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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914088/murine-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis
#1
Julia Lienard, Fredric Carlsson
Mycobacteria are a major human health problem globally. Regarding tuberculosis the situation is worsened by the poor efficacy of current vaccine regimens and by emergence of drug-resistant strains (Manjelievskaia J et al, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 110, 2016; Pereira et al., Lancet Infect Dis 12:300-306, 2012; http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/) undermining both disease-prevention and available treatments. Thus, increased basic understanding of mycobacterial-and particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-virulence strategies and pathogenesis is of great importance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914070/analysis-of-bacterial-surface-interactions-with-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics
#2
Christofer Karlsson, Johan Teleman, Johan Malmström
Host-pathogen protein-protein interaction networks are highly complex and dynamic. In this experimental protocol we describe a method to isolate host proteins attached to the bacterial surface followed by quantitative mass spectrometry based proteomics analysis. This technique provides an overview of the host-pathogen interaction network, which can be used to guide directed perturbations of the system, and to select target of specific interest for further studies.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909314/controlled-detonation-evolution-of-necroptosis-in-pathogen-defense
#3
REVIEW
Michelle Brault, Andrew Oberst
Necroptosis is a lytic form of programmed cell death that involves the swelling and rupture of dying cells. While several necroptosis-inducing stimuli have been defined, in most cells this pathway is kept in check by the action of the pro-apoptotic protease caspase-8 and the IAP ubiquitin ligases. How and when necroptosis is triggered under physiological conditions therefore remains a persistent question. Because necroptosis likely arose as a defensive mechanism against viral infection, exploration of this question requires a consideration of host-pathogen interactions, and how the sensing of infection could sensitize cells to necroptosis...
December 2, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908274/a-novel-approach-to-probe-host-pathogen-interactions-of-bovine-digital-dermatitis-a-model-of-a-complex-polymicrobial-infection
#4
Paolo Marcatili, Martin W Nielsen, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Tim K Jensen, Claus Schafer-Nielsen, Mette Boye, Morten Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard
BACKGROUND: Polymicrobial infections represent a great challenge for the clarification of disease etiology and the development of comprehensive diagnostic or therapeutic tools, particularly for fastidious and difficult-to-cultivate bacteria. Using bovine digital dermatitis (DD) as a disease model, we introduce a novel strategy to study the pathogenesis of complex infections. RESULTS: The strategy combines meta-transcriptomics with high-density peptide-microarray technology to screen for in vivo-expressed microbial genes and the host antibody response at the site of infection...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907166/vaccinia-virus-protein-c6-inhibits-type-i-ifn-signalling-in-the-nucleus-and-binds-to-the-transactivation-domain-of-stat2
#5
Jennifer H Stuart, Rebecca P Sumner, Yongxu Lu, Joseph S Snowden, Geoffrey L Smith
The type I interferon (IFN) response is a crucial innate immune signalling pathway required for defense against viral infection. Accordingly, the great majority of mammalian viruses possess means to inhibit this important host immune response. Here we show that vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Western Reserve protein C6, is a dual function protein that inhibits the cellular response to type I IFNs in addition to its published function as an inhibitor of IRF-3 activation, thereby restricting type I IFN production from infected cells...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904804/mining-snps-in-extracellular-vesicular-transcriptome-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-a-step-closer-to-early-diagnosis-of-neglected-chagas-disease
#6
Pallavi Gaur, Anoop Chaturvedi
One of the newest and strongest members of intercellular communicators, the Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their enclosed RNAs; Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have been acknowledged as putative biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various diseases. Although a very deep insight has not been possible into the physiology of these vesicles, they are believed to be involved in cell-to-cell communication and host-pathogen interactions. EVs might be significantly helpful in discovering biomarkers for possible target identification as well as prognostics, diagnostics and developing vaccines...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903906/eupathdb-the-eukaryotic-pathogen-genomics-database-resource
#7
