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Carmen Buchrieser, Joan Mecsas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Eloise B Stephenson, Alison J Peel, Simon A Reid, Cassie C Jansen, Hamish McCallum
Understanding the non-human reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens is critical for effective disease control, but identifying the relative contributions of the various reservoirs of multi-host pathogens is challenging. For Ross River virus (RRV), knowledge of the transmission dynamics, in particular the role of non-human species, is important. In Australia, RRV accounts for the highest number of human mosquito-borne virus infections. The long held dogma that marsupials are better reservoirs than placental mammals, which are better reservoirs than birds, deserves critical review...
March 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Riti Sharan, Hee-Jeong Yang, Preeti Sule, Jeffrey D Cirillo
Reporter enzyme fluorescence (REF) utilizes substrates that are specific for enzymes present in target organisms of interest for imaging or detection by fluorescence or bioluminescence. We utilize BlaC, an enzyme expressed constitutively by all M. tuberculosis strains. REF allows rapid quantification of bacteria in lungs of infected mice. The same group of mice can be imaged at many time points, greatly reducing costs, enumerating bacteria more quickly, allowing novel observations in host-pathogen interactions, and increasing statistical power, since more animals per group are readily maintained...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Netra P Meena, Alan R Kimmel
Initial immunological defense mechanisms to pathogen invasion rely on innate pathways of chemotaxis and phagocytosis, original to ancient phagocytes. Although chemotaxis has been well-studied in mammalian and model systems using purified chemoattractants in defined conditions, directed movement toward live bacteria has been more difficult to assess. Dictyostelium discoideum is a professional phagocyte that chemotaxes toward bacteria during growth-phase in a process to locate nutrient sources. Using Dictyostelium as a model, we have developed a system that is able to quantify chemotaxis to very high sensitivity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Amjad M Husaini, Aafreen Sakina, Souliha R Cambay
Fusarium oxysporum, a ubiquitous soil-borne pathogen causes devastating vascular wilt in more than 100 plant species and ranks fifth among top ten fungal plant pathogens. It has emerged as a human pathogen too, causing infections in immune-compromised patients. It is, therefore, important to gain insight into the molecular processes involved in the pathogenesis of this trans-kingdom pathogen. A complex network comprising of interconnected and over lapping signal pathways; mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, Ras proteins, G-protein signaling components and their downstream pathways, components of the velvet (LaeA/VeA/VelB) complex and cAMP pathways, is involved in perceiving the host...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Phu Hai Nguyen, Erika I Lutter, Ted Hackstadt
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that replicates within a vacuole termed an inclusion. At the end of their intracellular developmental cycle, chlamydiae are released either by lysis of the host cell or extrusion of the intact inclusion. The inclusion membrane is extensively modified by the insertion of type III secreted inclusion membrane proteins, Incs, which contribute to inclusion membrane structure and facilitate host-pathogen interactions. An interaction was identified between the inclusion membrane protein, MrcA, and the Ca2+ channel inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3 (ITPR3)...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Yawen Li, Fangming Xiu, Zezhong Mou, Zhiwei Xue, Huanhui Du, Chunxue Zhou, Yan Li, Yongyu Shi, Shenyi He, Huaiyu Zhou
AIM: Exosomes are nanoscale membranous vesicles secreted by most cell types able to transfer bioactive molecules among cells, which play crucial roles in intercellular communication. We characterized the exosomes derived from Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and detected the immune response in macrophages. METHODS: We used transmission electron microscopy, nanotracking analysis and western blotting to identify T. gondii exosomes. Functional experiments were performed in RAW264...
March 15, 2018: Nanomedicine
James E Cassat, Jessica L Moore, Kevin J Wilson, Zach Stark, Boone M Prentice, Raf Van de Plas, William J Perry, Yaofang Zhang, John Virostko, Daniel C Colvin, Kristie L Rose, Audra M Judd, Michelle L Reyzer, Jeffrey M Spraggins, Caroline M Grunenwald, John C Gore, Richard M Caprioli, Eric P Skaar
Diseases are characterized by distinct changes in tissue molecular distribution. Molecular analysis of intact tissues traditionally requires preexisting knowledge of, and reagents for, the targets of interest. Conversely, label-free discovery of disease-associated tissue analytes requires destructive processing for downstream identification platforms. Tissue-based analyses therefore sacrifice discovery to gain spatial distribution of known targets or sacrifice tissue architecture for discovery of unknown targets...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Kevin M Rattigan, Andrew W Pountain, Clement Regnault, Fiona Achcar, Isabel M Vincent, Carl S Goodyear, Michael P Barrett
Priming and activating immune stimuli have profound effects on macrophages, however, studies generally evaluate stimuli in isolation rather than in combination. In this study we have investigated the effects of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory stimuli either alone or in combination on macrophage metabolism. These stimuli include host factors such as IFNγ and ovalbumin-immunoglobulin immune complexes, or pathogen factors such as LPS. Untargeted LC-MS based metabolomics provided an in-depth profile of the macrophage metabolome, and revealed specific changes in metabolite abundance upon either individual stimuli or combined stimuli...
2018: PloS One
Ilias Kounatidis, Lauren Ames, Rupal Mistry, Hsueh-Lui Ho, Ken Haynes, Petros Ligoxygakis
Candida glabrata ( C. glabrata ) forms part of the normal human gut microbiota but can cause life-threatening invasive infections in immune-compromised individuals. C. glabrata displays high resistance to common azole antifungals, which necessitates new treatments. In this investigation, we identified five C. glabrata deletion mutants ( Δada2 , Δbas1 , Δhir3, Δino2 and Δmet31 ) from a library of 196 transcription factor mutants that were unable to grow and activate an immune response in Drosophila larvae...
