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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925900/effects-of-apelin-peptides-on-diabetic-complications
#1
Hong Chen, Chengyu Liu, Cheng Cheng, Ling Zheng, Kun Huang
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with multiple complications, including cardiomyopathy, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Diabetic complications are the major cause of disability and death in diabetic patients. Apelin, a recently identified adipokine peptide, has been found to play important roles in diabetic complications. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of apelin in the pathogenesis of different diabetic complications. We also propose that similar to insulin resistance or leptin resistance, diabetics may also show apelin resistance...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925406/abdominal-fat-deposits-determined-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-relation-to-leptin-and-vaspin-levels-as-well-as-insulin-resistance-in-the-general-adult-population
#2
F Genske, J-P Kühn, M Pietzner, G Homuth, W Rathmann, H J Grabe, H Völzke, H Wallaschofski, N Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Various fat depots including visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) or liver fat content (LFC) were supposed to have different influences on various entities including adipokine levels as well as insulin resistance/sensitivity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the associations of SAT, VAT and LFC with the levels of leptin and vaspin as well as insulin resistance in a general non-diabetic population. METHODS: In total, 1825 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania were characterized according to body fat compartments and LFC determined by magnetic resonance imaging...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924543/effect-of-the-pro12ala-polymorphism-of-the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-2-gene-on-lipid-profile-and-adipokines-levels-in-obese-subjects
#3
E Becer, A Çırakoğlu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a key regulator of metabolism, adipokines production and secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the PPARγ2 gene Pro12Ala polymorphism in obesity in terms of body mass index (BMI), lipid parameters, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, resistin and chemerin levels. The study included 160 obese and 140 non obese subjects. The Pro12Ala polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
June 30, 2017: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics: BJMG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914426/resistance-training-status-modifies-inflammatory-response-to-explosive-and-hypertrophic-resistance-exercise-bouts
#4
Johanna K Ihalainen, Juha P Ahtiainen, Simon Walker, Gøran Paulsen, Harri Selänne, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen, Heikki Peltonen, Antti A Mero
The purpose of the present study was to examine the immediate and prolonged immune response in circulating cytokine and adipocytokine concentrations after two different resistance exercise bouts: hypertrophic (HYP1, 5 × 10, 80% of 1RM) and maximal explosive (POW1, 10 × 5, 60% of 1RM) resistance exercise bouts and how 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) modifies these responses (HYP2, POW2). Eight men completed the study. RE-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), leptin, resistin, and adiponectin were measured before (PRE) and immediately (POST0), 24 (POST24) and 48 (POST48) hours after RE bouts before and after RT...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912580/ptprj-inhibits-leptin-signaling-and-induction-of-ptprj-in-the-hypothalamus-is-a-cause-of-the-development-of-leptin-resistance
#5
Takafumi Shintani, Satoru Higashi, Ryoko Suzuki, Yasushi Takeuchi, Reina Ikaga, Tomomi Yamazaki, Kenta Kobayashi, Masaharu Noda
Leptin signaling in the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in the regulation of body weight. Leptin resistance, in which leptin signaling is disrupted, is a major obstacle to the improvement of obesity. We herein demonstrated that protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type J (Ptprj) is expressed in hypothalamic neurons together with leptin receptors, and that PTPRJ negatively regulates leptin signaling by inhibiting the activation of JAK2, the primary tyrosine kinase in leptin signaling, through the dephosphorylation of Y813 and Y868 in JAK2 autophosphorylation sites...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911640/long-term-feeding-of-red-algae-gelidium-amansii-ameliorates-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-a-high-fructose-diet-impaired-glucose-tolerance-rat-model
#6
Hshuan-Chen Liu, Chun-Ju Chang, Tsung-Han Yang, Meng-Tsan Chiang
This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF) diet (57.1% w/w). Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1) control diet group (Con); (2) HF diet group (HF); and (3) HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904917/evaluation-of-leptin-as-a-marker-of-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Thiyagarajan Manjuladevi Moonishaa, Sunil Kumar Nanda, Muthukrishnan Shamraj, Rajendran Sivaa, Periyasamy Sivakumar, Kandasamy Ravichandran
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, whose incidence is rapidly increasing in India. T2DM is caused by varying degrees of insulin resistance (IR) and relative insulin deficiency. Leptin, an adipokine with the primary function of regulating energy balance, is found to mediate insulin secretion and sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Hence, we aimed to determine the role of leptin in the development of IR in newly diagnosed T2DM patients...
