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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326085/dectin-1-compromises-innate-responses-and-host-resistance-against-neospora-caninum-infection
#1
Murilo Vieira da Silva, Flávia Batista Ferreira França, Caroline Martins Mota, Arlindo Gomes de Macedo Júnior, Eliézer Lucas Pires Ramos, Fernanda Maria Santiago, José Roberto Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca Mineo
Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite that has drawn increasing interest due to its association with worldwide repetitive bovine abortions, which cause billionaire losses to the meat and dairy industries annually. Innate immunity plays an important role in infection control, and N. caninum activates the production of inflammatory mediators through toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Advances in the knowledge of initial host-parasite interactions are desirable for the design of control measures against the infection, obliterating its pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325373/host-parasite-relationships-and-life-histories-of-trypanosomes-in-australia
#2
C Cooper, P L Clode, C Peacock, R C A Thompson
Trypanosomes constitute a group of flagellate protozoan parasites responsible for a number of important, yet neglected, diseases in both humans and livestock. The most significantly studied include the causative agents of African sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei) and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) in humans. Much of our knowledge about trypanosome host-parasite relationships and life histories has come from these two human pathogens. Recent investigations into the diversity and life histories of wildlife trypanosomes in Australia highlight that there exists a great degree of biological and behavioural variation within and between trypanosomes...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325369/the-compatibility-between-biomphalaria-glabrata-snails-and-schistosoma-mansoni-an-increasingly-complex-puzzle
#3
G Mitta, B Gourbal, C Grunau, M Knight, J M Bridger, A Théron
This review reexamines the results obtained in recent decades regarding the compatibility polymorphism between the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the pathogen, Schistosoma mansoni, which is one of the agents responsible for human schistosomiasis. Some results point to the snail's resistance as explaining the incompatibility, while others support a "matching hypothesis" between the snail's immune receptors and the schistosome's antigens. We propose here that the two hypotheses are not exclusive, and that the compatible/incompatible status of a particular host/parasite couple probably reflects the balance of multiple molecular determinants that support one hypothesis or the other...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323544/host-diet-affects-the-morphology-of-a-butterfly-parasite
#4
Kevin Ming-Kong Hoang, Leiling Tao, Jacobus C de Roode, Mark D Hunter
Understanding host-parasite interactions is essential for ecological research, wildlife conservation and health management. While most studies focus on numerical traits of parasite groups, such as changes in parasite load, less focus is placed on the traits of individual parasites, such as parasite size and shape (parasite morphology). Parasite morphology has significant effects on parasite fitness, such as initial colonization of hosts, avoidance of host immune defenses, and the availability of resources for parasite replication...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323244/itraq-based-differential-proteomic-analysis-in-mongolian-gerbil-brains-chronically-infected-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#5
Lin Lv, Yapei Wang, Weili Feng, Jorge A Hernandez, Wanyi Huang, Yuxiang Zheng, Xue Zhou, Shumei Lv, Yajun Chen, Zi-Guo Yuan
The aim of our study was to detect differentially regulated proteins and specific signaling pathways in Mongolian gerbil brains during chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) PRU strain infection. We use a iTRAQ-based strategy to detecte 4935 proteins, out of which 110 proteins were differentially expressed (>/=2.0-fold, p value <0.05) when the brain of gerbils infected with T.gondii was compared to control brain tissues. We confirmed the authenticity and the accuracy of iTRAQ results through quantitative real-time PCR and western blot (WB), which was consistent with mass spectrometry analysis...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322847/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-oncomelania-hupensis-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-involved-in-the-snail-host-innate-immune-response-to-the-parasite-schistosoma-japonicum
#6
Shuaiqin Huang, Yunchao Cao, Mingke Lu, Wenfeng Peng, Jiaojiao Lin, Chongti Tang, Liang Tang
Schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, remains a devastating public health problem, with over 200 million people infected and 779 million people at risk worldwide, especially in developing countries. The freshwater amphibious snail Oncomelania hupensis is the obligate intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. This unique and long-standing host-parasite interaction highlights the biomedical importance of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the snail immune defense response against schistosome infection...
March 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322846/did-biogeographical-processes-shape-the-monogenean-community-of-butterflyfishes-in-the-tropical-indo-west-pacific-region
#7
M Reverter, T H Cribb, S C Cutmore, R A Bray, V Parravicini, P Sasal
Geographical distribution of parasite species can provide insights into the evolution and diversity of parasitic communities. Biogeography of marine parasites is poorly known, especially because it requires an understanding of host-parasite interactions, information that is rare, especially over large spatial scales. Here, we have studied the biogeographical patterns of dactylogyrid parasites of chaetodontids, one of the most well-studied fish families, in the tropical Indo-west Pacific region. Dactylogyrid parasites were collected from gills of 34 butterflyfish species (n = 560) at nine localities within an approximate area of 62 million km(2)...
