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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813469/phytoplasma-infection-of-a-tropical-root-crop-triggers-bottom-up-cascades-by-favoring-generalist-over-specialist-herbivores
#1
Kris A G Wyckhuys, Ignazio Graziosi, Dharani Dhar Burra, Abigail Jan Walter
Global interest on plant-microbe-insect interactions is rapidly growing, revealing the multiple ways in which microorganisms mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Phytopathogens regularly alter whole repertoires of plant phenotypic traits, and bring about shifts in key chemical or morphological characteristics of plant hosts. Pathogens can also cause cascading effects on higher trophic levels, and eventually shape entire plant-associated arthropod communities. We tested the hypothesis that a Candidatus Phytoplasma causing cassava witches' broom (CWB) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) is altering species composition of invasive herbivores and their associated parasitic hymenopterans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808965/rna-pamps-as-molecular-tools-for-evaluating-rig-i-function-in-innate-immunity
#2
Renee C Ireton, Courtney Wilkins, Michael Gale
Pathogen recognition receptors (PRR)s and their cognate pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) represent the basis of innate immune activation and immune response induction driven by the host-pathogen interaction that occurs during microbial infection in humans and other animals. For RNA virus infection such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and others, specific motifs within viral RNA mark it as nonself and visible to the host as a PAMP through interaction with RIG-I-like receptors including retinoic inducible gene-I (RIG-I)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808961/zebrafish-as-a-model-for-the-study-of-host-virus-interactions
#3
Peng Fei Zou, Pin Nie
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an increasingly important model for in vivo and in vitro studies on host-pathogen interaction, offering scientists with optical accessibility and genetic tractability, and a vertebrate-type immunity that can be separated into innate and adaptive ones. Although it is shown in previous studies that few species of viruses can naturally infect zebrafish, the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV), a rhabdovirus that causes contagious acute hemorrhagic viraemia in a variety of cyprinid fishes, can infect zebrafish by both injection and static immersion methods in laboratory conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808127/the-components-of-the-unique-zur-regulon-of-cupriavidus-metallidurans-mediate-cytoplasmic-zinc-handling
#4
Lucy Bütof, Christopher Schmidt-Vogler, Martin Herzberg, Cornelia Große, Dietrich H Nies
Zinc is an essential trace element and at the same time it is toxic at high concentrations. In the beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans the highly efficient removal of surplus zinc from the periplasm is responsible for its outstanding metal resistance. Rather than having a typical Zur-dependent, high-affinity ATP-binding cassette transporter of the ABC protein superfamily for zinc uptake at low concentrations, C. metallidurans instead has the secondary zinc importer ZupT of the ZRT/IRT (ZIP) family...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808019/next-step-in-the-ongoing-arms-race-between-myxoma-virus-and-wild-rabbits-in-australia-is-a-novel-disease-phenotype
#5
Peter J Kerr, Isabella M Cattadori, June Liu, Derek G Sim, Jeff W Dodds, Jason W Brooks, Mary J Kennett, Edward C Holmes, Andrew F Read
In host-pathogen arms races, increases in host resistance prompt counteradaptation by pathogens, but the nature of that counteradaptation is seldom directly observed outside of laboratory models. The best-documented field example is the coevolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) in European rabbits. To understand how MYXV in Australia has continued to evolve in wild rabbits under intense selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis, we compared the phenotypes of the progenitor MYXV and viral isolates from the 1950s and the 1990s in laboratory rabbits with no resistance...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807885/biogenesis-and-function-of-escrt-dependent-extracellular-vesicles
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Juan, Maximilian Fürthauer
From bacteria to humans, cells secrete a large variety of membrane-bound extracellular vesicles. Only relatively recently has it however started to become clear that the exovesicular transport of proteins and RNAs is important for normal physiology and numerous pathological conditions. Extracellular vesicles can be formed through the release of the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes as so-called exosomes, or through direct, ectosomal, budding from the cell surface. Through their ability to promote the bending of membranes away from the cytoplasm, the components of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) have been implicated in both exo- and ectosomal biogenesis...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806587/elucidation-of-host-pathogen-protein-protein-interactions-to-uncover-mechanisms-of-host-cell-rewiring
#7
REVIEW
Charlotte Nicod, Amir Banaei-Esfahani, Ben C Collins
Infectious diseases are the result of molecular cross-talks between hosts and their pathogens. These cross-talks are in part mediated by host-pathogen protein-protein interactions (HP-PPI). HP-PPI play crucial roles in infections, as they may tilt the balance either in favor of the pathogens' spread or their clearance. The identification of host proteins targeted by viral or bacterial pathogenic proteins necessary for the infection can provide insights into their underlying molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity, and potentially even single out pharmacological intervention targets...
