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Leptin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726640/c1q-tnf-related-protein-6-ctrp6-links-obesity-to-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#1
Xia Lei, Marcus M Seldin, Hannah C Little, Nicholas Choy, Thomas Klonisch, G William Wong
Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, and metabolic regulators linking obesity to inflammation have therefore received much attention. Secreted C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) are one such group of regulators that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in peripheral tissues and modulate inflammation in adipose tissue. We have previously shown that expression of CTRP6 is up-regulated in leptin-deficient mice and, conversely, down-regulated by the anti-diabetic drug, rosiglitazone. Here, we provide evidence for a novel role of CTRP6 in modulating both inflammation and insulin sensitivity...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724799/galantamine-alleviates-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-randomized-trial
#2
Fernanda M Consolim-Colombo, Carine T Sangaleti, Fernando O Costa, Tercio L Morais, Heno F Lopes, Josiane M Motta, Maria C Irigoyen, Luiz A Bortoloto, Carlos Eduardo Rochitte, Yael Tobi Harris, Sanjaya K Satapathy, Peder S Olofsson, Meredith Akerman, Sangeeta S Chavan, Meggan MacKay, Douglas P Barnaby, Martin L Lesser, Jesse Roth, Kevin J Tracey, Valentin A Pavlov
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an obesity-driven condition of pandemic proportions that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood, though inflammation has been implicated in MetS pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of galantamine, a centrally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with antiinflammatory properties, on markers of inflammation implicated in insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk, and other metabolic and cardiovascular indices in subjects with MetS...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723688/trigonelline-inhibits-inflammation-and-protects-%C3%AE-cells-to-prevent-fetal-growth-restriction-during-pregnancy-in-a-mouse-model-of-diabetes
#3
Ji-Yin Zhou, Xiao-Huang Du, Zuo Zhang, Gui-Sheng Qian
BACKGROUND: As an active component from traditional Chinese medicine, trigonelline has a protective effect on diabetes. This study evaluated the protective effects of trigonelline on diabetic mice during pregnancy. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in female mice by intraperitoneal injection for continuous 5-day of 40 mg/kg/day streptozotocin. Female mice were divided into 4 groups after they were allowed to mate with normal male mice: nondiabetic, nondiabetic treated with trigonelline (70 mg/kg) for 18 days, diabetic, and diabetic treated with trigonelline (70 mg/kg)...
July 20, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722317/reward-capacity-predicts-leptin-dynamics-during-laboratory-controlled-eating-in-women-as-a-function-of-body-mass-index
#4
Laura M Holsen, Benita Jackson
OBJECTIVE: The role of leptin in mesolimbic signaling of non-food-related rewards has been well established at the preclinical level, yet studies in humans are lacking. The present investigation explored the association between hedonic capacity and leptin dynamics and whether this association differed by BMI class. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 75 women (42 with BMIs in the lean range and 33 with BMIs in the obesity range), serum leptin before and after meal consumption was measured...
July 19, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717143/fish-oil-supplementation-to-rats-fed-high-fat-diet-during-pregnancy-prevents-development-of-impaired-insulin-sensitivity-in-male-adult-offspring
#5
Benjamin B Albert, Mark H Vickers, Clint Gray, Clare M Reynolds, Stephanie A Segovia, José G B Derraik, Manohar L Garg, David Cameron-Smith, Paul L Hofman, Wayne S Cutfield
We examined whether maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy could prevent development of insulin resistance in adult male offspring of rat dams fed a high-fat diet. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rat dams were randomised into four treatment groups: Con-Con, dams fed a control diet (fat: 15% kcal) and administered water by gavage; Con-FO, control diet with unoxidised fish oil by gavage; HF-Con, high-fat diet (fat: 45% kcal) and water by gavage; and HF-FO, high-fat diet and unoxidised fish oil by gavage...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715640/voluntary-running-of-defined-distances-reduces-body-adiposity-and-its-associated-inflammation-in-c57bl-6-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#6
Lin Yan, Sneha Sundaram, Forrest H Nielsen
This study investigated the effect of voluntary running of defined distances on body adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice were assigned to six groups and fed a standard AIN93G diet (sedentary) or a modified high-fat AIN93G diet (sedentary, unrestricted running, or 75%, 50% or 25% of unrestricted running) for 12 weeks. The average running distance was 8.3, 6.3, 4.2 and 2.1 km/day for the unrestricted, 75%, 50%, and 25% of unrestricted runners, respectively. Body adiposity was 46% higher in sedentary mice when fed the high-fat instead of the standard diet...
