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Leptin resistance

Na Xu, Jun Chu, Min Wang, Ling Chen, Liang Zhang, Zhongwen Xie, Jinsong Zhang, Chi-Tang Ho, Daxiang Li, Xiaochun Wan
Large yellow tea is a traditional beverage in China with unique toasty flavor. Preliminary study using 3T3-L1 cells indicted that large yellow tea, possessed more potent lipid-lowering efficacy than green, black, dark and white teas. In the present study we further investigated its influence on metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet (HFD) mouse model with an emphasis on dose response. Thirty-two C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: low-fat diet (LFD), HFD, HFD+2.5% large yellow tea hot-water extract (YT, equivalent to 10 cups of tea daily for humans), HFD+0...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Alba Bosquet, Josefa Girona, Sandra Guaita-Esteruelas, Mercedes Heras, Paula Saavedra-García, Neus Martínez-Micaelo, Lluís Masana, Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo
AIMS: Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) inhibitors have been proposed as potential therapeutic approaches against insulin resistance-related inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which these molecules drive these effects in skeletal muscle remain unknown. Here, we assessed whether the FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 prevented lipid-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated inflammation in skeletal muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The BMS309403 treatment was assessed both in the skeletal muscle of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and in palmitate-stimulated C2C12 myotubes...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Charles Cai, Taimur Ahmad, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda, Jiliu Xu, Kay D Beharry
OBJECTIVES: Extremely low gestational age neonates with chronic lung disease requiring oxygen therapy frequently experience fluctuations in arterial oxygen saturation or intermittent hypoxia (IH). These infants are at risk for multi-organ developmental delay, reduced growth, and short stature. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) system, an important hormonal regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, promotes neonatal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that increasing episodes of IH delay neonatal growth by influencing the GH/IGF-I axis...
March 8, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Isadora C Furigo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Thais T Zampieri, Frederick Wasinski, Daniella C Buonfiglio, Jose Donato
Several metabolic adaptations emerge during pregnancy and continue through lactation, including increases in food intake and body weight, as well as insulin and leptin resistance. These maternal adaptations are thought to play a role in offspring viability and success. Using a model of attenuated maternal metabolic adaptations induced by ablation of the Socs3 gene in leptin receptor expressing cells (SOCS3 KO mice), our study aimed to investigate whether maternal metabolic changes are required for normal offspring development, and if their absence causes metabolic imbalances in adulthood...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Tandra R Chakraborty, Victoria Gomez, Debasis Adhikari, Sanjoy Chakraborty
OBJECTIVE: To determine the hormonal changes that occur as a result of the long-term intake of a very-high-fat diet (VHFD) that leads to simultaneous changes in the islets of Langerhans and adipocyte cell size. METHODS: Male mice were fed with a normal chow diet (ND, n = 15) and a VHFD (n = 30) for 2, 12, and 24 weeks. Body weight, food intake, caloric intake (fat [saturated and unsaturated], protein, and carbohydrate), hormone levels (leptin and insulin), and islet of Langerhans/adipocyte size were quantitatively recorded...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Satomi Minato, Kaori Kitaoka, Mika Takeuchi, Ayaka Tsuboi, Miki Kurata, Shigehiro Tanaka, Tsutomu Kazumi, Keisuke Fukuo
Objective: We test the hypothesis that aspartate aminotransferase (AST) may be associated inversely with serum triglycerides (TG) and positively with high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in young athletes because athletes have larger amounts of muscle mass. Research design and methods: Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between serum AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and body composition identified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, markers of insulin resistance, serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, adiponectin and leptin in 174 female collegiate athletes (18-22 years)...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
E M Brady, D H Bodicoat, A P Hall, K Khunti, T Yates, C Edwardson, M J Davies
AIMS: Investigating the association between sleep duration, obesity, adipokines and insulin resistance (via Leptin:Adiponectin ratio (LAR)), in those at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Adults with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) were included. Fasting bloods for inflammatory biomarkers and glycaemic status, 2-hour glucose, anthropometrics, objective physical activity, and self-reported sleep were collected. The average number of hours slept in a 24 hour period was categorised as ≤5...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Dorota Różańska, Bożena Regulska-Ilow
