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Pentose Phosphate Pathway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425844/the-role-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-in-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-obesity
#1
Yoon Jeong Park, Sung Sik Choe, Jee Hyung Sohn, Jae Bum Kim
Obesity is closely associated with metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. One hallmark characteristics of obesity is chronic inflammation that is coordinately controlled by complex signaling networks in adipose tissues. Compelling evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its related signaling pathways play crucial roles in the progression of chronic inflammation in obesity. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is an anabolic pathway that utilizes the glucoses to generate molecular building blocks and reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH...
February 8, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424264/identification-of-a-multienzyme-complex-for-glucose-metabolism-in-living-cells
#2
Casey L Kohnhorst, Minjoung Kyoung, Miji Jeon, Danielle L Schmitt, Erin L Kennedy, Julio Ramirez, Syrena M Bracey, Bao Tran Luu, Sarah J Russell, Songon An
Sequential metabolic enzymes in glucose metabolism have long been hypothesized to form multienzyme complexes that regulate glucose flux in living cells. However, it has been challenging to directly observe these complexes and their functional roles in living systems. In this work, we have used wide-field and confocal fluorescence microscopy to investigate the spatial organization of metabolic enzymes participating in glucose metabolism in human cells. We provide compelling evidence that human liver-type phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKL), which catalyzes a bottleneck step of glycolysis, forms various sizes of cytoplasmic clusters in human cancer cells, independent of protein expression levels and of the choice of fluorescent tags...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420478/-research-progress-on-metabolism-of-monocytes-and-macrophages-in-sepsis
#3
Changli Wang, Lulong Bo, Xiaoming Deng
During sepsis, circulating leukocytes are in a hyper inflammatory state, and with the progress of the inflammation, immune cells may become tolerated. Glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway are up-regulated but oxidative phosphorylation is suppressed in hyper inflammatory cells, whereas during immune tolerance, glycolysis is often down-regulated. In this review, we will summarize the changes of cellular metabolic pathways in monocytes and macrophages during sepsis. We also review how the metabolism of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids affect the function of monocytes and macrophages in sepsis...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418108/metabolic-characterization-and-transformation-of-the-non-dairy-lactococcus-lactis-strain-kf147-for-production-of-ethanol-from-xylose
#4
Kia Vest Petersen, Jianming Liu, Jun Chen, Jan Martinussen, Peter Ruhdal Jensen, Christian Solem
The non-dairy lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis KF147 can utilize xylose as the sole energy source. To assess whether KF147 could serve as a platform organism for converting second generation sugars into useful chemicals, we characterized growth and product formation for KF147 when grown on xylose. In a defined medium KF147 was found to co-metabolize xylose and arginine, resulting in bi-phasic growth. Especially at low xylose concentrations, arginine significantly improved growth rate. To facilitate further studies of the xylose metabolism, we eliminated arginine catabolism by deleting the arcA gene encoding the arginine deiminase...
April 18, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412312/updates-to-a-13-c-metabolic-flux-analysis-model-for-evaluating-energy-metabolism-in-cultured-cerebellar-granule-neurons-from-neonatal-rats
#5
Mika B Jekabsons, Hoda M Gebril, Yan-Hong Wang, Bharathi Avula, Ikhlas A Khan
A hexose phosphate recycling model previously developed to infer fluxes through the major glucose consuming pathways in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) from neonatal rats metabolizing [1,2-(13)C2]glucose was revised by considering reverse flux through the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and symmetrical succinate oxidation within the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The model adjusts three flux ratios to effect (13)C distribution in the hexose, pentose, and triose phosphate pools, and in TCA cycle malate to minimize the error between predicted and measured (13)C labeling in exported lactate (i...
