placebo control condition (N=106) in postmenopausal, post-treatment breast cancer survivors, we investigated the influence of resistance training and changes in body composition on markers associated with cancer progression. METHODS: Measures included serum levels of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP1-3, leptin, serum amyloid A (SAA), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 and body composition (total, lean and fat mass in kg) by DXA at baseline, 6, and 12-months...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137471/serum-levels-of-spexin-and-kisspeptin-negatively-correlate-with-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-women
#3
P A Kołodziejskii, E Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, E Korek, M Sassek, D Szczepankiewicz, P Kaczmarek, L Nogowski, P Maćkowiak, K W Nowak, H Krauss, M Z Strowski
Spexin (SPX) and kisspeptin (KISS) are novel peptides relevant in the context of regulation of metabolism, food intake, puberty and reproduction. Here, we studied changes of serum SPX and KISS levels in female non-obese volunteers (BMI<25 kg/m2) and obese patients (BMI>35 kg/m2). Correlations between SPX or KISS with BMI, McAuley index, QUICKI, HOMA IR, serum levels of insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, orexin-A, obestatin, ghrelin and GLP-1 were assessed. Obese patients had lower SPX and KISS levels as compared to non-obese volunteers (SPX: 4...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136612/biochemical-anthropometric-and-lifestyle-factors-related-with-weight-maintenance-after-weight-loss-secondary-to-a-hypocaloric-mediterranean-diet
#4
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, Hilda F Ovalle, Juan Jose Lopez, Emilia Gomez, Ana Ortola, Rocio Aller
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of lifestyle factors and molecular biomarkers on the maintenance of the weight lost after a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet. DESIGN: After 3 months on a diet, patients (n = 335) remained with no controlled diet during 3 years and they were revaluated. RESULTS: Using linear regression, in the group of responders, we detected that a positive weight loss at 3 months, serum levels of leptin at 3 months, and each 30 min per week of physical activity were associated with weight loss maintenance...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132429/characterization-of-skin-function-associated-with-obesity-and-specific-correlation-to-local-systemic-parameters-in-american-women
#5
Shinobu Mori, Akiko Shiraishi, Karen Epplen, Desiree Butcher, Daiki Murase, Yuka Yasuda, Takatoshi Murase
BACKGROUND: Obesity is considered problematic not only as a major cause of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, but also as a risk of intractable dermatosis; however influence of obesity on skin function has not been clarified. To clarify the mechanism of obesity-associated skin disorders, we aimed to characterize the skin function of subjects with obesity, and identify possible influencing factors. METHODS: Complex analyses including instrumental measurement, biochemical and lipidomics were performed for facial skin and physical evaluation in 93 Caucasian women with obesity (OB) and non-obesity (NOB)...
November 13, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132244/adipocytokines-and-ghrelin-level-of-bipolar-patients-from-manic-episode-to-euthymic-episode
#6
Özgür Korhan Tunçel, Gökhan Sarısoy, Birşen Bilgici, Ozan Pazvantoğlu, Eda Çetin, Ebru Kaynar Tunçel
PURPOSE: Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MeS) are more frequently observed in bipolar patients than the general population. This may result from the differences of adipocytokines and ghrelin levels in bipolar disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated the leptin, adiponectin, resistin and ghrelin levels in bipolar patients (n = 30) in manic episode and in a control group (n = 30). After treatment, the same patients were evaluated again during the euthymic episode...
November 13, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130652/ginsenoside-rb1-improves-leptin-sensitivity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-obese-mice
#7
Yizhen Wu, Xu-Feng Huang, Christopher Bell, Yinghua Yu
AIM: Obesity impairs leptin-induced regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and synaptogenesis, which has been considered to be associated with the incidence of neuronal degenerative diseases, cognitive decline, and depression. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), a major bioactive component of ginseng, is known to have an antiobesity effect and improve cognition. This study examined whether Rb1 can improve central leptin effects on BDNF expression and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex during obesity using an in vivo and an in vitro model...
November 11, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129611/effect-of-sleep-curtailment-on-dietary-behavior-and-physical-activity-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#8
Eri Tajiri, Eiichi Yoshimura, Yoichi Hatamoto, Hiroaki Tanaka, Seiya Shimoda
Our objective was to clarify the effect of sleep curtailment on energy intake (EI) and physical activity under free-living conditions. Participants were 16 healthy women aged 21-22years. A randomized crossover trial design was used to compare a short sleep condition (SS): 4h/night (2:00-6:00) and a control sleep condition (CS): 7h/night (23:00-6:00). Each condition comprised 3 consecutive nights. Sleep duration was assessed using a wristwatch-type accelerometer at home. All living activities except sleeping were free-living...
