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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211474/dissection-of-genomic-features-and-variations-of-three-pathotypes-of-puccinia-striiformis-through-whole-genome-sequencing
#1
Kanti Kiran, Hukam C Rawal, Himanshu Dubey, R Jaswal, Subhash C Bhardwaj, P Prasad, Dharam Pal, B N Devanna, Tilak R Sharma
Stripe rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important diseases of wheat. We used NGS technologies to generate a draft genome sequence of two highly virulent (46S 119 and 31) and a least virulent (K) pathotypes of P. striiformis from the Indian subcontinent. We generated ~24,000-32,000 sequence contigs (N50;7.4-9.2 kb), which accounted for ~86X-105X sequence depth coverage with an estimated genome size of these pathotypes ranging from 66.2-70.2 Mb. A genome-wide analysis revealed that pathotype 46S 119 might be highly evolved among the three pathotypes in terms of year of detection and prevalence...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152050/draft-genome-sequence-of-karnal-bunt-pathogen-tilletia-indica-of-wheat-provides-insights-into-the-pathogenic-mechanisms-of-quarantined-fungus
#2
Anil Kumar, Vishakha Pandey, Manoj Singh, Dinesh Pandey, M S Saharan, Soma S Marla
Karnal bunt disease in wheat is caused by hemibiotrophic fungus, Tilletia indica that has been placed as quarantine pest in more than 70 countries. Despite its economic importance, little knowledge about the molecular components of fungal pathogenesis is known. In this study, first time the genome sequence of T. indica has been deciphered for unraveling the effectors' functions of molecular pathogenesis of Karnal bunt disease. The T. indica genome was sequenced employing hybrid approach of PacBio Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) and Illumina HiSEQ 2000 sequencing platforms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123094/species-decline-under-nitrogen-fertilization-increases-community-level-competence-of-fungal-diseases
#3
Xiang Liu, Shengman Lyu, Dexin Sun, Corey J A Bradshaw, Shurong Zhou
The artificial fertilization of soils can alter the structure of natural plant communities and exacerbate pathogen emergence and transmission. Although the direct effects of fertilization on disease resistance in plants have received some research attention, its indirect effects of altered community structure on the severity of fungal disease infection remain largely uninvestigated. We designed manipulation experiments in natural assemblages of Tibetan alpine meadow vegetation along a nitrogen-fertilization gradient over 5 years to compare the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of fertilization on foliar fungal infections at the community level...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097092/comparative-interactomics-for-virus-human-protein-protein-interactions-dna-viruses-versus-rna-viruses
#4
Saliha Durmuş, Kutlu Ö Ülgen
Viruses are obligatory intracellular pathogens and completely depend on their hosts for survival and reproduction. The strategies adopted by viruses to exploit host cell processes and to evade host immune systems during infections may differ largely with the type of the viral genetic material. An improved understanding of these viral infection mechanisms is only possible through a better understanding of the pathogen-host interactions (PHIs) that enable viruses to enter into the host cells and manipulate the cellular mechanisms to their own advantage...
January 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087594/a-human-proteome-array-approach-to-identifying-key-host-proteins-targeted-by-toxoplasma-kinase-rop18
#5
Zhaoshou Yang, Yongheng Hou, Taofang Hao, Hee-Sool Rho, Jun Wan, Yizhao Luan, Xin Gao, Jianping Yao, Aihua Pan, Zhi Xie, Jiang Qian, Wanqin Liao, Heng Zhu, Xingwang Zhou
Toxoplasma kinase ROP18 is a key molecule responsible for the virulence of Toxoplasma gondii; however, the mechanisms by which ROP18 exerts parasite virulence via interaction with host proteins remain limited to a small number of identified substrates. To identify a broader array of ROP18 substrates we successfully purified bioactive mature ROP18 and used it to probe a human proteome array. Sixty-eight new putative host targets were identified. Functional annotation analysis suggested that these proteins have a variety of functions including metabolic process, kinase activity and phosphorylation, cell growth, apoptosis and cell death, and immunity, indicating a pleiotropic role of ROP18 kinase...
January 13, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045572/rna-seq-unveils-new-attributes-of-the-heterogeneous-salmonella-host-cell-communication
#6
Francisco García-Del Portillo, M Graciela Pucciarelli
High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has uncovered hundreds of small RNAs and complex modes of RNA regulation in every bacterium analyzed to date. This complexity agrees with the adaptability of most bacteria to varied environments including, in the case of pathogens, the new niches encountered in the host. Recent RNA-Seq studies have analyzed simultaneously gene expression in the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica and infected host cells at population and single-cell level. Distinct polarization states or interferon responses in the infected macrophage were linked to variable growth rates or activities of defined virulence regulators in intra-phagosomal bacteria...