July 17, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713486/concurrent-aerobic-and-resistance-training-has-anti-inflammatory-effects-and-increases-both-plasma-and-leukocyte-levels-of-igf-1-in-late-middle-aged-type-2-diabetic-patients
#7
Giosuè Annibalini, Francesco Lucertini, Deborah Agostini, Luciana Vallorani, Annamaria Gioacchini, Elena Barbieri, Michele Guescini, Lucia Casadei, Annunziata Passalia, Marta Del Sal, Giovanni Piccoli, Mauro Andreani, Ario Federici, Vilberto Stocchi
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an age-related chronic disease associated with metabolic dysregulation, chronic inflammation, and activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a concurrent exercise training program on inflammatory status and metabolic parameters of T2D patients. Sixteen male patients (age range 55-70) were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 8), which underwent a concurrent aerobic and resistance training program (3 times a week; 16 weeks), or to a control group, which followed physicians' usual diabetes care advices...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711599/arachidonic-acid-sex-dependently-affects-obesity-through-linking-gut-microbiota-driven-inflammation-to-hypothalamus-adipose-liver-axis
#8
Pan Zhuang, Qiyang Shou, Yanhua Lu, Guangfa Wang, Jieni Qiu, Jun Wang, Lilin He, Jingnan Chen, Jingjing Jiao, Yu Zhang
Unraveling the role of dietary lipids is beneficial to treat obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Nonetheless, how dietary lipids affect existing obesity remains unknown. Arachidonic acid (AA), a derivative of linoleic acid, is one of the crucial n-6 fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AA affects obesity through associating microbiota-driven inflammation with hypothalamus-adipose-liver axis. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 10 weeks to induce obesity, and then fed a HFD enriched with 10 g/kg of AA or a continuous HFD in the following 15 weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710554/morphofunctional-changes-after-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-very-low-calorie-diet-in-an-animal-model-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Eider Talavera-Urquijo, Sarai Rodríguez-Navarro, Marc Beisani, Maria Teresa Salcedo-Allende, Aisha Chakkur, Marc Arús-Avilés, Manel Cremades, Salvador Augustin, María Martell, José M Balibrea
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease and is found in 70% of obese people. The evidence available to date suggests that bariatric surgery could be an effective treatment by reducing weight and also by improving metabolic complications in the long term. This work aimed to compare, in a diet-induced NAFLD animal model, the effect of both sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and very-low calorie diet (VLCD). METHODS: Thirty-five Wistar rats were divided into control rats (n = 7) and obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...
July 15, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706476/long-term-sex-dependent-vulnerability-to-metabolic-challenges-in-prenatally-stressed-rats
#10
Pamela Panetta, Alessandra Berry, Veronica Bellisario, Sara Capoccia, Carla Raggi, Alessia Luoni, Linda Longo, Marco A Riva, Francesca Cirulli
Prenatal stress (PNS) might affect the developmental programming of adult chronic diseases such as metabolic and mood disorders. The molecular mechanisms underlying such regulations may rely upon long-term changes in stress-responsive effectors such as Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) that can affect neuronal plasticity underlying mood disorders and may also play a role in metabolic regulation. Based upon previous data, we hypothesized that PNS might lead to greater vulnerability to an obesogenic challenge experienced at adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705795/selective-deletion-of-leptin-signaling-in-endothelial-cells-enhances-neointima-formation-and-phenocopies-the-vascular-effects-of-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#11
Astrid Hubert, Magdalena L Bochenek, Eva Schütz, Rajinikanth Gogiraju, Thomas Münzel, Katrin Schäfer
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with elevated circulating leptin levels and hypothalamic leptin resistance. Leptin receptors (LepRs) are expressed on endothelial cells, and leptin promotes neointima formation in a receptor-dependent manner. Our aim was to examine the importance of endothelial LepR (End.LepR) signaling during vascular remodeling and to determine whether the cardiovascular consequences of obesity are because of hyperleptinemia or endothelial leptin resistance. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Mice with loxP-flanked LepR alleles were mated with mice expressing Cre recombinase controlled by the inducible endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase promoter...
