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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329457/a-novel-application-of-rnase-h2-dependent-quantitative-pcr-for-detection-and-quantification-of-grosmannia-clavigera-a-mountain-pine-beetle-fungal-symbiont-in-environmental-samples
#1
Chandra H McAllister, Colleen E Fortier, Kate R St Onge, Bianca M Sacchi, Meaghan J Nawrot, Troy Locke, Janice E K Cooke
Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) is an economically and ecologically important pest of pine species in western North America. Mountain pine beetles form complex multipartite relationships with microbial partners, including the ophiostomoid fungi Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield, Ophiostoma montium (Rumbold) von Arx, Grosmannia aurea (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield, Leptographium longiclavatum (Lee, Kim, and Breuil) and Leptographium terebrantis (Barras and Perry)...
January 10, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329289/burkholderia-pseudomallei-modulates-host-iron-homeostasis-to-facilitate-iron-availability-and-intracellular-survival
#2
Imke H E Schmidt, Claudia Gildhorn, Martha A L Böning, Vera A Kulow, Ivo Steinmetz, Antje Bast
BACKGROUND: The control over iron homeostasis is critical in host-pathogen-interaction. Iron plays not only multiple roles for bacterial growth and pathogenicity, but also for modulation of innate immune responses. Hepcidin is a key regulator of host iron metabolism triggering degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin. Although iron overload in humans is known to increase susceptibility to Burkholderia pseudomallei, it is unclear how the pathogen competes with the host for the metal during infection...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325222/pneumonia-as-a-cardiovascular-disease
#3
REVIEW
Marcos I Restrepo, Luis F Reyes
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of death around the globe. Up to 30% of patients admitted to hospital for CAP develop cardiovascular complications (i.e. new/worsening heart failure, new/worsening arrhythmias, myocardial infarctions and/or strokes), acutely and up to 10 years thereafter. Cardiac complications result from complex interactions between preexisting conditions, relative ischaemia, upregulation of the sympathetic system, systemic inflammation and direct pathogen-mediated damage to the cardiovascular system...
January 11, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325093/a-comprehensive-caenorhabditis-elegans-n-glycan-shotgun-array
#4
Ewa Jankowska, Lisa M Parsons, Xuezheng Song, Dave F Smith, Richard D Cummings, John F Cipollo
Here we present a Caenorhabditis elegans N-glycan shotgun array. This nematode serves as a model organism for many areas of biology including but not limited to tissue development, host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity, and genetics. C. elegans N-glycans contain structural motifs that are also found in other nematodes as well as trematodes and lepidopteran species. Glycan binding toxins that interact with C. elegans glycoconjugates also do so with some agriculturally relevant species, such as Haemonchus contortus, Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichoplusia ni...
January 9, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324904/prohibitin-plays-a-critical-role-in-enterovirus-71-neuropathogenesis
#5
Issac Horng Khit Too, Isabelle Bonne, Eng Lee Tan, Justin Jang Hann Chu, Sylvie Alonso
A close relative of poliovirus, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as an important neurotropic virus of serious public health concern. EV71 causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and has been associated with neurological complications in young children. Our limited understanding of the mechanisms involved in its neuropathogenesis has hampered the development of effective therapeutic options. Here, using a two-dimensional proteomics approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have identified a unique panel of host proteins that were differentially and dynamically modulated during EV71 infection of motor-neuron NSC-34 cells, which are found at the neuromuscular junctions where EV71 is believed to enter the central nervous system...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324800/hepcidin-deficiency-and-iron-deficiency-do-not-alter-tuberculosis-susceptibility-in-a-murine-m-tb-infection-model
#6
Rachel Harrington-Kandt, Elena Stylianou, Lucy A Eddowes, Pei Jin Lim, Lisa Stockdale, Nawamin Pinpathomrat, Naomi Bull, Janet Pasricha, Marta Ulaszewska, Yulia Beglov, Sophie Vaulont, Hal Drakesmith, Helen McShane
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the macrophage-tropic pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is a highly prevalent infectious disease. Since an immune correlate of protection or effective vaccine have yet to be found, continued research into host-pathogen interactions is important. Previous literature reports links between host iron status and disease outcome for many infections, including TB. For some extracellular bacteria, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is essential for protection against infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321325/the-identification-and-characterization-of-sindbis-virus-rna-host-protein-interactions
#7
Autumn T LaPointe, Natasha N Gebhart, Megan E Meller, Richard W Hardy, Kevin J Sokoloski
Arthropod-borne viruses, such as the members of genus Alphavirus, are a significant concern to global public health. As obligate intracellular pathogens, RNA viruses must interact with the host cell machinery to establish, and complete, their viral lifecycles. Despite considerable efforts to define the host/pathogen interactions essential for alphaviral replication, an unbiased and inclusive assessment of alphaviral RNA:protein interactions has not been undertaken. Moreover, the biological and molecular importance of these interactions, in the full context of their molecular function as RNA-binding proteins, has not been fully realized...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321072/tissue-specific-transcriptomes-of-anisakis-simplex-sensu-stricto-and-anisakis-pegreffii-reveal-potential-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-pathogenicity
#8
Serena Cavallero, Fabrizio Lombardo, Xiaopei Su, Marco Salvemini, Cinzia Cantacessi, Stefano D'Amelio
BACKGROUND: Larval stages of the sibling species of parasitic nematodes Anisakis simplex (sensu stricto) (s.s.) (AS) and Anisakis pegreffii (AP) are responsible for a fish-borne zoonosis, known as anisakiasis, that humans aquire via the ingestion of raw or undercooked infected fish or fish-based products. These two species differ in geographical distribution, genetic background and peculiar traits involved in pathogenicity. However, thus far little is known of key molecules potentially involved in host-parasite interactions...
