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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634476/changes-in-n-p-supply-ratios-affect-the-ecological-stoichiometry-of-a-toxic-cyanobacterium-and-its-fungal-parasite
#1
Thijs Frenken, Joren Wierenga, Alena S Gsell, Ellen van Donk, Thomas Rohrlack, Dedmer B Van de Waal
Human activities have dramatically altered nutrient fluxes from the landscape into receiving waters. As a result, not only the concentration of nutrients in surface waters has increased, but also their elemental ratios have changed. Such shifts in resource supply ratios will alter autotroph stoichiometry, which may in turn have consequences for higher trophic levels, including parasites. Here, we hypothesize that parasite elemental composition will follow changes in the stoichiometry of its host, and that its reproductive success will decrease with host nutrient limitation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630336/the-red-queen-and-king-in-finite-populations
#2
Carl Veller, Laura K Hayward, Christian Hilbe, Martin A Nowak
In antagonistic symbioses, such as host-parasite interactions, one population's success is the other's loss. In mutualistic symbioses, such as division of labor, both parties can gain, but they might have different preferences over the possible mutualistic arrangements. The rates of evolution of the two populations in a symbiosis are important determinants of which population will be more successful: Faster evolution is thought to be favored in antagonistic symbioses (the "Red Queen effect"), but disfavored in certain mutualistic symbioses (the "Red King effect")...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626938/role-of-parasite-transmission-in-promoting-inbreeding-i-infection-intensities-drive-individual-parasite-selfing-rates
#3
Jillian T Detwiler, Isabel C Caballero, Charles D Criscione
Among parasitic organisms, inbreeding has been implicated as a potential driver of host-parasite coevolution, drug-resistance evolution, and parasite diversification. Yet, fundamental topics about how parasite life histories impact inbreeding remain to be addressed. In particular, there are no direct selfing-rate estimates for hermaphroditic parasites in nature. Our objectives were to elucidate the mating system of a parasitic flatworm in nature and to understand how aspects of parasite transmission could influence the selfing rates of individual parasites...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623149/subtle-effect-of-xenos-vesparum-xenidae-strepsiptera-on-the-reproductive-apparatus-of-its-male-host-parasite-or-parasitoid
#4
L Beani, D Marchini, F Cappa, I Petrocelli, M Gottardo, F Manfredini, F Giusti, R Dallai
Parasitic castration is an adaptive strategy where parasites usurp the hosts' reproductive physiology to complete their life cycle. The alterations in the host traits vary in their magnitude, from subtle changes in the host morpho-physiology and behaviour to the production of complex aberrant phenotypes, which often depend on the host gender. The strepsipteran macroparasite Xenos vesparum induces dramatic behavioural and physiological changes in its female host, the paper wasp Polistes dominula, while its effect on the male phenotype is largely unknown...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620589/transcriptomic-profiling-of-high-density-giardia-foci-encysting-in-the-murine-proximal-intestine
#5
Jonathan K Pham, Christopher Nosala, Erica Y Scott, Kristofer F Nguyen, Kari D Hagen, Hannah N Starcevich, Scott C Dawson
Giardia is a highly prevalent, understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Its life cycle consists of two stages: infectious cysts ingested from contaminated food or water sources, and motile trophozoites that colonize and attach to the gut epithelium, later encysting to form new cysts that are excreted into the environment. Current understanding of parasite physiology in the host is largely inferred from transcriptomic studies using Giardia grown axenically or in co-culture with mammalian cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617253/the-emerging-role-of-the-human-bone-marrow-as-a-privileged-developmental-niche-for-the-transmission-stages-of-the-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum-commentary
#6
Pietro Alano
The spread of malaria relies on the ability of the Plasmodium parasites to be transmitted from infected individuals to the Anopheles mosquito vectors. Recent work on the most lethal of the malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum, identified the infected human bone marrow as a preferential site for the localization and maturation of the parasite transmission stages, the gametocytes. These findings unveil a complex host parasite interplay and an unsuspected role of the bone marrow microenvironment in the successful transmission of the malaria parasite and have major implications in developing and targeting future interventions to block the transmission of P...
