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Ismail Sebina, Ashraful Haque
Type I interferons are a family of cytokines with a wide range of biological activities including anti-viral and immune-regulatory functions. Here, we focus on the protozoan parasitic disease, malaria, and examine the effects of type I IFN-signalling during Plasmodium infection of humans and experimental mice. Since the 1960's, there have been many studies in this area, but a simple explanation for the role of type I IFN has not emerged. Although epidemiological data are consistent with roles for type I IFN in influencing malaria disease severity, functional proof of this remains sparse in humans...
June 16, 2018: Immunology
Sneha Patra, Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Hana Pecková, Ivan Fiala, Edit Eszterbauer, Astrid S Holzer
BACKGROUND: Myxozoa are extremely diverse microscopic parasites belonging to the Cnidaria. Their life-cycles alternate between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, predominantly in aquatic habitats. Members of the phylogenetically well-defined Sphaerospora (sensu stricto) clade predominantly infect the urinary system of marine and freshwater fishes and amphibians. Sphaerosporids are extraordinary due to their extremely long and unique insertions in the variable regions of their 18S and 28S rDNA genes and due to the formation of motile proliferative stages in the hosts' blood...
June 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Vanessa Zuzarte-Luís, Maria M Mota
Parasites undergo complex life cycles that comprise a wide variety of cellular differentiation events in different host compartments and transmission across multiple hosts. As parasites depend on host resources, it is not surprising they have developed efficient mechanisms to sense alterations and adapt to the available resources in a wide range of environments. Here we provide an overview of the nutritional needs of different parasites throughout their diverse life stages and highlight recent insights into strategies that both hosts and parasites have developed to meet these nutritional requirements needed for defense, survival, and replication...
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Dmitri A Maslov, Fred R Opperdoes, Alexei Y Kostygov, Hassan Hashimi, Julius Lukeš, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
Unicellular flagellates of the family Trypanosomatidae are obligatory parasites of invertebrates, vertebrates and plants. Dixenous species are aetiological agents of a number of diseases in humans, domestic animals and plants. Their monoxenous relatives are restricted to insects. Because of the high biological diversity, adaptability to dramatically different environmental conditions, and omnipresence, these protists have major impact on all biotic communities that still needs to be fully elucidated. In addition, as these organisms represent a highly divergent evolutionary lineage, they are strikingly different from the common 'model system' eukaryotes, such as some mammals, plants or fungi...
June 14, 2018: Parasitology
Khamsing Vongphayloth, Bounsavane Douangboubpha, Daosavanh Sanamxay, Vilakhan Xayaphet, Richard G Robbins, Dmitry A Apanaskevich, Ian W Sutherland, Paul T Brey
Between May and June 2015, 512 bats, six rodents, and six tree-shrews were examined for ectoparasites in Vientiane and Khammouane Provinces, Laos. Thirty-seven ticks (33 females and four males) identified as Ixodes granulatus Supino were collected from four individuals of the Northern tree-shrew, Tupaia belangeri (Wagner) (Scandentia:Tupaiidae), and one female of Ixodes vespertilionis Koch was collected from one individual of the Intermediate Leaf-nosed Bat, Hipposideros larvatus (Horsfield) (Chiroptera:Hipposideridae)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Salvatore J Agosta, Kanchan A Joshi, Karen M Kester
Understanding how climate change affects host-parasite systems and predicting the consequences for ecosystems, economies, and human health has emerged as an important task for science and society. Some basic insight into this complex problem can be gained by comparing the thermal physiology of interacting host and parasite species. In this study, we compared upper thermal tolerance among three component species in a natural host-parasitoid-hyperparasitoid system from Virginia, USA. To assess the ecological relevance of our results, we also examined a record of maximum daily air temperatures collected near the study site in the last 124 years...
2018: PloS One
Suma Ghosh, Matthew J Ferrari, Ashutosh K Pathak, Isabella M Cattadori
Understanding the mechanisms that generate complex host-parasite interactions, and how they contribute to variation between and within hosts, is important for predicting risk of infection and transmission, and for developing more effective interventions based on parasite properties. We used the T. retortaeformis (TR)-rabbit system and developed a state-space mathematical framework to capture the variation in intensity of infection and egg shedding in hosts infected weekly, then treated with an anthelminthic and subsequently re-challenged following the same infection regime...