July 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904569/serum-insulin-and-leptin-levels-in-children-with-epilepsy-on-valproate-associated-obesity
#8
Talha Rehman, Deepak Sachan, Anubhuti Chitkara
BACKGROUND: Weight gain is a common adverse effect of sodium valproic acid (VPA) in children with epilepsy. Several mechanisms of VPA-induced obesity have been suggested such as increased appetite, facultative thermogenesis, and elevated insulin and leptin levels. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of Insulin and Leptin in the pathogenesis of weight gain caused by VPA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and serum insulin and leptin levels were measured in 45 consecutive patients and 45 controls...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904060/early-exposure-to-a-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-increases-the-mammary-stem-cell-compartment-and-mammary-tumor-risk-in-female-mice
#9
Isabel U Lambertz, Linjie Luo, Thomas R Berton, Scott L Schwartz, Stephen D Hursting, Claudio J Conti, Robin Fuchs-Young
Obesity and alterations in metabolic programming from early diet exposures can affect the propensity to disease in later life. Through dietary manipulation, developing mouse pups were exposed to a hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic milieu during three developmental phases: gestation, lactation and post-weaning. Analyses showed that a post-weaning high fat/high sugar (HF/HS) diet had the main negative effect on adult body weight, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. However, dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis revealed that animals born to a mother fed a HF/HS gestation diet, nursed by a mother on a mildly diet-restricted, low fat/low sugar diet (DR) and weaned onto a HF/HS diet (HF/DR/HF) had the highest mammary tumor incidence, while HF/HF/DR had the lowest tumor incidence...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904022/pi3k%C3%AE-ablation-does-not-promote-diabetes-in-db-db-mice-but-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-reduces-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis
#10
Ludovic Breasson, Claudia Sardi, Barbara Becattini, Fabio Zani, Giovanni Solinas
PI3Kγ has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance; however, previous studies have indicated that PI3Kγ activity in pancreatic β-cells is required for normal insulin secretion in response to glucose. Hence, a possible deterioration of insulin secretion capacity in patients who are predisposed to the failure of pancreatic β-cell function is a major concern for the pharmacologic inhibition of PI3Kγ. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of PI3Kγ ablation in db/db diabetic mice, a genetic model of obesity-driven β-cell failure and diabetes...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895540/polymorphism-rs3123554-in-the-cannabinoid-receptor-gene-type-2-cnr2-reveals-effects-on-body-weight-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-subjects
#11
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, Beatriz de la Fuente, Rocio Aller
BACKGROUND: Few studies assessing the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CNR2 and obesity or its related metabolic parameters are available. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of polymorphism rs3123554 in the CNR2 receptor gene on obesity anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance, and adipokines in subjects with obesity. DESIGN: The study population consisted of 1027 obese subjects, who were performed bioelectrical impedance analyses, blood pressure measurements, serial assessments of dietary intake during three days, and biochemical tests...
October 2017: Endocrinología, diabetes y nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894445/adipose-tissue-inflammation-induces-b-cell-inflammation-and-decreases-b-cell-function-in-aging
#12
REVIEW
Daniela Frasca, Bonnie B Blomberg
Aging is the greatest risk factor for developing chronic diseases. Inflamm-aging, the age-related increase in low-grade chronic inflammation, may be a common link in age-related diseases. This review summarizes recent published data on potential cellular and molecular mechanisms of the age-related increase in inflammation, and how these contribute to decreased humoral immune responses in aged mice and humans. Briefly, we cover how aging and related inflammation decrease antibody responses in mice and humans, and how obesity contributes to the mechanisms for aging through increased inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893558/the-effects-of-chronic-testosterone-administration-on-body-weight-food-intake-and-fat-weight-were-age-dependent
#13
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Mayila Yiliyasi, Kiyohito Yano, Minoru Irahara
Previously, we showed that chronic testosterone administration increased body weight (BW) and food intake (FI), but did not alter fat weight, in young female rats. To examine our hypothesis that the effects of androgens on BW, FI and body composition might be age-dependent, the effects of chronic testosterone administration were evaluated in rats of different ages; i.e., young and middle-aged rats. Although chronic testosterone administration increased BW gain, FI, and feed efficiency in both young and middle-aged rats, it increased visceral fat weight in middle-aged rats, but not in young rats...