March 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322743/an-experimental-approach-to-the-immuno-modulatory-basis-of-host-parasite-local-adaptation-in-tapeworm-infected-sticklebacks
#8
Madeleine Hamley, Frederik Franke, Joachim Kurtz, Jörn Peter Scharsack
The evolutionary arms race of hosts and parasites often results in adaptations, which may differ between populations. Investigation of such local adaptation becomes increasingly important to understand dynamics of host-parasite interactions and co-evolution. To this end we performed an infection experiment involving pairs of three-spined sticklebacks and their tapeworm parasite Schistocephalus solidus from three geographically separated origins (Germany, Spain and Iceland) in a fully-crossed design for sympatric and allopatric host/parasite combinations...
March 18, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320947/experimental-evidence-that-parasites-drive-eco-evolutionary-feedbacks
#9
Franziska S Brunner, Jaime M Anaya-Rojas, Blake Matthews, Christophe Eizaguirre
Host resistance to parasites is a rapidly evolving trait that can influence how hosts modify ecosystems. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks may develop if the ecosystem effects of host resistance influence selection on subsequent host generations. In a mesocosm experiment, using a recently diverged (<100 generations) pair of lake and stream three-spined sticklebacks, we tested how experimental exposure to a common fish parasite (Gyrodactylus spp.) affects interactions between hosts and their ecosystems in two environmental conditions (low and high nutrients)...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320404/tryptophan-rich-domains-of-plasmodium-falciparum-surfin4-2-and-plasmodium-vivax-pvstp2-interact-with-membrane-skeleton-of-red-blood-cell
#10
Xiaotong Zhu, Yang He, Yifan Liang, Osamu Kaneko, Liwang Cui, Yaming Cao
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum dramatically alters the morphology and properties of the infected red blood cells (iRBCs). A large group of exported proteins participate in these parasite-host interactions occurring at the iRBC membrane skeleton. SURFIN4.2 is one of iRBC surface protein that belongs to surface-associated interspersed protein (SURFIN) family. Although the intracellular tryptophan-rich domain (WRD) was proposed to be important for the translocation of SURFINs from Maurer's clefts to iRBC surface, the molecular basis of this observation has yet to be defined...
March 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315362/molecular-analyses-reveal-high-species-diversity-of-trematodes-in-a-sub-arctic-lake
#11
Miroslava Soldánová, Simona Georgieva, Jana Roháčová, Rune Knudsen, Jesper A Kuhn, Eirik H Henriksen, Anna Siwertsson, Jenny C Shaw, Armand M Kuris, Per-Arne Amundsen, Tomáš Scholz, Kevin D Lafferty, Aneta Kostadinova
To identify trematode diversity and life-cycles in the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, Norway, we characterised 120 trematode isolates from mollusc first intermediate hosts, metacercariae from second intermediate host fishes and invertebrates, and adults from fish and invertebrate definitive hosts, using molecular techniques. Phylogenies based on nuclear and/or mtDNA revealed high species richness (24 species or species-level genetic lineages), and uncovered trematode diversity (16 putative new species) from five families typical in lake ecosystems (Allocreadiidae, Diplostomidae, Plagiorchiidae, Schistosomatidae and Strigeidae)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298918/host-parasite-bacteria-triangle-the-microbiome-of-the-parasitic-weed-phelipanche-aegyptiaca-and-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-mill-as-a-host
#12
Lilach Iasur Kruh, Tamar Lahav, Jacline Abu-Nassar, Guy Achdari, Raghda Salami, Shiri Freilich, Radi Aly
Broomrapes (Phelipanche/Orobanche spp.) are holoparasitic plants that subsist on the roots of a variety of agricultural crops, establishing direct connections with the host vascular system. This connection allows for the exchange of various substances and a possible exchange of endophytic microorganisms that inhabit the internal tissues of both plants. To shed some light on bacterial interactions occurring between the parasitic Phelipanche aegyptiaca and its host tomato, we characterized the endophytic composition in the parasite during the parasitization process and ascertained if these changes were accompanied by changes to endophytes in the host root...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295937/integrating-phylogenetic-and-ecological-distances-reveals-new-insights-into-parasite-host-specificity
#13
Nicholas J Clark, Sonya M Clegg
The range of hosts a pathogen infects (host specificity) is a key element of disease risk that may be influenced by both shared phylogenetic history and shared ecological attributes of prospective hosts. Phylospecificity indices quantify host specificity in terms of host relatedness, but can fail to capture ecological attributes that increase susceptibility. For instance, similarity in habitat niche may expose phylogenetically unrelated host species to similar pathogen assemblages. Using a recently proposed method that integrates multiple distances, we develop a new index to assess the relative contributions of host phylogenetic and functional distances to pathogen host specificity (functional-phylogenetic host specificity)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294160/immune-complexes-in-chronic-chagas-disease-patients-are-formed-by-exovesicles-from-trypanosoma-cruzi-carrying-the-conserved-masp-n-terminal-region
#14
Isabel María Díaz Lozano, Luis Miguel De Pablos, Silvia Andrea Longhi, María Paola Zago, Alejandro Gabriel Schijman, Antonio Osuna
