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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445774/voxresnet-deep-voxelwise-residual-networks-for-brain-segmentation-from-3d-mr-images
#1
REVIEW
Hao Chen, Qi Dou, Lequan Yu, Jing Qin, Pheng-Ann Heng
Segmentation of key brain tissues from 3D medical images is of great significance for brain disease diagnosis, progression assessment and monitoring of neurologic conditions. While manual segmentation is time-consuming, laborious, and subjective, automated segmentation is quite challenging due to the complicated anatomical environment of brain and the large variations of brain tissues. We propose a novel voxelwise residual network (VoxResNet) with a set of effective training schemes to cope with this challenging problem...
April 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445640/a-highly-active-and-stable-fe-n-c-catalyst-for-oxygen-depolarized-cathode-applications
#2
Jingkun Li, Qingying Jia, Shraboni Ghoshal, Wentao Liang, Sanjeev Mukerjee
Anion immunity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has tremendous implications in electrocatalysis with applications for fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and oxygen depolarized cathodes (ODCs) in anodic evolution of chlorine. The necessity for exploring ORR catalysts with immunity to anion adsorption is particularly significant considering that platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts are costly and highly vulnerable to impurities such as halides. Herein, we report a metal organic framework (MOF) derived Fe-N-C catalyst that exhibits a dramatically improved half-wave potential of 240 mV compared to the state-of-the-art RhxSy/C catalyst in a rotating disk electrode in the presence of Cl-...
April 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445489/video-quality-assessment-using-motion-compensated-temporal-filtering-and-manifold-feature-similarity
#3
Yang Song, Mei Yu, Gangyi Jiang, Feng Shao, Zongju Peng
Well-performed Video quality assessment (VQA) method should be consistent with human visual systems for better prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose a VQA method using motion-compensated temporal filtering (MCTF) and manifold feature similarity. To be more specific, a group of frames (GoF) is first decomposed into a temporal high-pass component (HPC) and a temporal low-pass component (LPC) by MCTF. Following this, manifold feature learning (MFL) and phase congruency (PC) are used to predict the quality of temporal LPC and temporal HPC respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445380/a-formidable-foe-is-sabotaging-your-results-what-you-should-know-about-biofilms-and-wound-healing
#4
Jenny C Barker, Ibrahim Khansa, Gayle M Gordillo
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe biofilm pathogenesis as it relates to problem wounds. 2. Understand the preclinical and clinical evidence implicating biofilm in problem wounds. 3. Explain the diagnostic and treatment challenges that biofilms create for problem wounds. 4. Demonstrate a basic understanding of emerging strategies aimed at counteracting these processes. SUMMARY: Biofilm represents a protected mode of growth for bacteria, allowing them to evade standard diagnostic techniques and avoid eradication by standard therapies...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445123/changes-in-the-free-energy-landscape-of-p38%C3%AE-map-kinase-through-its-canonical-activation-and-binding-events-as-studied-by-enhanced-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#5
Antonija Kuzmanic, Ludovico Sutto, Giorgio Saladino, Angel R Nebreda, Francesco L Gervasio, Modesto Orozco
p38α is a Ser/Thr protein kinase involved in a variety of cellular processes and pathological conditions, which makes it a promising pharmacological target. Although the activity of the enzyme is highly regulated, its molecular mechanism of activation remains largely unexplained, even after decades of research. By using state-of-the-art molecular dynamics simulations, we decipher the key elements of the complex molecular mechanism refined by evolution to allow for a fine tuning of p38α kinase activity. Our study describes for the first time the molecular effects of different regulators of the enzymatic activity, and provides an integrative picture of the activation mechanism that explains the seemingly contradictory X-ray and NMR data...
