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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429458/genomic-evidence-for-population-specific-responses-to-coevolving-parasites-in-a-new-zealand-freshwater-snail
#1
Laura A Bankers, Peter Fields, Kyle E McElroy, Jeffrey L Boore, John M Logsdon, Maurine Neiman
Reciprocal coevolving interactions between hosts and parasites are a primary source of strong selection that can promote rapid and often population- or genotype-specific evolutionary change. These host-parasite interactions are also a major source of disease. Despite their importance, very little is known about the genomic basis of coevolving host-parasite interactions in natural populations, especially in animals. Here, we use gene expression and sequence evolution approaches to take critical steps towards characterizing the genomic basis of interactions between the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum and its coevolving sterilizing trematode parasite, Microphallus sp...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429139/rates-of-parasitism-but-not-allocation-of-egg-resources-vary-among-and-within-hosts-of-a-generalist-avian-brood-parasite
#2
Loren Merrill, Scott J Chiavacci, Ryan T Paitz, Thomas J Benson
Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) deposit their eggs into the nests of other birds, which then raise the cowbird chick. Female cowbirds thus have limited options for impacting their offspring's development via maternal effects compared to most other passerines. Cowbirds can impact their offspring's phenotype by choosing among potential host nests, and by adjusting egg resources based on host characteristics. To examine whether cowbirds exhibit either or both of these strategies, we investigated rates of cowbird parasitism and egg investment (egg size, yolk-to-albumen ratio, and yolk testosterone and androstenedione) among and within host species in a shrubland bird community...
April 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427949/parasitism-finds-many-solutions-to-the-same-problems-in-red-algae-florideophyceae-rhodophyta
#3
Jillian M Freese, Christopher E Lane
Parasitic red algae evolve from a common ancestor with their hosts, parasitizing cousins using familiar cellular mechanisms. They have independently evolved over one hundred times within the exclusively multicellular red algal class Florideophyceae. Reduced morphology, a lack of pigmentation, and direct cell-cell connections with their hosts are markers of red algal parasitism. With so many potential evolutionary pathways, red algal parasite diversity offers a unique test case to understand the earliest stages of this lifestyle transition...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426419/ecological-implications-of-floods-on-the-parasite-communities-of-two-freshwater-catfishes-in-a-neotropical-floodplain
#4
Priscilla de Oliveira Fadel Yamada, Fabio Hideki Yamada, Reinaldo José da Silva, Luciano Alves Dos Anjos
The parasite communities of two freshwater catfishes (Auchenipterus osteomystax and Trachelyopterus galeatus) were analyzed during the dry and rainy seasons in a Neotropical floodplain. The nature of river-floodplain systems places specific demands on parasite community structure, due to changes in the host environment. It was therefore hypothesized that flood conditions lead to an increase in the richness and abundance of fish parasites in the rainy season at the mouth of Aguapeí River floodplain. The Auchenipterus osteomystax parasite community was richer (11 vs...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424893/diversity-in-growth-patterns-among-strains-of-the-lethal-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-across-extended-thermal-optima
#5
Jamie Voyles, Leah R Johnson, Jason Rohr, Rochelle Kelly, Carley Barron, Delaney Miller, Josh Minster, Erica Bree Rosenblum
The thermal sensitivities of organisms regulate a wide range of ecological interactions, including host-parasite dynamics. The effect of temperature on disease ecology can be remarkably complex in disease systems where the hosts are ectothermic and where thermal conditions constrain pathogen reproductive rates. Amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a lethal fungal disease that is influenced by temperature. However, recent temperature studies have produced contradictory findings, suggesting that our current understanding of thermal effects on Bd may be incomplete...