The exovesicles (EVs) are involved in pathologic host-parasite immune associations and have been recently used as biomarkers for diagnosis of infectious diseases. The release of EVs by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has recently been described, with different protein cargoes including the MASP multigene family of proteins MASPs are specific to this parasite and characterized by a conserved C-terminal (C-term) region and an N-terminal codifying for a signal peptide (SP). In this investigation, we identified immature MASP proteins containing the MASP SP in EVs secreted by the infective forms of the parasite...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289263/fast-killing-parasites-can-be-favoured-in-spatially-structured-populations
#15
Helen C Leggett, Geoff Wild, Stuart A West, Angus Buckling
It is becoming increasingly clear that the evolution of infectious disease is influenced by host population structure. Theory predicts that parasites should be more 'prudent'-less transmissible-in spatially structured host populations. However, here we (i) highlight how low transmission, the phenotype being selected for in this in context, may also be achieved by rapacious host exploitation, if fast host exploitation confers a local, within-host competitive advantage and (ii) test this novel concept in a bacteria-virus system...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289262/uncertain-links-in-host-parasite-networks-lessons-for-parasite-transmission-in-a-multi-host-system
#16
Josephine G Walker, Michaela Plein, Eric R Morgan, Peter A Vesk
For many parasites, the full set of hosts that are susceptible to infection is not known, and this could lead to a bias in estimates of transmission. We used counts of individual adult parasites from historical parasitology studies in southern Africa to map a bipartite network of the nematode parasites of herbivore hosts that occur in Botswana. Bipartite networks are used in community ecology to represent interactions across trophic levels. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to predict the full set of host-parasite interactions from existing data on parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes of wild and domestic ungulates given assumptions about the distribution of parasite counts within hosts, while accounting for the relative uncertainty of less sampled species...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289256/global-change-parasite-transmission-and-disease-control-lessons-from-ecology
#17
REVIEW
Joanne Cable, Iain Barber, Brian Boag, Amy R Ellison, Eric R Morgan, Kris Murray, Emily L Pascoe, Steven M Sait, Anthony J Wilson, Mark Booth
Parasitic infections are ubiquitous in wildlife, livestock and human populations, and healthy ecosystems are often parasite rich. Yet, their negative impacts can be extreme. Understanding how both anticipated and cryptic changes in a system might affect parasite transmission at an individual, local and global level is critical for sustainable control in humans and livestock. Here we highlight and synthesize evidence regarding potential effects of 'system changes' (both climatic and anthropogenic) on parasite transmission from wild host-parasite systems...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289252/breaking-beta-deconstructing-the-parasite-transmission-function
#18
Hamish McCallum, Andy Fenton, Peter J Hudson, Brian Lee, Beth Levick, Rachel Norman, Sarah E Perkins, Mark Viney, Anthony J Wilson, Joanne Lello
Transmission is a fundamental step in the life cycle of every parasite but it is also one of the most challenging processes to model and quantify. In most host-parasite models, the transmission process is encapsulated by a single parameter β Many different biological processes and interactions, acting on both hosts and infectious organisms, are subsumed in this single term. There are, however, at least two undesirable consequences of this high level of abstraction. First, nonlinearities and heterogeneities that can be critical to the dynamic behaviour of infections are poorly represented; second, estimating the transmission coefficient β from field data is often very difficult...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286338/integration-site-selection-by-retroviruses-and-transposable-elements-in-eukaryotes
#19
REVIEW
Tania Sultana, Alessia Zamborlini, Gael Cristofari, Pascale Lesage
Transposable elements and retroviruses are found in most genomes, can be pathogenic and are widely used as gene-delivery and functional genomics tools. Exploring whether these genetic elements target specific genomic sites for integration and how this preference is achieved is crucial to our understanding of genome evolution, somatic genome plasticity in cancer and ageing, host-parasite interactions and genome engineering applications. High-throughput profiling of integration sites by next-generation sequencing, combined with large-scale genomic data mining and cellular or biochemical approaches, has revealed that the insertions are usually non-random...
March 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278252/complement-inhibition-by-sarcoptes-scabiei-protects-streptococcus-pyogenes-an-in-vitro-study-to-unravel-the-molecular-mechanisms-behind-the-poorly-understood-predilection-of-s-pyogenes-to-infect-mite-induced-skin-lesions
#20
Pearl M Swe, Lindsay D Christian, Hieng C Lu, Kadaba S Sriprakash, Katja Fischer
BACKGROUND: On a global scale scabies is one of the most common dermatological conditions, imposing a considerable economic burden on individuals, communities and health systems. There is substantial epidemiological evidence that in tropical regions scabies is often causing pyoderma and subsequently serious illness due to invasion by opportunistic bacteria. The health burden due to complicated scabies causing cellulitis, bacteraemia and sepsis, heart and kidney diseases in resource-poor communities is extreme...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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