Anthocyanins are food compounds which belong to polyphenols and can mainly be found in dark fruits (e.g., blueberries, black currants, cranberries) and vegetables (e.g., red cabbage, radish, eggplant). The results of large research have shown that these compounds play an important role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In rodent studies and in studies with isolated omental adipocytes, it was observed that anthocyanins regulated the carbohydrate metabolism in the body due to the upregulation of GLUT4 (insulinregulated glucose transporter) translocation, increased activation of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in adipose tissue and skeletal muscles as well as increased secretion of adiponectin and leptin...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Z Ye, G Liu, J Guo, Z Su
Obesity is an epidemic disease that is increasing worldwide and is a major risk factor for many metabolic diseases. However, effective agents for the prevention or treatment of obesity remain limited. Therefore, it is urgent to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development and progression of obesity and exploit potential agents to cure and prevent this disease. According to a recent study series, obesity is associated with the development of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the activation of its stress responses (unfolded protein response) in metabolically active tissues, which contribute to the development of obesity-related insulin and leptin resistance, inflammation and energy imbalance...
March 7, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Sergey Kachur, Rebecca Morera, Alban De Schutter, Carl J Lavie
Prehypertension (pHTN) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are both lifestyle diseases that are potentiated by increased adiposity, as both disease processes are closely related to weight. In the case of pHTN, increased adiposity causes dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) as well as adipokine- and leptin-associated increases in adrenergic tone. In MetS, excess weight potentiates hyperglycemia and insulin resistance which causes positive feedback into the RAAS system, activates an inflammatory cascade that potentiates atherosclerosis, and causes lipid dysregulation which together contribute to cardiovascular disease, especially coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart failure (HF)...
March 6, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Laís Bhering Martins, Marina Chaves de Oliveira, Zélia Menezes-Garcia, Débora Fernandes Rodrigues, Jaqueline Pereira Lana, Leda Quercia Vieira, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Adaliene Versiani Matos Ferreira
OBJECTIVES: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a well-known cytokine that triggers insulin resistance during obesity development. On the other hand, it is also known that TNF induces a fat mass loss during acute diseases. However, whether TNF has a protective and physiological role to control adipose tissue expansion during obesity still needs to be verified. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the ablation of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) alters fat mass and insulin resistance induced by a highly refined carbohydrate-containing (HC) diet...
July 17, 2017: Nutrition
Miguel A Lanaspa, Masanari Kuwabara, Ana Andres-Hernando, Nancy Li, Christina Cicerchi, Thomas Jensen, David J Orlicky, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Takuji Ishimoto, Takahiko Nakagawa, Bernardo Rodriguez-Iturbe, Paul S MacLean, Richard J Johnson
Dietary guidelines for obesity typically focus on three food groups (carbohydrates, fat, and protein) and caloric restriction. Intake of noncaloric nutrients, such as salt, are rarely discussed. However, recently high salt intake has been reported to predict the development of obesity and insulin resistance. The mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we show that high intake of salt activates the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway in the liver and hypothalamus, leading to endogenous fructose production with the development of leptin resistance and hyperphagia that cause obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shinjiro Kobayashi
 The antihyperglycemic activities of extracts of boiogito (BOT) and bofutsushosan (BTS) were investigated in streptozotocin-induced (STZ)-diabetic mice. BOT extract containing Stephania tetrandra S. MOORE root (stephania), has more potent antihyperglycemic activity than BOT extract containing sinomenium stem (sinomenium). Extracts of stephania and astragalus root (astragalus) exert combined effects in the antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic activities of BOT extract. Fangchinoline, but not tetrandrine, in stephania plays a role in its activity...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Keisuke Sanematsu, Yuki Nakamura, Masatoshi Nomura, Noriatsu Shigemura, Yuzo Ninomiya
Sweet taste thresholds are positively related to plasma leptin levels in normal weight humans: both show parallel diurnal variations and associations with postprandial glucose and insulin rises. Here, we tested whether this relationship also exists in overweight and obese (OW/Ob) individuals with hyperleptinemia. We tested 36 Japanese OW/Ob subjects (body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m²) for recognition thresholds for various taste stimuli at seven different time points from 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. using the staircase methodology, and measured plasma leptin, insulin, and blood glucose levels before each taste threshold measurement...
