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Marieke E Feis, Uwe John, Ana Lokmer, Pieternella C Luttikhuizen, K Mathias Wegner
On theoretical grounds, antagonistic co-evolution between hosts and their parasites should be a widespread phenomenon but only received little empirical support so far. Consequently, the underlying molecular mechanisms and evolutionary steps remain elusive, especially in non-model systems. Here, we utilised the natural history of invasive parasites to document the molecular underpinnings of co-evolutionary trajectories. We applied a dual-species transcriptomics approach to experimental cross-infections of blue mussel Mytilus edulis hosts and their invasive parasitic copepods Mytilicola intestinalis from two invasion fronts in the Wadden Sea...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
M B C L Somarathne, Y I N S Gunawardena, N V Chandrasekharan, R S Dassanayake
Despite the differences of the host, parasitic nematodes may share commonalities in their parasitizing genes. Setaria digitata novel protein (SDNP) is such an entity which is parasitic nematode-specific and having sequence similarities with those of W. bancrofti, B. malayi, Loa loa and Onchocerca volvulus. Post-transcriptional gene silencing by siRNA mediated RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used technique in functional genomics. Though the technique has been used in several free-living, plant and animal parasitic nematodes, it has not yet been tried out for the filarial worm S...
February 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Louise K Barnett, Ben L Phillips, Allen C G Heath, Andrew Coates, Conrad J Hoskin
Host-parasite dynamics can play a fundamental role in both the establishment success of invasive species and their impact on native wildlife. The net impact of parasites depends on their capacity to switch effectively between native and invasive hosts. Here we explore host-switching, spatial patterns and simple fitness measures in a slow-expanding invasion: the invasion of Asian house geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) from urban areas into bushland in Northeast Australia. In bushland close to urban edges, H. frenatus co-occurs with, and at many sites now greatly out-numbers, native geckos...
February 14, 2018: Parasitology
F N Morgado, L M V de Carvalho, J Leite-Silva, A J Seba, M I F Pimentel, A Fagundes, M F Madeira, M R Lyra, M M Oliveira, A O Schubach, F Conceição-Silva
The clinical presentations of skin diseases produced by different pathogens, as American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) and sporotrichosis can be similar and possibly influenced by the skin immune system (SIS). The aim of the study was to understand the underlying mechanisms of skin inflammation produced by different pathogens. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze 96 patients: a- localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL-ATL); b- sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis (SCL-ATL); c-lymphocutaneous (LC-SP); d- fixed (F-SP) sporotrichosis...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Konstans Wells, David I Gibson, Nicholas J Clark, Alexis Ribas, Serge Morand, Hamish I McCallum
Changes in species distributions open novel parasite transmission routes at the human-wildlife interface, yet the strength of biotic and biogeographical factors that prevent or facilitate parasite host shifting are not well understood. We investigated global patterns of helminth parasite (Nematoda, Cestoda, Trematoda) sharing between mammalian wildlife species and domestic mammal hosts (including humans) using >24,000 unique country-level records of host-parasite associations. We used hierarchical modelling and species trait data to determine possible drivers of the level of parasite sharing between wildlife species and either humans or domestic animal hosts...
February 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
Colin MacLeod, Robert Poulin, Clément Lagrue
Shell damage and parasitic infections are frequent in gastropods, influencing key snail host life-history traits such as survival, growth, and reproduction. However, their interactions and potential effects on hosts and parasites have never been tested. Host-parasite interactions are particularly interesting in the context of the recently discovered division of labor in trematodes infecting marine snails. Some species have colonies consisting of two different castes present at varying ratios; reproductive members and nonreproductive soldiers specialized in defending the colony...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
L E Peachey, R A Molena, T P Jenkins, A Di Cesare, D Traversa, J E Hodgkinson, C Cantacessi
A growing body of evidence, particularly in humans and rodents, supports the existence of a complex network of interactions occurring between gastrointestinal (GI) helminth parasites and the gut commensal bacteria, with substantial effects on both host immunity and metabolic potential. However, little is known of the fundamental biology of such interactions in other animal species. Nonetheless, given the considerable economic losses associated with GI parasites, particularly in livestock and equines, as well as the global threat of emerging anthelmintic resistance, further explorations of the complexities of host-helminth-microbiota interactions in these species are needed...