November 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114514/visceral-obesity-and-chronic-pain-effect-of-a-4-week-rehabilitation-program-on-adipokines-and-insulin-resistance
#9
Florence Doury-Panchout, Jean-Charles Metivier, Julien Nardoux, Bernard Fouquet
Obesity and chronic pain are two major diseases of the 21th century. Our principal objective was to investigate the effects of a 4-week rehabilitation program on adiponectin and leptin concentrations, and insulin resistance, in patients with abdominal obesity and chronic pain syndrome. Our secondary objectives were to investigate the effects of this program on pain, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and to compare changes in VO2max between patients with or without insulin resistance...
August 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114012/cbl-downregulation-increases-rbp4-expression-in-adipocytes-of-female-mice
#10
Gulizar Issa Ameen, Silvia Mora
Obesity leads to adipose tissue dysfunction, insulin resistance and diabetes. Adipose tissue produces adipokines,that contribute to regulate insulin sensitivity. In turn insulin stimulates the production and release of some adipokines. Casitas-b-lymphoma proteins (c-Cbl, Cbl-b and Cbl3) are intracellular adaptor signalling proteins that are rapidly phosphorylated by activation of tyrosine kinase receptors. c-Cbl is rapidly phosphorylated by insulin in adipocytes. Here we tested the hypothesis that Cbl signalling regulates adipokine expression in adipose tissue...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109760/influence-of-serum-hmw-adiponectin-level-in-patients-with-pregnancy-induced-hypertension-syndrome-on-the-occurrence-of-eclampsia-in-secondary-pregnancy
#11
Qian Xu, Dongmei Fan, Fahong Li, Zhanhong Zhang
In the present study, we studied the influence of serum high-molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA) levels in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) on the occurrence of eclampsia in secondary pregnancy and its related mechanisms. In total, 130 patients who were diagnosed with PIH for the first time were selected for this study; the median interval of the secondary pregnancy was 28.5 months. The serum HMWA and leptin levels both times were detected, and the insulin resistance indexes (HOMA-IR) were calculated...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108900/irisin-and-leptin-concentrations-in-relation-to-obesity-and-developing-type-2-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-and-a-prospective-case-control-study-nested-in-the-normative-aging-study
#12
Ayse Sahin-Efe, Jagriti Upadhyay, Byung-Joon Ko, Fadime Dincer, Kyung Hee Park, Alexandra Migdal, Pantel Vokonas, Christos Mantzoros
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between irisin and leptin levels in obesity and insulin resistance in a cross sectional study. To assess the potential role of irisin and leptin as a predictive marker of T2DM using a nested case-control study. METHODS: Both studies were designed within the longitudinal VA NAS cohort. The cross sectional study involved 111 non obese and 105 obese subjects who were subdivided into two groups based on their fasting glucose tolerance...
November 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107598/bone-metabolism-in-anorexia-nervosa-and-hypothalamic-amenorrhea
#13
Sharon H Chou, Christos Mantzoros
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) are states of chronic energy deprivation associated with severely compromised bone health. Poor bone accrual during adolescence followed by increased bone loss results in lifelong low bone density, degraded bone architecture, and higher risk of fractures, despite recovery from AN/HA. Amenorrhea is only one of several compensatory responses to the negative energy balance. Other hypothalamic-pituitary hormones are affected and contribute to bone deficits, including activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and growth hormone resistance...
October 28, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104232/treatment-with-a-catalytic-superoxide-dismutase-sod-mimetic-improves-liver-steatosis-insulin-sensitivity-and-inflammation-in-obesity-induced-type-2-diabetes
#14
Gina M Coudriet, Meghan M Delmastro-Greenwood, Dana M Previte, Meghan L Marré, Erin C O'Connor, Elizabeth A Novak, Garret Vincent, Kevin P Mollen, Sojin Lee, H Henry Dong, Jon D Piganelli
Oxidative stress and persistent inflammation are exaggerated through chronic over-nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle, resulting in insulin resistance. In type 2 diabetes (T2D), impaired insulin signaling leads to hyperglycemia and long-term complications, including metabolic liver dysfunction, resulting in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The manganese metalloporphyrin superoxide dismustase (SOD) mimetic, manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnP), is an oxidoreductase known to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine production, by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation...
