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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222854/optical-design-of-an-in-vivo-laparoscopic-lighting-system
#1
Xiaolong Liu, Reza Yazdanpanah Abdolmalaki, Gregory J Mancini, Jindong Tan
This paper proposes an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system design to address the illumination issues, namely poor lighting uniformity and low optical efficiency, existing in the state-of-the-art in vivo laparoscopic cameras. The transformable design of the laparoscopic lighting system is capable of carrying purposefully designed freeform optical lenses for achieving lighting performance with high illuminance uniformity and high optical efficiency in a desired target region. To design freeform optical lenses for extended light sources such as LEDs with Lambertian light intensity distributions, we present an effective and complete freeform optical design method...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222467/elemental-preference-and-atomic-scale-site-recognition-in-a-co-al-w-base-superalloy
#2
Yanhui Chen, Fei Xue, Shengcheng Mao, Haibo Long, Bin Zhang, Qingsong Deng, Bin Chen, Yinong Liu, Pierce Maguire, Hongzhou Zhang, Xiaodong Han, Qiang Feng
Using state-of-the-art atomic scale super energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and high angle annular dark field imaging this study reveals the elemental partitioning preference between the γ' and γ phases in a Co-Al-W-Ti-Ta superalloy and the site preference of its alloying elements in the ordered L12 γ' phase. A semi-quantitative analysis of atomic column compositions in the ordered L12 γ' structure is provided. Co atoms were found to occupy the {1/2, 1/2, 0} face-center positions whereas Al, W, Ti and Ta atoms prefer to occupy the {0, 0, 0} cube corner positions in the L12 γ phase...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222296/what-are-the-current-treatment-approaches-for-patients-with-polycythemia-vera-and-essential-thrombocythemia
#3
REVIEW
Alessandro M Vannucchi, Paola Guglielmelli
Polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) are chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms that are characterized by thrombohemorrhagic complications, symptom burden, and impaired survival mainly due to thrombosis, progression to myelofibrosis, and transformation to acute leukemia. In this manuscript, we will review the most recent changes in diagnostic criteria, the improvements in risk stratification, and the "state of the art" in the daily management of these disorders. The role of conventional therapies and novel agents, interferon α and the JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib, is critically discussed based on the results of a few basic randomized clinical studies...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221986/streptococcus-pneumoniae-two-component-regulatory-systems-the-interplay-of-the-pneumococcus-with-its-environment
#4
REVIEW
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathobiont possessing a diverse array of multifunctional proteins essential for bacterial fitness and virulence. Gene expression is tightly controlled by regulatory components and among the pneumococcal sensorial tools, two‑component regulatory systems (TCS) are the most widespread and conserved. This review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of original studies on pneumococcal TCS on a functional level. Despite a rather chaotic nomenclature, the current available information on pneumococcal regulation by these systems can be conveniently addressed, according to the regulation of pathophysiological cell processes and the responses to detectable environmental signals...
November 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221603/emerging-therapies-for-pre-ra
#5
REVIEW
Andrew P Cope
The field of rheumatology has made major contributions to medicine through the identification of cellular and molecular targets and the development of therapies for the treatment of an impressive range of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In recent years, new milestones have been achieved. These include the recognition of an at-risk state, characterized by disease specific autoantibodies in serum and inflammatory joint pain, and the initiation of studies seeking to prevent high-risk individuals from progressing to a state of clinically apparent arthritis...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221460/goldenpics-a-golden-gate-derived-modular-cloning-system-for-applied-synthetic-biology-in-the-yeast-pichia-pastoris
#6
Roland Prielhofer, Juan J Barrero, Stefanie Steuer, Thomas Gassler, Richard Zahrl, Kristin Baumann, Michael Sauer, Diethard Mattanovich, Brigitte Gasser, Hans Marx
BACKGROUND: State-of-the-art strain engineering techniques for the host Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella spp.) include overexpression of homologous and heterologous genes, and deletion of host genes. For metabolic and cell engineering purposes the simultaneous overexpression of more than one gene would often be required. Very recently, Golden Gate based libraries were adapted to optimize single expression cassettes for recombinant proteins in P. pastoris. However, an efficient toolbox allowing the overexpression of multiple genes at once was not available for P...
