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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689830/chewing-lice-insecta-phthiraptera-associated-with-vertebrates-in-mexico
#1
Sokani SÁnchez-Montes, Pablo Colunga-Salas, LucÍa Álvarez-Castillo, Carmen GuzmÁn-Cornejo, Griselda Montiel-Parra
The chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) of Mexico have been little studied and many publications include isolated records. This paper summarizes current knowledge of chewing lice recorded from Mexico resulting from an exhaustive search of the literature published from 1866 to 2017. We found 342 louse species associated with 206 bird and 28 mammal species. As a result, we provide a checklist of the chewing lice recorded from Mexico, including a host-parasite list and their geographical distribution within the country...
January 15, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686314/unexplained-interannual-oscillations-of-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-the-baltic-sea
#2
Mati Kahru, Ragnar Elmgren, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Oleg Savchuk
Population oscillations in multi-species or even single species systems are well-known but have rarely been detected at the lower trophic levels in marine systems. Nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria are a major component of the Baltic Sea ecosystem and sometimes form huge surface accumulations covering most of the sea surface. By analysing a satellite-derived 39-year (1979-2017) data archive of surface cyanobacteria concentrations we have found evidence of strikingly regular interannual oscillations in cyanobacteria concentrations in the northern Baltic Sea...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683427/ecological-multiplex-interactions-determine-the-role-of-species-for-parasite-spread-amplification
#3
Massimo Stella, Sanja Selakovic, Alberto Antonioni, Cecilia Andreazzi
Despite their potential interplay, multiple routes of many disease transmissions are often investigated separately. As an unifying framework for understanding parasite spread through interdependent transmission paths, we present the 'ecomultiplex' model, where the multiple transmission paths among a diverse community of interacting hosts are represented as a spatially explicit multiplex network. We adopt this framework for designing and testing potential control strategies for T. cruzi spread in two empirical host communities...
April 23, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677188/smsp2-a-serine-protease-secreted-by-the-blood-fluke-pathogen-schistosoma-mansoni-with-anti-hemostatic-properties
#4
Adrian Leontovyč, Lenka Ulrychová, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Jiří Vondrášek, Lucie Marešová, Martin Hubálek, Pavla Fajtová, Marta Chanová, Zhenze Jiang, Charles S Craik, Conor R Caffrey, Michael Mareš, Jan Dvořák, Martin Horn
BACKGROUND: Serine proteases are important virulence factors for many pathogens. Recently, we discovered a group of trypsin-like serine proteases with domain organization unique to flatworm parasites and containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR-1). These proteases are recognized as antigens during host infection and may prove useful as anthelminthic vaccines, however their molecular characteristics are under-studied. Here, we characterize the structural and proteolytic attributes of serine protease 2 (SmSP2) from Schistosoma mansoni, one of the major species responsible for the tropical infectious disease, schistosomiasis...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676786/host-parasite-coevolution-can-promote-the-evolution-of-seed-banking-as-a-bet-hedging-strategy
#5
Mélissa Verin, Aurélien Tellier
Seed (egg) banking is a common bet-hedging strategy maximizing the fitness of organisms facing environmental unpredictability by the delayed emergence of offspring. Yet, this condition often requires fast and drastic stochastic shifts between good and bad years. We hypothesize that the host seed banking strategy can evolve in response to coevolution with parasites because the coevolutionary cycles promote a gradually changing environment over longer times than seed persistence. We study the evolution of host germination fraction as a quantitative trait using both pairwise competition and multiple mutant competition methods, while the germination locus can be genetically linked or unlinked with the host locus under coevolution...
April 20, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672535/a-novel-nanoluciferase-based-system-to-monitor-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-in-mice-by-bioluminescence-imaging
#6
Erica Silberstein, Carylinda Serna, Stenio Perdigão Fragoso, Rana Nagarkatti, Alain Debrabant
Chagas disease, caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 8-10 million people worldwide and represents a major public health challenge. There is no effective treatment or vaccine to control the disease that is characterized by a mild acute phase followed by a chronic life-long infection. Approximately 30% of chronically infected individuals develop cardiac and/or digestive pathologies. T. cruzi can invade a wide variety of nucleated cells, but only persists at specific tissues in the host...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669882/influential-parameters-for-the-analysis-of-intracellular-parasite-metabolomics
#7
Maureen A Carey, Vincent Covelli, Audrey Brown, Gregory L Medlock, Mareike Haaren, Jessica G Cooper, Jason A Papin, Jennifer L Guler
Metabolomics is increasingly popular for the study of pathogens. For the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum , both targeted and untargeted metabolomics have improved our understanding of pathogenesis, host-parasite interactions, and antimalarial drug treatment and resistance. However, purification and analysis procedures for performing metabolomics on intracellular pathogens have not been explored. Here, we purified in vitro -grown ring-stage intraerythrocytic P. falciparum parasites for untargeted metabolomics studies; the small size of this developmental stage amplifies the challenges associated with metabolomics studies as the ratio between host and parasite biomass is maximized...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669845/trans-generational-immunization-in-the-acrobat-ant-crematogaster-scutellaris
#8
Adele Bordoni, Leonardo Dapporto, Irene Tatini, Martina Celli, Manuel Bercigli, Serena Ressurrección Barrufet, Brunella Perito, Stefano Turillazzi
Trans-generational immunization is defined as the transmission of an enhanced resistance to a pathogen from parents to offspring. By using the host-parasite system of the ant Crematogaster scutellaris and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae , we describe this phenomenon for the first time in ants. We exposed four groups of hibernating queens to different treatments (i) a non-lethal dose of live conidiospores in Triton, (ii) a dose of heat-killed conidiospores in Triton, (iii) a control Triton solution, and (iv) a naive control...
