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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923058/a-model-of-plasmodium-vivax-concealment-based-on-plasmodium-cynomolgi-infections-in-macaca-mulatta
#1
Luis L Fonseca, Chester J Joyner, Mary R Galinski, Eberhard O Voit
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax can cause severe malaria. The total parasite biomass during infections is correlated with the severity of disease but not necessarily quantified accurately by microscopy. This finding has raised the question whether there could be sub-populations of parasites that are not observed in peripheral blood smears but continue to contribute to the increase in parasite numbers that drive pathogenesis. Non-human primate infection models utilizing the closely related simian malaria parasite Plasmodium cynomolgi hold the potential for quantifying the magnitude of possibly unobserved infected red blood cell (iRBC) populations and determining how the presence of this hidden reservoir correlates with disease severity...
September 18, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920697/n%C3%AE%C2%B5-and-o-acetylation-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lineage-7-and-lineage-4-strains-proteins-involved-in-bioenergetics-virulence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-are-acetylated
#2
Alemayehu Godana Birhanu, Solomon Abebe Yimer, Carol Holm-Hansen, Gunnstein Norheim, Abraham Aseffa, Markos Abebe, Tone Tønjum
Increasing evidence demonstrates that lysine acetylation is involved in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) virulence and pathogenesis. However, previous investigations in Mtb have only monitored acetylation at lysine residues using selected reference strains. We analyzed the global Nε- and O-acetylation of 3 Mtb isolates; 2 lineage 7 clinical isolates and the lineage 4 H37Rv reference strain. Quantitative acetylome analysis resulted in identification of 2490 class-I acetylation sites, among them 2349 O-acetylation and 141 Nε-acetylation sites, derived from 953 unique proteins...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917447/cell-penetrating-peptides-to-dissect-host-pathogen-protein-protein-interactions-in-theileria-transformed-leukocytes
#3
REVIEW
Malak Haidar, Perle Latré de Laté, Eileen J Kennedy, Gordon Langsley
One powerful application of cell penetrating peptides is the delivery into cells of molecules that function as specific competitors or inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Ablating defined protein-protein interactions is a refined way to explore their contribution to a particular cellular phenotype in a given disease context. Cell-penetrating peptides can be synthetically constrained through various chemical modifications that stabilize a given structural fold with the potential to improve competitive binding to specific targets...
September 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914994/hessian-based-quantitative-image-analysis-of-host-pathogen-confrontation-assays
#4
Zoltan Cseresnyes, Kaswara Kraibooj, Marc Thilo Figge
Host-fungus interactions have gained a lot of interest in the past few decades, mainly due to an increasing number of fungal infections that are often associated with a high mortality rate in the absence of effective therapies. These interactions can be studied at the genetic level or at the functional level via imaging. Here, we introduce a new image processing method that quantifies the interaction between host cells and fungal invaders, for example, alveolar macrophages and the conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus...
September 15, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911869/degradation-of-nuclear-ubc9-induced-by-listeriolysin-o-is-dependent-on-k-efflux
#5
Jiexin Li, Wendy Wai-Ling Lam, Tsz-Wah Lai, Shannon Wing-Ngor Au
Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a pore-forming toxin produced by L. monocytogenes, and is belonged to a protein family of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs). Previous studies have demonstrated that LLO triggers Ubc9 degradation and disrupts host SUMOylation to facilitate bacterial infection. However, the underlying mechanism of Ubc9 degradation is unclear. Here we show that LLO-induced down-regulation of Ubc9 is independent of Ubc9-SUMO interaction, however, it may involve phosphorylation signaling. Additionally, LLO exerts its effects primarily on nuclear Ubc9 and this process is mediated by K(+) efflux...
September 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904991/bioelectrospray-methodology-for-dissection-of-the-host-pathogen-interaction-in-human-tuberculosis
#6
Liku B Tezera, Magdalena K Bielecka, Paul T Elkington
Standard cell culture models have been used to investigate disease pathology and to test new therapies for over fifty years. However, these model systems have often failed to mimic the changes occurring within three-dimensional (3-D) space where pathology occurs in vivo. To truthfully represent this, an emerging paradigm in biology is the importance of modelling disease in a physiologically relevant 3-D environment. One of the approaches for 3-D cell culture is bioelectrospray technology. This technique uses an alginate-based 3-D environment as an inert backbone within which mammalian cells and extracellular matrix can be incorporated...
July 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899359/transcript-profiling-of-the-immunological-interactions-between-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-serotype-7-and-the-host-by-dual-rna-seq
#7
Ping Li, Zhiwen Xu, Xiangang Sun, Yue Yin, Yi Fan, Jun Zhao, Xiyu Mao, Jianbo Huang, Fan Yang, Ling Zhu
BACKGROUND: The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism underlying the host immune response to Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (App) makes the use of preventive measures difficult, and a more global view of the host-pathogen interactions and new insights into this process are urgently needed to reveal the pathogenic and immune mechanisms underlying App infection. Here, we infected specific pathogen-free Mus musculus with App serotype 7 by intranasal inoculation to construct an acute hemorrhagic pneumonia infection model and isolated the infected lungs for analysis of the interactions by dual RNA-seq...
