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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764946/comparative-genomics-reveals-the-core-gene-toolbox-for-the-fungus-insect-symbiosis
#1
Yan Wang, Matt Stata, Wei Wang, Jason E Stajich, Merlin M White, Jean-Marc Moncalvo
Modern genomics has shed light on many entomopathogenic fungi and expanded our knowledge widely; however, little is known about the genomic features of the insect-commensal fungi. Harpellales are obligate commensals living in the digestive tracts of disease-bearing insects (black flies, midges, and mosquitoes). In this study, we produced and annotated whole-genome sequences of nine Harpellales taxa and conducted the first comparative analyses to infer the genomic diversity within the members of the Harpellales...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718272/handling-artificially-terminated-events-in-electropenetrography-data
#2
Timothy A Ebert, Elaine A Backus, Michael E Rogers
Electropenetrography a.k.a. electrical penetration graph or EPG is a rigorous technique for studying arthropod behavior. Essentially, the arthropod and host are part of an electrical circuit that generates patterns of voltage (waveforms), whose biological meanings are defined by correlation with histology and behavior. EPG is used for studying stylet probing behavior of hemipterans, and blood-feeding arthropods. These results are applied to understanding pesticide action, host plant resistance, and vector-pathogen-host interactions...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676472/the-first-taxus-rhizosphere-microbiome-revealed-by-shotgun-metagenomic-sequencing
#3
Da-Cheng Hao, Cai-Rong Zhang, Pei-Gen Xiao
In the present study, the shotgun high throughput metagenomic sequencing was implemented to globally capture the features of Taxus rhizosphere microbiome. Total reads could be assigned to 6925 species belonging to 113 bacteria phyla and 301 species of nine fungi phyla. For archaea and virus, 263 and 134 species were for the first time identified, respectively. More than 720,000 Unigenes were identified by clean reads assembly. The top five assigned phyla were Actinobacteria (363,941 Unigenes), Proteobacteria (182,053), Acidobacteria (44,527), Ascomycota (fungi; 18,267), and Chloroflexi (15,539)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666630/the-interactomic-analysis-reveals-pathogenic-protein-networks-in-phomopsis-longicolla-underlying-seed-decay-of-soybean
#4
Shuxian Li, Bryan Musungu, David Lightfoot, Pingsheng Ji
Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla ) is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. This disease results in poor seed quality and is one of the most economically important seed diseases in soybean. The objectives of this study were to infer protein-protein interactions (PPI) and to identify conserved global networks and pathogenicity subnetworks in P. longicolla including orthologous pathways for cell signaling and pathogenesis. The interlog method used in the study identified 215,255 unique PPIs among 3,868 proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660235/inhibition-of-ossweet11-function-in-mesophyll-cells-improves-resistance-of-rice-to-sheath-blight-disease
#5
Yue Gao, Chong Zhang, Xiao Han, Zi Yuan Wang, Lai Ma, De Peng Yuan, Jing Ni Wu, Xiao Feng Zhu, Jing Miao Liu, Dao Pin Li, Yi Bing Hu, Yuan Hu Xuan
Pathogen-host interaction is a complicated process; pathogens mainly infect host plants to acquire nutrients, especially sugars. Rhizoctonia solani, the causative agent of sheath blight disease, is a major pathogen of rice. However, it is not known, as to how this pathogen obtains sugar from rice plants. In this study, we found that the rice sugar transporter, OsSWEET11 is involved in the pathogenesis of sheath blight disease. qRT-PCR and β-d-glucuronidase expression analyses showed that R. solani infection significantly enhanced OsSWEET11 expression in leaves among the clade III SWEET members...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643078/-ehrlichia-chaffeensis-trp75-interacts-with-host-cell-targets-involved-in-homeostasis-cytoskeleton-organization-and-apoptosis-regulation-to-promote-infection
#6
Tian Luo, Shubhajit Mitra, Jere W McBride
Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that exhibits tropism for mononuclear phagocytes. The mechanisms involved in E. chaffeensis infection of the host cell and evasion of host defenses are not fully defined, but a subset of type 1 secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP) effectors play important roles. Recently, we determined molecular interactions of TRP120, TRP47, and TRP32 with the eukaryotic host cell. In this investigation, we used yeast two-hybrid analysis to reveal that another E...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623258/from-phagocytes-to-immune-defense-roles-for-coronin-proteins-in-dictyostelium-and-mammalian-immunity
#7
REVIEW
Mayumi Mori, Ravindra Mode, Jean Pieters
Microbes have interacted with eukaryotic cells for as long as they have been co-existing. While many of these interactions are beneficial for both the microbe as well as the eukaryotic cell, several microbes have evolved into pathogenic species. For some of these pathogens, host cell invasion results in irreparable damage and thus host cell destruction, whereas others use the host to avoid immune detection and elimination. One of the latter pathogens is Mycobacterium tuberculosis , arguably one of the most notorious pathogens on earth...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621532/the-d5-region-of-the-intelectin-domain-is-a-new-type-of-carbohydrate-recognition-domain-in-the-intelectin-gene-family
#8
Jie Yan, Lei Chen, Zhuang Liu, Yonglin Chen, Ying Sun, Jia Han, Lijun Feng
Intelectin is a recently characterized soluble galactofuranose-binding lectin that exists in species ranging from amphioxus to human. Interestingly, intelectin does not contain a canonical carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). Therefore, we designed serial deletions of intelectin in the Chinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense, AmphiITLN71469) in order to identify functional regions required for carbohydrate binding. Our results revealed that Domain 5 (aa 203-302) was able to bind lipopolysaccarides (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PGN) and agglutinate bacteria as efficiently as the full-length protein...