April 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669386/the-essential-ectoenzyme-smnpp5-from-the-human-intravascular-parasite-schistosoma-mansoni-is-an-adpase-and-a-potent-inhibitor-of-platelet-aggregation
#9
Manal Elzoheiry, Akram A Da'dara, Armelle M deLaforcade, Samar N El-Beshbishi, Patrick J Skelly
Schistosomes are intravascular parasitic platyhelminthes infecting > 200 million people globally and causing a debilitating disease, schistosomiasis. Despite the relatively large size of the adult worms and their disruption of blood flow, surprisingly, they do not appear to provoke thrombus formation around them in vivo. We hypothesize that proteins expressed at the host-parasite interface are key to this ability. Here, we functionally express an ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase homologue, SmNPP5, that is expressed at the tegumental surface of intravascular Schistosoma mansoni ...
April 18, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668679/similarities-and-differences-between-helminth-parasites-and-cancer-cell-lines-in-shaping-human-monocytes-insights-into-parallel-mechanisms-of-immune-evasion
#10
Prakash Babu Narasimhan, Leor Akabas, Sameha Tariq, Naureen Huda, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Helen Sabzevari, Robert Hofmeister, Thomas B Nutman, Roshanak Tolouei Semnani
A number of features at the host-parasite interface are reminiscent of those that are also observed at the host-tumor interface. Both cancer cells and parasites establish a tissue microenvironment that allows for immune evasion and may reflect functional alterations of various innate cells. Here, we investigated how the phenotype and function of human monocytes is altered by exposure to cancer cell lines and if these functional and phenotypic alterations parallel those induced by exposure to helminth parasites...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668109/coevolution-of-virulence-and-immunosuppression-in-multiple-infections
#11
Tsukushi Kamiya, Nicole Mideo, Samuel Alizon
Many components of host-parasite interactions have been shown to affect the way virulence (i.e., parasite-induced harm to the host) evolves. However, coevolution of multiple parasite traits is often neglected. We explore how an immunosuppressive mechanism of parasites affects and coevolves with virulence through multiple infections. Applying the adaptive dynamics framework to epidemiological models with coinfection, we show that immunosuppression is a double-edgedsword for the evolution of virulence. On one hand, it amplifies the adaptive benefit of virulence by increasing the abundance of coinfections through epidemiological feedbacks...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664574/innate-immune-memory-an-evolutionary-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Benjamin Gourbal, Silvain Pinaud, Gerold J M Beckers, Jos W M Van Der Meer, Uwe Conrath, Mihai G Netea
Over the last decades, there was increasing evidence for the presence of innate immune memory in living organisms. In this review, we compare the innate immune memory of various organisms with a focus on phylogenetics. We discuss the acquisition and molecular basis of immune memory and we describe the innate immune memory paradigm and its role in host defense during evolution. The molecular characterization of innate immunological memory in diverse organisms and host-parasite systems reconciles mechanisms with phenomena and paves the way to molecular comprehension of innate immune memory...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663622/the-role-of-defensive-symbionts-in-host-parasite-coevolution
#13
Christoph Vorburger, Steve J Perlman
Understanding the coevolution of hosts and parasites is a long-standing goal of evolutionary biology. There is a well-developed theoretical framework to describe the evolution of host-parasite interactions under the assumption of direct, two-species interactions, which can result in arms race dynamics or sustained genotype fluctuations driven by negative frequency dependence (Red Queen dynamics). However, many hosts rely on symbionts for defence against parasites. Whilst the ubiquity of defensive symbionts and their potential importance for disease control are increasingly recognized, there is still a gap in our understanding of how symbionts mediate or possibly take part in host-parasite coevolution...
