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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792772/genome-sequence-resources-for-the-wheat-stripe-rust-pathogen-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici-and-the-barley-stripe-rust-pathogen-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-hordei
#1
Chongjing Xia, Meinan Wang, Chuntao Yin, Omar E Cornejo, Scot Hulbert, Xianming Chen
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) causes devastating stripe (yellow) rust on wheat and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei (Psh) causes stripe rust on barley. Several Pst genomes are available, but no Psh genome is available. More genomes of Pst and Psh are needed to understand the genome evolution and molecular mechanisms of their pathogenicity. We sequenced Pst isolate 93-210 and Psh isolate 93TX-2 using PacBio and Illumina technologies, and RNA sequencing. Their genomic sequences were assembled to contigs with high continuity and showed significant structural differences...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786555/innate-immunity-in-stem-cell-derived-hepatocytes
#2
REVIEW
Lena Fischer, David C Hay, Cliona O'Farrelly
Stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) offer great opportunities for studies of host-pathogen interactions and tissue regeneration, as well as hepatotoxicity. To reliably predict the outcome of infection or to enhance graft survival, a finely tuned innate immune system is essential. Hepatocytes have long been considered solely metabolic and their critical innate immune potential is only recently gaining attention. Viral infection studies show that pathogen detection by cytosolic receptors leads to interferon (IFN) induction in primary hepatocytes and HLCs...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784861/genome-variation-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-salmonella-typhimurium-pathovariants
#3
Priscilla Branchu, Matt Bawn, Robert A Kingsley
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S Typhimurium) is one of approximately 2500 distinct serovars of the genus Salmonella , but is exceptional in its wide distribution in the environment, livestock, and wild animals. S Typhimurium causes a large proportion of non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) infections, accounting for a quarter of infections, second only to S Enteritidis in incidence. S Typhimurium was once considered the archetypal broad host range Salmonella serovar due to its wide distribution in livestock and wild animals and much of what we know of the interaction of Salmonella with the host comes from research using a small number of laboratory strains of the serovar (LT2, SL1344, ATCC14028)...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782551/structural-insights-on-the-efficient-catalysis-of-hydroperoxide-reduction-by-ohr-crystallographic-and-molecular-dynamics-approaches
#4
Erika Piccirillo, Thiago G P Alegria, Karen F Discola, José R R Cussiol, Renato M Domingos, Marcos A de Oliveira, Leandro de Rezende, Luis E S Netto, Antonia T-do Amaral
Organic hydroperoxide resistance (Ohr) enzymes are highly efficient Cys-based peroxidases that play central roles in bacterial response to fatty acid hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite, two oxidants that are generated during host-pathogen interactions. In the active site of Ohr proteins, the conserved Arg (Arg19 in Ohr from Xylella fastidiosa) and Glu (Glu51 in Ohr from Xylella fastidiosa) residues, among other factors, are involved in the extremely high reactivity of the peroxidatic Cys (Cp) toward hydroperoxides...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780749/-rhipicephalus-bursa-sialotranscriptomic-response-to-blood-feeding-and-babesia-ovis-infection-identification-of-candidate-protective-antigens
#5
Sandra Antunes, Joana Couto, Joana Ferrolho, Fábio Rodrigues, João Nobre, Ana S Santos, M Margarida Santos-Silva, José de la Fuente, Ana Domingos
Ticks are among the most prevalent blood-feeding arthropods, and they act as vectors and reservoirs for numerous pathogens. Sialotranscriptomic characterizations of tick responses to blood feeding and pathogen infections can offer new insights into the molecular interplay occurring at the tick-host-pathogen interface. In the present study, we aimed to identify and characterize Rhipicephalus bursa salivary gland (SG) genes that were differentially expressed in response to blood feeding and Babesia ovis infection...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778427/genomics-driven-approach-for-identification-of-novel-therapeutic-targets-in-salmonella-enterica
#6
Priyanka Gawade, Payel Ghosh
Salmonella enterica is a causative agent of enteric and systemic salmonellosis that affects human and many other animal species. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, available drugs against S. enterica infection are no more effective as before. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic strategies. The current study aims at prioritizing therapeutic targets by an in-silico genomics driven method. The method involves searching proteins of each Salmonella strain for essentiality, virulence and antibiotic-resistance and host-pathogen protein-protein interactions...
May 17, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778270/is-female-health-cyclical-evolutionary-perspectives-on-menstruation
#7
REVIEW
Alexandra Alvergne, Vedrana Högqvist Tabor
Why do some females menstruate at all? Answering this question has implications for understanding the tight links between reproductive function and organismal immunity. Here we build on the growing evidence that menstruation is the byproduct of a 'choosy uterus' to: (i) make the theoretical case for the idea that female immunity is cyclical in menstruating species, (ii) evaluate the evidence for the menstrual modulation of immunity and health in humans, and (iii) speculate on the implications of cyclical female health for female behaviour, male immunity, and host-pathogen interactions...