March 2, 2018: Nutrients
Angela Rosenbohm, Gabriele Nagel, Raphael S Peter, Torben Brehme, Wolfgang Koenig, Luc Dupuis, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Albert C Ludolph
Importance: Knowledge about the metabolic states of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may provide a therapeutic approach. Objective: To investigate the association between the onset and prognosis of ALS and serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) concentration as a biomarker for insulin resistance and vitamin A metabolism. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case-control design for risk factors of ALS; cohort design for prognostic factors within ALS cases...
February 26, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Antonietta Liotti, Serena Cabaro, Ilaria Cimmino, Serena Ricci, Claudio Procaccini, Orlando Paciello, Gregory A Raciti, Rosa Spinelli, Susanna Iossa, Giuseppe Matarese, Claudia Miele, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Beguinot, Francesco Oriente
Prep1 is a gene encoding for a homeodomain transcription factor which induces hepatic and muscular insulin resistance. In this study, we show that Prep1 hypomorphic heterozygous (Prep1i/+ ) mice, expressing low levels of protein, featured a 23% and a 25% reduction of total body lipid content and epididymal fat, respectively. The percentage of the small adipocytes (25-75 μm) was 30% higher in Prep1i/+ animals than in the WT, with a reciprocal difference in the large adipose cells (100-150 and >150 μm)...
February 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Liina Remmel, Vallo Tillmann, Priit Purge, Evelin Lätt, Jaak Jürimäe
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in associations of serum acylated and des-acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and leptin levels with physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CReF) in adolescent boys (mean age of 14.0 years) with overweight (OWB; n=55) and with normal weight (NWB; n=154). METHODS: Total PA was measured by 7-day accelerometry (counts/min) and CReF by peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak/kg). RESULTS: No differences were found in serum PYY, acylated ghrelin or des-acyl ghrelin levels, whereas mean leptin (11...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
E A Kochetkova, V A Nevsorova, L G Ugay, Y V Maystrovskaya, T A Brodskaya
PURPOSE: to determine the role of adipokines and vascular remodeling in formation of osteoporosis in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Functional and hemodynamic parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) T-score in lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), blood serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and endothelin-1 were measured in 27 patients with severe IPAH and 30 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Half of IPAH patients had osteoporosis...
February 2018: Kardiologiia
Lucyna Siemińska, Artur Borowski, Bogdan Marek, Mariusz Nowak, Dariusz Kajdaniuk, Jakub Warakomski, Beata Kos-Kudła
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and prostate cancer are related, but the causal relationship remains unknown. The aim of the study was to compare concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and chemerin in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia and to examine associations of the adipokines with the grade of prostate cancer, interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin resistance and anthropometric and metabolic variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 140 men divided into two groups: I- prostate cancer (n=74) and II- with benign hyperplasia (n=66)...
February 21, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
Leila Hadjadj, Szabolcs Várbíró, Eszter Mária Horváth, Anna Monori-Kiss, Éva Pál, Gellért Balázs Karvaly, Andrea Heinzlmann, Attila Magyar, István Szabó, Réka Eszter Sziva, Zoltán Benyó, Mariann Buday, György László Nádasy
Hyperandrogenic state in females is accompanied with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and vascular pathologies. A total of 67%-85% of hyperandrogenic women suffer also from vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to check a potential interplay between hyperandrogenism and vitamin D deficiency in producing insulin resistance and effects on coronary resistance arteries. Adolescent female rats were divided into four groups, 11-12 animals in each. Transdermal testosterone-treated and vehicle-treated animals were kept either on vitamin D-deficient or on vitamin D-supplemented diet for 8 weeks...
February 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
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