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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783440/functional-and-structural-characteristics-of-bacterial-proteins-that-bind-host-cytokines
#1
Martin Högbom, Riikka Ihalin
Several human pathogens bind and respond to host cytokines, which can be considered a virulence mechanism that communicates defensive actions of the host to the pathogen. This review summarizes the current knowledge of bacterial cytokine-binding proteins, with a particular focus on their functional and structural characteristics. Many bacterial cytokine-binding proteins function in the development of infection and inflammation and mediate adhesion to host cells, suggesting multiple roles in pathogen-host interactions...
August 7, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768558/chlamydia-gallinacea-a-widespread-emerging-chlamydia-agent-with-zoonotic-potential-in-backyard-poultry
#2
L Li, M Luther, K Macklin, D Pugh, J Li, J Zhang, J Roberts, B Kaltenboeck, C Wang
Chlamydia gallinacea, a new chlamydial agent, has been reported in four European countries as well as Argentina and China. Experimentally infected chickens with C. gallinacea in previous study showed no clinical signs but had significantly reduced gains in body weight (6·5-11·4%). Slaughterhouse workers exposed to infected chickens have developed atypical pneumonia, indicating C. gallinacea is likely a zoonotic agent. In this study, FRET-PCR confirmed that C. gallinacea was present in 12·4% (66/531) of oral-pharyngeal samples from Alabama backyard poultry...
August 3, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766182/lipidomics-and-anti-trypanosomatid-chemotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Michael Biagiotti, Sedelia Dominguez, Nader Yamout, Rachel Zufferey
BACKGROUND: Trypanosomatids such as Leishmania, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi belong to the order Kinetoplastida and are the source of many significant human and animal diseases. Current treatment is unsatisfactory and is compromised by the rising appearance of drug resistant parasites. Novel and more effective chemotherapeutics are urgently needed to treat and prevent these devastating diseases, which relies on the identification of essential, parasite specific targets that are absent in the host...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756939/bacteriology-of-peritonsillar-abscess-the-changing-trend-and-predisposing-factors
#4
Yi-Wen Tsai, Yu-Hsi Liu, Hsing-Hao Su
INTRODUCTION: Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is the most common deep neck infection. The infectious microorganism may be different according to clinical factors. OBJECTIVE: To identify the major causative pathogen of peritonsillar abscess and investigate the relationship between the causative pathogen, host clinical factors, and hospitalization duration. METHODS: This retrospective study included 415 hospitalized patients diagnosed with peritonsillar abscess who were admitted to a tertiary medical center from June 1990 to June 2013...
July 17, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752081/absence-of-nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2-is-associated-with-less-distinct-disease-in-campylobacter-jejuni-infected-secondary-abiotic-il-10-deficient-mice
#5
Markus M Heimesaat, Ursula Grundmann, Marie E Alutis, André Fischer, Stefan Bereswill
Human Campylobacter jejuni-infections are progressively increasing worldwide. Despite their high prevalence and socioeconomic impact the underlying mechanisms of pathogen-host-interactions are only incompletely understood. Given that the innate immune receptor nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2 (Nod2) is involved in clearance of enteropathogens, we here evaluated its role in murine campylobacteriosis. To address this, we applied Nod2-deficient IL-10(-/-) (Nod2(-/-) IL-10(-/-)) mice and IL-10(-/-) counterparts both with a depleted intestinal microbiota to warrant pathogen-induced enterocolitis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740179/legionella-pneumophila-infection-activates-bystander-cells-differentially-by-bacterial-and-host-cell-vesicles
#6
Anna Lena Jung, Christina Elena Herkt, Christine Schulz, Kathrin Bolte, Kerstin Seidel, Nicoletta Scheller, Alexandra Sittka-Stark, Wilhelm Bertrams, Bernd Schmeck
Extracellular vesicles from eukaryotic cells and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from gram-negative bacteria have been described as mediators of pathogen-host interaction and intercellular communication. Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) is a causative agent of severe pneumonia. The differential effect of bacterial and host cell vesicles in L. pneumophila infection is unknown so far. We infected THP-1-derived or primary human macrophages with L. pneumophila and isolated supernatant vesicles by differential centrifugation...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730142/taming-parasites-by-tailoring-them
#7
Bingjian Ren, Nishith Gupta
