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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533471/the-atypical-response-regulator-atvr-is-a-new-player-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-response-to-hypoxia-and-virulence
#1
Gilberto Hideo Kaihami, Leandro Carvalho Dantas Breda, José Roberto Fogaça de Almeida, Thays de Oliveira Pereira, Gianlucca Gonçalves Nicastro, Ana Laura Boechat, Sandro Rogério de Almeida, Regina Lúcia Baldini
Two-component systems are widespread in bacteria, allowing adaptation to environmental changes. The classical pathway is composed by a histidine kinase that phosphorylates an aspartate residue in the cognate response regulator (RR). RRs lacking the phosphorylable aspartate also occur, but their function and contribution during host-pathogen interaction are poorly characterized. AtvR (PA14_26570) is the only atypical response regulator with a DNA-binding domain in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa Macrophage infection with the atvR mutant strain resulted in higher TNF-α secretion as well as increased bacterial clearance as compared to macrophages infected with the wild-type strain...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532808/immune-response-of-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-in-a-mouse-mastitis-model-is-linked-to-adaptive-capacity-and-genotypic-profiles
#2
Elizabet A L Pereyra, Sofía C Sacco, Andrea Duré, Celina Baravalle, María S Renna, Carolina S Andreotti, Stefan Monecke, Luis F Calvinho, Bibiana E Dallard
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated major pathogens from intramammary infections (IMI) worldwide. The mechanisms by which S. aureus IMI are established and maintained in dairy cows involve both bacterial escape strategies and modulation of the host immune response. Moreover, it was shown that different S. aureus strains have varying effects on the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response in a mouse mastitis model of two S. aureus strains isolated from bovine IMI with different clinical manifestation (persistent-P or non-persistent-NP), phenotypic and genotypic profile...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532434/hierarchical-genomic-analysis-of-carried-and-invasive-serogroup-a-neisseria-meningitidis-during-the-2011-epidemic-in-chad
#3
Kanny Diallo, Kadija Gamougam, Doumagoum M Daugla, Odile B Harrison, James E Bray, Dominique A Caugant, Jay Lucidarme, Caroline L Trotter, Musa Hassan-King, James M Stuart, Olivier Manigart, Brian M Greenwood, Martin C J Maiden
BACKGROUND: Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA) was the cause of the 2011 meningitis epidemics in Chad. This bacterium, often carried asymptomatically, is considered to be an "accidental pathogen"; however, the transition from carriage to disease phenotype remains poorly understood. This study examined the role genetic diversity might play in this transition by comparing genomes from geographically and temporally matched invasive and carried NmA isolates. RESULTS: All 23 NmA isolates belonged to the ST-5 clonal complex (cc5)...
May 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531227/different-microrna-profiles-reveal-the-diverse-outcomes-induced-by-ev71-and-ca16-infection-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#4
Jie Song, Yajie Hu, Jiaqi Li, Huiwen Zheng, Jingjing Wang, Lei Guo, Ruotong Ning, Hongzhe Li, Zening Yang, Haitao Fan, Longding Liu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) remain the predominant pathogens in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but the factors underlying the pathogenesis of EV71 and CA16 infections have not been elucidated. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. In the present study, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529926/manipulation-of-host-cholesterol-by-obligate-intracellular-bacteria
#5
REVIEW
Dhritiman Samanta, Minal Mulye, Tatiana M Clemente, Anna V Justis, Stacey D Gilk
Cholesterol is a multifunctional lipid that plays important metabolic and structural roles in the eukaryotic cell. Despite having diverse lifestyles, the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens Chlamydia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia all target cholesterol during host cell colonization as a potential source of membrane, as well as a means to manipulate host cell signaling and trafficking. To promote host cell entry, these pathogens utilize cholesterol-rich microdomains known as lipid rafts, which serve as organizational and functional platforms for host signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528652/nutritional-immunity-and-fungal-pathogenesis-the-struggle-for-micronutrients-at-the-host-pathogen-interface
#6
Dhara Malavia, Aaron Crawford, Duncan Wilson
All living organisms require certain micronutrients such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper for cellular function and growth. For human pathogens however, the maintenance of metal ion homeostasis is particularly challenging. This is because the mammalian host actively enforces extremes of micronutrient availability on potential microbial invaders-processes collectively termed nutritional immunity. The role of iron sequestration in controlling microbial infections is well established and, more recently, the importance of other metals including zinc, manganese and copper has been recognised...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526790/post-epizootic-persistence-of-asymptomatic-mycoplasma-conjunctivae-infection-in-iberian-ibex
#7
Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Oscar Cabezón, José Enrique Granados, Joachim Frey, Emmanuel Serrano, Roser Velarde, Francisco Javier Cano-Manuel, Gregorio Mentaberre, Arián Ráez-Bravo, Paulino Fandos, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera
The susceptibility of Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) to Mycoplasma conjunctivae ocular infection and the changes in their interaction over time were studied in terms of clinical outcome, molecular detection and IgG immune response in a captive population that underwent a severe infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) outbreak. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was detected for the first time in the Iberian ibexes coinciding with the IKC outbreak. Its prevalence had a decreasing trend in 2013 that was consistent with the clinical resolution (August 35...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521002/changes-in-microbiome-during-and-after-travellers-diarrhea-what-we-know-and-what-we-do-not
#8
David A Rasko
The study of bacterial pathogens has advanced from culture on plates to basic biochemical studies; to sequencing reference genomes and attempting to ascribe those qualities to the whole species; to evaluating complete communities based on the universal marker of the 16S rRNA gene; to now sequencing all available nucleic acids in any sample to characterize the community as a whole. These types of scientific advances highlight that there are multiple layers of information within any sample, and to some extent we are only now beginning to be able to identify, categorize and understand the complex interactions of the host, pathogen and microbiome...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518475/lipid-bodies-accumulation-in-leishmania-infantum-infected-c57bl-6-macrophages
#9
Nilda E Rodríguez, Ryan D Lockard, Elizabeth A Turcotte, Théo Araujo-Santos, Patrícia T Bozza, Valéria M Borges, Mary E Wilson
Lipid bodies (LBs) are intracellular accumulations of neutral lipids surrounded by a single membrane. These organelles are involved in the production of eicosanoids, which modulate immunity by either promoting or dampening inflammatory responses. Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, is an intracellular parasite that causes disease by suppressing macrophage microbicidal responses. C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with L. infantum strain LcJ had higher numbers of LB+ cells (P<0...
