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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915230/phi-base-a-new-interface-and-further-additions-for-the-multi-species-pathogen-host-interactions-database
#1
Martin Urban, Alayne Cuzick, Kim Rutherford, Alistair Irvine, Helder Pedro, Rashmi Pant, Vidyendra Sadanadan, Lokanath Khamari, Santoshkumar Billal, Sagar Mohanty, Kim E Hammond-Kosack
The pathogen-host interactions database (PHI-base) is available at www.phi-base.org PHI-base contains expertly curated molecular and biological information on genes proven to affect the outcome of pathogen-host interactions reported in peer reviewed research articles. In addition, literature that indicates specific gene alterations that did not affect the disease interaction phenotype are curated to provide complete datasets for comparative purposes. Viruses are not included. Here we describe a revised PHI-base Version 4 data platform with improved search, filtering and extended data display functions...
December 3, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907884/factors-determining-human-to-human-transmissibility-of-zoonotic-pathogens-via-contact
#2
REVIEW
Mathilde Richard, Sascha Knauf, Philip Lawrence, Alison E Mather, Vincent J Munster, Marcel A Müller, Derek Smith, Thijs Kuiken
The pandemic potential of zoonotic pathogens lies in their ability to become efficiently transmissible amongst humans. Here, we focus on contact-transmitted pathogens and discuss the factors, at the pathogen, host and environmental levels that promote or hinder their human-to-human transmissibility via the following modes of contact transmission: skin contact, sexual contact, respiratory contact and multiple route contact. Factors common to several modes of transmission were immune evasion, high viral load, low infectious dose, crowding, promiscuity, and co-infections; other factors were specific for a pathogen or mode of contact transmission...
November 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903906/eupathdb-the-eukaryotic-pathogen-genomics-database-resource
#3
Cristina Aurrecoechea, Ana Barreto, Evelina Y Basenko, John Brestelli, Brian P Brunk, Shon Cade, Kathryn Crouch, Ryan Doherty, Dave Falke, Steve Fischer, Bindu Gajria, Omar S Harb, Mark Heiges, Christiane Hertz-Fowler, Sufen Hu, John Iodice, Jessica C Kissinger, Cris Lawrence, Wei Li, Deborah F Pinney, Jane A Pulman, David S Roos, Achchuthan Shanmugasundram, Fatima Silva-Franco, Sascha Steinbiss, Christian J Stoeckert, Drew Spruill, Haiming Wang, Susanne Warrenfeltz, Jie Zheng
The Eukaryotic Pathogen Genomics Database Resource (EuPathDB, http://eupathdb.org) is a collection of databases covering 170+ eukaryotic pathogens (protists & fungi), along with relevant free-living and non-pathogenic species, and select pathogen hosts. To facilitate the discovery of meaningful biological relationships, the databases couple preconfigured searches with visualization and analysis tools for comprehensive data mining via intuitive graphical interfaces and APIs. All data are analyzed with the same workflows, including creation of gene orthology profiles, so data are easily compared across data sets, data types and organisms...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890633/comparison-analysis-of-micrornas-in-response-to-ev71-and-ca16-infection-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-by-high-throughput-sequencing-to-reveal-differential-infective-mechanisms
#4
Yajie Hu, Jie Song, Longding Liu, Jing Li, Beibei Tang, Ying Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Lichun Wang, Shengtao Fan, Ming Feng, Qihan Li
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mainly caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) infections which presented significantly different clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, the factors underlying these differences remain unclear. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. Here, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing...
November 24, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864728/variation-in-pestivirus-growth-in-testicle-primary-cell-culture-is-more-dependent-on-the-individual-cell-donor-than-cattle-breed
#5
Matheus N Weber, Fernando V Bauermann, Ninnet Gómez-Romero, Andy D Herring, Cláudio W Canal, John D Neill, Julia F Ridpath
The causes of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) are multifactorial and include infection with both viral and bacterial pathogens. Host factors are also involved as different breeds of cattle appear to have different susceptibilities to BRDC. Infection with bovine pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV1), BVDV2 and 'HoBi'-like viruses, is linked to the development of BRDC. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth of different bovine pestiviruses in primary testicle cell cultures obtained from taurine, indicine and mixed taurine and indicine cattle breeds...
November 18, 2016: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856699/first-in-vivo-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-transcriptomes-reveal-mechanisms-of-host-exploitation-host-specific-gene-expression-and-expressed-genotype-shifts
#6
Amy R Ellison, Graziella V DiRenzo, Caitlin A McDonald, Karen R Lips, Kelly R Zamudio
For generalist pathogens, host species represent distinct selective environments, providing unique challenges for resource acquisition and defense from host immunity, potentially resulting in host-dependent differences in pathogen fitness. Gene expression modulation should be advantageous, responding optimally to a given host and mitigating the costs of generalism. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen of amphibians, shows variability in pathogenicity among isolates and within-strain virulence changes rapidly during serial passages through artificial culture...
