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J Burazerovic, M Orlova, M Obradovic, D Cirovic, S Tomanovic
Bats are hosts to a number of ectoparasites-acarines (ticks, chiggers, other mites), bat flies, and fleas. Bat ectoparasites might have significant ecological and public health importance as they may be potential vectors of zoonotic agents. It is important to identify their distribution, diversity, and host-parasite associations. Bat ectoparasites in the central Balkans have been largely understudied. The present research was conducted in 45 localities at the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Daniel J Becker, Daniel G Streicker, Sonia Altizer
1.Supplemental food provided to wildlife by human activities can be more abundant and predictable than natural resources, and subsequent changes to wildlife ecology can have profound impacts on host-parasite interactions. Identifying traits of species associated with increases or decreases in infection outcomes with resource provisioning could improve assessments of wildlife most prone to disease risks in changing environments. 2.We conducted a phylogenetic meta-analysis of 342 host-parasite interactions across 56 wildlife species and three broad taxonomic groups of parasites to identify host-level traits that influence whether provisioning is associated with increases or decreases in infection...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Qiang Wang, Akram A Da'dara, Patrick J Skelly
Schistosomes are intravascular, parasitic flatworms that cause debilitating disease afflicting >200 million people. Proteins expressed at the host-parasite interface likely play key roles in modifying the worm's local environment to ensure parasite survival. Proteomic analysis reveals that two proteases belonging to the calpain family (SmCalp1 and SmCalp2) are expressed in the Schistosoma mansoni tegument. We have cloned both; while highly conserved in domain organization they display just 31% amino acid sequence identity...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alice Risely, Marcel Klaassen, Bethany Hoye
1.Migratory animals are widely assumed to play an important role in the long-distance dispersal of parasites, and are frequently implicated in the global spread of zoonotic pathogens such as avian influenzas in birds and ebolaviruses in bats. However, infection imposes physiological and behavioural constraints on hosts that may act to curtail parasite dispersal via changes to migratory timing ('migratory separation') and survival ('migratory culling'). 2.There remains little consensus regarding the frequency and extent to which migratory separation and migratory culling may operate, despite a growing recognition of the importance of these mechanisms in regulating transmission dynamics in migratory animals...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Laura M Braden, Karina J Rasmussen, Sara L Purcell, Lauren Ellis, Amelia Mahony, Steven Cho, Shona K Whyte, Simon R M Jones, Mark D Fast
The histozoic myxozoan parasite Kudoa thyrsites causes post-mortem myoliquefaction and is responsible for economic losses to salmon aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest. Despite its importance, little is known about the host-parasite relationship, including the host response to infection. The present work sought to characterize the immune response in Atlantic salmon during infection, recovery and re-exposure to K. thyrsites After exposure to infective seawater, infected and uninfected smolts were sampled three times over 4275 degree-days...
October 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
Weikun Shi, Chunyu Xue, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
Galectins is a family of multifunctional lectins. Fifteen galectins have been identified from a variety of cells and tissues of vertebrates and invertebrates. Galectins have been shown to play pivotal roles in host-pathogen interaction such as adhesion of pathogens to host cells and activation of host innate and adaptive immunity. In recent years, the roles of galectins during parasite infections have gained increasing attention. Galectins produced by different hosts can act as pattern recognition receptors (PRR) detecting conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of parasites, while galectins produced by parasites can modulate host responses...
October 3, 2017: Acta Tropica
Shuai Wang, Xing-Quan Zhu, Xuepeng Cai
Gene duplication (GD), thought to facilitate evolutionary innovation and adaptation, has been studied in many phylogenetic lineages. However, it remains poorly investigated in trematodes, a medically important parasite group that has been evolutionarily specialized during long-term host-parasite interaction. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide study of GD modes and contributions in Schistosoma mansoni, a pathogen causing human schistosomiasis. We combined several lines of evidence provided by duplicate age distributions, genomic sequence similarity, depth-of-coverage and gene synteny to identify the dominant drivers that contribute to the origins of new genes in this parasite...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Paulo Renato Totino, Stefanie Costa Lopes
Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread and the dominant human malaria parasite in most countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa and, although it was classically recognized to cause benign infection, severe cases and deaths caused by P. vivax have remarkably been reported. In contrast to Plasmodium falciparum, which well-known ability to bind to endothelium and placental tissue and form rosettes is related to severity of the disease, it has been a dogma that P. vivax is unable to undergo cytoadherent phenomena...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
C V L Miller, S C Cotter
1.Tolerance and resistance are the two ways in which hosts can lessen the effects of infection. Tolerance aims to minimise the fitness effects resulting from incumbent pathogen populations, whereas resistance aims to reduce the pathogen population size within the host. While environmental impacts on resistance have been extensively recorded their impacts on variation in tolerance are virtually unexplored. 2.Here we ask how the environment, namely the host diet, influences the capacity of an organism to tolerate and resist infection, using a model host-parasite system, the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides and the entomopathogenic bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Stephanie S Godfrey, Michael G Gardner
Professor C. Michael Bull was a great scientist and mentor, and an Associate Editor of this journal. While his research career spanned the fields of behavioural ecology, conservation biology and herpetology, in this article, we pay tribute to his major contribution to Australian parasitology. Mike authored more than eighty articles on host-parasite ecology, and revealed major insights into the biology and ecology of ticks from his long term study of the parapatric boundary of two tick species (Amblyomma limbatum and Bothriocroton hydrosauri) on the sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa)...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Thomas Caraco, Wendy C Turner
Spatial localization of an obligate-killing, free-living pathogen generates a landscape of patches where new infections occur. As an infectious patch ages, both pathogen exposure at the patch and the probability of lethal infection following exposure can decline. We model stage-structured infectious patches, where non-lethal exposure can naturally "vaccinate" susceptible hosts. We let the between-stage difference in pathogen transmission, and then the between-stage difference in patch virulence, increase independently of other parameters...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Xiao-Long Hu, Gang Liu, Yu-Ting Wei, Yi-Hua Wang, Tian-Xiang Zhang, Shuang Yang, De-Fu Hu, Shu-Qiang Liu
Parasite infections can cause adverse effects on health, survival and welfare of forest musk deer. However, few studies have quantified the parasite infection status and evaluated the parasite temporal dynamics and differences between breeding centers for captive forest musk deer. The purpose of this study was to assess seasonal and regional effects on the parasite prevalence, shedding capacity, diversity, aggregation and infracommunity to establish baseline data on captive forest musk deer. The McMaster technique was applied to count parasite eggs or oocysts in 990 fecal samples collected at three breeding centers located in Qinling Mountains and Tibetan Plateau during spring, summer, and winter...