June 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777255/inhibition-of-sialidase-activity-and-cellular-invasion-by-the-bacterial-vaginosis-pathogen-gardnerella-vaginalis
#8
G Govinden, J L Parker, K L Naylor, A M Frey, D O C Anumba, G P Stafford
Bacterial vaginosis is a genital tract infection, thought to be caused by transformation of a lactobacillus-rich flora to a dysbiotic microbiota enriched in mixed anaerobes. The most prominent of these is Gardnerella vaginalis (GV), an anaerobic pathogen that produces sialidase enzyme to cleave terminal sialic acid residues from human glycans. Notably, high sialidase activity is associated with preterm birth and low birthweight. We explored the potential of the sialidase inhibitor Zanamavir against GV whole cell sialidase activity using methyl-umbelliferyl neuraminic acid (MU-NANA) cleavage assays, with Zanamavir causing a 30% reduction in whole cell GV sialidase activity (p < 0...
May 18, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774218/new-insights-of-helicobacter-pylori-host-pathogen-interactions-the-triangle-of-virulence-factors-epigenetic-modifications-and-non-coding-rnas
#9
REVIEW
Farzam Vaziri, Samira Tarashi, Abolfazl Fateh, Seyed Davar Siadat
Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is a model organism for understanding host-pathogen interactions and infection-mediated carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer and H. pylori colonization indicates the strong correlation. The progression and exacerbation of H. pylori infection are influenced by some factors of pathogen and host. Several virulence factors involved in the proper adherence and attenuation of immune defense to contribute the risk of emerging gastric cancer, therefore analysis of them is very important...
May 16, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772096/signatures-of-diversifying-selection-and-convergence-acting-on-passerine-toll-like-receptor-4-in-an-evolutionary-context
#10
Tereza Králová, Tomáš Albrecht, Josef Bryja, David Hořák, Arild Johnsen, Jan T Lifjeld, Marian Novotný, Ondřej Sedláček, Hana Velová, Michal Vinkler
Positive selection acting on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been recently investigated to reveal evolutionary mechanisms of host-pathogen molecular co-adaptation. Much of this research, however, has focused mainly on the identification of sites predicted to be under positive selection, bringing little insight into the functional differences and similarities among species and a limited understanding of convergent evolution in the innate immune molecules. In this study we provide evidence of phenotypic variability in the avian TLR4 ligand-binding region (LBR), the direct interface between host and pathogen molecular structures...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769740/identification-of-a-s-aureus-virulence-factor-by-activity-based-protein-profiling-abpp
#11
Christian S Lentz, Jessica R Sheldon, Lisa A Crawford, Rachel Cooper, Megan Garland, Manuel R Amieva, Eranthie Weerapana, Eric P Skaar, Matthew Bogyo
Serine hydrolases play diverse roles in regulating host-pathogen interactions in a number of organisms, yet few have been characterized in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here we describe a chemical proteomic screen that identified ten previously uncharacterized S. aureus serine hydrolases that mostly lack human homologs. We termed these enzymes fluorophosphonate-binding hydrolases (FphA-J). One hydrolase, FphB, can process short fatty acid esters, exhibits increased activity in response to host cell factors, is located predominantly on the bacterial cell surface in a subset of cells, and is concentrated in the division septum...
May 16, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768211/long-term-persistence-of-exhausted-cd8-t-cells-in-chronic-infection-is-regulated-by-microrna-155
#12
Erietta Stelekati, Zeyu Chen, Sasikanth Manne, Makoto Kurachi, Mohammed-Alkhatim Ali, Keith Lewy, Zhangying Cai, Kito Nzingha, Laura M McLane, Jennifer L Hope, Adam J Fike, Peter D Katsikis, E John Wherry
Persistent viral infections and tumors drive development of exhausted T (TEX ) cells. In these settings, TEX cells establish an important host-pathogen or host-tumor stalemate. However, TEX cells erode over time, leading to loss of pathogen or cancer containment. We identified microRNA (miR)-155 as a key regulator of sustained TEX cell responses during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Genetic deficiency of miR-155 ablated CD8 T cell responses during chronic infection. Conversely, enhanced miR-155 expression promoted expansion and long-term persistence of TEX cells...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766569/differential-roles-of-melatonin-in-plant-host-resistance-and-pathogen-suppression-in-cucurbits
#13
Mihir Kumar Mandal, Haktan Suren, Brian Ward, Arezue Boroujerdi, Chandrasekar Kousik
Since the 1950s, research on the animal neurohormone melatonin, has focused on its multi-regulatory effect on patients suffering from insomnia, cancer, and Alzheimer's. In plants, melatonin plays major role in plant growth and development, and is inducible in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, studies on the direct role of melatonin in disease suppression and as a signaling molecule in host-pathogen defense mechanism are lacking. This study provides insight on the predicted biosynthetic pathway of melatonin in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and how application of melatonin, an environmental-friendly immune inducer, can boost plant immunity and suppress pathogen growth where fungicide resistance and lack of genetic resistance are major problems...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764653/interaction-effects-of-different-drivers-of-wild-bee-decline-and-their-influence-on-host-pathogen-dynamics