January 10, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311668/cliq-bid-a-method-to-quantify-bacteria-induced-damage-to-eukaryotic-cells-by-automated-live-imaging-of-bright-nuclei
#9
Yann Wallez, Stéphanie Bouillot, Emmanuelle Soleilhac, Philippe Huber, Ina Attrée, Eric Faudry
Pathogenic bacteria induce eukaryotic cell damage which range from discrete modifications of signalling pathways, to morphological alterations and even to cell death. Accurate quantitative detection of these events is necessary for studying host-pathogen interactions and for developing strategies to protect host organisms from bacterial infections. Investigation of morphological changes is cumbersome and not adapted to high-throughput and kinetics measurements. Here, we describe a simple and cost-effective method based on automated analysis of live cells with stained nuclei, which allows real-time quantification of bacteria-induced eukaryotic cell damage at single-cell resolution...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309434/mucin-acts-as-a-nutrient-source-and-a-signal-for-the-differential-expression-of-genes-coding-for-cellular-processes-and-virulence-factors-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#10
Emily J Ohneck, Brock A Arivett, Steven E Fiester, Cecily R Wood, Maeva L Metz, Gabriella M Simeone, Luis A Actis
The capacity of Acinetobacter baumannii to persist and cause infections depends on its interaction with abiotic and biotic surfaces, including those found on medical devices and host mucosal surfaces. However, the extracellular stimuli affecting these interactions are poorly understood. Based on our previous observations, we hypothesized that mucin, a glycoprotein secreted by lung epithelial cells, particularly during respiratory infections, significantly alters A. baumannii's physiology and its interaction with the surrounding environment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307631/physicochemical-properties-of-anti-vibrio-harveyi-egg-yolk-antibody-igy-and-its-immunological-influence-in-indian-white-shrimp-fenneropenaeus-indicus
#11
Thankamani Kumaran, Eswaramoorthy Thirumalaikumar, Chinnadurai Lelin, Pandi Palanikumar, Mariavincent Michaelbabu, Thavasimuthu Citarasu
Edible antibodies specific to host pathogens is an attractive approach to establish protective immunity, especially against gastrointestinal pathogens both in humans and animals. The edible antibody of anti-Vibrio harveyi IgY (anti-V. h IgY) was produced by antigen mixed with immunoadjuvant Asparagus racemosus and Glycine max. Hens were immunized and eggs were collected five weeks after the immunization. Anti-V. harveyi IgY stability in different digestive enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin were evaluated to determine its ability to withstand in the gastrointestinal tract of F...
January 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304016/transcriptome-analysis-of-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus-gill-in-response-to-lymphocystis-disease-virus-lcdv-infection-novel-insights-into-fish-defense-mechanisms
#12
Ronghua Wu, Xiuzhen Sheng, Xiaoqian Tang, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infection may induce a variety of host gene expression changes associated with disease development; however, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host-virus interactions is limited. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was employed to investigate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the gill of the flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) at one week post LCDV infection. Transcriptome sequencing of the gill with and without LCDV infection was performed using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302270/back-to-the-future-in-a-petri-dish-origin-and-impact-of-resurrected-microbes-in-natural-populations
#13
REVIEW
Shira Houwenhuyse, Emilie Macke, Lien Reyserhove, Lore Bulteel, Ellen Decaestecker
Current natural populations face new interactions because of the re-emergence of ancient microbes and viruses. These risks come from the re-emergence of pathogens kept in laboratories or from pathogens that are retained in the permafrost, which become available upon thawing due to climate change. We here focus on the effects of such re-emergence in natural host populations based on evolutionary theory of virulence and long-term studies, which investigate host-pathogen adaptations. Pathogens tend to be locally and temporally adapted to their co-occurring hosts, but when pathogens from a different environment or different time enter the host community, the degree to which a new host-pathogen interaction is a threat will depend on the specific genotypic associations, the time lag between the host and the pathogen, and the interactions with native or recent host and pathogen species...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299243/chronic-disease-in-the-mojave-desert-tortoise-host-physiology-and-recrudescence-obscure-patterns-of-pathogen-transmission
#14
Franziska C Sandmeier, K Nichole Maloney, C Richard Tracy, David Hyde, Hamid Mohammadpour, Ron Marlow, Sally DuPré, Kenneth Hunter