November 16, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855160/transcription-factors-encoded-on-core-and-accessory-chromosomes-of-fusarium-oxysporum-induce-expression-of-effector-genes
#7
H Charlotte van der Does, Like Fokkens, Ally Yang, Sarah M Schmidt, Léon Langereis, Joanna M Lukasiewicz, Timothy R Hughes, Martijn Rep
Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called 'effectors'. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the 'pathogenicity' chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825390/release-of-extracellular-vesicles-containing-small-rnas-from-the-eggs-of-schistosoma-japonicum
#8
Shanli Zhu, Sai Wang, Yu Lin, Pengyue Jiang, Xiaobin Cui, Xinye Wang, Yuanbin Zhang, Weiqing Pan
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma japonicum is a parasitic flatworm that causes human schistosomiasis. Secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a key role in pathogen-host interfaces. Previous studies have shown that S. japonicum adult worms can release microRNA (miRNA)-containing EVs, which can transfer their cargo to mammalian cells and regulate gene expression in recipient cells. Tissue-trapped eggs are generally considered the major contributor to the severe pathology of schistosomiasis; however, the interactions between the host and parasite in this critical stage remain largely unknown...
November 8, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819539/direct-estimation-of-local-ph-change-at-infection-sites-of-fungi-in-potato-tubers
#9
R Tardi-Ovadia, R Linker, L Tsror Lahkim
Fungi can modify the pH in or around the infected site via alkalization or acidification, and pH monitoring may provide valuable information on host-fungus interactions. The objective of the present study was to examine the ability of two fungi, Colletotrichum coccodes and Helminthosporium solani, to modify the pH of potato tubers during artificial inoculation in situ. Both fungi cause blemishes on potato tubers, which downgrades tuber quality and yield. Direct visualization and estimation of pH changes near the inoculation area were achieved using pH indicators and image analysis...
November 7, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801295/secondary-metabolite-gene-clusters-in-the-entomopathogen-fungus-metarhizium-anisopliae-genome-identification-and-patterns-of-expression-in-a-cuticle-infection-model
#10
Nicolau Sbaraini, Rafael Lucas Muniz Guedes, Fábio Carrer Andreis, Ângela Junges, Guilherme Loss de Morais, Marilene Henning Vainstein, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de Vasconcelos, Augusto Schrank
BACKGROUND: The described species from the Metarhizium genus are cosmopolitan fungi that infect arthropod hosts. Interestingly, while some species infect a wide range of hosts (host-generalists), other species infect only a few arthropods (host-specialists). This singular evolutionary trait permits unique comparisons to determine how pathogens and virulence determinants emerge. Among the several virulence determinants that have been described, secondary metabolites (SMs) are suggested to play essential roles during fungal infection...
October 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756305/bcsz-inhibits-biofilm-phenotypes-and-promotes-virulence-by-blocking-cellulose-production-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#11
Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736776/dynamic-interactions-of-a-conserved-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-adhesin-with-intestinal-mucins-govern-epithelium-engagement-and-toxin-delivery
#12
Pardeep Kumar, F Matthew Kuhlmann, Kirandeep Bhullar, Hyungjun Yang, Bruce A Vallance, Lijun Xia, Qingwei Luo, James M Fleckenstein
At present, there is no vaccine for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), an important cause of diarrheal illness. Nevertheless, recent microbial pathogenesis studies have identified a number of molecules produced by ETEC that contribute to its virulence and are novel antigenic targets to complement canonical vaccine approaches. EtpA is a secreted two-partner adhesin that is conserved within the ETEC pathovar. EtpA interacts with the tips of ETEC flagella to promote bacterial adhesion, toxin delivery, and intestinal colonization by forming molecular bridges between the bacteria and the epithelial surface...
December 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722867/immunology-of-yersinia-pestis-infection
#13
Yujing Bi
As a pathogen of plague, Yersinia pestis caused three massive pandemics in history that killed hundreds of millions of people. Yersinia pestis is highly invasive, causing severe septicemia which, if untreated, is usually fatal to its host. To survive in the host and maintain a persistent infection, Yersinia pestis uses several stratagems to evade the innate and the adaptive immune responses. For example, infections with this organism are biphasic, involving an initial "noninflammatory" phase where bacterial replication occurs initially with little inflammation and following by extensive phagocyte influx, inflammatory cytokine production, and considerable tissue destruction, which is called "proinflammatory" phase...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713775/diet-and-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#14
Łukasz Hołubiuk, Jacek Imiela
Helicobacter pylori infection has accompanied man for thousands of years. In some infected patients, a complex and dynamic pathogen-host reaction triggers pathogenic pathways resulting in development, inter alia, of atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (both gastric and duodenal), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Large-scale eradication therapy is associated with a rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, gut flora composition disturbances, and increased risk of development, inter alia, of paediatric infectious diarrhoeas, atopic diseases, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma...