#14
REVIEW
Ivan Meeus, Matti Pisman, Guy Smagghe, Niels Piot
Wild bee decline is a multi-factorial problem, yet it is crucial to understand the impact of a single driver. Hereto the interaction effects of wild bee decline with multiple natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be clear. This is also true for the driver 'pathogens', as stressor induced disturbances of natural host-pathogen dynamics can unbalance settled virulence equilibria. Invasive species, bee domestication, habitat loss, climate changes and insecticides are recognized drivers of wild bee decline, but all influence host-pathogen dynamics as well...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764197/re-thinking-the-chicken-campylobacter-jejuni-interaction-a-review
#15
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Chickens are recognized as an imperative source of thermophilic Campylobacter spp., carrying this microorganism in high numbers in their intestinal tract. For long time, C. jejuni has been considered as a commensal microorganism which colonizes its primary host rather than infecting it, in the absence of any obvious clinical signs. However, recent studies question this and argue for a deeper understanding of the host-bacteria interaction. Following oral uptake it was demonstrated that C. jejuni interacts intimately with the gut epithelium and influences cellular functions of the host, with consequences on nutrient absorption...
May 15, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763729/in-silico-identification-of-molecular-mimics-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-clostridium-botulinum-atcc-3502-strain
#16
Tulika Bhardwaj, Shafiul Haque, Pallavi Somvanshi
Bacterial pathogens invade and disrupt the host defense system by means of protein sequences structurally similar at global and local level both. The sharing of homologous sequences between the host and the pathogenic bacteria mediates the infection and defines the concept of molecular mimicry. In this study, various computational approaches were employed to elucidate the pathogenicity of Clostridium at genome-wide level. Genome-wide study revealed that the pathogen mimics the host (Homo sapiens) and unraveled the complex pathogenic pathway of causing infections...
May 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763671/searching-for-signals-of-recent-natural-selection-in-genes-of-the-innate-immune-response-ancient-dna-study
#17
Magda Lewandowska, Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska, Tomasz Płoszaj, Piotr Witas, Alicja Zamerska, Hanna Mańkowska-Pliszka, Henryk W Witas
The last decade has seen sharp progress in the field of human evolutionary genetics and a great amount of genetic evidence of natural selection has been provided so far. Since host-pathogen co-evolution is difficult to trace due to the polygenic nature of human susceptibility to microbial diseases, of particular interest is any signal of natural selection in response to the strong selective pressure exerted by pathogens. Analysis of ancient DNA allows for the direct insight into changes of a gene pool content over time and enables monitoring allele frequency fluctuations...
May 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761668/a-mechanism-based-disease-progression-model-describing-host-pathogen-interactions-during-the-pathogenesis-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-pneumonia
#18
John K Diep, Thomas A Russo, Gauri G Rao
The emergence of highly resistant bacteria is a serious threat to global public health. The host immune response is vital for clearing bacteria from the infected host; however, the current drug development paradigm does not take host-pathogen interactions into consideration. Here, we used a systems-based approach to develop a quantitative, mechanism-based disease progression model to describe bacterial dynamics, host immune response, and lung injury in an immunocompetent rat pneumonia model. Previously, Long-Evans rats were infected with A...
May 15, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761642/immunological-blocking-of-spermidine-mediated-host-pathogen-communication-provides-effective-control-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#19
Jianhe Wang, Jing Wang, Lian-Hui Zhang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to cause life-threatening infections. The previous studies showed that the type III secretion system (T3SS) of this pathogen is a key virulence determinant, which is activated by polyamines signals spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) from mammalian host. To test the potential of blocking host-pathogen communication in disease control, in this study we developed a high potency mouse monoclonal antibody (Mab 4E4, IgG1 sub-isotype) by using Spm-protein conjugate as an immunogen...
May 14, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755620/human-genomic-loci-important-in-common-infectious-diseases-role-of-high-throughput-sequencing-and-genome-wide-association-studies
#20
REVIEW
Gerald Mboowa, Ivan Sserwadda, Marion Amujal, Norah Namatovu
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria are 3 major global public health threats that undermine development in many resource-poor settings. Recently, the notion that positive selection during epidemics or longer periods of exposure to common infectious diseases may have had a major effect in modifying the constitution of the human genome is being interrogated at a large scale in many populations around the world. This positive selection from infectious diseases increases power to detect associations in genome-wide association studies (GWASs)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
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