April 19, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424102/gaining-insights-into-the-ecological-role-of-the-new-zealand-sole-peltorhamphus-novaezeelandiae-through-parasites
#6
T Anglade, H S Randhawa
Despite the fact that tapeworms comprise the bulk of parasite communities of sharks in marine ecosystems, little is known about their life cycles and, more specifically, about the potential intermediate hosts they utilize as transmission routes. In the absence of morphological features required for specific identification of larval tapeworms from potential intermediate hosts, recent molecular advances have contributed to linking larval and adult parasites and, in some instances, uncovering unknown trophic links...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423030/molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-from-the-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii
#7
Liana F Wait, Samantha Fox, Sarah Peck, Michelle L Power
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. Tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in Tasmania. To prevent extinction of Tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the Save the Tasmanian Devil Program. This study aimed to assess if conservation management was altering the interactions between Tasmanian devils and their parasites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419281/expression-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-clonally-variant-clag3-genes-in-human-infections
#8
Sofía Mira-Martínez, Evi van Schuppen, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Emmanuel Bottieau, Muna Affara, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Erika Vlieghe, Pieter Guetens, Núria Rovira-Graells, Gloria P Gómez-Pérez, Pedro L Alonso, Umberto D'Alessandro, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Alfred Cortés
Background.: Many genes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum show clonally variant expression regulated at the epigenetic level. These genes participate in fundamental host-parasite interactions and contribute to adaptive processes. However, little is known about their expression patterns during human infections. A peculiar case of clonally variant genes are the 2 nearly identical clag3 genes, clag3.1 and clag3.2, which mediate nutrient uptake and are linked to resistance to some toxic compounds...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416397/monitoring-thermal-and-chemical-unfolding-of-brugia-malayi-calreticulin-using-fluorescence-and-circular-dichroism-spectroscopy
#9
Sunita Yadav, Smita Gupta, Jitendra Kumar Saxena
Calreticulin of Brugia malayi (BmCRT) play very important role in host-parasite interaction. In previous study it was found that BmCRT is responsible for prevention of host classical complement pathway activation via its interaction with first component C1q of the human host. Therefore, BmCRT is an essential protein for parasite survival and an important drug target to fend filariasis. In the present study, we have carried out a systamatic biophysical characterization of BmCRT protein. Unfolding of BmCRT was found to be non-cooperative two-state process in the presence of both denaturant GdmCl and urea...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414071/epigenetic-landscapes-underlining-global-patterns-of-gene-expression-in-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#10
REVIEW
Archana P Gupta, Zbynek Bozdech
The dynamic chromatin landscape displaying combinatorial complexity of the epigenome impacts gene expression that underlies many events of differentiation and cell cycle progression. In the past few years, epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as important processes involved in the tight gene regulation in malaria parasites, Plasmodium spp.. Focusing predominantly on Plasmodium falciparum, the species associated with the most severe form of the disease, many advances have been made in our understanding of the interaction between transcriptional regulation and epigenetic mechanisms as the pivotal processes in regulating life cycle progression, host parasite interactions and parasite adaptation to the host environment...
April 13, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407790/ultrastructure-and-localization-of-neorickettsia-in-adult-digenean-trematodes-provides-novel-insights-into-helminth-endobacteria-interaction
#11
Kerstin Fischer, Vasyl V Tkach, Kurt C Curtis, Peter U Fischer
BACKGROUND: Neorickettsia are a group of intracellular α proteobacteria transmitted by digeneans (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda). These endobacteria can also infect vertebrate hosts of the helminths and cause serious diseases in animals and humans. Neorickettsia have been isolated from infected animals and maintained in cell cultures, and their morphology in mammalian cells has been described. However, limited information is available on the morphology and localization of Neorickettsia in the trematode host...
April 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407513/effects-of-cyanobacteria-synechocystis-spp-in-the-host-parasite-model-crassostrea-gasar-perkinsus-marinus
#12
Fernando Ramos Queiroga, Luis Fernando Marques-Santos, Hélène Hégaret, Roberto Sassi, Natanael Dantas Farias, Lucas Nunes Santana, Patricia Mirella da Silva
Perkinsosis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites from the Perkinsus genus. In Brazil, two species, P. beihaiensis and P. marinus, are frequently found infecting native oysters (Crassostrea gasar and C. rhizophorae) from cultured and wild populations in several states of the Northeast region. The impacts of this disease in bivalves from Brazil, as well as the interactions with environmental factors, are poorly studied. In the present work, we evaluated the in vitro effects of the cyanobacteria Synechocystis spp...
