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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905270/gastrointestinal-helminth-fauna-of-rodents-from-cambodia-emphasizing-the-community-ecology-of-host-parasite-associations
#1
K Chaisiri, M Chou, C C Siew, S Morand, A Ribas
Extensive field surveys of rodents were conducted in Cambodia from 2008 to 2014 to study the diversity and ecology of helminth infection in wild rodent populations. Gastrointestinal helminths were isolated from 14 species of rodents (569 individuals) trapped from different habitats (forest, dry land, rain-fed land and human settlements) in four provinces of Cambodia (Krong Preah Sihanouk, Mondolkiri, Pursat and Steung Treng). The average prevalence of parasitic infection was 58.5% (range, 16.0-64.7%), and 19 helminth taxa were identified in total...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905116/unparalleled-replacement-of-native-mitochondrial-genes-by-foreign-homologs-in-a-holoparasitic-plant
#2
M Virginia Sanchez-Puerta, Laura E García, Josefina Wohlfeiler, Luis F Ceriotti
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among flowering plant mitochondria occurs frequently and, in most cases, leads to nonfunctional transgenes in the recipient genome. Parasitic plants are particularly prone to this phenomenon, but their mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) have been largely unexplored. We undertook a large-scale mitochondrial genomic study of the holoparasitic plant Lophophytum mirabile (Balanophoraceae). Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses were performed to address the frequency, origin, and impact of HGT...
November 30, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899327/novel-application-of-species-richness-estimators-to-predict-the-host-range-of-parasites
#3
David M Watson, Kirsty V Milner, Andrea Leigh
Host range is a critical life history trait of parasites, influencing prevalence, virulence and ultimately determining their distributional extent. Current approaches to measure host range are sensitive to sampling effort, the number of known hosts increasing with more records. Here, we develop a novel application of results-based stopping rules to determine how many hosts should be sampled to yield stable estimates of the number of primary hosts within regions, then use species richness estimation to predict host ranges of parasites across their distributional ranges...
November 27, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899092/dysregulation-of-hepatic-microrna-expression-profiles-with-clonorchis-sinensis-infection
#4
Su Han, Qiaoran Tang, Xi Lu, Rui Chen, Yihong Li, Jing Shu, Xiaoli Zhang, Jianping Cao
BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis remains an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interaction are not fully understood. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered to be key regulators in parasitic diseases. The regulation of miRNAs and host micro-environment may be involved in clonorchiasis, and require further investigation. METHODS: MiRNA microarray technology and bioinformatic analysis were used to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of host miRNA and to compare miRNA expression profiles in the liver tissues of control and Clonorchis sinensis (C...
November 30, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894933/parasitism-personality-and-cognition-in-fish
#5
REVIEW
I Barber, A B Mora, E M Payne, K L Weinersmith, A Sih
It is well established that parasites can have profound effects on the behaviour of host organisms, and that individual differences in behaviour can influence susceptibility to parasite infections. Recently, two major themes of research have developed. First, there has been a growing interest in the proximate, mechanistic processes underpinning parasite-associated behaviour change, and the interactive roles of the neuro-, immune, and other physiological systems in determining relationships between behaviour and infection susceptibility...
November 25, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893749/differential-protein-expression-in-the-hemolymph-of-bithynia-siamensis-goniomphalos-infected-with-opisthorchis-viverrini
#6
Kulwadee Suwannatrai, Apiporn Suwannatrai, Pairat Tabsripair, Jariya Umka Welbat, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Cinzia Cantacessi, Jason Mulvenna, Smarn Tesana, Alex Loukas, Javier Sotillo
Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is a freshwater snail that serves as the first intermediate host of the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. This parasite is a major public health problem in different countries throughout the Greater Mekong sub-region (Thailand, southern Vietnam, Lao PDR and Cambodia). Chronic O. viverrini infection also results in a gradual increase of fibrotic tissues in the biliary tract that are associated with hepatobiliary diseases and contribute to cholangiocarcinoma (a fatal type of bile duct cancer)...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888301/the-genome-sequence-and-insights-into-the-immunogenetics-of-the-bananaquit-passeriformes-coereba-flaveola
#7
Jennifer Antonides, Robert Ricklefs, J Andrew DeWoody
Avian genomics, especially of non-model species, is in its infancy relative to mammalian genomics. Here, we describe the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of a new avian genome, that of the bananaquit Coereba flaveola (Passeriformes: Thraupidae). We produced ∼30-fold coverage of the genome with an assembly size of ca. 1.2 Gb, including approximately 16,500 annotated genes. Passerine birds, such as the bananaquit, are commonly infected by avian malarial parasites (Haemosporida), which presumably drive adaptive evolution of immunogenetic loci within the host genome...