May 18, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515178/a-model-specific-role-of-microrna-223-as-a-mediator-of-kidney-injury-during-experimental-sepsis
#10
James F Colbert, Joshay A Ford, Sarah M Haeger, Yimu Yang, Kyrie L Dailey, Kristen C Allison, Viola Neudecker, Christopher M Evans, Vanessa L Richardson, Kelley Brodsky, Sarah Faubel, Holger K Eltzschig, Eric P Schmidt, Adit A Ginde
Sepsis outcomes are heavily dependent on the development of septic organ injury, but no interventions exist to interrupt or reverse this process. MicroRNA-223 (miR-223) is known to be involved in both inflammatory gene regulation and host-pathogen interactions key to the pathogenesis of sepsis. The goal of this study was to determine the role of miR-223 as a mediator of septic kidney injury. Using miR-223 knockout mice and multiple models of experimental sepsis, we found that miR-223 differentially influences acute kidney injury (AKI) based on the model used...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514636/eco-evolutionary-theory-and-insect-outbreaks
#11
David J Páez, Vanja Dukic, Jonathan Dushoff, Arietta Fleming-Davies, Greg Dwyer
Eco-evolutionary theory argues that population cycles in consumer-resource interactions are partly driven by natural selection, such that changes in densities and changes in trait values are mutually reinforcing. Evidence that the theory explains cycles in nature, however, is almost nonexistent. Experimental tests of model assumptions are logistically impractical for most organisms, while for others, evidence that population cycles occur in nature is lacking. For insect baculoviruses in contrast, tests of model assumptions are straightforward, and there is strong evidence that baculoviruses help drive population cycles in many insects, including the gypsy moth that we study here...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513848/aspergillus-fumigatus-in-cystic-fibrosis-an-update-on-immune-interactions-and-molecular-diagnostics-in-abpa
#12
REVIEW
Ania Carsin, Thomas Romain, Stéphane Ranque, Martine Reynaud-Gaubert, Jean-Christophe Dubus, Jean-Louis Mège, J Vitte
A wide spectrum of pathological conditions may result from the interaction of Aspergillus fumigatus and the immune system of its human host. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is one of the most severe Aspergillus fumigatus-related diseases due to possible evolution towards pleuropulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis occurs almost exclusively in cystic fibrosis or asthmatic patients. An estimated 8 to 10% of cystic fibrosis patients experience this condition...
May 17, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512513/using-a-concept-inventory-to-reveal-student-thinking-associated-with-common-misconceptions-about-antibiotic-resistance
#13
Ann M Stevens, Ann C Smith, Gili Marbach-Ad, Sarah A Balcom, John Buchner, Sandra L Daniel, Jeffrey J DeStefano, Najib M El-Sayed, Kenneth Frauwirth, Vincent T Lee, Kevin S McIver, Stephen B Melville, David M Mosser, David L Popham, Birgit E Scharf, Florian D Schubot, Richard W Seyler, Patricia Ann Shields, Wenxia Song, Daniel C Stein, Richard C Stewart, Katerina V Thompson, Zhaomin Yang, Stephanie A Yarwood
Misconceptions, also known as alternate conceptions, about key concepts often hinder the ability of students to learn new knowledge. Concept inventories (CIs) are designed to assess students' understanding of key concepts, especially those prone to misconceptions. Two-tiered CIs include prompts that ask students to explain the logic behind their answer choice. Such two-tiered CIs afford an opportunity for faculty to explore the student thinking behind the common misconceptions represented by their choice of a distractor...