April 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445038/distinguishing-quinacridone-pigments-via-terahertz-spectroscopy-absorption-experiments-and-solid-state-density-functional-theory-simulations
#6
A D Squires, R A Lewis, Adam J Zaczek, Timothy M Korter
Through a combined experimental and theoretical investigation we determine that the fundamental modes of three quinacridones fall in the terahertz spectral range (1-10 THz, ∼30-300 cm(-1)). In each spectrum the terahertz resonances correspond to wagging, rocking, or twisting of the quinacridone rings, with the most intense absorption being an in-plane rocking vibration of the carbonyl oxygens. In spite of these spectral similarities, we demonstrate that terahertz measurements readily differentiate β-quinacridone, γ-quinacridone, and 2,9-dimethylquinacridone...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444439/back-to-the-future-part-2-post-mortem-assessment-and-evolutionary-role-of-the-bio-medicolegal-sciences
#7
REVIEW
Santo Davide Ferrara, Giovanni Cecchetto, Rossana Cecchi, Donata Favretto, Silke Grabherr, Takaki Ishikawa, Toshikazu Kondo, Massimo Montisci, Heidi Pfeiffer, Maurizio Rippa Bonati, Dina Shokry, Marielle Vennemann, Thomas Bajanowski
Part 2 of the review "Back to the Future" is dedicated to the evolutionary role of the bio-medicolegal sciences, reporting the historical profiles, the state of the art, and prospects for future development of the main related techniques and methods of the ancillary disciplines that have risen to the role of "autonomous" sciences, namely, Genetics and Genomics, Toxicology, Radiology, and Imaging, involved in historic synergy in the "post-mortem assessment," together with the mother discipline Legal Medicine, by way of its primary fundament, universally denominated as Forensic Pathology...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444139/multi-label-classifier-based-on-histogram-of-gradients-for-predicting-the-anatomical-therapeutic-chemical-class-classes-of-a-given-compound
#8
Loris Nanni, Sheryl Brahnam
Motivation: Given an unknown compound, is it possible to predict its ATC (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical) class/classes? This is a challenging yet important problem since such a prediction could be used to deduce not only a compound's possible active ingredients but also its therapeutic, pharmacological, and chemical properties, thereby substantially expediting the pace of drug development. The problem is challenging because some drugs and compounds belong to two or more ATC classes, making machine learning extremely difficult...
April 24, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444127/hla-class-i-binding-prediction-via-convolutional-neural-networks
#9
Yeeleng S Vang, Xiaohui Xie
Motivation: Many biological processes are governed by protein-ligand interactions. One such example is the recognition of self and nonself cells by the immune system. This immune response process is regulated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein which is encoded by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. Understanding the binding potential between MHC and peptides can lead to the design of more potent, peptide-based vaccines and immunotherapies for infectious autoimmune diseases...
April 21, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443647/identifying-and-modeling-the-structural-discontinuities-of-human-interactions
#10
Sebastian Grauwin, Michael Szell, Stanislav Sobolevsky, Philipp Hövel, Filippo Simini, Maarten Vanhoof, Zbigniew Smoreda, Albert-László Barabási, Carlo Ratti
The idea of a hierarchical spatial organization of society lies at the core of seminal theories in human geography that have strongly influenced our understanding of social organization. Along the same line, the recent availability of large-scale human mobility and communication data has offered novel quantitative insights hinting at a strong geographical confinement of human interactions within neighboring regions, extending to local levels within countries. However, models of human interaction largely ignore this effect...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443634/a-unifying-mathematical-framework-for-experimental-tcr-pmhc-kinetic-constants
#11
Jose Faro, Mario Castro, Carmen Molina-París
Receptor binding and triggering are central in Immunology as T cells activated through their T cell receptors (TCR) by protein antigens orchestrate immune responses. In order to understand receptor-ligand interactions, many groups working with different experimental techniques and assays have generated a vast body of knowledge during the last decades. However, in recent years a type of assays, referred to as two-dimensional or membrane-to-membrane, has questioned our current understanding of the role of different kinetic constants (for instance, on- versus off-rate constants) on TCR-ligand interaction and subsequent T cell activation...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443622/the-rudy-study-using-digital-technologies-to-enable-a-research-partnership
#12
Harriet J A Teare, Joanna Hogg, Jane Kaye, Raashid Luqmani, Elaine Rush, Alison Turner, Laura Watts, Melanie Williams, M Kassim Javaid
Patients have extensive experience of their disease that can enhance the design and execution of research leading to significant innovations and efficiencies in the research process. The research community on the whole have been slow to adopt practices that enable patients to become active partners in research. Digital technologies are providing the means to do this more easily and so are increasingly being used to interact with patients and involve them in the design and execution of research. The RUDY (Rare UK Diseases of bone, joints and blood vessels) study's pioneering approach applies a custom-developed electronic platform where patients can contribute information over time about their disease experience, lifestyle and clinical history...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443384/biological-and-targeted-therapies-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-evidence-and-the-state-of-the-art
#13
Chi Chiu Mok
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-systemic disease characterized by an unpredictable disease course and periods of remission and flare, leading to organ damage and mortality. Novel biological agents are being developed (targeting the lymphocytes, accessory molecules and cytokines) that aim to enhance the therapeutic efficacy when combined with standard therapies. Areas covered: This article updates recent data on the use of biological and targeted therapies in SLE. Expert opinion: B cells remain the main target of development of novel therapeutics in SLE...