September 8, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893239/association-of-tcm-body-constitution-with-insulin-resistance-and-risk-of-diabetes-in-impaired-glucose-regulation-patients
#14
Hong You, Tong Zhang, Wen Feng, Yun Gai
BACKGROUND: Impaired glucose regulation (IGR) patients have increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Identifying relevant risk factors in IGR subjects could facilitate early detection and prevention of IGR progression to diabetes. This study investigated the association between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) body constitution and serum cytokines, and whether body constitution could independently predict diabetes in IGR subjects. METHOD: Patients with IGR (n = 306) received a blood test and their body constitution type was assessed using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ)...
September 11, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890432/obesity-and-insulin-resistance-are-significant-predictors-of-serum-leptin-levels
#15
Fatma Beyazıt, Mesut A Ünsal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888461/a-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-enriched-in-blue-mussels-protects-against-systemic-inflammation-metabolic-dysregulation-and-weight-gain-in-c57bl-6-mice
#16
Hitesh B Vaidya, Surendiran Gangadaran, Sukhinder K Cheema
High fat-high sucrose (HF-HS) diet, known as the western diet, has been shown to induce the onset of obesity via increasing metabolic inflammation, insulin resistance and adipose tissue dysfunction. Hyperleptinemia, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are also the primary observations of obesogenic diet induced obesity. We have previously reported anti-adipogenic and insulin sensitizing effects of blue mussels (BM) using 3T3-L1 cells. BM is a rich source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols and other micronutrients that has been shown to elicit benefits under obese conditions using in-vitro cell culture models...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885548/novel-insights-into-the-adipokinome-of-obese-and-obese-diabetic-mouse-models
#17
Birgit Knebel, Simon Goeddeke, Gereon Poschmann, Daniel F Markgraf, Sylvia Jacob, Ulrike Nitzgen, Waltraud Passlack, Christina Preuss, Hans-Dieter Dicken, Kai Stühler, Sonja Hartwig, Stefan Lehr, Jorg Kotzka
The group of adipokines comprises hundreds of biological active proteins and peptides released from adipose tissue. Alterations of those complex protein signatures are suggested to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of multifactorial, metabolic diseases. We hypothesized that also the pathophysiology of type-2-diabetes is linked to the dysregulation of the adipocyte secretome. To test this, we investigated mouse models with monogenic defects in leptin signaling which are susceptible to adipositas (C57BL/6 Cg-Lep(ob) (obob)) or adipositas with diabetes (C57BL/KS Cg-Lepr(db) (dbdb)) according to their genetic background...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883542/longitudinal-micro-ultrasound-assessment-of-the-ob-ob-mouse-model-evaluation-of-cardiovascular-renal-and-hepatic-parameters
#18
N Di Lascio, C Kusmic, F Stea, F Lenzarini, C Barsanti, A Leloup, F Faita
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and is associated with increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Leptin-deficient mice (ob/ob) are widely employed to investigate obesity. Aim of this study was to provide a micro-ultrasound (μUS) longitudinal evaluation of the ob/ob mouse model in terms of cardiovascular effects, consequences for renal microcirculation and liver fat accumulation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sixteen wild-type (wt) and eleven ob/ob male mice were studied at 8 (T0) and 25 (T1) weeks of age with a μUS system (Vevo2100) and B-mode and Doppler images were acquired...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883516/effects-of-low-intensity-pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-on-bone-microarchitecture-mechanical-strength-and-bone-turnover-in-type-2-diabetic-db-db-mice
#19
Jianjun Li, Zhaobin Zeng, Yantao Zhao, Da Jing, Chuhua Tang, Yin Ding, Xue Feng
Type 2 diabetic patients have impaired bone quality, leading to increased fracture risk. Substantial evidence demonstrates that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) could resist osteopenia/osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency and disuse. However, the effects of PEMF on osteopenia/osteoporosis associated with diabetes, especially for more prevalent type 2 diabetes, remain poorly understood. We herein investigated the skeletal effects and mechanisms of PEMF (15 Hz, 20 Gs) on leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice with typical type 2 diabetic symptoms...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880885/markers-of-intestinal-permeability-are-already-altered-in-early-stages-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-studies-in-children
#20
Anika Nier, Anna Janina Engstler, Ina Barbara Maier, Ina Bergheim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies have shown that patients with manifest non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), e.g. steatosis grade 3 or steatohepatitis with or without beginning fibrosis frequently show altered fecal microbiota composition and elevated bacterial endotoxin levels. However, if these alterations are signs of a progressing disease or are already found in initial disease stages has not yet been clarified. METHODS: Twenty children with simple steatosis (grade 1) diagnosed by ultrasound and 29 normal weight healthy control children (age <10 years) were included in the study (mean age 7...
2017: PloS One
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