April 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614212/the-key-gluconeogenic-gene-pck1-is-crucial-for-virulence-of-botrytis-cinerea-via-initiating-its-conidial-germination-and-host-penetration
#9
Jian-Kang Liu, Hao-Wu Chang, Yue Liu, Yu Haity Qin, Ming-Zhe Zhang, Sheng-Nan Cao, Le-Tao Li, Wei Liu, Gui-Hua Li, Qing-Ming Qin
The process of initiation of host invasion and survival of some foliar phytopathogenic fungi in the absence of external nutrients on host leaf surfaces remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that gluconeogenesis plays an important role in the process and nutrient-starvation adaptation before the pathogen host invasion. Deletion of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene BcPCK1 in gluconeogenesis in Botrytis cinerea, the causative agent of gray mold, resulted in the failure of the ΔBcpck1 mutant conidia to germinate on hard and hydrophobic surface and penetrate host cells in the absence of glucose, reduction in conidiation, and slow conidium germination in a nutrient-rich medium...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606283/perspectives-on-glycosylation-and-its-congenital-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Bobby G Ng, Hudson H Freeze
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a rapidly expanding group of metabolic disorders that result from abnormal protein or lipid glycosylation. They are often difficult to clinically diagnose because they broadly affect many organs and functions and lack clinical uniformity. However, recent technological advances in next-generation sequencing have revealed a treasure trove of new genetic disorders, expanded the knowledge of known disorders, and showed a critical role in infectious diseases. More comprehensive genetic tools specifically tailored for mammalian cell-based models have revealed a critical role for glycosylation in pathogen-host interactions, while also identifying new CDG susceptibility genes...
March 29, 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563531/virulence-factors-of-moraxella-catarrhalis-outer-membrane-vesicles-are-major-targets-for-cross-reactive-antibodies-and-have-adapted-during-evolution
#11
Daria Augustyniak, Rafał Seredyński, Siobhán McClean, Justyna Roszkowiak, Bartosz Roszniowski, Darren L Smith, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa, Paweł Mackiewicz
Moraxella catarrhalis is a common human respiratory tract pathogen. Its virulence factors associated with whole bacteria or outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) aid infection, colonization and may induce specific antibodies. To investigate pathogen-host interactions, we applied integrated bioinformatic and immunoproteomic (2D-electrophoresis, immunoblotting, LC-MS/MS) approaches. We showed that OMV proteins engaged exclusively in complement evasion and colonization strategies, but not those involved in iron transport and metabolism, are major targets for cross-reacting antibodies produced against phylogenetically divergent M...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510476/pathogen-derived-carbohydrate-recognition-in-molluscs-immune-defense
#12
REVIEW
Weilin Wang, Xiaorui Song, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Self-nonself discrimination is a common theme for all of the organisms in different evolutionary branches, which is also the most fundamental step for host immune protection. Plenty of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) with great diversity have been identified from different organisms to recognize various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in the last two decades, depicting a complicated scene of host-pathogen interaction. However, the detailed mechanism of the complicate PAMPs-PRRs interactions at the contacting interface between pathogens and hosts is still not well understood...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481553/genetic-mechanisms-of-coxiella-burnetii-lipopolysaccharide-phase-variation
#13
Paul A Beare, Brendan M Jeffrey, Carrie M Long, Craig M Martens, Robert A Heinzen
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that causes human Q fever, a disease that normally presents as a severe flu-like illness. Due to high infectivity and disease severity, the pathogen is considered a risk group 3 organism. Full-length lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required for full virulence and disease by C. burnetii and is the only virulence factor currently defined by infection of an immunocompetent animal. Transition of virulent phase I bacteria with smooth LPS, to avirulent phase II bacteria with rough LPS, occurs during in vitro passage...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473132/error-prone-pcr-mutagenesis-and-reverse-bacterial-two-hybrid-screening-identify-a-mutation-in-asparagine-53-of-the-staphylococcus-aureus-esat6-like-component-esxb-that-perturbs-interaction-with-esxd
#14
Amany M Ibrahim, Yasser M Ragab, Khaled A Aly, Mohamed A Ramadan
The ESAT6-like Secretion System (ESS) of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus secretes heterodimeric virulence effectors such as EsxB and EsxD. To gain insights into the nature of EsxB-EsxD interaction, randomly mutated esxB generated by error-prone PCR was co-transformed together with esxD as adenylate cyclase fusion constructs into cyclase-deficient Escherichia coli, followed by reverse bacterial two-hybrid screening. Three color species were observed: dark blue, light blue, and white (no EsxB-EsxD interaction)...
