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Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Jasmine Lee-Barber, Taylor E English, Jacquelyn F Britton, Nara Sobreira, Jason Goldstein, David Valle, Hans Tomas Bjornsson
Transaldolase deficiency (MIM#: 606003) is a rare autosomal recessive defect in the pentose phosphate pathway. Affected individuals are at risk for progressive liver failure and hepatocarcinoma. In the transaldolase-deficient mouse model (Taldo1 -/- ), these hepatic complications are accentuated by oxidative stress related to acetaminophen administration. We report a 13-month-old transaldolase-deficient male who developed mild liver failure after receiving standard doses of acetaminophen during a febrile respiratory syncytial virus infection...
June 20, 2018: JIMD Reports
Carolina Cogo, Julieta Pérez-Giménez, Chandrasekar B Rajeswari, María F Luna, Aníbal R Lodeiro
Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens , a soybean N2 -fixing symbiont, constitutes the basic input in one of the most prominent inoculant industries worldwide. This bacterium may be cultured with D-mannitol or L-arabinose as carbon-plus-energy source (C-source) with similar specific growth rates, but with higher biomass production with D-mannitol. To better understand the bacterium's carbon metabolism, we analyzed, by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (MS), the whole set of proteins obtained from cells grown on each C-source...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shourong Wu, Huimin Wang, Yanjun Li, Yudan Xie, Can Huang, Hezhao Zhao, Makoto Miyagishi, Vivi Kasim
Tumor cells alter their metablosim to meet their demand for macromolecules, support a high rate of proliferation as well as cope with oxidative stress. The transcription factor yin yang 1 (YY1) is upregulated in various types of tumors and is crucial for tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. However, its role in tumor cell metabolic reprogramming is poorly understood. Here we show that YY1 alters tumor cell metabolism by activating glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Research
Juan M Barajas, Ryan Reyes, Maria J Guerrero, Samson T Jacob, Tasneem Motiwala, Kalpana Ghoshal
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Thus, a better understanding of molecular aberrations involved in HCC pathogenesis is necessary for developing effective therapy. It is well established that cancer cells metabolize energy sources differently to rapidly generate biomass. Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP), is often activated in human malignancies to generate precursors for nucleotide and lipid synthesis...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yu Xiu, Guodong Wu, Wensi Tang, Zhengfeng Peng, Xiangpan Bu, Longjun Chao, Xue Yin, Jiannan Xiong, Haiwu Zhang, Xiaoqing Zhao, Jing Ding, Lvyi Ma, Huafang Wang, Johannes van Staden
Paeonia ostii var. lishizhenii, a well-known medicinal and horticultural plant, is indigenous to China. Recent studies have shown that its seed has a high oil content, and it was approved as a novel resource of edible oil with a high level of α-linolenic acid by the Chinese Government. This study measured the seed oil contents and fatty acid components of P. ostii var. lishizhenii and six other peonies, P. suffruticosa, P. ludlowii, P. decomposita, P. rockii, and P. lactiflora Pall. 'Heze' and 'Gansu'. The results show that P...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Bin Zhang, Miao Yu, Wen-Ping Wei, Bang-Ce Ye
BACKGROUND: ʟ-Ornithine is an important amino acid with broad applications in pharmaceutical and food industries. Despite lagging ʟ-ornithine productivity and cost reduction, microbial fermentation is a promising route for sustainable ʟ-ornithine production and thus development of robust microbial strains with high stability and productivity is essential. RESULTS: Previously, we systematically developed a new strain, SO1 originate from Corynebacterium glutamicum S9114, for ʟ-ornithine production...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Lina Wang, Rongling Wu, Wenhao Bo
Cryptochromes, a class of blue light photoreceptors, play vital roles in regulating growth and development in higher plants. Despite their control over various important traits, there have been few studies focusing on cryptochromes in forest trees to date. In this study, the Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica) gene PeCRY1 (cryptochrome 1 of Populus euphratica) was isolated and heterologously expressed in Populus tomentosa. Three biological replicates of each of the PeCRY1 transgenic P. tomentosa (CRY1) and wild-type (WT) plants were processed for transcriptome profiling...