September 28, 2017: Acta Tropica
Neeraj K Dubey, Hanan Eizenberg, Diana Leibman, Dalia Wolf, Menahem Edelstein, Jackline Abu-Nassar, Sally Marzouk, Amit Gal-On, Radi Aly
RNA silencing refers to diverse mechanisms that control gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels which can also be used in parasitic pathogens of plants that Broomrapes (Orobanche/Phelipanche spp.) are holoparasitic plants that subsist on the roots of a variety of agricultural crops and cause severe negative effects on the yield and yield quality of those crops. Effective methods for controlling parasitic weeds are scarce, with only a few known cases of genetic resistance. In the current study, we suggest an improved strategy for the control of parasitic weeds based on trans-specific gene-silencing of three parasite genes at once...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Brian K Lohman, Natalie C Steinel, Jesse N Weber, Daniel I Bolnick
Heritable population differences in immune gene expression following infection can reveal mechanisms of host immune evolution. We compared gene expression in infected and uninfected threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from two natural populations that differ in resistance to a native cestode parasite, Schistocephalus solidus. Genes in both the innate and adaptive immune system were differentially expressed as a function of host population, infection status, and their interaction. These genes were enriched for loci controlling immune functions known to differ between host populations or in response to infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Andrés Valenzuela-Sánchez, Benedikt R Schmidt, David E Uribe-Rivera, Francisco Costas, Andrew A Cunningham, Claudio Soto-Azat
The decline of wildlife populations due to emerging infectious disease often shows a common pattern: the parasite invades a naive host population, producing epidemic disease and a population decline, sometimes with extirpation. Some susceptible host populations can survive the epidemic phase and persist with endemic parasitic infection. Understanding host-parasite dynamics leading to persistence of the system is imperative to adequately inform conservation practice. Here we combine field data, statistical and mathematical modelling to explore the dynamics of the apparently stable Rhinoderma darwinii-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) system...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Sandra K Halonen
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite, with approximately one-third of the worlds' population chronically infected. In chronically infected individuals, the parasite resides in tissue cysts in neurons in the brain. The chronic infection in immunocompetant individuals has traditionally been considered to be asymptomatic, but increasing evidence indicates that chronic infection is associated with diverse neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, cryptogenic epilepsy, and Parkinson's Disease...
September 23, 2017: Cells
May Hokan, Christina Strube, Ute Radespiel, Elke Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: A central question in evolutionary parasitology is to what extent ecology impacts patterns of parasitism in wild host populations. In this study, we aim to disentangle factors influencing the risk of parasite exposure by exploring the impact of sleeping site ecology on infection with ectoparasites and vector-borne hemoparasites in two sympatric primates endemic to Madagascar. Both species live in the same dry deciduous forest of northwestern Madagascar and cope with the same climatic constraints, they are arboreal, nocturnal, cat-sized and pair-living but differ prominently in sleeping site ecology...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
L Kaiser, S Dupas, A Branca, E A Herniou, C W Clarke, C Capdevielle Dulac, J Obonyo, R Benoist, J Gauthier, P A Calatayud, J F Silvain, B P Le Ru
This review covers nearly 20 years of studies on the ecology, physiology and genetics of the Hymenoptera Cotesia sesamiae, an African parasitoid of Lepidoptera that reduces populations of common maize borers in East and South Africa. The first part of the review presents studies based on sampling of C. sesamiae from maize crops in Kenya. From this agrosystem including one host plant and three main host borer species, studies revealed two genetically differentiated populations of C. sesamiae species adapted to their local host community, and showed that their differentiation involved the joint evolution of virulence genes and sensory mechanisms of host acceptance, reinforced by reproductive incompatibility due to Wolbachia infection status and natural inbreeding...
September 22, 2017: Genetica
Scott L Nuismer
The metaphors of the Red Queen and the arms race have inspired a large amount of research aimed at understanding the process of antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites. One approach that has been heavily used is to estimate the strength of parasite local adaptation using a reciprocal cross infection or transplant study. These studies frequently conclude that the locally adapted species is ahead in the coevolutionary race. Here, I use mathematical models to decompose parasite infectivity into components attributable to local versus global adaptation and to develop a robust index of which species is ahead in the coevolutionary race, which I term coevolutionary advantage...
October 2017: American Naturalist
Pieter T J Johnson, Mark Q Wilber
The macroecological pattern known as Taylor's power law (TPL) represents the pervasive tendency of the variance in population density to increase as a power function of the mean. Despite empirical illustrations in systems ranging from viruses to vertebrates, the biological significance of this relationship continues to be debated. Here we combined collection of a unique dataset involving 11 987 amphibian hosts and 332 684 trematode parasites with experimental measurements of core epidemiological outcomes to explicitly test the contributions of hypothesized biological processes in driving aggregation...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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