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Jana Ilgová, Lucie Jedličková, Hana Dvořáková, Michal Benovics, Libor Mikeš, Lubomír Janda, Jiří Vorel, Pavel Roudnický, David Potěšil, Zbyněk Zdráhal, Milan Gelnar, Martin Kašný
Parasite inhibitors of cysteine peptidases are known to influence a vast range of processes linked to a degradation of either the parasites' own proteins or proteins native to their hosts. We characterise a novel type I cystatin (stefin) found in a sanguinivorous fish parasite Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea). We have identified a transcript of its coding gene in the transcriptome of adult worms. Its amino acid sequence is similar to other stefins except for containing a legumain-binding domain, which is in this type of cystatins rather unusual...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jitka Štáfková, Petr Rada, Dionigia Meloni, Vojtěch Žárský, Tamara Smutná, Nadine Zimmann, Karel Harant, Petr Pompach, Ivan Hrdý, Jan Tachezy
The secretion of virulence factors by parasitic protists into the host environment plays a fundamental role in multifactorial host-parasite interactions. Several effector proteins are known to be secreted by Trichomonas vaginalis, a human parasite of the urogenital tract. However, a comprehensive profiling of the T. vaginalis secretome remains elusive, as do the mechanisms of protein secretion. In this study, we used high-resolution label-free quantitative MS to analyze the T. vaginalis secretome, considering that secretion is a time- and temperature-dependent process, to define the cutoff for secreted proteins...
December 12, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Anja Bråthen Kristoffersen, Lars Qviller, Kari Olli Helgesen, Knut Wiik Vollset, Hildegunn Viljugrein, Peder Andreas Jansen
The Norwegian government recently implemented a new management system to regulate salmon farming in Norway, aiming to promote environmentally sustainable growth in the aquaculture industry. The Norwegian coast has been divided into 13 production zones and the volume of salmonid production in the zones will be regulated based on salmon lice effects on wild salmonids. Here we present a model for assessing salmon louse-induced mortality of seaward-migrating post-smolts of Atlantic salmon. The model quantifies expected salmon lice infestations and louse-induced mortality of migrating post-smolt salmon from 401 salmon rivers draining into Norwegian coastal waters...
December 2, 2017: Epidemics
Laura Adalid-Peralta, Brenda Sáenz, Gladis Fragoso, Graciela Cárdenas
The central nervous system (CNS) has been recognized as an immunologically specialized microenvironment, where immune surveillance takes a distinctive character, and where delicate neuronal networks are sustained by anti-inflammatory factors that maintain local homeostasis. However, when a foreign agent such as a parasite establishes in the CNS, a set of immune defences is mounted and several immune molecules are released to promote an array of responses, which ultimately would control the infection and associated damage...
December 12, 2017: Parasitology
Martha Baydoun, Sadia Benamrouz Vanneste, Colette Creusy, Karine Guyot, Nausicaa Gantois, Magali Chabe, Baptiste Delaire, Anthony Mouray, Atallah Baydoun, Gerard Forzy, Vincent Chieux, Pierre Gosset, Vincent Senez, Eric Viscogliosi, Jérôme Follet, Gabriela Certad
Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrheal illness and was recently potentially associated with digestive carcinogenesis. Despite its impact on human health, Cryptosporidium pathogenesis remains poorly known, mainly due to the lack of a long-term culture method for this parasite. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) culture model from adult murine colon allowing biological investigations of the host-parasite interactions in an in vivo-like environment and, in particular, the development of parasite-induced neoplasia...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Davorka Gulisija, Joshua B Plotkin
While theory offers clear predictions for when recombination will evolve in changing environments, it is unclear what natural scenarios can generate the necessary conditions. The Red Queen hypothesis provides one such scenario, but it requires antagonistic host-parasite interactions. Here we present a novel scenario for the evolution of recombination in finite populations: the genomic storage effect due to phenotypic plasticity. Using analytic approximations and Monte-Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that balanced polymorphism and recombination evolve between a target locus that codes for a seasonally selected trait and a plasticity modifier locus that modulates the effects of target-locus alleles...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