April 2018: Genes & Genomics
Carmen Priolo, Damir Khabibullin, Ed Reznik, Harilaos Filippakis, Barbara Ogórek, Taylor R Kavanagh, Julie Nijmeh, Zachary T Herbert, John M Asara, David J Kwiatkowski, Chin-Lee Wu, Elizabeth P Henske
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) accounts for 5% of all sporadic renal cancers and can also occur in genetic syndromes including Birt-Hogg-Dube (BHD) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). ChRCC has a distinct accumulation of abnormal mitochondria, accompanied by characteristic chromosomal imbalances and relatively few "driver" mutations. Metabolomic profiling of ChRCC and oncocytomas (benign renal tumors that share pathological features with ChRCC) revealed both similarities and differences between these tumor types, with principal component analysis (PCA) showing a distinct separation...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xing Zheng, Hongxia Li
Transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) plays an important role in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) branch. The main obstacle of ovarian cancer treatment is chemotherapeutic resistance. We investigated whether inhibiting TKTL1 in OC3/TAX300 cells could re-sensitize paclitaxel-resistant cells to paclitaxel and proposed a mechanism of action. Western blotting revealed that TKTL1 expression levels in OC3/Tax300 cells were significantly higher than those in OC3 cells. Inhibition of TKTL1 significantly decreased the cellular proliferation rate and IC50 for paclitaxel...
June 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nathan R Haines, Niranjan Manoharan, Jeffrey L Olson, Angelo D'Alessandro, Julie A Reisz
The vitreous humor is a highly aqueous eye fluid interfacing with the retina and lens and providing shape. Its molecular composition provides a readout for the eye's physiological status. Changes in cellular metabolism underlie vitreoretinal pathologies, but despite routine surgical collection of vitreous, only limited reports of metabolism in the vitreous of human patients have been described. Here, vitreous samples from patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n=25) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (n=9) were profiled along with control human vitreous samples (n=8) by untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Eric Soubeyrand, Sophie Colombié, Bertrand Beauvoit, Zhanwu Dai, Stéphanie Cluzet, Ghislaine Hilbert, Christel Renaud, Lilly Maneta-Peyret, Martine Dieuaide-Noubhani, Jean-Michel Mérillon, Yves Gibon, Serge Delrot, Eric Gomès
Anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated by environmental factors (such as light, temperature, and water availability) and nutrient status (such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate nutrition). Previous reports show that low nitrogen availability strongly enhances anthocyanin accumulation in non carbon-limited plant organs or cell suspensions. It has been hypothesized that high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio would lead to an energy excess in plant cells, and that an increase in flavonoid pathway metabolic fluxes would act as an "energy escape valve," helping plant cells to cope with energy and carbon excess...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jinyu Cui, Jinjin Diao, Tao Sun, Mengliang Shi, Liangsen Liu, Fangzhong Wang, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang
The heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii has attracted considerable attention due to its capability of accumulating lipids with a high fraction of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In our previous study, ethanolamine (ETA) was identified as an effective chemical modulator for lipid accumulation in C. cohnii . In this study, to gain a better understanding of the lipid metabolism and mechanism for the positive effects of modulator ETA, metabolic flux analysis was performed using 13 C-labeled glucose with and without 1 mM ETA modulator...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michael S Carter, Xinshuai Zhang, Hua Huang, Jason T Bouvier, Brian San Francisco, Matthew W Vetting, Nawar Al-Obaidi, Jeffrey B Bonanno, Agnidipta Ghosh, Rémi G Zallot, Harvey M Andersen, Steven C Almo, John A Gerlt
Colocation of the genes encoding ABC, TRAP, and TCT transport systems and catabolic pathways for the transported ligand provides a strategy for discovering novel microbial enzymes and pathways. We screened solute-binding proteins (SBPs) for ABC transport systems and identified three that bind D-apiose, a branched pentose in the cell walls of higher plants. Guided by sequence similarity networks (SSNs) and genome neighborhood networks (GNNs), the identities of the SBPs enabled the discovery of four catabolic pathways for D-apiose with eleven previously unknown reactions...