April 2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512457/the-25-26-nt-small-rnas-in-phytophthora-parasitica-are-associated-with-efficient-silencing-of-homologous-endogenous-genes
#14
Jinbu Jia, Wenqin Lu, Chengcheng Zhong, Ran Zhou, Junjie Xu, Wei Liu, Xiuhong Gou, Qinhu Wang, Junliang Yin, Cheng Xu, Weixing Shan
Small RNAs (sRNAs) are important non-coding RNA regulators, playing key roles in developmental regulation, transposon suppression, environmental response, host-pathogen interaction and other diverse biological processes. However, their roles in oomycetes are poorly understood. Here, we performed sRNA sequencing and RNA sequencing of Phytophthora parasitica at stages of vegetative growth and infection of Arabidopsis roots to examine diversity and function of sRNAs in P. parasitica, a model hemibiotrophic oomycete plant pathogen...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512093/population-genomic-analysis-of-1-777-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-houston-texas-unexpected-abundance-of-clonal-group-307
#15
S Wesley Long, Randall J Olsen, Todd N Eagar, Stephen B Beres, Picheng Zhao, James J Davis, Thomas Brettin, Fangfang Xia, James M Musser
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. The emergence and spread of strains resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and documented large nosocomial outbreaks are especially concerning. To develop new therapeutic strategies for K. pneumoniae, it is imperative to understand the population genomic structure of strains causing human infections. To address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the genomes of 1,777 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507105/reduced-vancomycin-susceptibility-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-no-significant-impact-on-mortality-but-increase-in-complicated-infection
#16
Sean B Sullivan, Eloise D Austin, Stephania Stump, Barun Mathema, Susan Whittier, Franklin D Lowy, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) often lead to severe complications despite the availability of effective antibiotics. It remains unclear whether elevated vancomycin MICs are associated with worse outcomes.We conducted a 2-year retrospective cohort study (n=252) of patients with MSSA BSIs at a tertiary care hospital. We defined reduced vancomycin susceptibility (RVS) as a Microscan MIC of 2 mg/L. All strains were genotyped (spa) and assessed for agr functionality...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507070/limited-colonization-undermined-by-inadequate-early-immune-responses-define-the-dynamics-of-decidual-listeriosis
#17
Gabrielle Rizzuto, Elisa Tagliani, Priyanka Manandhar, Adrian Erlebacher, Anna I Bakardjiev
The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes a food-borne systemic disease in pregnant women that can lead to preterm labor, stillbirth, or severe neonatal disease. Colonization of the maternal decidua appears to be an initial step in the maternal component of the disease as well as bacterial transmission to the placenta and fetus. Host-pathogen interactions in the decidua during this early stage of infection remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the dynamics of L. monocytogenes infection in primary human decidual organ cultures and in the murine decidua in vivo...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507068/genome-wide-survey-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pa14-reveals-a-role-for-the-glyoxylate-pathway-and-extracellular-proteases-in-the-utilization-of-mucin
#18
Jeffrey M Flynn, Chi Phan, Ryan C Hunter
Chronic airway infections by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. While this bacterium has been extensively studied for its virulence determinants, biofilm growth and immune evasion mechanisms, comparatively little is known about the nutrient sources that sustain its growth in vivo Respiratory mucins represent a potentially abundant bioavailable nutrient source, though we have recently shown that canonical pathogens inefficiently use these host glycoproteins as a growth substrate...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507063/the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mmpl11-cell-wall-lipid-transporter-is-important-for-biofilm-formation-intracellular-growth-and-non-replicating-persistence
#19
Catherine C Wright, Fong Fu Hsu, Eusondia Arnett, Jennifer L Dunaj, Patrick M Davidson, Sophia A Pacheco, Melanie J Harriff, David M Lewinsohn, Larry S Schlesinger, Georgiana E Purdy
The mycobacterial cell wall is crucial to the host-pathogen interface since it provides a barrier against antibiotics and the host immune response. In addition, cell wall lipids are mycobacterial virulence factors. The mycobacterial membrane protein large (MmpL) proteins are cell wall lipid transporters that are important for basic mycobacterial physiology and M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. MmpL3 and MmpL11 are conserved across pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria, consistent with an important role in the basic physiology of the bacterium...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499956/group-x-hybrid-histidine-kinase-chk1-is-dispensable-for-stress-adaptation-host-pathogen-interactions-and-virulence-in-the-opportunistic-yeast-candida-guilliermondii
#20
María J Navarro-Arias, Karine Dementhon, Tatiana A Defosse, Emilien Foureau, Vincent Courdavault, Marc Clastre, Solène Le Gal, Gilles Nevez, Yohann Le Govic, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Thierry Noël, Hector M Mora-Montes, Nicolas Papon
Hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) progressively emerge as prominent sensing proteins in the fungal kingdom and as ideal targets for future therapeutics. The group X HHK is of major interest, since it was demonstrated to play an important role in stress adaptation, host-pathogen interactions and virulence in some yeast and mold models, and particularly Chk1, that corresponds to the sole group X HHK in Candida albicans. In the present work, we investigated the role of Chk1 in the low-virulence species Candida guilliermondii, in order to gain insight into putative conservation of the role of group X HHK in opportunistic yeasts...
May 9, 2017: Research in Microbiology
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