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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142017/modelling-the-effects-of-phylogeny-and-body-size-on-within-host-pathogen-replication-and-immune-response
#1
Soumya Banerjee, Alan S Perelson, Melanie Moses
Understanding how quickly pathogens replicate and how quickly the immune system responds is important for predicting the epidemic spread of emerging pathogens. Host body size, through its correlation with metabolic rates, is theoretically predicted to impact pathogen replication rates and immune system response rates. Here, we use mathematical models of viral time courses from multiple species of birds infected by a generalist pathogen (West Nile Virus; WNV) to test more thoroughly how disease progression and immune response depend on mass and host phylogeny...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130369/from-moths-to-caterpillars-ideal-conditions-for-galleria-mellonella-rearing-for-in-vivo-microbiological-studies
#2
Adeline L Jorjão, Luciane D Oliveira, Liliana Scorzoni, Lívia Mara A Figueiredo-Godoi, Marcia Cristina A Prata, Antonio Olavo C Jorge, Juliana C Junqueira
Galleria mellonella is a well-accepted insect model for the study of pathogen-host interactions and antimicrobial compounds. The main advantages of this model include the low cost of maintenance, the fast life cycle, the possibility of using a large number of caterpillars and the innate immune system, which is evolutionarily conserved relative to mammals. Because of these advantages, different research groups have been working to implement the rearing of G. mellonella in laboratory conditions. This protocol describes our experience in the rearing of G...
November 13, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127583/effective-prediction-of-bacterial-type-iv-secreted-effectors-by-combined-features-of-both-c-termini-and-n-termini
#3
Yu Wang, Yanzhi Guo, Xuemei Pu, Menglong Li
Various bacterial pathogens can deliver their secreted substrates also called as effectors through type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) into host cells and cause diseases. Since T4SS secreted effectors (T4SEs) play important roles in pathogen-host interactions, identifying them is crucial to our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of T4SSs. A few computational methods using machine learning algorithms for T4SEs prediction have been developed by using features of C-terminal residues. However, recent studies have shown that targeting information can also be encoded in the N-terminal region of at least some T4SEs...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111085/il-37-and-leprosy-a-novel-cytokine-involved-in-the-host-response-to-mycobacterium-leprae-infection
#4
Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Renata Lima Prudente, Leonidas Braga Dias Junior, Francisca Regina Oliveira Carneiro, Mirian Nacagami Sotto, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
Leprosy is a chronic infectious granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, in which the clinical outcome depends on the pattern of the host immune response. Because it is a spectral disease, leprosy is a good model for studying the immunology of the pathogen-host relationship. Although previous studies have characterized the participation of cytokine profiles such as Th1, Th2, Th7, Treg, Th9, and Th22 responses in leprosy, the role of new cytokines such as IL-37 have not yet been described for the spectral model of the disease...
October 27, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071357/evolutionary-analysis-of-pectin-lyases-of-the-genus-colletotrichum
#5
Alicia Lara-Márquez, Ken Oyama, María G Zavala-Páramo, Maria G Villa-Rivera, Ulises Conejo-Saucedo, Horacio Cano-Camacho
Pectin lyases (PNLs) are important enzymes that are involved in plant cell wall degradation during the infection process. Colletotrichum is a diverse genus of fungi, which allows the study of the evolution of PNLs and their possible role in pathogen-host interactions and lifestyle adaptations. The phylogenetic reconstruction of PNLs from Colletotrichum and analysis of selection pressures showed the formation of protein lineages by groups of species with different selection pressures and specific patterns. The analysis of positive selection at individual sites using different methods allowed for the identification of three codons with evidence of positive selection in the oligosaccharide-binding region and two codons on the antiparallel sheet, which may influence the interaction with the substrate...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049413/microrna-expression-analysis-of-feline-and-canine-parvovirus-infection-in-vivo-felis
#6
Pei Zhou, Xin Zhang, Weijie Zeng, Qingxu Zheng, Xiangqi Hao, Xi Lin, Yun Zheng, Lifang Wang, Guihong Zhang, Shoujun Li