2016: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663303/mycoplasma-ovipneumoniae-induces-sheep-airway-epithelial-cell-apoptosis-through-an-erk-signalling-mediated-mitochondria-pathway
#15
Yanan Li, Zhongjia Jiang, Di Xue, Guangcun Deng, Min Li, Xiaoming Liu, Yujiong Wang
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is a species of Mycoplasma bacteria that specifically infects sheep and goat, causing ovine infectious pleuropneumonia. However, the mechanism underlying the pathogen-host interaction between M. ovipneumoniae and airway epithelial cells is unknown. METHODS: A primary air-liquid interface (ALI) epithelial culture model generated from the bronchial epithelial cells of Ningxia Tan sheep (ovis aries) was employed to explore the potential mechanism of M...
2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661619/from-human-geography-to-biological-invasions-the-black-rat-distribution-in-the-changing-southeastern-of-senegal
#16
Héloïse Lucaccioni, Laurent Granjon, Ambroise Dalecky, Odile Fossati, Jean Le Fur, Jean-Marc Duplantier, Pascal Handschumacher
In the contemporary context of zoonosis emergence and spread, invasive species are a major issue since they represent potential pathogen hosts. Even though many progresses have been done to understand and predict spatial patterns of invasive species, the challenge to identify the underlying determinants of their distribution remains a central question in invasion biology. This is particularly exacerbated in the case of commensal species that strictly depend on humankind for dispersal and perennial establishment of new populations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660780/draft-genome-sequence-of-plasmopara-viticola-the-grapevine-downy-mildew-pathogen
#17
Yann Dussert, Jérôme Gouzy, Sylvie Richart-Cervera, Isabelle D Mazet, Laurent Delière, Carole Couture, Ludovic Legrand, Marie-Christine Piron, Pere Mestre, François Delmotte
Plasmopara viticola is a biotrophic pathogenic oomycete responsible for grapevine downy mildew. We present here the first draft of the P. viticola genome. Analysis of this sequence will help in understanding plant-pathogen interactions in oomycetes, especially pathogen host specialization and adaptation to host resistance.
2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650574/norharmane-matrix-enhances-detection-of-endotoxin-by-maldi-ms-for-simultaneous-profiling-of-pathogen-host-and-vector-systems
#18
Alison J Scott, Bryn Flinders, Joanna Cappell, Tao Liang, Rebecca S Pelc, Bao Tran, David P A Kilgour, Ron M A Heeren, David R Goodlett, Robert K Ernst
The discovery of novel pathogenic mechanisms engaged during bacterial infections requires the evolution of advanced techniques. Here, we evaluate the dual polarity matrix norharmane (NRM) to improve detection of bacterial lipid A (endotoxin), from host and vector tissues infected with Francisella novicida (Fn). We evaluated NRM for improved detection and characterization of a wide range of lipids in both positive and negative polarities, including lipid A and phospholipids across a range of matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI)-coupled applications...
September 19, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644739/research-advances-on-microbial-genetics-in-china-in-2015
#19
Xie Jianping, Han Yubo, Liu Gang, Bai Linquan
In 2015, there are significant progresses in many aspects of the microbial genetics in China. To showcase the contribution of Chinese scientists in microbial genetics, this review surveys several notable progresses in microbial genetics made largely by Chinese scientists, and some key findings are highlighted. For the basic microbial genetics, the components, structures and functions of many macromolecule complexes involved in gene expression regulation have been elucidated. Moreover, the molecular basis underlying the recognition of foreign nucleic acids by microbial immune systems was unveiled...
September 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642795/direct-estimation-of-local-ph-change-at-infection-sites-of-fungi-in-potato-tubers
#20
Rinat Tardi-Ovadia, Raphael Linker, Leah Tsror
Fungi can modify the pH in and/or around the infected site via alkalinization or acidification and pH monitoring may provide valuable information on host-fungus interactions. The objective of the present study was to examine the ability of two fungi, Colletotrichum coccodes and Helminthosporium solani, to modify the pH of potato tuber during artificial inoculation in situ. Both fungi cause blemishes on potato tubers which downgrade tuber quality and yield. Direct visualization and estimation of pH change near the inoculation area were achieved using pH indicators and image analysis...
September 19, 2016: Phytopathology
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