March 27, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402951/characterization-of-a-secreted-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-homologue-of-the-parasitic-nematode-haemonchus-contortus-acting-at-the-parasite-host-cell-interface
#13
Yujian Wang, MingMin Lu, Shuai Wang, Muhammad Ehsan, RuoFeng Yan, XiaoKai Song, LiXin Xu, XiangRui Li
Modulation and suppression of the immune response of the host by nematode parasites have been reported extensively and the migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is identified as one of the major immunomodulator. In the present study, we cloned and produced recombinant MIF protein from the small ruminant's nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus (rHCMIF-1), and investigated its immunomodulatory effects on goat monocyte. Enzymatic assays indicated that rHCMIF-1 possessed tautomerase activity. Immunohistochemical test demonstrated that the native HCMIF-1 protein was predominantly localized at the body surface and internal surface of the worm's gut...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402336/lock-picks-fungal-infection-facilitates-the-intrusion-of-strangers-into-ant-colonies
#14
Enikő Csata, Natalia Timuş, Magdalena Witek, Luca Pietro Casacci, Christophe Lucas, Anne-Geneviève Bagnères, Anna Sztencel-Jabłonka, Francesca Barbero, Simona Bonelli, László Rákosy, Bálint Markó
Studies investigating host-parasite systems rarely deal with multispecies interactions, and mostly explore impacts on hosts as individuals. Much less is known about the effects at colony level, when parasitism involves host organisms that form societies. We surveyed the effect of an ectoparasitic fungus, Rickia wasmannii, on kin-discrimination abilities of its host ant, Myrmica scabrinodis, identifying potential consequences at social level and subsequent changes in colony infiltration success of other organisms...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399796/tripartite-species-interaction-eukaryotic-hosts-suffer-more-from-phage-susceptible-than-from-phage-resistant-bacteria
#15
Carolin C Wendling, Agnes Piecyk, Dominik Refardt, Cynthia Chibani, Robert Hertel, Heiko Liesegang, Boyke Bunk, Jörg Overmann, Olivia Roth
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary shifts in bacterial virulence are often associated with a third biological player, for instance temperate phages, that can act as hyperparasites. By integrating as prophages into the bacterial genome they can contribute accessory genes, which can enhance the fitness of their prokaryotic carrier (lysogenic conversion). Hyperparasitic influence in tripartite biotic interactions has so far been largely neglected in empirical host-parasite studies due to their inherent complexity...
April 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394904/discordant-population-histories-of-host-and-its-parasite-a-role-for-ecological-permeability-of-extreme-environment
#16
Dagmar Jirsová, Jan Štefka, Miloslav Jirků
Biogeographical and ecological barriers strongly affect the course of micro-evolutionary processes in free living organisms. Here we assess the impact of a recently emerged barrier on populations of limnic fauna. Genetic diversity and population structure in a host-parasite system (Wenyonia virilis tapeworm, Synodontis schall catfish) are analyzed in the recently divided Turkana and Nile basins. The two basins, were repeatedly connected during the Holocene wet/dry climatic oscillations, following late Pleistocene dessication of the Turkana basin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389670/biochemical-analysis-of-leishmanial-and-human-gdp-mannose-pyrophosphorylases-and-selection-of-inhibitors-as-new-leads
#17
Wei Mao, Pierre Daligaux, Noureddine Lazar, Tâp Ha-Duong, Christian Cavé, Herman van Tilbeurgh, Philippe M Loiseau, Sébastien Pomel
Leishmaniases are an ensemble of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. Current antileishmanial treatments are limited and present main issues of toxicity and drug resistance emergence. Therefore, the generation of new inhibitors specifically directed against a leishmanial target is an attractive strategy to expand the chemotherapeutic arsenal. GDP-Mannose Pyrophosphorylase (GDP-MP) is a prominent therapeutic target involved in host-parasite recognition which has been described to be essential for parasite survival...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386800/chemical-ecology-of-stingless-bees
#18
Sara Diana Leonhardt
Stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae: Meliponini) represent a highly diverse group of social bees confined to the world's tropics and subtropics. They show a striking diversity of structural and behavioral adaptations and are important pollinators of tropical plants. Despite their diversity and functional importance, their ecology, and especially chemical ecology, has received relatively little attention, particularly compared to their relative the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Here, I review various aspects of the chemical ecology of stingless bees, from communication over resource allocation to defense...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378195/characterization-of-ostertagia-ostertagi-annexin-like-proteins-at-different-developmental-stages
#19
Pooja Sharma, Mark Jenkins, Dante Zarlenga, Ray Fetterer, Zhengguo Xiao, Wenbin Tuo
Ostertagiosis remains an economically important parasitic disease in cattle in the temperate regions of the world. Repeated exposures to Ostertagia ostertagi in calves cause significant pathology in the abomasum but elicit little protective immunity. The larvae use the host's gastric glands as a niche for development, where the parasite completes its parasitic stages, while in the gastric glands, the larvae must down-regulate the host inflammatory immune responses. Annexin (ANX) A1, commonly found in most eukaryotes, is heavily involved in controlling anti-inflammatory responses by binding receptors on leukocytes...
March 29, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376755/reconstruction-of-the-evolution-of-microbial-defense-systems
#20
Pere Puigbò, Kira S Makarova, David M Kristensen, Yuri I Wolf, Eugene V Koonin
BACKGROUND: Evolution of bacterial and archaeal genomes is a highly dynamic process that involves intensive loss of genes as well as gene gain via horizontal transfer, with a lesser contribution from gene duplication. The rates of these processes can be estimated by comparing genomes that are linked by an evolutionary tree. These estimated rates of genome dynamics events substantially differ for different functional classes of genes. The genes involved in defense against viruses and other invading DNA are among those that are gained and lost at the highest rates...
April 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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