Feline panleukopenia is a common contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality. At present, feline parvovirus (FPV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) variants are the pathogens of feline panleukopenia. Many studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in virus-host interactions. Nevertheless, miRNA expression profiling of FPV (original virus) or CPV-2b (new virus) in cats has not been reported. To investigate these profiles, three 10-week-old cats were orally inoculated with 106 TCID50 of the viruses (FPV and CPV-2b), and the jejunums of one cat in each group were sectioned for miRNA sequencing at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034110/toll-like-receptor-4-dependent-inflammatory-responses-following-intestinal-colonization-of-secondary-abiotic-il10-deficient-mice-with-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#7
Anne Grunau, Ulrike Escher, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
The rising incidences of infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) have gained increasing attention in medicine, but also in the general public and global health politics. The mechanisms underlying opportunistic pathogen-host interactions are unclear, however. To address this, we challenged secondary abiotic IL10(-/-) mice deficient for Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4(-/-) × IL10(-/-)), the main receptor of the Gram-negative cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide, with a clinical MDR PA isolate...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032551/two-photon-intravital-microscopy-of-lyme-borrelia-in-mice
#8
Alexia A Belperron, Jialing Mao, Linda K Bockenstedt
Two-photon intravital microscopy is a powerful tool that allows visualization of cells in intact tissues in a live animal in real time. In recent years, this advanced technology has been applied to understand pathogen-host interactions using fluorescently labeled bacteria. In particular, infectious fluorescent transformants of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, an Ixodes tick-transmitted pathogen, have been imaged by two-photon intravital microscopy to study bacterial motility and interactions of the pathogen with feeding ticks and host tissues...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030446/comparative-genomics-based-markers-discrimination-of-host-specificity-in-fusarium-oxysporum
#9
Peter van Dam, Mara de Sain, Anneliek Ter Horst, Michelle van der Gragt, Martijn Rep
The polyphyletic nature of many formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) prevents molecular identification of newly encountered strains based on conserved, vertically inherited genes. Alternative molecular detection methods that could replace labour- and time-intensive disease assays are therefore highly desired. Effectors are functional elements in the pathogen-host interaction and have been found to show very limited sequence diversity between strains of the same forma specialis, which makes them potential markers for host-specific pathogenicty...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028886/analysis-of-protein-targets-in-pathogen-host-interaction-in-infectious-diseases-a-case-study-on-plasmodium-falciparum-and-homo-sapiens-interaction-network
#10
Sovan Saha, Kaustav Sengupta, Piyali Chatterjee, Subhadip Basu, Mita Nasipuri
Infection and disease progression is the outcome of protein interactions between pathogen and host. Pathogen, the role player of Infection, is becoming a severe threat to life as because of its adaptability toward drugs and evolutionary dynamism in nature. Identifying protein targets by analyzing protein interactions between host and pathogen is the key point. Proteins with higher degree and possessing some topologically significant graph theoretical measures are found to be drug targets. On the other hand, exceptional nodes may be involved in infection mechanism because of some pathway process and biologically unknown factors...
September 23, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990716/genome-wide-characterization-of-phytophthora-infestans-metabolism-a-systems-biology-approach
#11
Sander Y A Rodenburg, Michael F Seidl, Dick de Ridder, Francine Govers
Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) provide a functional view of the complex network of biochemical reactions in the living cell. Initially mainly applied to reconstruct the metabolism of model organisms, the availability of increasingly sophisticated reconstruction methods and more extensive biochemical databases now make it possible to reconstruct GEMs for less characterized organisms as well, and have the potential to unravel the metabolism in pathogen-host systems. Here we present a GEM for the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans as a first step towards an integrative model with its host...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971711/epigenetic-regulation-in-bacterial-infections-targeting-histone-deacetylases
#12
Aleksander M Grabiec, Jan Potempa
Pathogens have developed sophisticated strategies to evade the immune response, among which manipulation of host cellular epigenetic mechanisms plays a prominent role. In the last decade, modulation of histone acetylation in host cells has emerged as an efficient strategy of bacterial immune evasion. Virulence factors and metabolic products of pathogenic microorganisms alter expression and activity of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) to suppress transcription of host defense genes through epigenetic changes in histone acetylation marks...