January 3, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040530/correlation-of-cell-surface-proteins-of-distinct-beauveria-bassiana-cell-types-and-adaption-to-varied-environment-and-interaction-with-the-host-insect-cell-surface-associated-proteins-of-b-bassiana
#7
Zhi Yang, Hongyan Jiang, Xin Zhao, Zhuoyue Lu, Zhibing Luo, Xuebing Li, Jing Zhao, Yongjun Zhang
The insect fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana produces a number of distinct cell types that include aerial conidia, blastospores and haemolymph-derived cells, termed hyphal bodies, to adapt varied environment niches and within the host insect. These cells display distinct biochemical properties and surface structures, and a highly ordered outermost brush-like structure uniquely present on hyphal bodies, but not on any in vitro cells. Here, we found that the outermost structure on the hyphal bodies mainly consisted of proteins associated to structural wall components in that most of it could be removed by dithiothreitol (DTT) or proteinase K...
December 28, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035238/manipulating-virulence-factor-availability-can-have-complex-consequences-for-infections
#8
Michael Weigert, Adin Ross-Gillespie, Anne Leinweber, Gabriella Pessi, Sam P Brown, Rolf Kümmerli
Given the rise of bacterial resistance against antibiotics, we urgently need alternative strategies to fight infections. Some propose we should disarm rather than kill bacteria, through targeted disruption of their virulence factors. It is assumed that this approach (i) induces weak selection for resistance because it should only minimally impact bacterial fitness, and (ii) is specific, only interfering with the virulence factor in question. Given that pathogenicity emerges from complex interactions between pathogens, hosts and their environment, such assumptions may be unrealistic...
January 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032207/vector-borne-pathogen-and-host-evolution-in-a-structured-immuno-epidemiological-system
#9
Hayriye Gulbudak, Vincent L Cannataro, Necibe Tuncer, Maia Martcheva
Vector-borne disease transmission is a common dissemination mode used by many pathogens to spread in a host population. Similar to directly transmitted diseases, the within-host interaction of a vector-borne pathogen and a host's immune system influences the pathogen's transmission potential between hosts via vectors. Yet there are few theoretical studies on virulence-transmission trade-offs and evolution in vector-borne pathogen-host systems. Here, we consider an immuno-epidemiological model that links the within-host dynamics to between-host circulation of a vector-borne disease...
December 28, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031793/phylogenetic-congruence-between-subtropical-trees-and-their-associated-fungi
#10
Xubing Liu, Minxia Liang, Rampal S Etienne, Gregory S Gilbert, Shixiao Yu
Recent studies have detected phylogenetic signals in pathogen-host networks for both soil-borne and leaf-infecting fungi, suggesting that pathogenic fungi may track or coevolve with their preferred hosts. However, a phylogenetically concordant relationship between multiple hosts and multiple fungi in has rarely been investigated. Using next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques, we analyzed fungal taxa associated with diseased leaves, rotten seeds, and infected seedlings of subtropical trees...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013457/selective-evolution-of-toll-like-receptors-3-7-8-and-9-in-bats
#11
Haiying Jiang, Juan Li, Linmiao Li, Xiujuan Zhang, Lihong Yuan, Jinping Chen
Previous studies have shown that bats are reservoirs of a large number of viruses, many of which cause illness and mortality in humans and other animals. However, these bat-associated pathogens cause little, if any, clinicopathology in bats. This long-term adaptation should be reflected somewhat in the immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first line of immune defense against pathogens in vertebrates. Therefore, this study focuses on the selection of TLRs involved in virus recognition. The coding sequences of TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 were sequenced in ten bats...
December 24, 2016: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999962/human-lung-ex-vivo-infection-models
#12
REVIEW
Andreas C Hocke, Norbert Suttorp, Stefan Hippenstiel
Pneumonia is counted among the leading causes of death worldwide. Viruses, bacteria and pathogen-related molecules interact with cells present in the human alveolus by numerous, yet poorly understood ways. Traditional cell culture models little reflect the cellular composition, matrix complexity and three-dimensional architecture of the human lung. Integrative animal models suffer from species differences, which are of particular importance for the investigation of zoonotic lung diseases. The use of cultured ex vivo infected human lung tissue may overcome some of these limitations and complement traditional models...
December 20, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994211/proteome-changes-in-penicillium-expansum-grown-in-a-medium-derived-from-host-plant
#13
Xiaoshuang Xia, Huan Li, Fei Liu, Ye Zhang, Qi Zhang, Yun Wang, Peiwu Li
Penicillium expansum causes blue mould rot, a prevalent post-harvest disease of pome fruit, and is also the main producer of the patulin. However, knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-host interaction remains largely unknown. In this work, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomic approach was applied to probe changes in P. expansum cultivated in apple juice medium, which was used to mimic the in planta condition. The results showed that pH value and reducing sugar content in the apple juice medium decreased whereas the patulin content increased with the growing of P...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924425/inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-prevents-lps-induced-inflammatory-hyperalgesia-in-mice-contribution-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-caspase-1-11-asc-nox-and-nos-isoforms
#14
Abdurrahman Dolunay, Sefika Pinar Senol, Meryem Temiz-Resitoglu, Demet Sinem Guden, Ayse Nihal Sari, Seyhan Sahan-Firat, Bahar Tunctan
The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3), an intracellular signaling molecule that senses many environmental- and pathogen/host-derived factors, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases associated with inflammation. It has been suggested that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of NLRP3-related inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome prevents inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice as well as changes in expression/activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), caspase-1/11, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX), and endothelial/neuronal/inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/nNOS/iNOS) that may regulate NLRP3/apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC)/pro-caspase-1 inflammasome formation and activity by using a selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor, MCC950...