April 16, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659607/phenotypic-plasticity-of-pre-adult-egg-maturation-in-a-parasitoid-effects-of-host-starvation-and-brood-size
#14
Yael Keinan, Rachel Braun, Tamar Keasar
Larvae of parasitoid wasps develop on a single arthropod host, and often face resource limitation that induces a tradeoff between egg maturation and somatic growth. Part of the variation in the growth-reproduction allocation was shown to be heritable, but how the larval developmental environment affects this allocation is not well-known. Detection of life history tradeoffs is often facilitated under stress conditions. We therefore exposed developing female larvae of the polyembryonic parasitoid Copidosoma koehleri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) to laboratory manipulations aimed to restrict host resources (either host-starvation or high larval density)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658303/-i-toxoplasma-gondii-i-infection-induces-the-formation-of-host-s-nuclear-granules-containing-poly-a-binding-proteins
#15
Karlee Fischer, Mikayla Roberts, Scott Roscoe, Yasin Avci, Sirinart Ananvoranich
To gain an insight into the mechanisms by which <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> interacts with the host cells at the molecular level, human poly-(A) binding protein (PABP) is being investigated. PABP family is an indicator of translation in the cell, given its roles in mRNA stability, translational initiation and repression. Following a heat shock, the formation of PABP-containing granules was observed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of human fibroblasts. This heat shock response does not affect the progression of <i>T...
April 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653104/the-malaria-parasite-rhoph-protein-complex-interacts-with-erythrocyte-calmyrin-identified-from-a-comprehensive-erythrocyte-protein-library
#16
Toyokazu Miura, Satoru Takeo, Edward H Ntege, Hitoshi Otsuki, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Tomoko Ishino, Eizo Takashima, Takafumi Tsuboi
Malaria merozoite apical organelles; microneme and rhoptry secreted proteins play functional roles during and following invasion of host erythrocytes. Among numerous proteins, the rhoptries discharge high molecular weight proteins known as RhopH complex. Recent reports suggest that the RhopH complex is essential for growth and survival of the malaria parasite within erythrocytes. However, an in-depth understanding of the host-parasite molecular interactions is indispensable. Here we utilized a comprehensive mouse erythrocyte protein library consisting of 443 proteins produced by a wheat germ cell-free system, combined with AlphaScreen technology to identify mouse erythrocyte calmyrin as an interacting molecule of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii RhopH complex (PyRhopH)...
April 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650372/genomic-signatures-of-parasite-driven-natural-selection-in-north-european-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#17
Ksenia J Zueva, Jaakko Lumme, Alexey E Veselov, Matthew P Kent, Craig R Primmer
Understanding the genomic basis of host-parasite adaptation is important for predicting the long-term viability of species and developing successful management practices. However, in wild populations, identifying specific signatures of parasite-driven selection often presents a challenge, as it is difficult to unravel the molecular signatures of selection driven by different, but correlated, environmental factors. Furthermore, separating parasite-mediated selection from similar signatures due to genetic drift and population history can also be difficult...
April 9, 2018: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616052/the-role-of-programmed-cell-death-regulator-lsd1-in-nematode-induced-syncytium-formation
#18
Mateusz Matuszkiewicz, Miroslaw Sobczak, Javier Cabrera, Carolina Escobar, Stanislaw Karpiński, Marcin Filipecki
Cyst-forming plant-parasitic nematodes are common pests of many crops. They inject secretions into host cells to induce the developmental and metabolic reprogramming that leads to the formation of a syncytium, which is the sole food source for growing nematodes. As in other host-parasite models, avirulence leads to rapid and local programmed cell death (PCD) known as the hypersensitive response (HR), whereas in the case of virulence, PCD is still observed but is limited to only some cells. Several regulators of PCD were analyzed to understand the role of PCD in compatible plant-nematode interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616011/lipid-bodies-as-sites-of-prostaglandin-e2-synthesis-during-chagas-disease-impact-in-the-parasite-escape-mechanism
#19
REVIEW
Patrícia E de Almeida, Daniel A M Toledo, Gabriel S C Rodrigues, Heloisa D'Avila
During Chagas disease, the Trypanosoma cruzi can induce some changes in the host cells in order to escape or manipulate the host immune response. The modulation of the lipid metabolism in the host phagocytes or in the parasite itself is one feature that has been observed. The goal of this mini review is to discuss the mechanisms that regulate intracellular lipid body (LB) biogenesis in the course of this parasite infection and their meaning to the pathophysiology of the disease. The interaction host-parasite induces LB (or lipid droplet) formation in a Toll-like receptor 2-dependent mechanism in macrophages and is enhanced by apoptotic cell uptake...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615530/a-edna-qpcr-assay-to-detect-the-presence-of-the-parasite-schistocephalus-solidus-inside-its-threespine-stickleback-host
#20
Chloé Suzanne Berger, Nadia Aubin-Horth
Detecting the presence of a parasite within its host is crucial to the study of host-parasite interactions. The Schistocephalus solidus - threespine stickleback pair has been studied extensively to investigate host phenotypic alterations associated with a parasite with a complex life cycle. This cestode is localized inside the stickleback's abdominal cavity and can be visually detected only once it passes a mass threshold. We present a non-lethal quantitative PCR approach based on detection of environmental DNA from the worm (eDNA), sampled in the fish abdominal cavity...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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