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Weilin Wang, Xiaorui Song, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Self-nonself discrimination is a common theme for all of the organisms in different evolutionary branches, which is also the most fundamental step for host immune protection. Plenty of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) with great diversity have been identified from different organisms to recognize various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in the last two decades, depicting a complicated scene of host-pathogen interaction. However, the detailed mechanism of the complicate PAMPs-PRRs interactions at the contacting interface between pathogens and hosts is still not well understood...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paul A Beare, Brendan M Jeffrey, Carrie M Long, Craig M Martens, Robert A Heinzen
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that causes human Q fever, a disease that normally presents as a severe flu-like illness. Due to high infectivity and disease severity, the pathogen is considered a risk group 3 organism. Full-length lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required for full virulence and disease by C. burnetii and is the only virulence factor currently defined by infection of an immunocompetent animal. Transition of virulent phase I bacteria with smooth LPS, to avirulent phase II bacteria with rough LPS, occurs during in vitro passage...
February 26, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Amany M Ibrahim, Yasser M Ragab, Khaled A Aly, Mohamed A Ramadan
The ESAT6-like Secretion System (ESS) of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus secretes heterodimeric virulence effectors such as EsxB and EsxD. To gain insights into the nature of EsxB-EsxD interaction, randomly mutated esxB generated by error-prone PCR was co-transformed together with esxD as adenylate cyclase fusion constructs into cyclase-deficient Escherichia coli, followed by reverse bacterial two-hybrid screening. Three color species were observed: dark blue, light blue, and white (no EsxB-EsxD interaction)...
February 22, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Farah Nazir, Muhammad Ibrahim, Ghunva Zaman, Annam Hussain, Asma Muhammad Yar, Zhu Bo
Sigma factors are bacterial transcription factors that bind the core RNA polymerase and direct transcription initiation at a specific promoter site. These specialized sigma factors bind the promoters of genes appropriate to the environmental conditions and selectively increase the transcription of those genes. Here, we attempt to identify sigma factors in 5 genomes belonging to the Enterobacter cloacae complex (Ecc), a group of gram-negative bacteria that are important nosocomial pathogens. This process includes the identification of orthologous sequences, conserved motifs, domains, families, phylogenetic profiles, and protein-protein associations of these components...
2018: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
Arinjay Banerjee, Vikram Misra, Tony Schountz, Michelle L Baker
Bats are natural reservoirs for a variety of emerging viruses that cause significant disease in humans and domestic animals yet rarely cause clinical disease in bats. The co-evolutionary history of bats with viruses has been hypothesized to have shaped the bat-virus relationship, allowing both to exist in equilibrium. Progress in understanding bat-virus interactions and the isolation of bat-borne viruses has been accelerated in recent years by the development of susceptible bat cell lines. Viral sequences similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) have been detected in bats, and filoviruses such as Marburg virus have been isolated from bats, providing definitive evidence for the role of bats as the natural host reservoir...