April 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616169/host-sympatry-and-body-size-influence-parasite-straggling-rate-in-a-highly-connected-multihost-multiparasite-system
#7
Jose L Rivera-Parra, Iris I Levin, Kevin P Johnson, Patricia G Parker
Parasite lineages commonly diverge when host lineages diverge. However, when large clades of hosts and parasites are analyzed, some cases suggest host switching as another major diversification mechanism. The first step in host switching is the appearance of a parasite on an atypical host, or "straggling." We analyze the conditions associated with straggling events. We use five species of colonially nesting seabirds from the Galapagos Archipelago and two genera of highly specific ectoparasitic lice to examine host switching...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615853/genotoxic-potential-of-fasciolagigantica-infection-in-experimentally-infected-rabbits
#8
M A Hannan Khan, P A A Shareef, Abdur Rehman, Rizwan Ullah, Lubna Rehman, S M A Abidi
A number of parasitic platyhelminthes are known to cause genotoxicity in humans and animals. However no such information is available on tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, which incurs huge economic losses worldwide. In the present study the genotoxic potential of F. gigantica infection in rabbits, experimentally infected with the metacercarial cysts of this parasite, has been investigated using the standard comet assay and micronucleus (MNi) test on the isolated hepatocytes and the whole blood from the infected rabbits...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610128/review-of-i-pennella-i-oken-1816-copepoda-pennellidae-with-a-description-of-i-pennella-i-i-benzi-i-sp-nov-a-parasite-of-escolar-i-lepidocybium-i-i-flavobrunneum-i-pisces-in-the-northwest-atlantic-ocean
#9
W E Hogans
The genus Pennella Oken, 1816, mesoparasitic copepods from marine fish and mammals, is reviewed with the objective of determining the validity of members of the genus. Details of the external morphological structures of the adult female are presented. Pennella species are differentiated based on a combination of characters: the type of host parasitized, overall length of the parasite, shape, size and configuration of cephalothoracic papillae, segmentation of the first and second antenna, holdfast horn number, shape and configuration, and structure of the abdominal plumes...
March 17, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609902/host-parasite-list-updating-of-ciliates-and-fermentation-in-the-digestive-tract-of-wild-miscellaneous-herbivores-in-south-africa-rsa
#10
D G Booyse, B A Dehority
This article is dedicated to the Author, Burk Dehority, who became very ill with cancer. Fortunately he confirmed or corrected all identifications on ciliates in this article. This paper was 80% finished when he became ill. He unfortunately passed away in February 2016.
May 3, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608214/use-of-zymography-in-trypanosomiasis-studies
#11
Jéssyka Fernanda Santiago Monte, Cláudia Jassica Gonçalves Moreno, Joana Patrícia Molato Figueiredo Lopes Monteiro, Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira Rocha, Aline Rimoldi Ribeiro, Marcelo Sousa Silva
Zymography assay is a semiquantitative technique, very sensitive, and commonly used to determine metalloproteinase levels in different types of biological samples, including tissues, cells, and extracts of protein. Samples containing metalloproteinases are loaded onto a polyacrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and a specific substrate (gelatin, casein, collagen, etc.). Then proteins are allowed to migrate under an electric current and the distance of migration is inversely correlated with the molecular weight...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606351/ultrastructural-characterization-of-the-host-parasite-interface-between-allomyces-anomalus-blastocladiomycota-and-rozella-allomycis-cryptomycota
#12
Martha J Powell, Peter M Letcher, Timothy Y James
Rozella allomycis is an obligate endoparasite of the water mold Allomyces and a member of a clade (= Opisthosporidia) sister to the traditional Fungi. Gaining insights into Rozella's development as a phylogenetically pivotal endoparasite can aid our understanding of structural adaptations and evolution of the Opisthosporidia clade, especially within the context of genomic information. The purpose of this study is to characterize the interface between R. allomycis and Allomyces anomalus. Electron microscopy of developing plasmodia of R...