March 13, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Wyatt E Lanik, Madison A Mara, Belgacem Mihi, Carolyn B Coyne, Misty Good
Studies on the intestinal epithelial response to viral infection have previously been limited by the absence of in vitro human intestinal models that recapitulate the multicellular complexity of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent technological advances have led to the development of "mini-intestine" models, which mimic the diverse cellular nature and physiological activity of the small intestine. Utilizing adult or embryonic intestinal tissue, enteroid and organoid systems, respectively, represent an opportunity to effectively model cellular differentiation, proliferation, and interactions that are specific to the specialized environment of the intestine...
March 10, 2018: Viruses
Donghoon Kang, Daniel R Kirienko, Phillip Webster, Alfred L Fisher, Natalia V Kirienko
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a re-emerging, opportunistic human pathogen, encodes a variety of virulence determinants. Pyoverdine, a siderophore produced by this bacterium, is essential for pathogenesis in mammalian infections. This observation is generally attributed to its roles in acquiring iron and/or regulating other virulence factors. Here we report that pyoverdine translocates into the host, where it binds and extracts iron from the host prior to its eventual exit. Pyoverdine-mediated iron extraction damages host mitochondria, disrupting their function and triggering mitochondrial turnover via autophagy...
March 13, 2018: Virulence
Jusun Hwang, Yongbaek Kim, Sang-Won Lee, Na-Yon Kim, Myung-Sun Chun, Hang Lee, Nicole Gottdenker
Direct or indirect supplemental feeding of free-ranging animals occurs worldwide, resulting in significant impacts on population density or altered demographic processes. Another potential impact of increased energy intake from supplemental feeding is altered immunocompetence. As immune system maintenance is energetically costly, there may be trade-offs between immune responses and other energy-demanding physiological processes in individual animals. Although increased availability of food sources through supplemental feeding is expected to increase the overall immunocompetence of animals, empirical data verifying the association between supplemental feeding and different immune parameters are lacking...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Daniel J Becker, Gábor Á Czirják, Dmitriy V Volokhov, Alexandra B Bentz, Jorge E Carrera, Melinda S Camus, Kristen J Navara, Vladimir E Chizhikov, M Brock Fenton, Nancy B Simmons, Sergio E Recuenco, Amy T Gilbert, Sonia Altizer, Daniel G Streicker
Human activities create novel food resources that can alter wildlife-pathogen interactions. If resources amplify or dampen, pathogen transmission probably depends on both host ecology and pathogen biology, but studies that measure responses to provisioning across both scales are rare. We tested these relationships with a 4-year study of 369 common vampire bats across 10 sites in Peru and Belize that differ in the abundance of livestock, an important anthropogenic food source. We quantified innate and adaptive immunity from bats and assessed infection with two common bacteria...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Wenquan Liu, Liyang Huang, Qimei Wei, Yu Zhang, Shengnan Zhang, Wenting Zhang, Liya Cai, Shaohui Liang
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect mammalian cells and thereby regulate host gene expression. The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to be an important class of RNA molecules that regulate many biological processes, including host-pathogen interactions. However, the role of host lncRNAs in the response to T. gondii infection remains largely unknown. METHODS: We applied a microarray approach to determine the differential expression profiles of both lncRNAs and mRNAs in the human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells after T...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Laura J Schmertmann, Kathryn Stalder, Donald Hudson, Patricia Martin, Mariano Makara, Wieland Meyer, Richard Malik, Mark B Krockenberger
Disseminated cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii (molecular type VGI) was diagnosed in an adult free-ranging female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Subclinical cryptococcosis was later diagnosed in this koala's joey. In the adult koala, a pathological fracture of the tibia was associated with the bone lysis of marked focal cryptococcal osteomyelitis. Limb-sparing orthopedic intervention, in the setting of disseminated cryptococcosis, was judged to have a poor prognosis, and the adult koala was euthanized...
February 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
V Hoerr, M Franz, M W Pletz, M Diab, S Niemann, C Faber, T Doenst, P C Schulze, S Deinhardt-Emmer, B Löffler
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease, caused by septic vegetations and inflammatory foci on the surface of the endothelium and the valves. Due to its complex and often indecisive presentation the mortality rate is still about 30%. Most frequently bacterial microorganisms entering the bloodstream are the underlying origin of the intracardiac infection. While the disease was primarily restricted to younger patients suffering from rheumatic heart streptococci infections, new at risk categories for Staphylococcus (S...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Adilia Warris, Elizabeth R Ballou
The balance between reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species production by the host and stress response by fungi is a key axis of the host-pathogen interaction. This review will describe emerging themes in fungal pathogenesis underpinning this axis.
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Emmanuel C Patin, Aiysha Thompson, Selinda J Orr
Over the last decade, invasive fungal infections have emerged as a growing threat to human health worldwide and novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. In this context, investigations into host-pathogen interactions represent an important and promising field of research. Antigen presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells are strategically located at the frontline of defence against potential invaders. Importantly, these cells express germline encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which sense conserved entities from pathogens and orchestrate innate immune responses...
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Shachi Gahoi, Satendra Singh, Budhayash Gautam
Nematodes are responsible for causing severe diseases in plants, humans and other animals. Infection is associated with the release of excretory/secretory (ES) proteins into host cytoplasm and interference with the host immune system which make them attractive targets for therapeutic use. The identification of ES proteins through bioinformatics approaches is cost- and time-effective and could be used for screening of potential targets for parasitic diseases for further experimental studies. Here, we identified and functionally annotated 93,949 ES proteins, in the genome of 73 nematodes using integration of various bioinformatics tools...
March 6, 2018: Genomics
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