March 15, 2018: Virus Research
Carla C Uranga, Majid Ghassemian, Rufina Hernández-Martínez
Many basic science questions remain regarding protein functions in the pathogen: host interaction, especially in the trunk disease fungi family, the Botryosphaeriaceae, which are a global problem for economically important plants, especially fruiting trees. Proteomics is a highly useful technology for studying protein expression and for discovering novel proteins in unsequenced and poorly annotated organisms. Current fungal proteomics approaches involve 2D SDS-PAGE and extensive, complex, protein extraction methodologies...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
Birgitt Gutbier, Anne-Kathrin Neuhauß, Katrin Reppe, Carolin Ehrler, Ansgar Santel, Jörg Kaufmann, Markus Scholz, Norbert Weissmann, Lars Morawietz, Timothy J Mitchell, Stefano Aliberti, Stefan Hippenstiel, Norbert Suttorp, Martin Witzenrath
RATIONALE: During pneumonia, pathogen-host interaction evokes inflammation and lung barrier dysfunction. Tie2-activation by Angiopoietin-1 reduces, while Tie2-blockade by Angiopoietin-2 increases inflammation and permeability during sepsis. The role of Angiopoietin-1/-2 in pneumonia remains unidentified. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prognostic and pathogenetic impact of Angiopoietins in regulating pulmonary vascular barrier function and inflammation in bacterial pneumonia...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Dominik Hartl, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Julie Laval, Catherine M Greene, David Habiel, Lokesh Sharma, Ali Önder Yildirim, Charles S Dela Cruz, Cory M Hogaboam
The respiratory tract is faced daily with 10,000 L of inhaled air. While the majority of air contains harmless environmental components, the pulmonary immune system also has to cope with harmful microbial or sterile threats and react rapidly to protect the host at this intimate barrier zone. The airways are endowed with a broad armamentarium of cellular and humoral host defense mechanisms, most of which belong to the innate arm of the immune system. The complex interplay between resident and infiltrating immune cells and secreted innate immune proteins shapes the outcome of host-pathogen, host-allergen, and host-particle interactions within the mucosal airway compartment...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Qian Pan, Feng-Lan Zhao, Bang-Ce Ye
Enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) proteins were found to enhance the intracellular survival of mycobacteria in macrophages by acetylating aminoglycoside antibiotics to confer resistance to these antibiotics and by acetylating DUSP16/MPK-7 to suppress host innate immune defenses. Eis homologs composing of two GCN5 N-acetyltransferase regions and a sterol carrier protein fold are found widely in gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we found that Eis proteins have an unprecedented ability to acetylate many arylalkylamines, are a novel type of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase AANAT (EC 2...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yang Zhang, Jun Yang, Guangchun Bai
Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) has been shown to play an important role in bacterial physiology and pathogen-host interactions. We previously reported that deletion of the sole c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase-encoding gene (cnpB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) led to significant virulence attenuation. In this study, we found that ΔcnpB of M. bovis BCG (BCG) was unable to secrete c-di-AMP, which differs from Mtb ΔcnpB. We infected bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) with c-di-AMP-associated mutants generated from both Mtb and BCG...
January 31, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Arnau Bassegoda, Kristina Ivanova, Eva Ramon, Tzanko Tzanov
Drug resistance occurrence is a global healthcare concern responsible for the increased morbidity and mortality in hospitals, time of hospitalisation and huge financial loss. The failure of the most antibiotics to kill "superbugs" poses the urgent need to develop innovative strategies aimed at not only controlling bacterial infection but also the spread of resistance. The prevention of pathogen host invasion by inhibiting bacterial virulence and biofilm formation, and the utilisation of bactericidal agents with different mode of action than classic antibiotics are the two most promising new alternative strategies to overcome antibiotic resistance...