September 12, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893638/innate-immune-responses-play-a-key-role-in-controlling-infection-of-the-intestinal-epithelium-by-cryptosporidium
#8
REVIEW
Fabrice Laurent, Sonia Lacroix-Lamandé
Cryptosporidium infection leads to acute diarrhea worldwide. The development of cryptosporidiosis is closely related to the immune status of its host, affecting primarily young ruminants, infants, and immunocompromised individuals. In recent years, several studies have improved our knowledge on the immune mechanisms responsible for the control of the acute phase of the infection and have highlighted the importance of innate immunity. The parasite develops in the apical side of intestinal epithelial cells, giving these cells a central role, as they are both the exclusive host cell for replication of the parasite and participate in the protective immune response...
September 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890547/innate-immunity-in-tuberculosis-host-defense-vs-pathogen-evasion
#9
REVIEW
Cui Hua Liu, Haiying Liu, Baoxue Ge
The major innate immune cell types involved in tuberculosis (TB) infection are macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells. These immune cells recognize the TB-causing pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) through various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including but not limited to Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors (NLRs) and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Upon infection by Mtb, the host orchestrates multiple signaling cascades via the PRRs to launch a variety of innate immune defense functions such as phagocytosis, autophagy, apoptosis and inflammasome activation...
September 11, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890396/mir-525-3p-mediates-antiviral-defense-to-rotavirus-infection-by-targeting-nonstructural-protein-1
#10
Zhiqiang Tian, Ji Zhang, Haiyang He, Jintao Li, Yuzhang Wu, Zigang Shen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by controlling mRNA stability or translation. They play critical roles in intricate networks of host-pathogen interactions and innate immunity. Rotaviruses (RVs) are the leading cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children worldwide. This study was undertaken to demonstrate the importance of cellular miRNAs during RV (human Wa RV or Rhesus RV) strain infection. Twenty-nine differentially regulated miRNAs were identified during RV infection, and miR-525-3p was downregulated and validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
September 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889012/effect-of-pea-crab-pinnotheres-vicajii-chhapgar-1957-on-immunocompetence-of-bivalve-paphia-malabarica-chemnitz-1782
#11
Deodatta S Gajbhiye, Lidita Khandeparker
The endosymbiont-host relationship between a pea crab and its bivalve host has been studied previously using bivalve's multi-physiological parameters. The present study is first of its kind that uses hemocyte's immune functionality to evaluate the symbiotic relationship between bivalve Paphia malabarica and its symbiont crab, Pinnotheres vicajii. The sampling was carried out at two stations (differed in nutrient concentration, productivity, and bacterial abundance) located along the southwest coast of India...
September 6, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887440/a-global-staphylococcus-aureus-proteome-resource-applied-to-the-in-vivo-characterization-of-host-pathogen-interactions
#12
Stephan Michalik, Maren Depke, Annette Murr, Manuela Gesell Salazar, Ulrike Kusebauch, Zhi Sun, Tanja C Meyer, Kristin Surmann, Henrike Pförtner, Petra Hildebrandt, Stefan Weiss, Laura Marcela Palma Medina, Melanie Gutjahr, Elke Hammer, Dörte Becher, Thomas Pribyl, Sven Hammerschmidt, Eric W Deutsch, Samuel L Bader, Michael Hecker, Robert L Moritz, Ulrike Mäder, Uwe Völker, Frank Schmidt
Data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry promises higher performance in terms of quantification and reproducibility compared to data-dependent acquisition mass spectrometry methods. To enable high-accuracy quantification of Staphylococcus aureus proteins, we have developed a global ion library for data-independent acquisition approaches employing high-resolution time of flight or Orbitrap instruments for this human pathogen. We applied this ion library resource to investigate the time-resolved adaptation of S...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882801/effect-of-immune-gene-silencing-in-wssv-infected-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#13
M S Shekhar, A Gomathi, N K Dubey, K Vinaya Kumar, K K Vijayan
White spot syndrome virus, continues to cause huge economic loss to aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand the host pathogen interaction at the molecular level. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed which led to identification of several differentially expressed genes in response to WSSV infection in Penaeus monodon. The genes expressed in SSH cDNA library of shrimp gill and gut tissues belonged to a wide range of biological functions...
September 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879516/the-influence-of-temperature-on-chytridiomycosis-in-vivo
#14
Julia M Sonn, Scott Berman, Corinne L Richards-Zawacki
Chytridiomycosis, an amphibian disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an ideal system for studying the influence of temperature on host-pathogen relationships because both host and pathogen are ectothermic. Studies of Bd in culture suggest that optimal growth occurs between 17 and 23°C, and death of the fungus occurs above 29 or below 0°C. Amphibian immune systems, however, are also temperature dependent and often more effective at higher temperatures. We therefore hypothesized that pathogen load, probability of infection and mortality in Bd-exposed frogs would peak at a lower temperature than that at which Bd grows best in vitro...