August 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804478/the-entomopathogenic-fungi-isaria-fumosorosea-plays-a-vital-role-in-suppressing-the-immune-system-of-plutella-xylostella-rna-seq-and-dge-analysis-of-immunity-related-genes
#8
Jin Xu, Xiaoxia Xu, Muhammad Shakeel, Shuzhong Li, Shuang Wang, Xianqiang Zhou, Jialin Yu, Xiaojing Xu, Xiaoqiang Yu, Fengliang Jin
Most, if not all, entomopathogenic fungi have been used as alternative control agents to decrease the insect resistance and harmful effects of the insecticides on the environment. Among them, Isaria fumosorosea has also shown great potential to control different insect pests. In the present study, we explored the immune response of P. xylostella to the infection of I. fumosorosea at different time points by using RNA-Sequencing and differential gene expression technology at the genomic level. To gain insight into the host-pathogen interaction at the genomic level, five libraries of P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800747/bovine-cryptosporidiosis-impact-host-parasite-interaction-and-control-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Sarah Thomson, Carly A Hamilton, Jayne C Hope, Frank Katzer, Neil A Mabbott, Liam J Morrison, Elisabeth A Innes
Gastrointestinal disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the most important diseases of young ruminant livestock, particularly neonatal calves. Infected animals may suffer from profuse watery diarrhoea, dehydration and in severe cases death can occur. At present, effective therapeutic and preventative measures are not available and a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions is required. Cryptosporidium parvum is also an important zoonotic pathogen causing severe disease in people, with young children being particularly vulnerable...
August 11, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798726/systems-biology-analysis-of-temporal-in-vivo-brucella-melitensis-and-bovine-transcriptomes-predicts-host-pathogen-protein-protein-interactions
#10
Carlos A Rossetti, Kenneth L Drake, Sara D Lawhon, Jairo S Nunes, Tamara Gull, Sangeeta Khare, Leslie G Adams
To date, fewer than 200 gene-products have been identified as Brucella virulence factors, and most were characterized individually without considering how they are temporally and coordinately expressed or secreted during the infection process. Here, we describe and analyze the in vivo temporal transcriptional profile of Brucella melitensis during the initial 4 h interaction with cattle. Pathway analysis revealed an activation of the "Two component system" providing evidence that the in vivo Brucella sense and actively regulate their metabolism through the transition to an intracellular lifestyle...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798313/spatial-disease-dynamics-of-free-living-pathogens-under-pathogen-predation
#11
Tommi Mononen, Lasse Ruokolainen
The epidemiological dynamics of potentially free-living pathogens are often studied with respect to a specific pathogen species (e.g., cholera) and most studies concentrate only on host-pathogen interactions. Here we show that metacommunity-level interactions can alter conventional spatial disease dynamics. We introduce a pathogen eating consumer species and investigate a deterministic epidemiological model of two habitat patches, where both patches can be occupied by hosts, pathogens, and consumers of free-living pathogens...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793925/perturbed-human-sub-networks-by-fusobacterium-nucleatum-candidate-virulence-proteins
#12
Andreas Zanzoni, Lionel Spinelli, Shérazade Braham, Christine Brun
BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium nucleatum is a gram-negative anaerobic species residing in the oral cavity and implicated in several inflammatory processes in the human body. Although F. nucleatum abundance is increased in inflammatory bowel disease subjects and is prevalent in colorectal cancer patients, the causal role of the bacterium in gastrointestinal disorders and the mechanistic details of host cell functions subversion are not fully understood. RESULTS: We devised a computational strategy to identify putative secreted F...
August 10, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792420/primary-culture-of-zhikong-scallop-chlamys-farreri-hemocytes-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-studying-host-pathogen-interactions
#13
Aichang Ji, Xueyu Li, Sha Fang, Zhenkui Qin, Changming Bai, Chongming Wang, Zhifeng Zhang
Primary cultured cells can be a useful tool in studies on physiology, virology, and toxicology. Hemocytes play an important role in animal rapid response to pathogen invasion. In this study, an appropriate medium for primary culture of hemocytes of the bivalve Chlamys farreri was developed by adding 5% fetal bovine serum and 1% C. farreri serum to Leibovitz L-15 medium. These primary cultured hemocytes were maintained for more than 40 d in vitro and were classified into 3 types: (1) granulocytes containing numerous granules in the cytoplasm, (2) hyalinocytes with no or few granules, (3) a small percentage of macrophage-like cells...