July 13, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702328/ask1-map3k5-is-transcriptionally-upregulated-by-e2f1-in-adipose-tissue-in-obesity-molecularly-defining-a-human-dys-metabolic-obese-phenotype
#12
Yulia Haim, Matthias Blüher, Daniel Konrad, Nir Goldstein, Nora Klöting, Ilana Harman-Boehm, Boris Kirshtein, Doron Ginsberg, Tanya Tarnovscki, Yftach Gepner, Iris Shai, Assaf Rudich
OBJECTIVE: Obesity variably disrupts human health, but molecular-based patients' health-risk stratification is limited. Adipose tissue (AT) stresses may link obesity with metabolic dysfunction, but how they signal in humans remains poorly-characterized. We hypothesized that a transcriptional AT stress-signaling cascade involving E2F1 and ASK1 (MAP3K5) molecularly defines high-risk obese subtype. METHODS: ASK1 expression in human AT biopsies was determined by real-time PCR analysis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) adopted to AT explants was used to evaluate the binding of E2F1 to the ASK1 promoter...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699230/short-term-high-fat-diet-increases-the-presence-of-astrocytes-in-the-hypothalamus-of-c57bl6-mice-without-altering-leptin-sensitivity
#13
Eglantine Balland, Michael A Cowley
Diet-induced obesity is associated with hypothalamic inflammation and this phenomenon has been proposed to explain leptin resistance. In this study we used a short-term high fat diet (HFD) paradigm for 10days and analysed the cellular and physiological responses to leptin administration in C57BL6 mice. In parallel we performed GFAP immuno-staining to measure the presence of astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) after 10 days and 20 weeks of HFD. Interestingly our results demonstrate that the presence of star-like astrocytes is significantly increased after 10 days of HFD but this is not associated with the absence of cellular and physiological response to leptin administration in mice...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694663/inhibition-of-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-induced-gastric-tumorigenesis-by-liuwei-dihuang-pill-in-db-db-mice
#14
Shan Zhuang, Yong-Mei Jian, Yong-Ning Sun
AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of Liuwei Dihuang Pill (LDP) on gastric tumorigenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in diabetic mice. METHODS: Four-week-old mice were divided into four groups: A, 12 db/m mice treated with MNU and saline, as the non-diabetic control; B, 12 db/db mice treated with MNU and saline, as the diabetic control; C, 12 db/db mice treated with MNU and metformin, as the positive control; and D, 12 db/db mice treated with MNU and LDP...