June 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604284/thermal-performance-curves-and-the-metabolic-theory-of-ecology-a-practical-guide-to-models-and-experiments-for-parasitologists
#13
Péter K Molnár, Jason P Sckrabulis, Karie A Altman, Thomas R Raffel
Climate change will affect host-parasite dynamics in complex ways. The development of forecast models is necessary for proactive disease management, but past studies frequently reported thermal performance data in idiosyncratic ways that have limited use for parameterizing thermal host-parasite models. Developing improved forecast models will require strong collaborations between experimental parasitologists and disease modelers. The purpose of this article is to facilitate such collaborations by reviewing practical considerations for describing thermal performance curves of parasite and host performance traits, and using them to predict climate change impacts on host-parasite systems...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594938/the-enemy-within-targeting-host-parasite-interaction-for-antileishmanial-drug-discovery
#14
REVIEW
Suzanne Lamotte, Gerald F Späth, Najma Rachidi, Eric Prina
The state of antileishmanial chemotherapy is strongly compromised by the emergence of drug-resistant Leishmania. The evolution of drug-resistant phenotypes has been linked to the parasites' intrinsic genome instability, with frequent gene and chromosome amplifications causing fitness gains that are directly selected by environmental factors, including the presence of antileishmanial drugs. Thus, even though the unique eukaryotic biology of Leishmania and its dependence on parasite-specific virulence factors provide valid opportunities for chemotherapeutical intervention, all strategies that target the parasite in a direct fashion are likely prone to select for resistance...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587833/an-update-on-mechanism-of-entry-of-white-spot-syndrome-virus-into-shrimps
#15
Arunima Kumar Verma, Shipra Gupta, Shivesh Pratap Singh, Naresh Sahebrao Nagpure
Host-parasite relationships can be best understood at the level of protein-protein interaction between host and pathogen. Such interactions are instrumental in understanding the important stages of life cycle of pathogen such as adsorption of the pathogen on host surface followed by effective entry of pathogen into the host body, movement of the pathogen across the host cytoplasm to reach the host nucleus and replication of the pathogen within the host. White Spot Disease (WSD) is a havoc for shrimps and till date no effective treatment is available against the disease...
June 3, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587615/genome-wide-scans-for-the-identification-of-plasmodium-vivax-genes-under-positive-selection
#16
Hai-Mo Shen, Shen-Bo Chen, Yue Wang, Bin Xu, Eniola Michael Abe, Jun-Hu Chen
BACKGROUND: The current trend of Plasmodium vivax cases imported from Southeast Asia into China has sharply increased recently, especially from the China-Myanmar border (CMB) area. High recombination rates of P. vivax populations associated with varied transmission intensity might cause distinct local selective pressures. The information on the genetic variability of P. vivax in this area is scant. Hence, this study assessed the genetic diversity of P. vivax genome sequence in CMB area and aimed to provide information on the positive selection of new gene loci...
June 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586364/intracellular-zinc-flux-causes-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-leading-to-cell-death-in-leishmania-donovani
#17
Anjali Kumari, Krishn Pratap Singh, Abhishek Mandal, Ranjeet Kumar Paswan, Preeti Sinha, Pradeep Das, Vahab Ali, Sanjiva Bimal, Chandra Shekhar Lal
Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania parasite is a global threat to public health and one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Therefore, the discovery of novel drug targets and effective drug is a major challenge and an important goal. Leishmania is an obligate intracellular parasite that alternates between sand fly and human host. To survive and establish infections, Leishmania parasites scavenge and internalize nutrients from the host. Nevertheless, host cells presents mechanism like nutrient restriction to inhibit microbial growth and control infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572796/host-parasite-interactions-in-human-malaria-clinical-implications-of-basic-research
#18
REVIEW
Pragyan Acharya, Manika Garg, Praveen Kumar, Akshay Munjal, K D Raja
The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, is one of the oldest parasites documented to infect humans and has proven particularly hard to eradicate. One of the major hurdles in designing an effective subunit vaccine against the malaria parasite is the insufficient understanding of host-parasite interactions within the human host during infections. The success of the parasite lies in its ability to evade the human immune system and recruit host responses as physiological cues to regulate its life cycle, leading to rapid acclimatization of the parasite to its immediate host environment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571568/environmental-temperature-variation-influences-fitness-trade-offs-and-tolerance-in-a-fish-tapeworm-association
#19
Frederik Franke, Sophie A O Armitage, Megan A M Kutzer, Joachim Kurtz, Jörn P Scharsack
BACKGROUND: Increasing temperatures are predicted to strongly impact host-parasite interactions, but empirical tests are rare. Host species that are naturally exposed to a broad temperature spectrum offer the possibility to investigate the effects of elevated temperatures on hosts and parasites. Using three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., and tapeworms, Schistocephalus solidus (Müller, 1776), originating from a cold and a warm water site of a volcanic lake, we subjected sympatric and allopatric host-parasite combinations to cold and warm conditions in a fully crossed design...
June 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567390/extracellular-vesicle-mediated-communication-in-host-parasite-interactions-insight-from-fasciola-hepatica
#20
EDITORIAL
Eduardo de la Torre-Escudero, Mark W Robinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
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