Cristina Aurrecoechea, Ana Barreto, Evelina Y Basenko, John Brestelli, Brian P Brunk, Shon Cade, Kathryn Crouch, Ryan Doherty, Dave Falke, Steve Fischer, Bindu Gajria, Omar S Harb, Mark Heiges, Christiane Hertz-Fowler, Sufen Hu, John Iodice, Jessica C Kissinger, Cris Lawrence, Wei Li, Deborah F Pinney, Jane A Pulman, David S Roos, Achchuthan Shanmugasundram, Fatima Silva-Franco, Sascha Steinbiss, Christian J Stoeckert, Drew Spruill, Haiming Wang, Susanne Warrenfeltz, Jie Zheng
The Eukaryotic Pathogen Genomics Database Resource (EuPathDB, http://eupathdb.org) is a collection of databases covering 170+ eukaryotic pathogens (protists & fungi), along with relevant free-living and non-pathogenic species, and select pathogen hosts. To facilitate the discovery of meaningful biological relationships, the databases couple preconfigured searches with visualization and analysis tools for comprehensive data mining via intuitive graphical interfaces and APIs. All data are analyzed with the same workflows, including creation of gene orthology profiles, so data are easily compared across data sets, data types and organisms...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903635/bacterial-polysaccharide-specificity-of-the-pattern-recognition-receptor-langerin-is-highly-species-dependent
#8
Jonas Hanske, Jessica Schulze, Jonas Aretz, Ryan McBride, Bernhard Loll, Henrik Schmidt, Yuriy Knirel, Wolfgang Rabsch, Markus C Wahl, James C Paulson, Christoph Rademacher
The recognition of pathogen surface polysaccharides by glycan-binding proteins is a cornerstone of innate host defense. Many members of the C-type lectin receptor family serve as pattern recognition receptors facilitating pathogen uptake, antigen processing, and immunomodulation. Despite the high evolutionary pressure in host-pathogen interactions, it is still widely assumed that genetic homology conveys similar specificities. Here, we investigate the ligand specificities of the human and murine forms of the myeloid C-type lectin receptor Langerin for simple and complex ligands augmented by structural insight on murine Langerin...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902779/differential-cytokine-gene-expression-in-granulomas-from-lungs-and-lymph-nodes-of-cattle-experimentally-infected-with-aerosolized-mycobacterium-bovis
#9
Mitchell V Palmer, Tyler C Thacker, W Ray Waters
The hallmark lesion of tuberculosis in humans and animals is the granuloma. The granuloma represents a distinct host cellular immune response composed of epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, and multinucleated giant cells, often surrounding a caseous necrotic core. Within the granuloma, host-pathogen interactions determine disease outcome. Factors within the granulomas such as cytokines and chemokines drive cell recruitment, activity, function and ultimately the success or failure of the host's ability to control infection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902345/advances-in-canine-distemper-virus-cdv-pathogenesis-research-a-wildlife-perspective
#10
Angelika Katrin Loots, Emily Mitchell, Desiré Lee Dalton, Antoinette Kotzé, Estelle H Venter
Canine distemper virus (CDV) has emerged as a significant disease of wildlife, is highly contagious and readily transmitted between susceptible hosts. Initially described as an infectious disease of domestic dogs, it is now recognised as a global multi-host pathogen, infecting and causing mass mortalities in a wide range of carnivore species. The last decade has seen the effect of numerous CDV outbreaks in various wildlife populations. Prevention of CDV requires a clear understanding of the potential hosts in danger of infection as well as the dynamic pathways CDV uses to gain entry to its host cells and its ability to initiate viral shedding and disease transmission...
November 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900686/shotgun-metagenomic-sequencing-analysis-of-soft-rot-enterobacteriaceae-in-polymicrobial-communities
#11
James Doonan, Sandra Denman, James E McDonald, Peter N Golyshin
Shotgun metagenomic sequencing of bacterial communities in necrotic plant lesions allows insights of host-pathogen molecular interactions. Soft-rot Enterobacteriaceae are significant crop pathogens with a wide host range. Reconstructed polymicrobial community DNA from soft-rot affected crops provides details of species relative abundance and functional potential, enabling significant insights into their lifestyle. Here, we describe a workflow for DNA recovery, metagenomic shotgun sequencing and in particular, an in silico analysis of bacterial isolates from affected plant tissue...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900575/glycosaminoglycanomics-where-we-are
#12
Sylvie Ricard-Blum, Frédérique Lisacek
Glycosaminoglycans regulate numerous physiopathological processes such as development, angiogenesis, innate immunity, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Cell surface GAGs are involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, cell adhesion and signaling, and host-pathogen interactions. GAGs contribute to the assembly of the extracellular matrix and heparan sulfate chains are able to sequester growth factors in the ECM. Their biological activities are regulated by their interactions with proteins. The structural heterogeneity of GAGs, mostly due to chemical modifications occurring during and after their synthesis, makes the development of analytical techniques for their profiling in cells, tissues, and biological fluids, and of computational tools for mining GAG-protein interaction data very challenging...