June 11, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Myoung-Ro Lee, Won Gi Yoo, Yu Jung Kim, Eun Ju Chung, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Jung-Won Ju
Venom allergen-like (VAL) proteins are important to host-parasite interactions. We previously demonstrated that a Clonorchis sinensis VAL (CsVAL) protein-derived synthetic peptide suppresses allergic and inflammatory responses. However, little is known regarding the physicochemical and antigenic properties of CsVAL proteins. Here, we identified a novel 194 amino acid VAL protein, named C. sinensis VAL 28 (CsVAL28), and characterized its functional motifs and structural details as a new member of the CAP superfamily...
June 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
Adriana Lima Vallochi, Livia Teixeira, Karina da Silva Oliveira, Clarissa Menezes Maya-Monteiro, Patricia T Bozza
Lipid droplets (lipid bodies, LDs) are dynamic organelles that have important roles in regulating lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis, cell signaling, membrane trafficking, and inflammation. LD biogenesis, composition, and functions are highly regulated and may vary according to the stimuli, cell type, activation state, and inflammatory environment. Increased cytoplasmic LDs are frequently observed in leukocytes and other cells in a number of infectious diseases. Accumulating evidence reveals LDs participation in fundamental mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions, including cell signaling and immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Daniel Martín-Vega, Amin Garbout, Farah Ahmed, Martina Wicklein, Cameron P Goater, Douglas D Colwell, Martin J R Hall
Some parasites are able to manipulate the behaviour of their hosts to their own advantage. One of the most well-established textbook examples of host manipulation is that of the trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum on ants, its second intermediate host. Infected ants harbour encysted metacercariae in the gaster and a non-encysted metacercaria in the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG); however, the mechanisms that D. dendriticum uses to manipulate the ant behaviour remain unknown, partly because of a lack of a proper and direct visualisation of the physical interface between the parasite and the ant brain tissue...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michał Rachalewski, Jarosław Kobak, Eliza Szczerkowska-Majchrzak, Karolina Bącela-Spychalska
Temperature is a crucial factor determining biology and ecology of poikilothermic animals. It often constitutes an important barrier for invasive species originating from different climate zones but, on the other hand, may facilitate the invasion process of animals with wide thermal preferences and high resistance to extreme temperatures. In our experimental study, we investigated the thermal behaviour of two Ponto-Caspian amphipod crustaceans- Dikerogammarus villosus and Dikerogammarus haemobaphes . Both species are known to live under a wide range of thermal conditions which may promote their invasion...
2018: PeerJ
Graeme Coulson, Jemma K Cripps, Sarah Garnick, Verity Bristow, Ian Beveridge
Mammalian herbivores are typically infected by parasitic nematodes, which are acquired through direct, faecal-oral transmission. These parasites can cause significant production losses in domestic livestock, but much less is known about impacts on wild mammalian hosts. We review three elements of parasitism from the host's perspective: fitness costs of infection, risks of infection during foraging and benefits of nutritious pasture. The majority of wildlife studies have been observational, but experimental manipulation is increasing...
July 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Junta Sugiyama, Hiromi Nishida, Tsuyoshi Hosoya, Makoto Kakishima
The enigmatic basidiomycete genus Mixia includes intracellular parasites of Osmunda and Osmundastrum ferns. Here, the authors review the systematic and phylogenetic history of M. osmundae, originally known as Taphrina osmundae, and provide new data from investigations of specimens of Osmunda japonica collected in Yunnan Province, China, which we determine to be conspecific with M. osmundae. In addition, Taphrina higginsii, a parasite on fronds of Osmundastrum cinnamomeum described from Georgia, USA, was confirmed to be phenotypically identical with M...