February 22, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472760/genetic-diversity-and-functional-analysis-of-sigma-factors-in-enterobacter-cloacae-complex-resourced-from-various-niche
#15
Farah Nazir, Muhammad Ibrahim, Ghunva Zaman, Annam Hussain, Asma Muhammad Yar, Zhu Bo
Sigma factors are bacterial transcription factors that bind the core RNA polymerase and direct transcription initiation at a specific promoter site. These specialized sigma factors bind the promoters of genes appropriate to the environmental conditions and selectively increase the transcription of those genes. Here, we attempt to identify sigma factors in 5 genomes belonging to the Enterobacter cloacae complex (Ecc), a group of gram-negative bacteria that are important nosocomial pathogens. This process includes the identification of orthologous sequences, conserved motifs, domains, families, phylogenetic profiles, and protein-protein associations of these components...
2018: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454637/tools-to-study-pathogen-host-interactions-in-bats
#16
REVIEW
Arinjay Banerjee, Vikram Misra, Tony Schountz, Michelle L Baker
Bats are natural reservoirs for a variety of emerging viruses that cause significant disease in humans and domestic animals yet rarely cause clinical disease in bats. The co-evolutionary history of bats with viruses has been hypothesized to have shaped the bat-virus relationship, allowing both to exist in equilibrium. Progress in understanding bat-virus interactions and the isolation of bat-borne viruses has been accelerated in recent years by the development of susceptible bat cell lines. Viral sequences similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) have been detected in bats, and filoviruses such as Marburg virus have been isolated from bats, providing definitive evidence for the role of bats as the natural host reservoir...
March 15, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450146/novel-proteins-from-proteomic-analysis-of-the-trunk-disease-fungus-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-botryosphaeriaceae
#17
Carla C Uranga, Majid Ghassemian, Rufina Hernández-Martínez
Many basic science questions remain regarding protein functions in the pathogen: host interaction, especially in the trunk disease fungi family, the Botryosphaeriaceae, which are a global problem for economically important plants, especially fruiting trees. Proteomics is a highly useful technology for studying protein expression and for discovering novel proteins in unsequenced and poorly annotated organisms. Current fungal proteomics approaches involve 2D SDS-PAGE and extensive, complex, protein extraction methodologies...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447449/prognostic-and-pathogenic-role-of-angiopoietin-1-and-2-in-pneumonia
#18
Birgitt Gutbier, Anne-Kathrin Neuhauß, Katrin Reppe, Carolin Ehrler, Ansgar Santel, Jörg Kaufmann, Markus Scholz, Norbert Weissmann, Lars Morawietz, Timothy J Mitchell, Stefano Aliberti, Stefan Hippenstiel, Norbert Suttorp, Martin Witzenrath
RATIONALE: During pneumonia, pathogen-host interaction evokes inflammation and lung barrier dysfunction. Tie2-activation by Angiopoietin-1 reduces, while Tie2-blockade by Angiopoietin-2 increases inflammation and permeability during sepsis. The role of Angiopoietin-1/-2 in pneumonia remains unidentified. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prognostic and pathogenetic impact of Angiopoietins in regulating pulmonary vascular barrier function and inflammation in bacterial pneumonia...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439264/innate-immunity-of-the-lung-from-basic-mechanisms-to-translational-medicine
#19
Dominik Hartl, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Julie Laval, Catherine M Greene, David Habiel, Lokesh Sharma, Ali Önder Yildirim, Charles S Dela Cruz, Cory M Hogaboam
The respiratory tract is faced daily with 10,000 L of inhaled air. While the majority of air contains harmless environmental components, the pulmonary immune system also has to cope with harmful microbial or sterile threats and react rapidly to protect the host at this intimate barrier zone. The airways are endowed with a broad armamentarium of cellular and humoral host defense mechanisms, most of which belong to the innate arm of the immune system. The complex interplay between resident and infiltrating immune cells and secreted innate immune proteins shapes the outcome of host-pathogen, host-allergen, and host-particle interactions within the mucosal airway compartment...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402941/eis-a-novel-family-of-arylalkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-ec-2-3-1-87
#20
Qian Pan, Feng-Lan Zhao, Bang-Ce Ye
Enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) proteins were found to enhance the intracellular survival of mycobacteria in macrophages by acetylating aminoglycoside antibiotics to confer resistance to these antibiotics and by acetylating DUSP16/MPK-7 to suppress host innate immune defenses. Eis homologs composing of two GCN5 N-acetyltransferase regions and a sterol carrier protein fold are found widely in gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we found that Eis proteins have an unprecedented ability to acetylate many arylalkylamines, are a novel type of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase AANAT (EC 2...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
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