April 26, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443154/drug-induced-liver-injury-do-we-know-everything
#14
REVIEW
Tamara Alempijevic, Simon Zec, Tomica Milosavljevic
Interest in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has dramatically increased over the past decade, and it has become a hot topic for clinicians, academics, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory bodies. By investigating the current state of the art, the latest scientific findings, controversies, and guidelines, this review will attempt to answer the question: Do we know everything? Since the first descriptions of hepatotoxicity over 70 years ago, more than 1000 drugs have been identified to date, however, much of our knowledge of diagnostic and pathophysiologic principles remains unchanged...
April 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443139/maximal-testosterone-suppression-in-the-management-of-recurrent-and-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Laurence Klotz, Rodney H Breau, Loretta L Collins, Martin E Gleave, Tom Pickles, Frederic Pouliot, Fred Saad
INTRODUCTION: Testosterone suppression, or androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), is an established treatment for recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Based on the accuracy and sensitivity of early assays (c. 1960-1970), the castrate testosterone level was set at ≤1.7 nmol/l. Improved sensitivity of testosterone assays shows that both surgical and medical castration can achieve levels <0.7 nmol/l. However, the clinical implications and importance of maximum testosterone suppression remains a subject of controversy...
January 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442772/discriminative-and-distinct-phenotyping-by-constrained-tensor-factorization
#16
Yejin Kim, Robert El-Kareh, Jimeng Sun, Hwanjo Yu, Xiaoqian Jiang
Adoption of Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems has led to collection of massive healthcare data, which creates oppor- tunities and challenges to study them. Computational phenotyping offers a promising way to convert the sparse and complex data into meaningful concepts that are interpretable to healthcare givers to make use of them. We propose a novel su- pervised nonnegative tensor factorization methodology that derives discriminative and distinct phenotypes. We represented co-occurrence of diagnoses and prescriptions in EHRs as a third-order tensor, and decomposed it using the CP algorithm...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442731/glag-theory-for-superconducting-property-variations-with-a15-composition-in-nb3sn-wires
#17
Yingxu Li, Yuanwen Gao
We present a model for the variation of the upper critical field H c2 with Sn content in A15-type Nb-Sn wires, within the Ginzburg-Landau-Abrikosov-Gor'kov (GLAG) theory frame. H c2 at the vicinity of the critical temperature T c is related quantitatively to the electrical resistivity ρ, specific heat capacity coefficient γ and T c. H c2 versus tin content is theoretically formulated within the GLAG theory, and generally reproduces the experiment results. As Sn content gradually approaches the stoichiometry, A15-type Nb-Sn undergoes a transition from the dirty limit to clean limit, split by the phase transformation boundary...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442714/mitigating-herding-in-hierarchical-crowdsourcing-networks
#18
Han Yu, Chunyan Miao, Cyril Leung, Yiqiang Chen, Simon Fauvel, Victor R Lesser, Qiang Yang
Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441307/90-day-readmission-after-lumbar-spinal-fusion-surgery-in-new-york-state-between-2005-and-2014-a-10-year-analysis-of-a-statewide-cohort
#19
Ali A Baaj, Gernot Lang, Wei-Chun Hsu, Mauricio J Avila, Jialin Mao, Art Sedrakyan
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To assess 90-day readmission and evaluate risk factors associated with readmission after lumbar fusion in New York State. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Readmission is becoming an important metric for quality and efficiency of healthcare. Readmission and its predictors following spine surgery are overall poorly understood and limited evidence is available specifically in lumbar fusion. METHODS: The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPACRS) was utilized to capture patients undergoing lumbar fusion from 2005-2014...
April 24, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441170/provision-of-arts-therapies-for-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#20
Patricia Fenner, Radwa S Abdelazim, Iris Bräuninger, Gitta Strehlow, Kathrin Seifert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arts therapies are still inadequately regulated throughout the world despite a 100-year-long tradition, a vast number of academically trained therapists and importance in treating psychiatric patients. It is essential that more evidence-based studies are undertaken. RECENT FINDINGS: Current international guidelines focus on the efficacy and effectiveness of arts therapies. New international evidence-based studies reporting clear-cut therapeutic effects of art therapy, music therapy and dance movement therapy are described here, with a focus on developments in Australia, Egypt and the United States...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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