June 4, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Iram Aziz, Tahira Bibi, Naeem Rashid, Riku Aono, Haruyuki Atomi, Muhammad Akhtar
The genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum calidifontis contains an open reading frame Pcal_0041 annotated as PfkB family ribokinase consisting of phosphofructokinase and pyrimidine kinase domains. Among biochemically characterized enzymes, the Pcal_0041 protein was 37% identical to the phosphofructokinase (Ape_0012) from Aeropyrum pernix , which displayed kinase activity towards a broad spectrum of substrates including sugars, sugar phosphates and nucleosides, and 36% identical to a phosphofructokinase from Desulfurococcus amylolyticus In order to examine the biochemical function of the Pcal_0041 protein, we cloned and expressed the gene and purified the recombinant protein...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Pavel Dvořák, Víctor de Lorenzo
Given its capacity to tolerate stress, NAD(P)H/ NAD(P) balance, and increased ATP levels, the platform strain Pseudomonas putida EM42, a genome-edited derivative of the soil bacterium P. putida KT2440, can efficiently host a suite of harsh reactions of biotechnological interest. Because of the lifestyle of the original isolate, however, the nutritional repertoire of P. putida EM42 is centered largely on organic acids, aromatic compounds and some hexoses (glucose and fructose). To enlarge the biochemical network of P...
June 1, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
V Raj, S Ojha, F C Howarth, P D Belur, S B Subramanya
The water-soluble vitamin, thiamine forms an important part of the diet because of its role in the energy metabolism. The protective effects of thiamine against diabetic vascular complications have been well documented. However, slower absorption and reduced bioavailability is a major limiting factor for its clinical use. To overcome this issue, lipid-soluble derivatives of thiamine (allithiamines) was developed. Among the many synthetic lipophilic derivatives of thiamine, benfotiamine (BFT) is regarded as the first choice based on its safety and clinical efficacy data...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Verena Christen, Melanie Schirrmann, Juerg Frey, Karl Fent
Neonicotinoids are implicated in the decline of honey bees but the molecular basis underlying adverse effects are poorly known. Here we describe global transcriptomic profiles in the brain of honey bee workers exposed for 48 h at one environmentally realistic and one sublethal concentration of 0.3 and 3.0 ng/bee clothianidin and imidacloprid, respectively, and 0.1 and 1.0 ng/bee thiamethoxam (1-30 ng/mL sucrose solution) by high-throughput RNA-sequencing. All neonicotinoids led to significant alteration (mainly down-regulation) of gene expression, generally with a concentration-dependent effect...
May 31, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Guillermo Bodega, Matilde Alique, Lourdes Bohórquez, Miriam Morán, Luis Magro, Lilian Puebla, Sergio Ciordia, María C Mena, Elvira Arza, Manuel R Ramírez
In a previous study, we demonstrated that endothelial microvesicles (eMVs) have a well-developed enzymatic team involved in reactive oxygen species detoxification. In the present paper, we demonstrate that eMVs can synthesize the reducing power (NAD(P)H) that nourishes this enzymatic team, especially those eMVs derived from senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the molecules that nourish the enzymatic machinery involved in NAD(P)H synthesis are blood plasma metabolites: lactate, pyruvate, glucose, glycerol, and branched-chain amino acids...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Yanan Wang, Sufang Zhang, Zhiwei Zhu, Hongwei Shen, Xinping Lin, Xiang Jin, Xiang Jiao, Zongbao Kent Zhao
Background: Lipid accumulation by oleaginous microorganisms is of great scientific interest and biotechnological potential. While nitrogen limitation has been routinely employed, low-cost raw materials usually contain rich nitrogenous components, thus preventing from efficient lipid production. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) limitation has been found sufficient to promote conversion of sugars into lipids, yet the molecular basis of cellular response to Pi limitation and concurrent lipid accumulation remains elusive...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Matthew E Bechard, Anna E Word, Amanda V Tran, Xiaojing Liu, Jason W Locasale, Oliver G McDonald
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) adopts several unique metabolic strategies to support primary tumor growth. Whether additional metabolic strategies are adopted to support metastatic tumorigenesis is less clear. This could be particularly relevant for distant metastasis, which often follows a rapidly progressive clinical course. Here we report that PDAC distant metastases evolve a unique series of metabolic reactions to maintain activation of the anabolic glucose enzyme phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD)...
May 30, 2018: Oncogene
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