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Malachi W Gillick-Healy, Elizabeth V Jennings, Helge Muller-Bunz, Yannick Ortin, Kirill Nikitin, Declan G Gilheany
The energy barriers in our recently discovered Walden inversion of chlorophosphonium salts are similar to those in Cope rearrangements of caged cyclic hydrocarbons. We have therefore designed a molecular system integrating the two processes, thereby producing the first embodiment in a chemical species of two entirely different and independent stereomutation mechanisms at the same nominal asymmetric centre. Thus, the energy barrier to the rearrangement of 9-phenyl-9-phosphabarbaralane oxide, easily prepared by a new high-yielding synthesis, was found to be ca...
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Joe Lowenstein, Charlotte Purvis, Katie Rose
Risk assessments identify the presence of a Personality Disorder diagnosis as relevant to future violence. At present, risk assessments focus on the presence of the disorder rather than identifying key traits related to risk. Systematic searches of three databases were conducted from January 2000 until August 2014. Of 92,143, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. A lack of empirical research was found focusing on individual traits; instead most considered PD diagnosis as a sole entity. A preliminary model has been developed detailing the link between potential interactions of diagnostic traits and risk of violence...
2016: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Susan G Goldberg
The lives of two 19th century cousins, both of whom changed their names to Bernard Berenson, are considered from historical and psychodynamic perspectives, using a psychobiographical method. The Jewish cousins immigrated separately to Boston from Lithuania in 1875 and 1882. One cousin, later calling himself simply B.B., became a world-renowned art historian. The other Bernard became a misanthrope after feeling deeply humiliated by his cousin's family in Boston. Many biographies were written about the famous B...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
Lionel Cailhol, Margot Francois, Claire Thalamas, Cécile Garrido, Philippe Birmes, Laure Pourcel, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre, Joel Paris
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have been shown to have increased rates of the use of medical services. The objective of this multicentre study was to compare the utilization of physical health services by patients with severe BPD (n = 36) with that of two control groups: one with other personality disorders (PDs) (n = 38) and one with matched subjects randomly selected from the general population (n = 165). Information was drawn from an insurance database collected over a 5-year period...
October 13, 2016: Personality and Mental Health
Leo Sher, Amanda M Fisher, Caitlin H Kelliher, Justin D Penner, Marianne Goodman, Harold W Koenigsberg, Antonia S New, Larry J Siever, Erin A Hazlett
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are at high risk for suicidal behavior. However, many BPD patients do not engage in suicidal behavior. In this study, we compared clinical features of BPD patients with or without a history of suicide attempts and healthy volunteers. Compared with healthy volunteers, both BPD groups had higher Affective Lability Scale (ALS), ALS - Depression-Anxiety Subscale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS), and Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA) scores and were more likely to have a history of temper tantrums...
October 2, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Joeri K Tijdink, Lex M Bouter, Coosje L S Veldkamp, Peter M van de Ven, Jelte M Wicherts, Yvo M Smulders
BACKGROUND: Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior. METHODS: Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65%) from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands...
2016: PloS One
Gabriele Masi, Annarita Milone, Paola Brovedani, Simone Pisano, Pietro Muratori
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Three psychopathy dimensions have been found: 1) an affective dimension, the callous-unemotional (CU) trait, with lack of empathy and remorse, and with short-lived emotions; 2) an interpersonal dimension, the narcissistic domain, with manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and grandiosity; 3) a behavioral dimension, the impulsivity or impulsive-irresponsibility, with irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, and novelty seeking...
September 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Andrea Fossati, Antonella Somma, Serena Borroni, Cesare Maffei, Kristian E Markon, Robert F Krueger
To evaluate the associations between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) Alternative Model of Personality Disorder traits and domains and categorically diagnosed narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), respectively, 238 inpatient and outpatient participants who were consecutively admitted to the Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Unit of San Raffaele Hospital in Milan, Italy, were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
J Vandevoorde, N Estano, G Painset
OBJECTIVES: Suicide-homicide could be defined as a "suicidal" behaviour, which also includes the death of at least one other individual and sometimes up to hundreds. This literature review intends to highlight some characteristic features that might be found amongst the various types of suicide-homicide. It is a complex phenomenon which can occur in different situations, from a familial and somehow intimate setting (filicide, uxoricide, marital homicide…) to a public one (workplace shooting, school shooting), including a wide range of victims, from a single victim in marital cases of suicide-homicide to hundreds of victims in certain types, such as suicide by aircraft or warrior-like multi-homicids in terrorist acts...