January 2018: Mycologia
Walter P Pfliegler, Ferenc Báthori, Tristan W Wang, András Tartally, Danny Haelewaters
The introduction of non-native animals occasionally results in the co-introduction of their microbial symbionts or parasites. The trade of exotic pets and zoo animals has inadvertently introduced several parasitic species to countries where they are non-native. Both the presence of suitable native hosts and opportunity for dispersal determine whether these non-native species become naturalized. During our studies dealing with species of Herpomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes), fungi that are exclusively ectoparasitic on cockroaches (Hexapoda, Blattodea), we make use of artificial colonies...
January 2018: Mycologia
William E Stutz, Andrew R Blaustein, Cheryl J Briggs, Jason T Hoverman, Jason R Rohr, Pieter T J Johnson
Associations among parasites affect many aspects of host-parasite dynamics, but a lack of analytical tools has limited investigations of parasite correlations in observational data that are often nested across spatial and biological scales.Here we illustrate how hierarchical, multiresponse modeling can characterize parasite associations by allowing for hierarchical structuring, offering estimates of uncertainty, and incorporating correlational model structures. After introducing the general approach, we apply this framework to investigate coinfections among four amphibian parasites (the trematodes Ribeiroia ondatrae and Echinostoma spp...
April 2018: Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Riana V Ramanantsalama, Aristide Andrianarimisa, Achille P Raselimanana, Steven M Goodman
BACKGROUND: Few details are available on the consumption of ectoparasites, specifically bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae), by their chiropteran hosts while grooming. Such details are important to document consumption rates of ectoparasites by their bat host provide details on the dynamics of host-parasite interactions. We present data on ectoparasite consumption rates for an endemic Malagasy fruit bat (Pteropodidae: Rousettus madagascariensis) occupying a cave day roost colony in northern Madagascar...
June 1, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
J Côte, A Boniface, S Blanchet, A P Hendry, J Gasparini, L Jacquin
The role of parasites in shaping melanin-based colour polymorphism, and the consequences of colour polymorphism for disease resistance, remain debated. Here we review recent evidence of the links between melanin-based coloration and the behavioural and immunological defences of vertebrates against their parasites. First we propose that (1) differences between colour morphs can result in variable exposure to parasites, either directly (certain colours might be more or less attractive to parasites) or indirectly (variations in behaviour and encounter probability)...
May 30, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Raquel G Loreto, João P M Araújo, Ryan M Kepler, Kimberly R Fleming, Corrie S Moreau, David P Hughes
Environmental conditions exert strong selection on animal behavior. We tested the hypothesis that the altered behavior of hosts due to parasitic manipulation is also subject to selection imposed by changes in environmental conditions over time. Our model system is ants manipulated by parasitic fungi to bite onto vegetation. We analyzed the correlation between forest type (tropical vs. temperate) and the substrate where the host bites (biting substrate: leaf vs. twigs), the time required for the fungi to reach reproductive maturity, and the phylogenetic relationship among specimens from tropical and temperate forests from different parts of the globe...
May 28, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Jacques Kaboré, Oumou Camara, Mathurin Koffi, Djénéba Sanou, Hamidou Ilboudo, Hassane Sakandé, Mamadou Camara, Thierry De Meeûs, Sophie Ravel, Adrien Marie Gaston Belem, Annette MacLeod, Bruno Bucheton, Vincent Jamonneau, Sophie Thévenon
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T. b. gambiense) is the major causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). A great variety of clinical outcomes have been observed in West African foci, probably due to complex host-parasite interactions. In order to separate the roles of parasite genetic diversity and host variability, we have chosen to precisely characterize the pathogenicity and virulence of T. b. gambiense field isolates in a mouse model. Thirteen T. b. gambiense strains were studied in experimental infections, with 20 Balb/C infected mice per isolate...
May 25, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Frédéric Beugnet, Michel Labuschagne, Christa de Vos, Dionne Crafford, Josephus Fourie
Initial investigations suggested the existence of two distinct genotypes of Dipylidium caninum from infected cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). One genotype was found almost always (> 95%) in fleas collected from, and proglottids shed by, domestic dogs. The other was found almost always (> 95%) in fleas collected from, and proglottids shed by, domestic cats. Molecular investigations (Part 1, in this journal) confirmed the presence of two distinct genotypes. Due to the apparent host association observed, these were referred to as the "D...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
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