December 6, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915230/phi-base-a-new-interface-and-further-additions-for-the-multi-species-pathogen-host-interactions-database
#15
Martin Urban, Alayne Cuzick, Kim Rutherford, Alistair Irvine, Helder Pedro, Rashmi Pant, Vidyendra Sadanadan, Lokanath Khamari, Santoshkumar Billal, Sagar Mohanty, Kim E Hammond-Kosack
The pathogen-host interactions database (PHI-base) is available at www.phi-base.org PHI-base contains expertly curated molecular and biological information on genes proven to affect the outcome of pathogen-host interactions reported in peer reviewed research articles. In addition, literature that indicates specific gene alterations that did not affect the disease interaction phenotype are curated to provide complete datasets for comparative purposes. Viruses are not included. Here we describe a revised PHI-base Version 4 data platform with improved search, filtering and extended data display functions...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907884/factors-determining-human-to-human-transmissibility-of-zoonotic-pathogens-via-contact
#16
REVIEW
Mathilde Richard, Sascha Knauf, Philip Lawrence, Alison E Mather, Vincent J Munster, Marcel A Müller, Derek Smith, Thijs Kuiken
The pandemic potential of zoonotic pathogens lies in their ability to become efficiently transmissible amongst humans. Here, we focus on contact-transmitted pathogens and discuss the factors, at the pathogen, host and environmental levels that promote or hinder their human-to-human transmissibility via the following modes of contact transmission: skin contact, sexual contact, respiratory contact and multiple route contact. Factors common to several modes of transmission were immune evasion, high viral load, low infectious dose, crowding, promiscuity, and co-infections; other factors were specific for a pathogen or mode of contact transmission...
November 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903906/eupathdb-the-eukaryotic-pathogen-genomics-database-resource
#17
Cristina Aurrecoechea, Ana Barreto, Evelina Y Basenko, John Brestelli, Brian P Brunk, Shon Cade, Kathryn Crouch, Ryan Doherty, Dave Falke, Steve Fischer, Bindu Gajria, Omar S Harb, Mark Heiges, Christiane Hertz-Fowler, Sufen Hu, John Iodice, Jessica C Kissinger, Cris Lawrence, Wei Li, Deborah F Pinney, Jane A Pulman, David S Roos, Achchuthan Shanmugasundram, Fatima Silva-Franco, Sascha Steinbiss, Christian J Stoeckert, Drew Spruill, Haiming Wang, Susanne Warrenfeltz, Jie Zheng
The Eukaryotic Pathogen Genomics Database Resource (EuPathDB, http://eupathdb.org) is a collection of databases covering 170+ eukaryotic pathogens (protists & fungi), along with relevant free-living and non-pathogenic species, and select pathogen hosts. To facilitate the discovery of meaningful biological relationships, the databases couple preconfigured searches with visualization and analysis tools for comprehensive data mining via intuitive graphical interfaces and APIs. All data are analyzed with the same workflows, including creation of gene orthology profiles, so data are easily compared across data sets, data types and organisms...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890633/comparison-analysis-of-micrornas-in-response-to-ev71-and-ca16-infection-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-by-high-throughput-sequencing-to-reveal-differential-infective-mechanisms
#18
Yajie Hu, Jie Song, Longding Liu, Jing Li, Beibei Tang, Ying Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Lichun Wang, Shengtao Fan, Ming Feng, Qihan Li
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mainly caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) infections which presented significantly different clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, the factors underlying these differences remain unclear. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. Here, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing...
January 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864728/variation-in-pestivirus-growth-in-testicle-primary-cell-culture-is-more-dependent-on-the-individual-cell-donor-than-cattle-breed
#19
Matheus N Weber, Fernando V Bauermann, Ninnet Gómez-Romero, Andy D Herring, Cláudio W Canal, John D Neill, Julia F Ridpath
The causes of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) are multifactorial and include infection with both viral and bacterial pathogens. Host factors are also involved as different breeds of cattle appear to have different susceptibilities to BRDC. Infection with bovine pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV1), BVDV2 and 'HoBi'-like viruses, is linked to the development of BRDC. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth of different bovine pestiviruses in primary testicle cell cultures obtained from taurine, indicine and mixed taurine and indicine cattle breeds...
March 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856699/first-in-vivo-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-transcriptomes-reveal-mechanisms-of-host-exploitation-host-specific-gene-expression-and-expressed-genotype-shifts
#20
Amy R Ellison, Graziella V DiRenzo, Caitlin A McDonald, Karen R Lips, Kelly R Zamudio
For generalist pathogens, host species represent distinct selective environments, providing unique challenges for resource acquisition and defense from host immunity, potentially resulting in host-dependent differences in pathogen fitness. Gene expression modulation should be advantageous, responding optimally to a given host and mitigating the costs of generalism. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen of amphibians, shows variability in pathogenicity among isolates, and within-strain virulence changes rapidly during serial passages through artificial culture...
January 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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