February 1, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Justin B Schaal, Thorsten Maretzky, Dat Q Tran, Patti A Tran, Prasad Tongaonkar, Carl P Blobel, André J Ouellette, Michael E Selsted
Theta-defensins (θ-defensins) are macrocyclic peptides expressed exclusively in granulocytes and selected epithelia of Old World monkeys.  They contribute to anti-pathogen host defense responses by directly killing a diverse range of microbes.  Of note, θ-defensins also modulate microbe-induced inflammation by affecting the production of soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF) and other proinflammatory cytokines.  Here, we report that natural rhesus macaque θ-defensin (RTD) isoforms regulate sTNF cellular release by inhibiting TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE; also known as a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17; ADAM17), the primary pro-TNF sheddase...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Young-Su Yi
Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that coordinate anti-pathogenic host defense during inflammatory responses in myeloid cells, especially macrophages. Inflammasome activation leads to activation of caspase-1, resulting in the induction of pyroptosis and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Although the inflammatory response is an innate host defense mechanism, chronic inflammation is the main cause of rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and Sjögren's syndrome (SS)...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Müberra Fatma Cesur, Saliha Durmuş
Pathogen-host interactions (PHIs) underlie the process of infection. The systems biology view of the whole PHI system is superior to the investigation of the pathogen or host separately in understanding the infection mechanisms. Especially, the identification of host-oriented drug targets for the next-generation anti-infection therapeutics requires the properties of the host factors targeted by pathogens. Here, we provide an outline of computational analysis of PHI networks, focusing on the properties of the pathogen-targeted host proteins...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bishnu M Bashyal, Kirti Rawat, Sapna Sharma, Deepika Kulshreshtha, S Gopala Krishnan, Ashok K Singh, Himanshu Dubey, Amolkumar U Solanke, T R Sharma, Rashmi Aggarwal
Fusarium fujikuroi causing bakanae disease has emerged as one of the major pathogen of rice across the world. The study aims to comparative genomic analysis of Fusarium fujikuroi isolates and identification of the secretary proteins of the fungus involved in rice pathogenesis. In the present study, F. fujikuroi isolate "F250" was sequenced with an assembly size of 42.47 Mb providing coverage of 96.89% on reference IMI58289 genome. A total of 13,603 protein-coding genes were predicted from genome assembly...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shrilakshmi Hegde, Martina Zimmermann, Renate Rosengarten, Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly
Mycoplasma agalactiae exhibits antigenic variation by switching the expression of multiple surface lipoproteins called Vpmas. Although implicated to have a significant influence on the pathogenicity, their exact role in pathogen-host interactions has not been investigated so far. Initial attachment to host cells is regarded as one of the most important steps for colonization but this pathogen lacks the typical mycoplasma attachment organelle. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Vpmas in adhesion of M...
March 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Xiaobo Yu, Brianne Petritis, Hu Duan, Danke Xu, Joshua LaBaer
Cell-free protein microarrays represent a special form of protein microarray which display proteins made fresh at the time of the experiment, avoiding storage and denaturation. They have been used increasingly in basic and translational research over the past decade to study protein-protein interactions, the pathogen-host relationship, post-translational modifications, and antibody biomarkers of different human diseases. Their role in the first blood-based diagnostic test for early stage breast cancer highlights their value in managing human health...
January 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Nicolas Personnic, Bianca Striednig, Hubert Hilbi
Legionella pneumophila is a water-borne opportunistic pathogen causing a life-threatening pneumonia called 'Legionnaires' disease'. The Legionella quorum sensing (Lqs) system produces and responds to the α-hydroxyketone signaling molecule 3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one (Legionella autoinducer-1, LAI-1). The Lqs system controls the switch between the replicative/non-virulent and the transmissive/virulent phase of L. pneumophila, and it is a major regulator of natural competence, motility and virulence of the pathogen...
November 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Bruna Aline Michelotto Cantelli, Tamires Aparecida Bitencourt, Tatiana Takahasi Komoto, Rene Oliveira Beleboni, Mozart Marins, Ana Lúcia Fachin
Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide. Despite the increasing incidence of fungal infections, the number of commercially available antifungal drugs is limited, mainly because of the biochemical similarities between fungal and mammalian cells. Biomolecules of different origins might lead to the discovery of new pharmacological targets that are more specific to the fungal cell. In this respect, caffeic acid (CA) and licochalcone A (LicoA) exhibit activity against some human pathogenic fungi by acting on important fungal molecular targets...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Marisol Dos Santos Velloso, Lívia Mara Alves Figueiredo, Carolina Pistille Martins, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Juliana Campos Junqueira
Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen and can grow as yeast or filaments, depending on the environmental conditions. The filamentous form is of particular interest because it can play a direct role in adherence and pathogenicity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three clinical strains of Lactobacillus on C. albicans filamentation as well as their probiotic potential in pathogen-host interactions via an experimental candidiasis model study in Galleria mellonella...
November 23, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
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