Chun-Seob Ahn, Jeong-Geun Kim, Xiumin Han, Insug Kang, Yoon Kong
Alveolar and cystic echinococcoses, caused by the metacestodes of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus, are prevalent in several regions and invoke deleterious zoonotic helminthiases. Hydatid fluid (HF), which contains proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous secretions of the parasite- and host-derived components, critically affects the host-parasite interplay and disease progression. We conducted HF proteome profiling of fully mature E. multilocularis vesicle (nine months postinfection) and E. granulosus cyst (stage 2)...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
Larissa F Paranaiba, Lucélia J Pinheiro, Diego H Macedo, Armando Menezes-Neto, Ana C Torrecilhas, Wagner L Tafuri, Rodrigo P Soares
One of the Leishmania species known to be non-infective to humans is Leishmania (Mundinia) enriettii whose vertebrate host is the guinea pig Cavia porcellus. It is a good model for cutaneous leishmaniasis, chemotherapeutic and molecular studies. In the last years, an increased interest has emerged concerning the L. (Mundinia) subgenus after the finding of Leishmania (M.) macropodum in Australia and with the description of other new/putative species such as L. (M.) martiniquensis and 'L. (M.) siamensis'. This review focused on histopathology, glycoconjugates and innate immunity...
December 10, 2017: Parasitology
Charlotte Ferris, Alex Best
Given rapidly changing environments, it is important for us to understand how the evolution of host defence responds to fluctuating environments. Here we present the first theoretical study of evolution of host resistance to parasitism in a classic epidemiological model where the host birth rate varies seasonally. We show that this form of seasonality has clear qualitative and quantitative impacts on the evolution of resistance. When the host can recover from infection, it evolves a lower level of defence when the amplitude is high...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Myrna Sabanero López, Lérida L Flores Villavicencio, Karla Soto Arredondo, Gloria Barbosa Sabanero, Julio César Villagómez-Castro, Gustavo Cruz Jiménez, Gerardo Sandoval Bernal, Haydee Torres Guerrero
BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection caused by the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The adhesion of the fungus to the host tissue has been considered the key step in the colonization and invasion, but little is known about the early events in the host-parasite interaction. AIMS: To evaluate the proteolytic activity of S. schenckii on epithelial cells. METHODS: The proteolytic system (at pH 5 and 7) was evaluated using azocoll and zymograms...
December 5, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Fátima Jorge, Ana Perera, Robert Poulin, Vicente Roca, Miguel A Carretero
Episodes of expansion and isolation in geographic range over space and time, during which parasites have the opportunity to expand their host range, are linked to the development of host-parasite mosaic assemblages and parasite diversification. In this study we investigated whether island colonisation events lead to host range oscillations in a taxon of host-specific parasitic nematodes of the genus Spauligodon in the Canary Islands. We further investigated if range oscillations also resulted in shifts in host breadth (i...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Meghan Zuck, Laura S Austin, Samuel A Danziger, John D Aitchison, Alexis Kaushansky
Despite global eradication efforts over the past century, malaria remains a devastating public health burden, causing almost half a million deaths annually (WHO, 2016). A detailed understanding of the mechanisms that control malaria infection has been hindered by technical challenges of studying a complex parasite life cycle in multiple hosts. While many interventions targeting the parasite have been implemented, the complex biology of Plasmodium poses a major challenge, and must be addressed to enable eradication...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Olena Kudlai, Mikuláš Oros, Aneta Kostadinova, Simona Georgieva
BACKGROUND: Metacercariae of Diplostomum are important fish pathogens, but reliable data on their diversity in natural fish populations are virtually lacking. This study was conducted to explore the species diversity and host-parasite association patterns of Diplostomum spp. in a large riverine system in Europe, using molecular and morphological data. METHODS: Twenty-eight species of fish of nine families were sampled in the River Danube at Nyergesújfalu in Hungary in 2012 and Štúrovo in Slovakia in 2015...