February 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Ning Zhang, Martin Zoltner, Ka-Fai Leung, Paul Scullion, Sebastian Hutchinson, Ricardo C Del Pino, Isabel M Vincent, Yong-Kang Zhang, Yvonne R Freund, Michael R K Alley, Robert T Jacobs, Kevin D Read, Michael P Barrett, David Horn, Mark C Field
Recent development of benzoxaborole-based chemistry gave rise to a collection of compounds with great potential in targeting diverse infectious diseases, including human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), a devastating neglected tropical disease. However, further medicinal development is largely restricted by a lack of insight into mechanism of action (MoA) in pathogenic kinetoplastids. We adopted a multidisciplinary approach, combining a high-throughput forward genetic screen with functional group focused chemical biological, structural biology and biochemical analyses, to tackle the complex MoAs of benzoxaboroles in Trypanosoma brucei...
February 9, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Olivier Navaud, Adelin Barbacci, Andrew Taylor, John P Clarkson, Sylvain Raffaele
The range of hosts that a parasite can infect in nature is a trait determined by its own evolutionary history and that of its potential hosts. However, knowledge on host range diversity and evolution at the family level is often lacking. Here, we investigate host range variation and diversification trends within the Sclerotiniaceae, a family of Ascomycete fungi. Using a phylogenetic framework, we associate diversification rates, the frequency of host jump events, and host range variation during the evolution of this family...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Robert L Hunter, Jefrey K Actor, Shen-An Hwang, Arshad Khan, Michael E Urbanowski, Deepak Kaushal, Chinnaswamy Jagannath
Primary and post-primary tuberculosis (TB) are different diseases caused by the same organism. Primary TB produces systemic immunity. Post-primary TB produces cavities to support massive proliferation of organisms for transmission of infection to new hosts from a person with sufficient immunity to prevent systemic infection. Post-primary, also known as bronchogenic, TB begins in humans as asymptomatic bronchial spread of obstructive lobular pneumonia, not as expanding granulomas. Most lesions regress spontaneously...
February 6, 2018: Pathogens
Devin Kirk, Natalie Jones, Stephanie Peacock, Jessica Phillips, Péter K Molnár, Martin Krkošek, Pepijn Luijckx
The complexity of host-parasite interactions makes it difficult to predict how host-parasite systems will respond to climate change. In particular, host and parasite traits such as survival and virulence may have distinct temperature dependencies that must be integrated into models of disease dynamics. Using experimental data from Daphnia magna and a microsporidian parasite, we fitted a mechanistic model of the within-host parasite population dynamics. Model parameters comprising host aging and mortality, as well as parasite growth, virulence, and equilibrium abundance, were specified by relationships arising from the metabolic theory of ecology...
February 7, 2018: PLoS Biology
Rodrigo Pedro Soares, Paula Monalisa Nogueira, Nágila Francinete Secundino, Eric Fabrício Marialva, Cláudia Maria Ríos-Velásquez, Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa
BACKGROUND: Lutzomyia umbratilis, the vector for Leishmania guyanensis in northern South America, has been found naturally infected with L. guyanensis only in areas north of the Negro and Amazon rivers. While populations of this sand fly species are also found in areas south of these rivers, these populations have never been reported to be infected and/or transmitting L. guyanensis. However, no studies on the corresponding host-parasite interactions are available. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the interaction between Lu...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Ramon M Eichenberger, Md Hasanuzzaman Talukder, Matthew A Field, Phurpa Wangchuk, Paul Giacomin, Alex Loukas, Javier Sotillo
Whipworms are parasitic nematodes that live in the gut of more than 500 million people worldwide. Owing to the difficulty in obtaining parasite material, the mouse whipworm Trichuris muris has been extensively used as a model to study human whipworm infections. These nematodes secrete a multitude of compounds that interact with host tissues where they orchestrate a parasitic existence. Herein we provide the first comprehensive characterization of the excretory/secretory products of T. muris. We identify 148 proteins secreted by T...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
R M El-S Hassanine, Z M Al-Hasawi, M S Hariri, H El-S Touliabah
Currently, fish helminth parasites, especially cestodes and acanthocephalans, are regarded as sentinel organisms to elucidate metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Here, 34 specimens of the fish Siganus rivulatus were collected in the Red Sea, from a seriously polluted, small lagoon named Sharm-Elmaya Bay, at Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt; 22 (64.7%) were infected by Sclerocollum saudii (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae). Thus, 22 natural infrapopulations (26-245 individuals) of this parasite were collected from infected fish...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
N V Tsapko
Biological diversity of ixodid tick fauna of the North Caucasus is analyzed. On the whole, 38 tick species are represented in the fauna of the North Caucasus. Their distribution within the region, biotopic features, and host-parasite relationships of different stages of ontogenesis are considered.