November 1, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102876/maternal-high-fat-diet-induces-sex-specific-endocannabinoid-system-changes-in-newborn-rats-and-programs-adiposity-energy-expenditure-and-food-preference-in-adulthood
#15
Camilla P Dias-Rocha, Mariana M Almeida, Erika M Santana, Julia C B Costa, Juliana G Franco, Carmen C Pazos-Moura, Isis H Trevenzoli
Early life inadequate nutrition triggers developmental adaptations and adult chronic disease. Maternal high-fat (HF) diet promotes visceral obesity and hypothalamic leptin resistance in male rat offspring at weaning and adulthood. Obesity is related to over active endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS consists mainly of endogenous ligands, cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), and the enzymes fatty acid anandamide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). We hypothesized that perinatal maternal HF diet would regulate offspring ECS in hypothalamus and brown adipose tissue (BAT) at birth, prior to visceral obesity development, and program food preference and energy expenditure of adult offspring...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099085/eburicoic-acid-a-triterpenoid-compound-from-antrodia-camphorata-displays-antidiabetic-and-antihyperlipidemic-effects-in-palmitate-treated-c2c12-myotubes-and-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#16
Cheng-Hsiu Lin, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Chun-Ching Shih
This study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects and mechanisms of eburicoic acid (TRR); one component of Antrodia camphorata in vitro and in an animal model for 14 weeks. Expression levels of membrane glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4); phospho-5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/total AMPK; and phospho-Akt/total-Akt in insulin-resistant C2C12 myotube cells were significantly decreased by palmitate; and such decrease was prevented and restored by TRR at different concentrations...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093685/bipolar-spectrum-disorders-in-male-youth-the-interplay-between-symptom-severity-inflammation-steroid-secretion-and-body-composition
#17
REVIEW
Andreas Walther, Marlene Penz, Daniela Ijacic, Timothy R Rice
The morbidity and societal burden of youth bipolar spectrum disorders (BSD) are high. These disorders are multisystemic in that adult populations there are clear interactions with inflammatory processes and steroidal physiological systems. There are much less data concerning these areas of study in youth populations with BSD. This is surprising given the association of youth-onset BSD with puberty and its associated physiological changes. In this mini-review, we overview the theoretical role of inflammatory processes and steroidal physiological systems in youth BSD, describe the greater literature in adult populations, detail the literature in youth populations when available, and overview current proposed molecular mechanistic pathways and interaction effects based on the available data...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090554/-puerariae-lobatae-radix-elevated-expression-levels-of-ob-r-irs2-glut1-and-glut2-to-regulate-glucose-metabolism-in-insulin-resistance-hepg2-cells
#18
Yu Li, Xin-Xin Luo, Feng-Dong Yan, Zhang-Bin Wei, Jun Tu
To observe the anti-hyperglycemic effect of Puerariae Lobatae Radix in hepatocyte insulin resistance(IR) models, and investigate its preliminary molecular mechanism. IR-HepG2 cell model was stably established with 1×10-9 mol•L⁻¹ insulin plus 3.75×10-6 mol•L-1 dexamethasone treatment for 48 h according to optimized protocol in our research group. After IR-HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations(5%,10% and 15%) of Puerariae Lobatae Radix-containing serum, cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay; the glucose consumptions in IR-HepG2 cells were separately detected at different time points (12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 36 h) by using glucose oxidase method; intracellular glycogen content was detected by anthrone method; and the protein expression levels of leptin receptor (Ob-R), insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2), glucose transporter 1(GLUT1) and GLUT2 were detected by Western blot assay...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081462/association-between-nitrogen-stable-isotope-ratios-in-human-hair-and-serum-levels-of-leptin
#19
Song Vogue Ahn, Sang-Baek Koh, Kwang-Sik Lee, Yeon-Sik Bong, Jong-Ku Park
Stable isotope ratios have been reported to be potential biomarkers of dietary intake and nutritional status. High serum levels of leptin, a hormone which regulates energy metabolism and food intake, are associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about the association between stable isotope ratios and the metabolic risk in humans. We investigated whether the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in hair are associated with serum leptin levels. Hair samples were collected from 399 healthy adults (233 men and 166 women) aged 40 to 70 years of a community-based cohort in Korea and the bulk stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) were measured for all hair samples...
October 2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079192/exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-disturbs-adipokines-secretion-causing-intercellular-damage-and-insulin-resistance-in-high-fructose-diet-induced-metabolic-disorder-mice
#20
Sanghwa Kim, Ah Young Lee, Hyeon-Jeong Kim, Seong-Ho Hong, Ryeo-Eun Go, Kyung-Chul Choi, Kyung-Sun Kang, Myung-Haing Cho
A large amount of fructose intake along with smoking is associated with increased incidence of diseases linked to metabolic syndrome. More research is necessary to understand the complex mechanism that ultimately results in metabolic syndrome and the effect, if any, of high fructose dietary intake and smoking on individual health. In this study, we investigated changes in ER-Golgi network and disturbance to secretion of adipokines induced by cigarette smoking (CS) and excess fructose intake and their contribution to the disruption of metabolic homeostasis...
October 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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