December 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Mônica Vieira de Souza, Lucélia Guedes Ribeiro da Silva, Verónica Silva-Pinto, Pablo Mendez-Quiros, Sergio Augusto de Miranda Chaves, Alena Mayo Iñiguez
Paleoparasitological studies have demonstrated that changes in environment or culture are reflected in the patterns of parasitic infection diseases in populations worldwide. The advent of agriculture and animal domestication, with its accompanying reduction in human mobility and expanding population involves changes in or emergence of, parasites, the so-called first epidemiological transition. Cultural processes related to territory occupation contribute to both loss and acquisition of parasites. The archaeological site Lluta 57 in the Lluta Valley, Chile, provides a chronology of the transition from the pre-Inca or Late Intermediate Period (LIP), through the Late or Inca Period (LP), to the Hispanic Contact Period (HCP), providing the possibility of evaluating this epidemiological transition...
November 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
Alice M Laughton, Cian O O'Connor, Robert J Knell
Environmental temperature has important effects on the physiology and life history of ectothermic animals, including investment in the immune system and the infectious capacity of pathogens. Numerous studies have examined individual components of these complex systems, but little is known about how they integrate when animals are exposed to different temperatures. Here, we use the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) to understand how immune investment and disease resistance react and potentially trade-off with other life-history traits...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Quentin Jossart, Chantal De Ridder, Harilaos A Lessios, Mathieu Bauwens, Sébastien Motreuil, Thierry Rigaud, Rémi A Wattier, Bruno David
Evolution and population genetic structure of marine species across the Caribbean Sea are shaped by two complex factors: the geological history and the present pattern of marine currents. Characterizing and comparing the genetic structures of codistributed species, such as host-parasite associations, allow discriminating the relative importance of environmental factors and life history traits that influenced gene flow and demographic events. Using microsatellite and Cytochrome Oxidase I markers, we investigated if a host-parasite pair (the heart urchin Meoma ventricosa and its parasitic pea crab Dissodactylus primitivus) exhibits comparable population genetic structures in the Caribbean Sea and how the observed patterns match connectivity regions from predictive models and other taxa...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Andrea Šimková, Michal Benovics, Imane Rahmouni, Jasna Vukić
BACKGROUND: Host specificity in parasites represents the extent to which a parasite's distribution is limited to certain host species. Considering host-specific parasites of primarily freshwater fish (such as gill monogeneans), their biogeographical distribution is essentially influenced by both evolutionary and ecological processes. Due to the limited capacity for historical dispersion in freshwater fish, their specific coevolving parasites may, through historical host-parasite associations, at least partially reveal the historical biogeographical routes (or historical contacts) of host species...
November 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Julien Santi-Rocca, Nicolas Blanchard
Membrane shape is functionally linked with many cellular processes. The limiting membrane of vacuoles containing Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium apicomplexan parasites lies at the host-parasite interface. This membrane comprises intra-vacuolar and extra-vacuolar tubulo-vesicular deformations, which influence host-parasite cross-talk. Here, underscoring specificities and similarities between the T. gondii and Plasmodium contexts, we present recent findings about vacuolar membrane remodeling and its potential roles in parasite fitness and immune recognition...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Adam C Schneider, Abigail J Moore
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Aphyllon is a clade of holoparasites that includes closely related North American and South American species parasitic on Grindelia. Both Aphyllon (Orobanchaceae) and Grindelia (Asteraceae) have amphitropical disjunctions between North America and South America; however, the timing of these patterns and the processes to explain them are unknown. METHODS: Chronograms for the Orobanchaceae and Grindelia and their relatives were constructed using fossil and secondary calibration points, one of which was based on the inferred timing of horizontal gene transfer from a papilionoid legume into the common ancestor of Orobanche and Phelipanche...
November 23, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Jiayue Yan, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Laura Gangoso, Rafael Gutiérrez-López, Ramón Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
Pathogen-induced host phenotypic changes are widespread phenomena that can dramatically influence host-vector interactions. Enhanced vector attraction to infected hosts has been reported in a variety of host-pathogen systems, and has given rise to the parasite manipulation hypothesis whereby pathogens may adaptively modify host phenotypes to increase transmission from host to host. However, host phenotypic changes do not always favour the transmission of pathogens, as random host choice, reduced host attractiveness and even host avoidance after infection have also been reported...
November 21, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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