April 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401919/mutations-in-pmr1-stimulate-xylose-isomerase-activity-and-anaerobic-growth-on-xylose-of-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-by-influencing-manganese-homeostasis
#6
Maarten D Verhoeven, Misun Lee, Lycka Kamoen, Marcel van den Broek, Dick B Janssen, Jean-Marc G Daran, Antonius J A van Maris, Jack T Pronk
Combined overexpression of xylulokinase, pentose-phosphate-pathway enzymes and a heterologous xylose isomerase (XI) is required but insufficient for anaerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on d-xylose. Single-step Cas9-assisted implementation of these modifications yielded a yeast strain expressing Piromyces XI that showed fast aerobic growth on d-xylose. However, anaerobic growth required a 12-day adaptation period. Xylose-adapted cultures carried mutations in PMR1, encoding a Golgi Ca(2+)/Mn(2+) ATPase...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390424/grmd-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-gene-profiles-are-distinct
#7
Larry W Markham, Candice L Brinkmeyer-Langford, Jonathan H Soslow, Manisha Gupte, Douglas B Sawyer, Joe N Kornegay, Cristi L Galindo
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the DMD gene, which codes for the dystrophin protein. While progress has been made in defining the molecular basis and pathogenesis of DMD, major gaps remain in understanding mechanisms that contribute to the marked delay in cardiac compared to skeletal muscle dysfunction. METHODS: To address this question, we analyzed cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue microarrays from golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs, a genetically and clinically homologous model for DMD...
April 8, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384531/proteome-analysis-reveals-an-energy-dependent-central-process-for-populus%C3%A3-canadensis-seed-germination
#8
Hong Zhang, Ke-Xin Zhou, Wei-Qing Wang, Shu-Jun Liu, Song-Quan Song
Poplar (Populus×canadensis) seeds rapidly germinated in darkness at 10, 15, and 20°C and reached 50% seed germination after about 22, 4.5, and 3.5h, respectively. Germination of poplar seeds was markedly inhibited by abscisic acid (ABA) at 50μM and cycloheximide (CHX) at 100μM, and these inhibitive roles were temperature-dependent. In the present study, mature poplar seeds were used to investigate the differentially changed proteome of seeds germinating in water, ABA, and CHX. A total of 130 protein spots showed a significant change (1...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384067/mir-101-enhances-cisplatin-induced-dna-damage-through-decreasing-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate-levels-by-directly-repressing-tp53-induced-glycolysis-and-apoptosis-regulator-expression-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#9
Shiqiao Huang, Zhiguo Yang, Yong Ma, Yiyong Yang, Shangren Wang
Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) enhances the pentose phosphate pathway, thereby contributing directly to DNA repair due to generation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and ribose-5-phosphate, two key precursors of DNA synthesis and repair. Targetscan database showed that miR-101 was predicted to potentially target TIGAR. Therefore, we speculated that miR-101 could enhance cisplatin-induced DNA damage by directly repressing TIGAR expression in prostate cancer cells...
April 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382205/monitoring-yeast-mitochondria-with-peroxiredoxin-based-redox-probes-the-influence-of-oxygen-and-glucose-availability
#10
Daniel Pastor-Flores, Katja Becker, Tobias P Dick
Mitochondrially generated oxidants are believed to play important roles in both physiology and pathophysiology. Therefore, it is of significant interest to better understand the metabolic conditions leading to enhanced mitochondrial oxidant generation. Here, we investigate the influence of oxygen and glucose availability on the redox state of peroxiredoxin-based redox probes, expressed in the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix of yeast cells. We observe that the redox state of peroxiredoxin probes reflects the balance between dioxygen-dependent peroxide generation and glucose-dependent generation of reducing equivalents...