March 2017: Parazitologiia
Sitang Maknitikul, Natthanej Luplertlop, Urai Chaisri, Yaowapa Maneerat, Sumate Ampawong
Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent malaria parasite species, causes severe symptoms especially acute lung injury (ALI), of which characterized by alveolar epithelium and endothelium destruction and accelerated to blood-gas-barrier breakdown. Parasitized erythrocytes, endothelial cells, monocytes, and cytokines are all involved in this mechanism, but hemozoin (HZ), the parasitic waste from heme detoxification, also mainly contributes. In addition, it is not clear why type II pneumocyte proliferation, alveolar restorative stage, is rare in malaria-associated ALI...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Suraj Dhakal, Sebastian Micki Buss, Elizabeth Jane Cassidy, Nicolai Vitt Meyling, Brian Lund Fredensborg
Parasite effects on host fitness and immunology are often intensity-dependent. Unfortunately, only few experimental studies on insect-parasite interactions attempt to control the level of infection, which may contribute substantial variation to the fitness or immunological parameters of interest. The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta-flour beetle Tenebrio molitor model-has been used extensively for ecological and evolutionary host-parasite studies. Successful establishment of H. diminuta cysticercoids in T. molitor relies on ingestion of viable eggs and penetration of the gut wall by the onchosphere...
February 3, 2018: Insects
Liang Zhang, Kristen Vanderhorst, Kurt Kyser, Linda Campbell
White grub flukes, Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi (Trematoda), and hookworms Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli (Acanthocephala) are common internal parasites for many North American freshwater fishes. P. minimum are found as cysts in internal organ tissues, while P. bulbocolli are found as sexually mature adults in gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C and δ15N) are commonly used to infer food web relationships in freshwater lakes. To see if δ13C and δ15N could be used to analyze parasite-host relationships, we analyzed the stable isotopes of the two species of parasites and various tissue types of their fish hosts (bluegill and pumpkinseed sunfish) from different host tissues...
February 2, 2018: Parasitology Research
Elizabeth M Warburton, Maarten J Vonhof
In most host-parasite systems, variation in parasite burden among hosts drives transmission dynamics. Heavily infected individuals introduce disproportionate numbers of infective stages into host populations or surrounding environments, causing sharp increases in frequency of infection. Parasite aggregation within host populations may result from variation among hosts in exposure to infective propagules and probability of subsequent establishment of parasites in the host. This is because individual host heterogeneities contribute to a pattern of parasite overdispersion that emerges at the population level...
January 26, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Austin Alleman, Barbara Feldmeyer, Susanne Foitzik
The transition to parasitism is a drastic shift in lifestyle, involving rapid changes in gene structure, function, and expression. After the establishment of antagonistic relationships, parasites and hosts co-evolve through reciprocal adaptations, often resulting in evolutionary arms-races. Repeated evolution of social parasitism and slavery among Temnothorax ants allows us to examine those gene expression patterns that characterize slavemaker raiding and reciprocal host defensive phenotypes. Previous behavioural studies have established that raiding strategies between Temnothorax slavemakers diverge, while host defense portfolios shift similarly under parasite pressure...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
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