November 25, 2016: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887563/the-trans-generational-impact-of-population-density-signals-on-host-parasite-interactions
#8
Jessica Michel, Dieter Ebert, Matthew D Hall
BACKGROUND: The density of a host population is a key parameter underlying disease transmission, but it also has implications for the expression of disease through its effect on host physiology. In response to higher densities, individuals are predicted to either increase their immune investment in response to the elevated risk of parasitism, or conversely to decrease their immune capacity as a consequence of the stress of a crowded environment. However, an individual's health is shaped by many different factors, including their genetic background, current environmental conditions, and maternal effects...
November 25, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881677/basigin-interacts-with-plasmodium-vivax-tryptophan-rich-antigen-pvtrag38-as-a-second-erythrocyte-receptor-to-promote-parasite-growth
#9
Sumit Rathore, Sheena Dass, Divya Kandari, Inderjeet Kaur, Mayank Gupta, Yagya D Sharma
Elucidating molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interaction during red cell invasion by Plasmodium is important to develop newer antimalarial therapeutics. Recently, we have characterized a Plasmodium vivax tryptophan-rich antigen PvTRAg38, which is expressed by its merozoites, binds to host erythrocytes, and interferes with the parasite growth. Interaction of this parasite ligand to the host erythrocyte occurs through its two regions present at amino acid positions 167-178 (P2) and 197-208 (P4). Each region recognizes its own erythrocyte receptor...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876973/variation-in-lipid-and-fatty-acid-uptake-among-nematode-and-cestode-parasites-and-their-host-domestic-fowl-host-parasite-interaction
#10
Madhumita Mondal, J K Kundu, K K Misra
Lipid synthesis is an important process in most organisms as well as in helminths. The present observation shows the variation of lipid and fatty acid uptake among cestode, Raillietina (Fuhrmannetta) echinobothrida; nematode, Ascaridia galli and their host, Gallus domesticus, the common country fowl. Total lipid (TL), neutral lipid (NL), glycolipid (GL), phospholipid (PL) and their fatty acid of cestode, nematode and liver and intestinal fluid of the host were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and gas liquid chromatography respectively...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876949/new-occurrence-of-parasitic-isopod-argathona-sp-stebbing-1905-from-epinephelus-undulosus-in-the-tuticorin-coast-gulf-of-mannar-region
#11
Gurusamy Chelladurai, Srinivasan Balakrishanan, Ganapathy Rameshkumar, Kannan Banumathi
In the present study of Epinephelus undulosus captured in gillnets from the inshore waters of Tuticorin, Gulf of Mannar region during December 2014. The present findings represent the first occurrence of Argathona sp. and here in reported. The materials examined were deposited at the Kamaraj College, Marine Biological Research Laboratory, Tuticorin, India. The parasitological indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. Host-parasite relationships are considered and these parasites can cause the damage in gill, eye and internal organ including swim bladder...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876934/diversity-of-parasites-in-curimata-incompta-curimatidae-a-host-from-amazon-river-system-in-brazil
#12
Ligia Rigôr Neves, Evelyn Cristhine Rocha Braga, Marcos Tavares-Dias
This paper is the first study on host-parasite relationship in wild Curimata incompta Vari, 1984 (Curimatidae) from Amazon river system, Northern Brazil. In 40 specimens examined from December 2012 to November 2013, 615,818 parasites were collected, such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pilullare, Urocleidoides sp., Posthodiplostomum sp., Gorytocephalus elongorchis and Braga patagonica. The parasites' component community had a low Brillouin diversity (0.16 ± 0.15), a low species richness (3...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876901/nematodes-ultrastructure-complex-systems-and-processes
#13
REVIEW
Maha M A Basyoni, Enas M A Rizk
Nematode worms are among the most ubiquitous organisms on earth. They include free-living forms as well as parasites of plants, insects, humans and other animals. Recently, there has been an explosion of interest in nematode biology, including the area of nematode ultrastructure. Nematodes are round with a body cavity. They have one way guts with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. They have a pseudocoelom that is lined on one side with mesoderm and on the other side with endoderm. It appears that the cuticle is a very complex and evolutionarily plastic feature with important functions involving protection, body movement and maintaining shape...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876650/viruses-of-parasites-as-actors-in-the-parasite-host-relationship-a-m%C3%A3-nage-%C3%A3-trois
#14
REVIEW
Amaranta Gómez-Arreaza, Anne-Lise Haenni, Irene Dunia, Luisana Avilán
The complex parasite-host relationship involves multiple mechanisms. Moreover, parasites infected by viruses modify this relationship adding more complexity to the system that now comprises three partners. Viruses infecting parasites were described several decades ago. However, until recently little was known about the viruses involved and their impact on the resulting disease caused to the hosts. To clarify this situation, we have concentrated on parasitic diseases caused to humans and on how virus-infected parasites could alter the symptoms inflicted on the human host...