December 8, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221448/next-generation-sequencing-recent-applications-to-the-analysis-of-colorectal-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Filippo Del Vecchio, Valentina Mastroiaco, Antinisca Di Marco, Chiara Compagnoni, Daria Capece, Francesca Zazzeroni, Carlo Capalbo, Edoardo Alesse, Alessandra Tessitore
Since the establishment of the Sanger sequencing method, scientists around the world focused their efforts to progress in the field to produce the utmost technology. The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) represents a revolutionary step and promises to lead to massive improvements in our understanding on the role of nucleic acids functions. Cancer research began to use this innovative and highly performing method, and interesting results started to appear in colorectal cancer (CRC) analysis. Several studies produced high-quality data in terms of mutation discovery, especially about actionable or less frequently mutated genes, epigenetics, transcriptomics...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221081/design-and-prototype-of-an-augmented-reality-display-with-per-pixel-mutual-occlusion-capability
#8
Austin Wilson, Hong Hua
State-of-the-art optical see-through head-mounted displays for augmented reality (AR) applications lack mutual occlusion capability, which refers to the ability to render correct light blocking relationship when merging digital and physical objects, such that the virtual views appear to be ghost-like and lack realistic appearance. In this paper, using off-the-shelf optical components, we present the design and prototype of an AR display which is capable of rendering per-pixel mutual occlusion. Our prototype utilizes a miniature organic light emitting display coupled with a liquid crystal on silicon type spatial light modulator to achieve an occlusion capable AR display offering a 30° diagonal field of view and an angular resolution of 1...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221013/nonlinear-beat-noise-in-optical-parametric-chirped-pulse-amplification
#9
Jing Wang, Jingui Ma, Peng Yuan, Daolong Tang, Bingjie Zhou, Guoqiang Xie, Liejia Qian
The pulse contrast of state-of-the-art petawatt lasers is limited by coherent noise. This paper reports on a new family of noise, termed nonlinear beat noise, which is generated by the nonlinear mixing of two kinds of coherent noise in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). We theoretically study the various nonlinear beat noises and reveal their intensity evolutions in an OPCPA amplifier. The results suggest that nonlinear beat noise will be destructive to the future hundred-petawatt lasers...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220507/assessing-the-heterogeneity-of-in-silico-plasmid-predictions-based-on-whole-genome-sequenced-clinical-isolates
#10
Cedric C Laczny, Valentina Galata, Achim Plum, Andreas E Posch, Andreas Keller
High-throughput next-generation shotgun sequencing of pathogenic bacteria is growing in clinical relevance, especially for chromosomal DNA-based taxonomic identification and for antibiotic resistance prediction. Genetic exchange is facilitated for extrachromosomal DNA, e.g. plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance genes. Consequently, accurate identification of plasmids from whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data remains one of the major challenges for sequencing-based precision medicine in infectious diseases. Here, we assess the heterogeneity of four state-of-the-art tools (cBar, PlasmidFinder, plasmidSPAdes and Recycler) for the in silico prediction of plasmid-derived sequences from WGS data...
December 5, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220407/respiratory-resistance-and-reactance-in-adults-with-sickle-cell-anemia-correlation-with-functional-exercise-capacity-and-diagnostic-use
#11
Cirlene de Lima Marinho, Maria Christina Paixão Maioli, Jorge Luis Machado do Amaral, Agnaldo José Lopes, Pedro Lopes de Melo
BACKGROUND: The improvement in sickle cell anemia (SCA) care resulted in the emergence of a large population of adults living with this disease. The mechanisms of lung injury in this new population are largely unknown. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) represents the current state-of-the-art in the assessment of lung function. The present work uses the FOT to improve our knowledge about the respiratory abnormalities in SCA, evaluates the associations of FOT with the functional exercise capacity and investigates the early detection of respiratory abnormalities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220321/end-to-end-blind-image-quality-assessment-using-deep-neural-networks
#12
Kede Ma, Wentao Liu, Kai Zhang, Zhengfang Duanmu, Zhou Wang, Wangmeng Zuo
We propose a multi-task end-to-end optimized deep neural network (MEON) for blind image quality assessment (BIQA). MEON consists of two sub-networks-a distortion identification network and a quality prediction network-sharing the early layers. Unlike traditional methods used for training multi-task networks, our training process is performed in two steps. In the first step, we train a distortion type identification sub-network, for which large-scale training samples are readily available. In the second step, starting from the pre-trained early layers and the outputs of the first sub-network, we train a quality prediction sub-network using a variant of the stochastic gradient descent method...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220316/edge-based-defocus-blur-estimation-with-adaptive-scale-selection
#13
Ali Karaali, Claudio Rosito Jung