September 19, 2016: L'Encéphale
Leo Sher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Lara L Jones, Gregory A Norville, A Michelle Wright
Across two studies, we investigated the influence of narcissism and self-esteem along with gender on phenomenological ratings across the four subscales of the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire (AMQ; impact, recollection, rehearsal, and belief). Memory cues varied in valence (positive vs. negative) and agency (agentic vs. communal). In Study 2, we used different memory cues reflecting these four Valence by Agency conditions and additionally investigated retrieval times for the autobiographical memories (AMs)...
September 16, 2016: Memory
Louise A Hunt, Paula McGee, Robin Gutteridge, Malcolm Hughes
There is growing evidence of a culture of expectation among nursing students in Universities which leads to narcissistic behaviour. Evidence is growing that some student nurses are disrespectful and rude towards their university lecturers. There has been little investigation into whether they exhibit similar behaviour towards their mentors during practical placements, particularly when they, the students, are not meeting the required standards for practice. This paper focuses on adding to the evidence around a unique finding - that student nurses can use coercive and manipulative behaviour to elicit a successful outcome to their practice learning assessment (as noted in Hunt et al...
September 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Calvin A Wiley, Lauren R Holloway, Tabitha F Miller, Yana Lyon, Ryan R Julian, Richard J Hooley
Small changes in the electron donating ability of coordinating groups have substantial effects on the multicomponent self-assembly of Fe (II)-iminopyridine-based meso-helicate complexes. Both the nature of the internal diamine core and the terminal formylpyridine reactants control the rate of the assembly process, the thermodynamic favorability of the meso-helicate products, and the selective incorporation of different aldehyde termini into the assembly. Steric congestion at the coordinating ligands can prevent assembly altogether, and favorable incorporation of electron-rich aldehyde termini is observed, even though the rate of reaction is accelerated by the use of electron-poor aldehyde reactants...
October 3, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Stephanie L Rojas, Thomas A Widiger
Section III of DSM-5, for emerging measures and models, includes a five-domain, 25-trait model, assessed by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. A primary concern with respect to the trait model is its coverage of the DSM-IV-TR personality disorder syndromes (all of which were retained in DSM-5). The current study considered not only total scale scores of three independent measures of DSM-IV-TR personality disorders but also the coverage of each diagnostic criterion included within six personality disorders: antisocial, borderline, avoidant, dependent, narcissistic, and obsessive-compulsive...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Philipp Kanske, Marjan Sharifi, Jonathan Smallwood, Isabel Dziobek, Tania Singer
Narcissism is characterized by a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, beauty, and similar values, which has been discussed as intra-individual regulation of a grandiose, but vulnerable self-concept. To explore where the narcissistic mind wanders, we used an experience-sampling approach in a sample with large variability in pathological narcissism inventory scores. Multilevel modeling revealed (1) more mind-wandering in participants with higher levels of narcissism and (2) a difference in the content of these thoughts (more self- and other-related, past and future oriented, negative content)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Nicholas R Eaton, Craig Rodriguez-Seijas, Robert F Krueger, W Keith Campbell, Bridget F Grant, Deborah S Hasin
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Luca Caldironi
More and more often analysts work with patients who must develop the capacity to participate in analysis. One such patient, H., conveyed the impression of being "bogged down." He did not work or study, and at home with his family was prone to violent outbursts; his social relationships were centered around drug use. Concepts from Bion and Winnicott helped H.'s analyst take the risks necessary to create a therapeutic relationship with him. The patient has come to realize the worth of analytic thinking, and its potential to transform his life...
August 2016: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Michael H Stone
Information concerning the longitudinal course of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) derives mainly from (a) long-term (10 to 25 year) retrospective follow-up studies, primarily those conducted during the 1980s/1990s, (b) brief (1 to 3 year) follow-up studies of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of several different treatment approaches, and (c) prospective follow-up studies. The patients contacted in the retrospective studies had been treated mostly by psychoanalytically informed approaches or supportive...
2016: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
Hongying Fan, Qisha Zhu, Guorong Ma, Chanchan Shen, Bingren Zhang, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Cultural and personality factors might contribute to the clinical differences of psychiatric patients all over the world including China. One cultural oriented Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality (CADP) designed to measure normal personality traits, might be specifically associated with different personality disorder functioning styles. METHODS: We therefore have invited 201 healthy volunteers and 67 personality disorder patients to undergo CADP, the Parker Personality Measure (PERM), and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP) tests...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
N K R Sehgal, C Sullivan, C Scallan, M Figueroa, J A Pencak, J Kirkland, K Scott, J D Thornton
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies suggest that large signature size is associated with narcissistic characteristics. By contrast, organ donation is an indicator of altruism. Because altruism and narcissism may be viewed as opposites, we sought to determine if smaller signature size is associated with willingness to be an organ donor. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, we reviewed the health records of 571 randomly selected primary care patients at a large urban safety-net medical system to obtain their demographic and medical characteristics...
July 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
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