The next-generation gene editing based on CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) has been successfully implemented in a wide range of organisms including some protozoan parasites. However, application of such a versatile game-changing technology in molecular parasitology remains fairly underexplored. Here, we briefly introduce state-of-the-art in human and mouse research and usher new directions to drive the parasitology research in the years to come. In precise, we outline contemporary ways to embolden existing apicomplexan and kinetoplastid parasite models by commissioning front-line gene-tailoring methods, and illustrate how we can break the enduring gridlock of gene manipulation in non-model parasitic protists to tackle intriguing questions that remain long unresolved otherwise...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723967/epitope-determination-of-immunogenic-proteins-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#8
Daniel O Connor, Lena Danckert, Sebastian Hoppe, Frank F Bier, Markus von Nickisch-Rosenegk
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative organism of gonorrhoea, a sexually transmitted disease that globally accounts for an estimated 80 to 100 million new infections per year. Increasing resistances to all common antibiotics used for N. gonorrhoeae treatment pose the risk of an untreatable disease. Further knowledge of ways of infection and host immune response are needed to understand the pathogen-host interaction and to discover new treatment alternatives against this disease. Therefore, detailed information about immunogenic proteins and their properties like epitope sites could advance further research in this area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719319/phosphoproteome-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infected-host-cells-reveals-specific-cellular-processes-predominating-in-different-phases-of-infection
#9
Cheng He, Ai-Yuan Chen, Hai-Xia Wei, Xiao-Shuang Feng, Hong-Juan Peng
The invasion of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites into the host cell results in extensive host cell signaling activation/deactivation that is usually regulated by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. To elucidate how T. gondii regulates host cell signal transduction, the comparative phosphoproteome of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-labeled human foreskin fibroblast cells was analyzed. The cells were grouped (Light [L], Medium [M], and Heavy [H] groups) based on the labeling isotope weight and were infected with T...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695265/conservation-of-erwinia-amylovora-pathogenicity-relevant-genes-among-erwinia-genomes
#10
Luigimaria Borruso, Marco Salomone-Stagni, Ivan Polsinelli, Armin Otto Schmitt, Stefano Benini
The Erwinia genus comprises species that are plant pathogens, non-pathogen, epiphytes, and opportunistic human pathogens. Within the genus, Erwinia amylovora ranks among the top 10 plant pathogenic bacteria. It causes the fire blight disease and is a global threat to commercial apple and pear production. We analyzed the presence/absence of the E. amylovora genes reported to be important for pathogenicity towards Rosaceae within various Erwinia strains genomes. This simple bottom-up approach, allowed us to correlate the analyzed genes to pathogenicity, host specificity, and make useful considerations to drive targeted studies...
July 10, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667627/bacterial-filamentous-appendages-investigated-by-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#11
Birgit Habenstein, Antoine Loquet
The assembly of filamentous appendages at the surface of bacteria is essential in many infection mechanisms. The extent of mechanical, dynamical, and functional properties of such appendages is very diverse, ranging from a structural scaffold of the pathogen-host cell interaction to cell motility, surface adhesion, or the export of virulence effectors. In particular, the architectures of several bacterial secretion systems have revealed the presence of filamentous architectures, known as pili, fimbriae, andneedles...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665724/establishment-of-an-in-vitro-intestinal-epithelial-cell-culture-model-of-avian-origin
#12
Annette Kaiser, Thomas Willer, Pablo Steinberg, Silke Rautenschlein
The role of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of chickens and pathogenesis of various diseases in chickens is still poorly understood. IECs line the GIT and represent the border between the unsterile environment and the sterile internal tissues. Bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic pathogens are able to invade or pass IECs under certain circumstances and cause various diseases. Pathogen-host interactions in the chicken gut are poorly understood because of the lack of suitable in vitro and ex vivo models...
June 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650446/exosomes-from-plasmodium-infected-hosts-inhibit-tumor-angiogenesis-in-a-murine-lewis-lung-cancer-model
#13
Y Yang, Q Liu, J Lu, D Adah, S Yu, S Zhao, Y Yao, L Qin, L Qin, X Chen
Previous research to investigate the interaction between malaria infection and tumor progression has revealed that malaria infection can potentiate host immune response against tumor in tumor-bearing mice. Exosomes may play key roles in disseminating pathogenic host-derived molecules during infection because several studies have shown the involvement and roles of extracellular vesicles in cell-cell communication. However, the role of exosomes generated during Plasmodium infection in tumor growth, progression and angiogenesis has not been studied either in animals or in the clinics...