A seminatural, factorial-design experiment was used to quantify dynamics of the pathogen Mycoplasma agassizii and upper respiratory tract disease in the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) over 2 years. Groups of initially healthy animals were separated into serologically positive (seropositive), seronegative, and artificially infected groups and paired into 23 pens. We found no evidence of long-term immune protection to M. agassizii or of immunological memory. Initially seronegative, healthy tortoises experienced an equal amount of disease when paired with other seronegative groups as when paired with seropositive and artificially infected groups-suggesting that recrudescence is as significant as transmission in introducing disease in individuals in this host-pathogen system...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290008/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-two-citrus-germplasms-with-contrasting-susceptibility-to-phytophthora-nicotianae-provides-new-insights-into-tolerance-mechanisms
#15
Arwa Ajengui, Edoardo Bertolini, Angela Ligorio, Samir Chebil, Antonio Ippolito, Simona Marianna Sanzani
Host perception of Phytophthora nicotianae switching to necrotrophy is fundamental for disease tolerance of citrus. It involves an HR-like response, strengthening of the cell wall structure and hormonal signaling. Stem rot caused by P. nicotianae is a worldwide disease of several important crops, including citrus. Given the growing awareness of chemical fungicides drawbacks, genetic improvement of citrus rootstocks remains the best alternative. However, the molecular basis underlying the successful response of resistant and/or tolerant genotypes remains poorly understood...
December 30, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289797/survey-on-medicinal-plants-traditionally-used-in-senegal-for-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis-tb-and-assessment-of-their-antimycobacterial-activity
#16
ElHadji Assane Diop, Emerson Ferreira Queiroz, Sébastien Kicka, Serge Rudaz, Tahir Diop, Thierry Soldati, Jean-Luc Wolfender
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In West Africa, populations are used to taking traditional medicine as a first aid against common health problems. In this aspect, many plants are claimed to be effective in the treatment of Tuberculosis (TB), which according to the World Health Organization (WHO) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The main aim of this study was to identify plants used to treat TB-symptoms by the population of Senegal and to evaluate their possible concomitant use with clinically approved TB-drugs...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288441/genetic-association-studies-in-host-pathogen-interaction-analysis
#17
Jose Luis Royo, Luis Miguel Real
Studying host-pathogen interactions at a molecular level has been always technically challenging. Identifying the different biochemical and genetic pathways involved in the different stages of infection traditionally require complex molecular biology tools and often the use of costly animal models. In this chapter we illustrate a complementary approach to address host-pathogen interactions, taking advantage of the natural interindividual genetic diversity. The application of genetic association studies allows us to identify alleles involved in infection progression or resistance...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286449/the-madagascar-hissing-cockroach-as-an-alternative-non-mammalian-animal-model-to-investigate-virulence-pathogenesis-and-drug-efficacy
#18
Jennifer Chua, Nathan A Fisher, Shane D Falcinelli, David DeShazer, Arthur M Friedlander
Many aspects of innate immunity are conserved between mammals and insects. An insect, the Madagascar hissing cockroach from the genus Gromphadorhina, can be utilized as an alternative animal model for the study of virulence, host-pathogen interaction, innate immune response, and drug efficacy. Details for the rearing, care and breeding of the hissing cockroach are provided. We also illustrate how it can be infected with bacteria such as the intracellular pathogens Burkholderia mallei, B. pseudomallei, and B...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286380/urinary-tract-infection-in-a-small-animal-model-transurethral-catheterization-of-male-and-female-mice
#19
Anna Zychlinsky Scharff, Matthew L Albert, Molly A Ingersoll
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are extremely common worldwide, incurring significant morbidity and healthcare-associated expenses. Small animal models, which accurately reflect disease establishment and progression, permit dissection of host-pathogen interactions and generation of immunity to infection. In mice, intravesical instillation of uropathogenic E. coli, the causative agent in more than 85% of community acquired UTI, recapitulates many of the stages of infection observed in humans. Until recently, however, UTI could only be modeled in female animals...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285966/infectious-disease-and-the-diversification-of-the-human-genome
#20
Jessica F Brinkworth
The human immune system is under great pathogen-mediated selective pressure. Divergent infectious disease pathogenesis across human populations combined with the overrepresentation of "immune genes" in genomic regions with signatures of positive selection suggests that pathogens have significantly altered the human genome. However, important features of the human immune system can confound searches for and interpretations of signatures of pathogen-mediated evolution. Immune system redundancy, immune gene pleiotropy, host ability to acquire immunity and alter the immune repertoire of offspring through "priming," and host microbiome complicate evolutionary interpretations of host-pathogen interactions...
January 2017: Human Biology
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