April 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378827/real-time-itraq-based-proteome-profiling-revealed-the-central-metabolism-involved-in-nitrogen-starvation-induced-lipid-accumulation-in-microalgae
#11
Vineeta Rai, Muthusivaramapandian Muthuraj, Mayuri N Gandhi, Debasish Das, Sanjeeva Srivastava
To understand the post-transcriptional molecular mechanisms attributing to oleaginousness in microalgae challenged with nitrogen starvation (N-starvation), the longitudinal proteome dynamics of Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG was investigated using multipronged quantitative proteomics and multiple reaction monitoring assays. Physiological data suggested a remarkably enhanced lipid accumulation with concomitant reduction in carbon flux towards carbohydrate, protein and chlorophyll biosynthesis. The proteomics-based investigations identified the down-regulation of enzymes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis (porphobilinogen deaminase) and photosynthetic carbon fixation (sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphate and phosphoribulokinase)...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378759/quantitative-proteomics-by-swath-ms-reveals-sophisticated-metabolic-reprogramming-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tissues
#12
Yanyan Gao, Xinzheng Wang, Zhihong Sang, Zongcheng Li, Feng Liu, Jie Mao, Dan Yan, Yongqiang Zhao, Hongli Wang, Ping Li, Xiaomin Ying, Xuemin Zhang, Kun He, Hongxia Wang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and understanding its molecular pathogenesis is pivotal to managing this disease. Sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS) is an optimal proteomic strategy to seek crucial proteins involved in HCC development and progression. In this study, a quantitative proteomic study of tumour and adjacent non-tumour liver tissues was performed using a SWATH-MS strategy. In total, 4,216 proteins were reliably quantified, and 338 were differentially expressed, with 191 proteins up-regulated and 147 down-regulated in HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumourous tissues...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367976/proteomic-signature-of-muscle-fibre-hyperplasia-in-response-to-faba-bean-intake-in-grass-carp
#13
Er-Meng Yu, Hao-Fang Zhang, Zhi-Fei Li, Guang-Jun Wang, Hong-Kai Wu, Jun Xie, De-Guang Yu, Yun Xia, Kai Zhang, Wang-Bo Gong
Fish muscle growth is important for the rapidly developing global aquaculture industry, particularly with respect to production and quality. Changes in muscle fibre size are accomplished by altering the balance between protein synthesis and proteolysis. However, our understanding regarding the effects of different protein sources on fish muscle proteins is still limited. Here we report on the proteomic profile of muscle fibre hyperplasia in grass carp fed only with whole faba bean. From the results, a total of 99 significantly changed proteins after muscle hyperplasia increase were identified (p < 0...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367246/overexpression-of-g6pd-represents-a-potential-prognostic-factor-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#14
Qiao Zhang, Xiaojia Yi, Zhe Yang, Qiaoqiao Han, Xuesong Di, Fufei Chen, Yanling Wang, Zihan Yi, Yingmin Kuang, Yuechun Zhu
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) participates in glucose metabolism and it acts as the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Recently, G6PD dysregulation has been found in a variety of human cancers. Through analyzing published data in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), our pilot study indicated that G6PD mRNA expression was significantly higher in advanced Fuhrman grade in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). These clues promoted us to further evaluate the expression profile of G6PD and its prognostic impact in patients with ccRCC...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360941/co-production-of-hydrogen-and-ethanol-from-glucose-in-escherichia-coli-by-activation-of-pentose-phosphate-pathway-through-deletion-of-phosphoglucose-isomerase-pgi-and-overexpression-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-zwf-and-6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase
#15
Balaji Sundara Sekar, Eunhee Seol, Sunghoon Park
BACKGROUND: Biologically, hydrogen (H2) can be produced through dark fermentation and photofermentation. Dark fermentation is fast in rate and simple in reactor design, but H2 production yield is unsatisfactorily low as <4 mol H2/mol glucose. To address this challenge, simultaneous production of H2 and ethanol has been suggested. Co-production of ethanol and H2 requires enhanced formation of NAD(P)H during catabolism of glucose, which can be accomplished by diversion of glycolytic flux from the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway to the pentose-phosphate (PP) pathway in Escherichia coli...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360896/comparative-genomics-of-four-isosphaeraceae-planctomycetes-a-common-pool-of-plasmids-and-glycoside-hydrolase-genes-shared-by-paludisphaera-borealis-px4-t-isosphaera-pallida-is1b-t-singulisphaera-acidiphila-dsm-18658-t-and-strain-sh-pl62