November 30, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897233/changes-in-the-membrane-associated-proteins-of-exosomes-released-from-human-macrophages-after-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#13
Gustavo Diaz, Lisa M Wolfe, Nicole A Kruh-Garcia, Karen M Dobos
Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest infectious disease worldwide. One obstacle hindering the elimination of TB is our lack of understanding of host-pathogen interactions. Exosomes, naturally loaded with microbial molecules, are circulating markers of TB. Changes in the host protein composition of exosomes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected cells have not been described, can contribute to our understanding of the disease process, and serve as a direct source of biomarkers or as capture targets to enrich for exosomes containing microbial molecules...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896818/coupling-immunity-and-programmed-cell-suicide-in-prokaryotes-life-or-death-choices
#14
Eugene V Koonin, Feng Zhang
Host-pathogen arms race is a universal, central aspect of the evolution of life. Most organisms evolved several distinct yet interacting strategies of anti-pathogen defense including resistance to parasite invasion, innate and adaptive immunity, and programmed cell death (PCD). The PCD is the means of last resort, a suicidal response to infection that is activated when resistance and immunity fail. An infected cell faces a decision between active defense and altruistic suicide or dormancy induction, depending on whether immunity is "deemed" capable of preventing parasite reproduction and consequent infection of other cells...
November 29, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894984/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-methicillin-resistant-and-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-incidence-in-respect-to-specimen-source-patient-location-and-temperature-variation
#15
T Delorme, A Garcia, P Nasr
OBJECTIVE: Seasonal variations in temperature exert strong selective pressure on microorganism population dynamics and should be taken into account in epidemiological studies. The objective of current study was to characterize the seasonal variation of Staphylococcal infections in respect to patient location, specimen source, month of year, and temperature variation. METHOD: A retrospective longitudinal time series analysis of methicillin-resistant and sensitive S...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894718/chlamydia-suis-and-chlamydia-trachomatis-induce-multifunctional-cd4-t-cells-in-pigs
#16
T Käser, J A Pasternak, M Delgado-Ortega, G Hamonic, K Lai, J Erickson, S Walker, J R Dillon, V Gerdts, F Meurens
Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prominent bacterial sexually-transmitted disease world-wide and a lot of effort is put into the development of an effective vaccine. Pigs have been shown to be a valuable animal model for C. trachomatis vaccine development. The aim of this study was to decipher the T-cell-mediated immune response to chlamydial infections including C. trachomatis and C. suis, the chlamydia species naturally infecting pigs with a demonstrated zoonotic potential. Vaginal infection of pigs with C...
November 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893961/the-genetics-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-virulence
#17
Jaclyn S Pearson, Cristina Giogha, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Elizabeth L Hartland
In many parts of the world, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are a leading cause of death in children with diarrhea. Much of what we know about the pathogenesis of EPEC infections is based on the study of one or two prototypic strains that have provided deep insight into the precise mechanisms by which EPEC colonizes the intestine, evades host immunity, and spreads from person to person. In some cases, defining the biochemical activity of the host-interacting effector proteins from these prototypic strains has led to the discovery of novel post-translational protein modifications and new understandings of biology and host-pathogen interactions...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891121/hypovirulence-of-sclerotium-rolfsii-caused-by-associated-rna-mycovirus
#18
Jie Zhong, Dan Chen, Hong J Zhu, Bi D Gao, Qian Zhou
Mycoviruses associated with hypovirulence are potential biological control agents and could be useful to study the pathogenesis of fungal host pathogens. Sclerotium rolfsii, a pathogenic fungus, causes southern blight in a wide variety of crops. In this study, we isolated a series of dsRNAs from a debilitated S. rolfsii strain, BLH-1, which had pronounced phenotypic aberrations including reduced pathogenicity, mycelial growth and deficient sclerotia production. Virus-curing and horizontal transmission experiments that eliminated or transmitted, respectively, all dsRNA elements showed that the dsRNAs were involved in the hypovirulent traits of BLH-1...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890633/comparison-analysis-of-micrornas-in-response-to-ev71-and-ca16-infection-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-by-high-throughput-sequencing-to-reveal-differential-infective-mechanisms
#19
Yajie Hu, Jie Song, Longding Liu, Jing Li, Beibei Tang, Ying Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Lichun Wang, Shengtao Fan, Ming Feng, Qihan Li
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mainly caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) infections which presented significantly different clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, the factors underlying these differences remain unclear. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. Here, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing...
November 24, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888698/sustained-fecal-oral-human-to-human-transmission-following-a-zoonotic-event
#20
REVIEW
Miranda de Graaf, Relja Beck, Simone M Caccio, Birgitta Duim, Pieter LA Fraaij, Françoise S Le Guyader, Marc Lecuit, Jacques Le Pendu, Emmie de Wit, Constance Schultsz
Bacterial, viral and parasitic zoonotic pathogens that transmit via the fecal-oral route have a major impact on global health. However, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of such pathogens from the animal reservoir and their persistence in the human population are poorly understood. Here, we present a framework of human-to-human transmission of zoonotic pathogens that considers the factors relevant for fecal-oral human-to-human transmission route at the levels of host, pathogen, and environment. We discuss current data gaps and propose future research directions...
November 23, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
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