June 26, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636447/emerging-viral-infections-in-pakistan-issues-concerns-and-future-prospects
#14
Ali Talha Khalil, Muhammad Ali, Faouzia Tanveer, Muhammad Ovais, Muhammad Idrees, Zabta Khan Shinwari, James E Hollenbeck
Emerging infectious diseases pose a serious threat to public health security; this is especially true in the underdeveloped world because of limited resources to combat them. These emerging pathogens are characterized by a novel mode of pathogenesis and, in some cases, a broad host range. Over the past few decades, Pakistan has suffered a great deal from infectious diseases such as dengue, Crimean-Congo fever, hepatitis, measles, and polio. Changing climate conditions, environmental degradation, global warming, loss of biodiversity, and other ecological determinants have a direct effect on these diseases and result in the emergence and reemergence of infectious entities...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583210/long-read-sequencing-improves-assembly-of-trichinella-genomes-10-fold-revealing-substantial-synteny-between-lineages-diverged-over-7-million-years
#16
Peter C Thompson, Dante S Zarlenga, Ming-Yuan Liu, Benjamin M Rosenthal
Genome assemblies can form the basis of comparative analyses fostering insight into the evolutionary genetics of a parasite's pathogenicity, host-pathogen interactions, environmental constraints and invasion biology; however, the length and complexity of many parasite genomes has hampered the development of well-resolved assemblies. In order to improve Trichinella genome assemblies, the genome of the sylvatic encapsulated species Trichinella murrelli was sequenced using third-generation, long-read technology and, using syntenic comparisons, scaffolded to a reference genome assembly of Trichinella spiralis, markedly improving both...
June 6, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553017/capsular-polysaccharide-is-a-main-component-of-mycoplasma-ovipneumoniae-in-the-pathogen-induced-toll-like-receptor-mediated-inflammatory-responses-in-sheep-airway-epithelial-cells
#17
Zhongjia Jiang, Fuyang Song, Yanan Li, Di Xue, Guangcun Deng, Min Li, Xiaoming Liu, Yujiong Wang
Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is characterized as an etiological agent of primary atypical pneumonia that specifically infects sheep and goat. In an attempt to better understand the pathogen-host interaction between the invading M. ovipneumoniae and airway epithelial cells, we investigated the host inflammatory responses against capsular polysaccharide (designated as CPS) of M. ovipneumoniae using sheep bronchial epithelial cells cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI) model. Results showed that CPS derived from M...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534105/bacterial-diversity-of-cosmopolitan-culex-pipiens-and-invasive-aedes-japonicus-from-germany
#18
Sina Zotzmann, Antje Steinbrink, Kathrin Schleich, Felix Frantzmann, Chinhda Xoumpholphakdy, Manuela Spaeth, Claire Valiente Moro, Patrick Mavingui, Sven Klimpel
Symbiotic bacteria have gained significant attention in recent years. For example, microbiota of some mosquito species seems to influence the development and transmission of pathogens. Furthermore, several attempts using bacteria as a paratransgenetic tool have been made in order to assist the control of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, we examined the bacterial diversity of wild-caught adult Culex (Cx.) pipiens and laboratory-reared adult Aedes japonicus (Ae. japonicus) in Germany using a culture-independent method...
July 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531298/evolution-of-bacterial-virulence
#19
Médéric Diard, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
Bacterial virulence is highly dynamic and context-dependent. For this reason, it is challenging to predict how molecular changes affect the growth of a pathogen in a host and its spread in host population. Two schools of thought have taken quite different directions to decipher the underlying principles of bacterial virulence. While molecular infection biology is focusing on the basic mechanisms of the pathogen-host interaction, evolution biology takes virulence as one of several parameters affecting pathogen spread in a host population...
May 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531227/different-microrna-profiles-reveal-the-diverse-outcomes-induced-by-ev71-and-ca16-infection-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#20
Jie Song, Yajie Hu, Jiaqi Li, Huiwen Zheng, Jingjing Wang, Lei Guo, Ruotong Ning, Hongzhe Li, Zening Yang, Haitao Fan, Longding Liu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) remain the predominant pathogens in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but the factors underlying the pathogenesis of EV71 and CA16 infections have not been elucidated. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. In the present study, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing...
2017: PloS One
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