#16
Anastasia A Ivanova, Daniil G Naumoff, Kirill K Miroshnikov, Werner Liesack, Svetlana N Dedysh
The family Isosphaeraceae accommodates stalk-free planctomycetes with spherical cells, which can be assembled in short chains, long filaments, or aggregates. These bacteria inhabit a wide variety of terrestrial environments, among those the recently described Paludisphaera borealis PX4(T) that was isolated from acidic boreal wetlands. Here, we analyzed its finished genome in comparison to those of three other members of the Isosphaeraceae: Isosphaera pallida IS1B(T), Singulisphaera acidiphila DSM 18658(T), and the uncharacterized planctomycete strain SH-PL62...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360422/immunometabolism-in-early-and-late-stages-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
REVIEW
Cornelia M Weyand, Jörg J Goronzy
One of the fundamental traits of immune cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is their ability to proliferate, a property shared with the joint-resident cells that form the synovial pannus. The building of biomass imposes high demands for energy and biosynthetic precursors, implicating metabolic control as a basic disease mechanism. During preclinical RA, when autoreactive T cells expand and immunological tolerance is broken, the main sites of disease are the secondary lymphoid tissues. Naive CD4(+) T cells from patients with RA have a distinct metabolic signature, characterized by dampened glycolysis, low ATP levels and enhanced shunting of glucose into the pentose phosphate pathway...
March 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358014/untargeted-metabolomics-analysis-reveals-key-pathways-responsible-for-the-synergistic-killing-of-colistin-and-doripenem-combination-against-acinetobacter-baumannii
#18
Mohd Hafidz Mahamad Maifiah, Darren J Creek, Roger L Nation, Alan Forrest, Brian T Tsuji, Tony Velkov, Jian Li
Combination therapy is deployed for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, as it can rapidly develop resistance to current antibiotics. This is the first study to investigate the synergistic effect of colistin/doripenem combination on the metabolome of A. baumannii. The metabolite levels were measured using LC-MS following treatment with colistin (2 mg/L) or doripenem (25 mg/L) alone, and their combination at 15 min, 1 hr and 4 hr (n = 4). Colistin caused early (15 min and 1 hr) disruption of the bacterial outer membrane and cell wall, as demonstrated by perturbation of glycerophospholipids and fatty acids...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356004/post-transcriptional-and-post-translational-regulation-of-central-carbon-metabolic-enzymes-in-cancer
#19
Yunqian Wang, Yingxuan Chen, Jingyuan Fang
Malignant transformation of cells requires specific adaptations of cellular metabolism to support growth and survival. Alterations in cancer central carbon metabolism including aerobic glycolysis, elevated glutaminolysis, dysregulated tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway, facilitating cancer development by maintaining viability and building new biomass. Although a variety of oncogenes or tumor suppressors contribute to these rewiring, accumulating evidence suggests that both post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications (PTMs) also orchestrate the tightly controlled regulation of cancer metabolic adaptations, broadening the biological mechanisms of cancer metabolic reprogramming...
March 27, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355222/transaldolase-inhibition-impairs-mitochondrial-respiration-and-induces-a-starvation-like-longevity-response-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Christopher F Bennett, Jane J Kwon, Christine Chen, Joshua Russell, Kathlyn Acosta, Nikolay Burnaevskiy, Matthew M Crane, Alessandro Bitto, Helen Vander Wende, Marissa Simko, Victor Pineda, Ryan Rossner, Brian M Wasko, Haeri Choi, Shiwen Chen, Shirley Park, Gholamali Jafari, Bryan Sands, Carissa Perez Olsen, Alexander R Mendenhall, Philip G Morgan, Matt Kaeberlein
Mitochondrial dysfunction can increase oxidative stress and extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Homeostatic mechanisms exist to cope with disruptions to mitochondrial function that promote cellular health and organismal longevity. Previously, we determined that decreased expression of the cytosolic pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme transaldolase activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) and extends lifespan. Here we report that transaldolase (tald-1) deficiency impairs mitochondrial function in vivo, as evidenced by altered mitochondrial morphology, decreased respiration, and increased cellular H2O2 levels...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
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