November 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872839/insight-into-the-exoproteome-of-the-tissue-derived-trypomastigote-form-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#15
Rayner M L Queiroz, Carlos A O Ricart, Mara O Machado, Izabela M D Bastos, Jaime M de Santana, Marcelo V de Sousa, Peter Roepstorff, Sébastien Charneau
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, one of the major neglected infectious diseases. It has the potential to infect any nucleated mammalian cell. The secreted/excreted protein repertoire released by T. cruzi trypomastigotes is crucial in host-pathogen interactions. In this study, mammalian tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (Y strain) were used to characterize the exoproteome of the infective bloodstream life form. Proteins released into the serum-free culture medium after 3 h of incubation were harvested and digested with trypsin...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871871/paleoparasitological-analysis-of-the-extinct-myotragus-balearicus-bate-1909-artiodactyla-caprinae-from-mallorca-balearic-islands-western-mediterranean
#16
Victor Hugo Borba Nunes, Josep Antoni Alcover, Valmir Laurentino Silva, Paula Borba Cruz, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Adauto José Gonçalves de Araújo
Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollença, Mallorca...
November 18, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870901/ubiquitin-dependent-modification-of-skeletal-muscle-by-the-parasitic-nematode-trichinella-spiralis
#17
Rhiannon R White, Amy H Ponsford, Michael P Weekes, Rachel B Rodrigues, David B Ascher, Marco Mol, Murray E Selkirk, Steven P Gygi, Christopher M Sanderson, Katerina Artavanis-Tsakonas
Trichinella spiralis is a muscle-specific parasitic worm that is uniquely intracellular. T. spiralis reprograms terminally differentiated skeletal muscle cells causing them to de-differentiate and re-enter the cell cycle, a process that cannot occur naturally in mammalian skeletal muscle cells, but one that holds great therapeutic potential. Although the host ubiquitin pathway is a common target for viruses and bacteria during infection, its role in parasite pathogenesis has been largely overlooked. Here we demonstrate that the secreted proteins of T...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870855/host-parasite-interactions-and-population-dynamics-of-rock-ptarmigan
#18
Ute Stenkewitz, Ólafur K Nielsen, Karl Skírnisson, Gunnar Stefánsson
Populations of rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Iceland fluctuate in multiannual cycles with peak numbers c. every 10 years. We studied the ptarmigan-parasite community and how parasites relate to ptarmigan age, body condition, and population density. We collected 632 ptarmigan in northeast Iceland in early October from 2006 to 2012; 630 (99.7%) were infected with at least one parasite species, 616 (98%) with ectoparasites, and 536 (85%) with endoparasites. We analysed indices for the combined parasite community (16 species) and known pathogenic parasites, two coccidian protozoans Eimeria muta and Eimeria rjupa, two nematodes Capillaria caudinflata and Trichostrongylus tenuis, one chewing louse Amyrsidea lagopi, and one skin mite Metamicrolichus islandicus...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866265/proteomic-analysis-of-fasciola-hepatica-excretory-and-secretory-products-fhesps-involved-in-interacting-with-host-pbmcs-and-cytokines-by-shotgun-lc-ms-ms
#19
Qing Liu, Si-Yang Huang, Dong-Mei Yue, Jin-Lei Wang, Yujian Wang, Xiangrui Li, Xing-Quan Zhu
Fasciola hepatica is a helminth parasite with a worldwide distribution, which can cause chronic liver disease, fasciolosis, leading to economic losses in the livestock and public health in many countries. Control is mostly reliant on the use of drugs, and as a result, drug resistance has now emerged. The identification of F. hepatica genes involved in interaction between the parasite and host immune system is utmost important to elucidate the evasion mechanisms of the parasite and develop more effective strategies against fasciolosis...
November 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864097/post-translational-regulation-by-structural-changes-of-4-dihydromethyltrisporate-dehydrogenase-a-key-enzyme-in-sexual-and-parasitic-communication-mediated-by-the-trisporic-acid-pheromone-system-of-the-fungal-fusion-parasite-parasitella-parasitica
#20
Sabrina Ellenberger, Anke Burmester, Stefan Schuster, Johannes Wöstemeyer
Sexual communication between complementary mating partners in the fungal group of zygomycetes is mediated by the trisporoid pheromone system. A key enzyme towards biosynthesis of hormonally active trisporoids is 4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase (TSP1), an enzyme occurring in all zygomycetous fungi. Trisporic acid and some of its precursor molecules serve as pheromones for recognizing complementary mating partners and for induction of the differentiation program towards sexual spore formation. In the parasitic zygomycete Parasitella parasitica, a biotrophic fusion parasite infecting many other zygomycetes, these substances have an additional function: They are also responsible for host-parasite recognition and the formation of the characteristic infection structures...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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