September 6, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876207/inheritance-of-virulence-construction-of-a-linkage-map-and-mapping-dominant-virulence-genes-in-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici-through-characterization-of-a-sexual-population-with-genotyping-by-sequencing
#15
Congying Yuan, Meinan Wang, Daniel Z Skinner, Deven R See, Chongjing Xia, Xinhong Guo, Xianming Chen
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the wheat stripe rust pathogen, is a dikaryotic, biotrophic, and macrocyclic fungus. Genetic study of Pst virulence was not possible until the recent discovery of Berberis spp. and Mahonia spp. as alternate hosts. To determine inheritance of virulence and map virulence genes, a segregating population of 119 isolates was developed by self-fertilizing Pst isolate 08-220 (race PSTv-11) on barberry leaves under controlled greenhouse conditions. The progeny isolates were phenotyped on a set of 29 wheat lines with single genes for race-specific resistance and genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, simple sequence repeat derived from secreted protein genes (SP-SNP), and SNP markers from genotyping- by-sequencing (GBS)...
September 6, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875944/immune-evasion-strategies-of-mycobacteria-and-their-implications-for-the-protective-immune-response
#16
Alexandra G Fraga, Ana Margarida Barbosa, Catarina M Ferreira, João Fevereiro, Jorge Pedrosa, Egídio Torrado
Mycobacteria are intracellular pathogens that have macrophages as their main host cells. However, macrophages are also the primary line of defense against invading microorganisms. To survive in the intracellular compartment, virulent mycobacteria have developed several strategies to modulate the activation and the effector functions of macrophages. Despite this, antigen-specific T cells develop during infection. While T cell responses are critical for protection they can also contribute to the success of mycobacteria as human pathogens, as immunopathology associated with these responses facilitates transmission...
September 6, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875087/tracing-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-genotype-b5-formerly-b6-evolutionary-history-in-the-circumpolar-arctic-through-phylogeographic-modelling
#17
Remco Bouckaert, Brenna C Simons, Henrik Krarup, T Max Friesen, Carla Osiowy
BACKGROUND: Indigenous populations of the circumpolar Arctic are considered to be endemically infected (>2% prevalence) with hepatitis B virus (HBV), with subgenotype B5 (formerly B6) unique to these populations. The distinctive properties of HBV/B5, including high nucleotide diversity yet no significant liver disease, suggest virus adaptation through long-term host-pathogen association. METHODS: To investigate the origin and evolutionary spread of HBV/B5 into the circumpolar Arctic, fifty-seven partial and full genome sequences from Alaska, Canada and Greenland, having known location and sampling dates spanning 40 years, were phylogeographically investigated by Bayesian analysis (BEAST 2) using a reversible-jump-based substitution model and a clock rate estimated at 4...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874566/cellular-responses-to-human-cytomegalovirus-infection-induction-of-a-mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition-met-phenotype
#18
Adam Oberstein, Thomas Shenk
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the prototypical human β-herpes virus. Here we perform a systems analysis of the HCMV host-cell transcriptome, using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) as an engine to globally map the host-pathogen interaction across two cell types. Our analysis identified several previously unknown signatures of infection, such as induction of potassium channels and amino acid transporters, derepression of genes marked with histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), and inhibition of genes related to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870457/a-fluorogenic-c-neoformans-reporter-strain-with-a-robust-expression-of-m-cherry-expressed-from-a-safe-haven-site-in-the-genome
#19
Rajendra Upadhya, Woei C Lam, Brian T Maybruck, Maureen J Donlin, Andrew L Chang, Sarah Kayode, Kate L Ormerod, James A Fraser, Tamara L Doering, Jennifer K Lodge
C. neoformans is an encapsulated fungal pathogen with defined asexual and sexual life cycles. Due to the availability of genetic and molecular tools for its manipulation, it has become a model organism for studies of fungal pathogens, even though it lacks a reliable system for maintaining DNA fragments as extrachromosomal plasmids. To compensate for this deficiency, we identified a genomic gene-free intergenic region where heterologous DNA could be inserted by homologous recombination without adverse effects on the phenotype of the recipient strain...
September 12, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865682/purification-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-metacyclic-trypomastigotes-by-ion-exchange-chromatography-in-sepharose-deae-a-novel-methodology-for-host-pathogen-interaction-studies
#20
Lissa Cruz-Saavedra, Marina Muñoz, Cielo León, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Gabriela Arevalo, Paula Pavia, Gustavo Vallejo, Julio César Carranza, Juan David Ramírez
Metacyclic trypomastigotes are essential for the understanding of the biology of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease. However, obtaining these biological stages in axenic medium is difficult. Techniques based on charge and density of the parasite during different stages have been implemented, without showing a high efficiency in the purification of metacyclic trypomastigotes. So far, there is no protocol implemented where sepharose-DEAE is used as a resin. Therefore, herein we tested its ability to purify metacyclic trypomastigotes in Liver Infusion Triptose (LIT) medium cultures...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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