Objects that do not lie at the focal distance of a digital camera generate defocused regions in the captured image. This paper presents a new edge-based method for spatially varying defocus blur estimation using a single image based on reblurred gradient magnitudes. The proposed approach initially computes a scale-consistent edge map of the input image and selects a local reblurring scale aiming to cope with noise, edge mis-localization, and interfering edges. An initial blur estimate is computed at the detected scale-consistent edge points and a novel connected edge filter is proposed to smooth the sparse blur map based on pixel connectivity within detected edge contours...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220315/background-modeling-by-stability-of-adaptive-features-in-complex-scenes
#14
Dan Yang, Chenqiu Zhao, Xiaohong Zhang, Sheng Huang
The single-feature-based background model often fails in complex scenes, since a pixel is better described by several features, which highlight different characteristics of it. Therefore, the multi-feature-based background model has drawn much attention recently. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-feature-based background model, named stability of adaptive feature (SoAF) model, which utilizes the stabilities of different features in a pixel to adaptively weigh the contributions of these features for foreground detection...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220314/random-access-memories-a-new-paradigm-for-target-detection-in-high-resolution-aerial-remote-sensing-images
#15
Zhengxia Zou, Zhenwei Shi
We propose a new paradigm for target detection in high resolution aerial remote sensing images under small target priors. Previous remote sensing target detection methods frame the detection as learning of detection model + inference of class-label and bounding-box coordinates. Instead, we formulate it from a Bayesian view that at inference stage, the detection model is adaptively updated to maximize its posterior that is determined by both training and observation. We call this paradigm "random access memories (RAM)...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220313/how-does-the-low-rank-matrix-decomposition-help-internal-and-external-learnings-for-super-resolution
#16
Shuang Wang, Bo Yue, Xuefeng Liang, Licheng Jiao
Wisely utilizing the internal and external learning methods is a new challenge in super-resolution problem. To address this issue, we analyze the attributes of two methodologies and find two observations of their recovered details: 1) they are complementary in both feature space and image plane and 2) they distribute sparsely in the spatial space. These inspire us to propose a low-rank solution which effectively integrates two learning methods and then achieves a superior result. To fit this solution, the internal learning method and the external learning method are tailored to produce multiple preliminary results...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220312/-l_-0-regularized-image-downscaling
#17
Junjie Liu, Shengfeng He, Rynson W H Lau
In this paper, we propose a novel -regularized optimization framework for image downscaling. The optimization is driven by two -regularized priors. The first prior, gradient-ratio prior, is based on the observation that the number of edges in the downscaled image is approximately inverse square proportional to the downscaling factor. By introducing norm sparsity to the gradient ratio, the downscaled image is able to preserve the most salient edges as well as the visual perception of the original image. The second prior, downsampling prior, is to constrain the downsampling matrix so that pixels of the downscaled image are estimated according to those optimal neighboring pixels...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220302/biology-and-management-of-undifferentiated-pleomorphic-sarcoma-myxofibrosarcoma-and-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors-state-of-the-art-and-perspectives
#18
Brigitte C Widemann, Antoine Italiano
Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas, myxofibrosarcomas, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are characterized by complex genomic characteristics and aggressive clinical behavior. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of these tumors may allow for the development of more-effective innovative therapeutic strategies, including immunotherapies. This review describes the current knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment, and pathogenesis of these tumors and highlights ongoing and future research...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220170/sustainable-conversion-of-carbon-dioxide-an-integrated-review-of-catalysis-and-life-cycle-assessment
#19
Jens Artz, Thomas E Müller, Katharina Thenert, Johanna Kleinekorte, Raoul Meys, André Sternberg, André Bardow, Walter Leitner
CO2 conversion covers a wide range of possible application areas from fuels to bulk and commodity chemicals and even to specialty products with biological activity such as pharmaceuticals. In the present review, we discuss selected examples in these areas in a combined analysis of the state-of-the-art of synthetic methodologies and processes with their life cycle assessment. Thereby, we attempted to assess the potential to reduce the environmental footprint in these application fields relative to the current petrochemical value chain...
December 8, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219084/an-improved-bayesian-network-method-for-reconstructing-gene-regulatory-network-based-on-candidate-auto-selection
#20
Linlin Xing, Maozu Guo, Xiaoyan Liu, Chunyu Wang, Lei Wang, Yin Zhang
BACKGROUND: The reconstruction of gene regulatory network (GRN) from gene expression data can discover regulatory relationships among genes and gain deep insights into the complicated regulation mechanism of life. However, it is still a great challenge in systems biology and bioinformatics. During the past years, numerous computational approaches have been developed for this goal, and Bayesian network (BN) methods draw most of attention among these methods because of its inherent probability characteristics...
November 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
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