June 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692538/metabolic-syndrome-and-obesity-are-the-cornerstones-of-liver-fibrosis-in-hiv-monoinfected-patients-results-of-the-metafib-study
#15
Maud Lemoine, Karine Lacombe, Jean Philippe Bastard, Manuela Sébire, Laurent Fonquernie, Nadia Valin, Soraya Fellahi, Jacqueline Capeau, Pierre-Marie Girard, Jean-Luc Meynard
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have become a common finding in HIV-infected patients. However, the severity, risk factors and pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in this population have been poorly documented. OBJECTIVES: to assess the impact of MetS on liver fibrosis and analyze the association between MetS, liver fibrosis and markers of adipose tissue and macrophage activation. METHODS: In a matched cohort of HIV-1-monoinfected patients with and without MetS, after exclusion of other causes of liver disease, we assessed liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and measured levels of serum adipokines, HOMA index and soluble CD163 and CD14 as markers of fat, insulin resistance and macrophage/monocyte activation, respectively...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691147/gastric-bypass-simultaneously-improves-adipose-tissue-function-and-insulin-dependent-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Adrian T Billeter, Spiros Vittas, Barbara Israel, Katharina M Scheurlen, Asa Hidmark, Thomas H Fleming, Stefan Kopf, Markus W Büchler, Beat P Müller-Stich
OBJECTIVE: The underlying causes of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue dysfunction with high leptin, inflammation, and increased oxidative stress may play a pivotal role in T2DM development in obese patients. Little is known about the changes in the adipose tissue after Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in non-severely obese patients (BMI < 35 kg/m(2)) and since these patients have more T2DM-associated complications than obese patients ("obesity paradox"), we investigated changes in adipose tissue function in a cohort of BMI <35 kg/m(2) with insulin-dependent T2DM after RYGB surgery which resolves T2DM...
July 9, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690194/examining-a-role-for-pkg-i%C3%AE-oxidation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-dysfunction-during-diet-induced-obesity
#17
Olena Rudyk, Philip Eaton
BACKGROUND: Protein kinase G (PKG) Iα is the end-effector kinase that mediates nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and oxidant-dependent vasorelaxation to maintain blood pressure during health. A hallmark of cardiovascular disease is attenuated NO production, which in part is caused by NO Synthase (NOS) uncoupling, which in turn increases oxidative stress because of superoxide generation. NOS uncoupling promotes PKG Iα oxidation to the interprotein disulfide state, likely mediated by superoxide-derived hydrogen peroxide, and because the NO-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway otherwise negatively regulates oxidation of the kinase to its active disulfide dimeric state...
July 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687198/neu-p11-a-novel-mt1-mt2-agonist-reverses-diabetes-by-suppressing-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-rats
#18
Jun Zhou, Jin Zhang, XiaoHong Luo, MaoXing Li, Ying Yue, Moshe Laudon, ZhengPing Jia, RuXue Zhang
Excessive glucocorticoid (GC) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) reduces insulin sensitivity, impairs β-cell function, increases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, impairs glucose uptake and metabolism, and reduces the insulinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1. Melatonin, which serves as a physiological regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has been suggested to have anti-diabetic effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the MT1/MT2 melatonin agonist Neu-P11 on glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM rats induced by a high fat diet combined with low doses of streptozotocin...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686216/butyrate-reduces-hfd-induced-adipocyte-hypertrophy-and-metabolic-risk-factors-in-obese-ldlr-leiden-mice
#19
Charlotte E Pelgrim, Bart A A Franx, Jessica Snabel, Robert Kleemann, Ilse A C Arnoldussen, Amanda J Kiliaan
Adipose tissue (AT) has a modulating role in obesity-induced metabolic complications like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) via the production of so-called adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. The adipokines are believed to influence other tissues and to affect insulin resistance, liver function, and to increase the risk of T2DM. In this study, we examined the impact of intervention with the short-chain fatty acid butyrate following a high-fat diet (HFD) on AT function and other metabolic risk factors associated with obesity and T2DM in mice during mid- and late life...
July 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686191/the-gene-lifestyle-interaction-on-leptin-sensitivity-and-lipid-metabolism-in-adults-a-population-based-study
#20
Harry Freitag Luglio, Dian Caturini Sulistyoningrum, Emy Huriyati, Yi Yi Lee, Wan Abdul Manan Wan Muda
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with leptin resistance and this might be caused by genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene-lifestyle interaction between -866G/A UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2) gene polymorphism, dietary intake and leptin in a population based study. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study conducted in adults living at urban area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data of adiposity, lifestyle, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, leptin and UCP2 gene polymorphism were obtained in 380 men and female adults...
July 7, 2017: Nutrients
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