August 9, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791260/iron-acquisition-strategies-of-vibrio-anguillarum
#14
REVIEW
Yingjie Li, Qingjun Ma
The hemorrhagic septicemic disease vibriosis caused by Vibrio anguillarum shows noticeable similarities to invasive septicemia in humans, and in this case, the V. anguillarum-host system has the potential to serve as a model for understanding native eukaryotic host-pathogen interactions. Iron acquisition, as a fierce battle occurring between pathogenic V. anguillarum and the fish host, is a pivotal step for virulence. In this article, advances in defining the roles of iron uptake pathways in growth and virulence of V...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791256/in-vivo-host-pathogen-interaction-as-revealed-by-global-proteomic-profiling-of-zebrafish-larvae
#15
Francisco Díaz-Pascual, Javiera Ortíz-Severín, Macarena A Varas, Miguel L Allende, Francisco P Chávez
The outcome of a host-pathogen interaction is determined by the conditions of the host, the pathogen, and the environment. Although numerous proteomic studies of in vitro-grown microbial pathogens have been performed, in vivo proteomic approaches are still rare. In addition, increasing evidence supports that in vitro studies inadequately reflect in vivo conditions. Choosing the proper host is essential to detect the expression of proteins from the pathogen in vivo. Numerous studies have demonstrated the suitability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as a model to in vivo studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789710/transplanted-human-fecal-microbiota-enhanced-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-autoantibody-responses-after-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-in-c57bl-6-mice
#16
Phillip T Brooks, Kelsey A Brakel, Julia A Bell, Christopher E Bejcek, Trey Gilpin, Jean M Brudvig, Linda S Mansfield
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading antecedent infection to the autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which is accompanied by an autoimmune anti-ganglioside antibody attack on peripheral nerves. Previously, we showed that contrasting immune responses mediate C. jejuni induced colitis and autoimmunity in interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice, dependent upon the infecting strain. Strains from colitis patients elicited T helper 1 (TH1)-dependent inflammatory responses while strains from GBS patients elicited TH2-dependent autoantibody production...
August 8, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780117/targeting-a-global-health-problem-vaccine-design-and-challenges-for-the-control-of-tick-borne-diseases
#17
REVIEW
José de la Fuente, Marinela Contreras, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz
It has been over twenty years since the first vaccines for the control of tick infestations became commercially available. These vaccines proved their efficacy and the potential of this approach for the control of tick-borne diseases (TBDs), which represent a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. In all these years, research in this area has produced new tick-derived and pathogen-derived candidate protective antigens. However, the potential of vaccines for the control of TBDs has been underestimated due to major challenges to reduce tick infestations, pathogen infection, multiplication and transmission, tick attachment and feeding time and/or host pathogen infection...
August 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772262/evolution-and-emergence-of-pathogenic-viruses-past-present-and-future
#18
Mohammad K Parvez, Shama Parveen
Incidences of emerging/re-emerging deadly viral infections have significantly affected human health despite extraordinary progress in the area of biomedical knowledge. The best examples are the recurring outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya fever in tropical and sub-tropical regions, the recent epidemic of Zika in the Americas and the Caribbean, and the SARS, MERS, and influenza A outbreaks across the globe. The established natural reservoirs of human viruses are mainly farm animals, and, to a lesser extent, wild animals and arthropods...
August 4, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769903/covert-infection-of-insects-by-baculoviruses
#19
REVIEW
Trevor Williams, Cristina Virto, Rosa Murillo, Primitivo Caballero
Baculoviruses (Baculoviridae) are occluded DNA viruses that are lethal pathogens of the larval stages of some lepidopterans, mosquitoes, and sawflies (phytophagous Hymenoptera). These viruses have been developed as biological insecticides for control of insect pests and as expression vectors in biotechnological applications. Natural and laboratory populations frequently harbor covert infections by baculoviruses, often at a prevalence exceeding 50%. Covert infection can comprise either non-productive latency or sublethal infection involving low level production of virus progeny...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768866/reverse-engineering-field-isolates-of-myxoma-virus-demonstrates-that-some-gene-disruptions-or-loss-of-function-do-not-explain-virulence-changes-observed-in-the-field
#20
June Liu, Isabella M Cattadori, Derek G Sim, John-Sebastian Eden, Edward C Holmes, Andrew F Read, Peter J Kerr
The coevolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and wild European rabbits in Australia and Europe is a paradigm for the evolution of a pathogen in a new host species. Genomic analyses have identified the mutations that have characterized this evolutionary process, but defining causal mutations in the pathways from virulence to attenuation and back to virulence has not been possible. Using reverse genetics we examined the role of six selected mutations found in Australian field isolates of MYXV that fall in known or potential virulence genes...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
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