October 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970825/involvement-of-dihydrolipoyl-dehydrogenase-in-the-phagocytosis-and-killing-of-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-by-macrophages
#13
Taise N Landgraf, Marcelo V Costa, Aline F Oliveira, Wander C Ribeiro, Ademilson Panunto-Castelo, Fabrício F Fernandes
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are fungi causing paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), an autochthonous systemic mycosis found in Latin America. These microorganisms contain a multitude of molecules that may be associated with the complex interaction of the fungus with the host. Here, we identify the enzyme dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) as an exoantigen from P. brasiliensis (Pb18_Dld) by mass spectrometry. Interestingly, the DLD gene expression in yeast form showed higher expression levels than those in mycelial form and transitional phases...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956402/-genetic-regulatory-mechanisms-of-candida-albicans-biofilm-formation
#14
Dongdong Guo, Huizhen Yue, Yujia Wei, Guanghua Huang
Candida albicans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans. Phenotypic plasticity is a typical biological feature of C. albicans, which is associated with pathogenicity, host adaptation, and sexual reproduction. Biofilm of C. albicans is a complex community formed by different morphological types of cells (yeast, hyphae and pseudohyphae) and secreted extracellular matrix. C. albicans biofilms are intrinsically resistant to antifungal drugs, the host immune system, and environmental stresses. Biofilm is an important virulence factor and a major clinical challenge...
September 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931430/global-proteomic-profiling-of-yersinia-ruckeri-strains
#15
Gokhlesh Kumar, Karin Hummel, Timothy J Welch, Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli, Mansour El-Matbouli
Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM) of salmonids. There is little information regarding the proteomics of Y. ruckeri. Herein, we perform whole protein identification and quantification of biotype 1 and biotype 2 strains of Y. ruckeri grown under standard culture conditions using a shotgun proteomic approach. Proteins were extracted, digested and peptides were separated by a nano liquid chromatography system and analyzed with a high-resolution hybrid triple quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer coupled via a nano ESI interface...
September 20, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904995/distribution-of-o-acetylated-sialic-acids-among-target-host-tissues-for-influenza-virus
#16
Brian R Wasik, Karen N Barnard, Robert J Ossiboff, Zahra Khedri, Kurtis H Feng, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Daniel R Perez, Ajit Varki, Colin R Parrish
Sialic acids (Sias) are important glycans displayed on the cells and tissues of many different animals and are frequent targets for binding and modification by pathogens, including influenza viruses. Influenza virus hemagglutinins bind Sias during the infection of their normal hosts, while the encoded neuraminidases and/or esterases remove or modify the Sia to allow virion release or to prevent rebinding. Sias naturally occur in a variety of modified forms, and modified Sias can alter influenza virus host tropisms through their altered interactions with the viral glycoproteins...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877472/alpk1-and-tifa-dependent-innate-immune-response-triggered-by-the-helicobacter-pylori-type-iv-secretion-system
#17
Stephanie Zimmermann, Lennart Pfannkuch, Munir A Al-Zeer, Sina Bartfeld, Manuel Koch, Jianping Liu, Cindy Rechner, Meike Soerensen, Olga Sokolova, Alla Zamyatina, Paul Kosma, André P Mäurer, Frithjof Glowinski, Klaus-Peter Pleissner, Monika Schmid, Volker Brinkmann, Alexander Karlas, Michael Naumann, Marion Rother, Nikolaus Machuy, Thomas F Meyer
Activation of transcription factor NF-κB is a hallmark of infection with the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis. Genome-wide RNAi screening revealed numerous host factors involved in H. pylori-, but not IL-1β- and TNF-α-dependent NF-κB regulation. Pathway analysis including CRISPR/Cas9-knockout and recombinant protein technology, immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting, mass spectrometry, and mutant H. pylori strains identified the H. pylori metabolite D-glycero-β-D-manno-heptose 1,7-bisphosphate (βHBP) as a cagPAI type IV secretion system (T4SS)-dependent effector of NF-κB activation in infected cells...
September 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875943/molecular-mechanisms-used-by-salmonella-to-evade-the-immune-system
#18
Joaquín Bernal-Bayard, Francisco Ramos-Morales
Human and animal pathogens are able to circumvent, at least temporarily, the sophisticated immune defenses of their hosts. Several serovars of the Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica have been used as models for the study of pathogen-host interactions. In this review we discuss the strategies used by Salmonella to evade or manipulate three levels of host immune defenses: physical barriers, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. During its passage through the digestive system, Salmonella has to face the acidic pH of the stomach, bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestine, as well as the competition with resident microbiota...
September 6, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874682/hydrogen-peroxide-dynamics-in-subcellular-compartments-of-malaria-parasites-using-genetically-encoded-redox-probes
#19
Mahsa Rahbari, Stefan Rahlfs, Jude M Przyborski, Anna Katharina Schuh, Nicholas H Hunt, David A Fidock, Georges E Grau, Katja Becker
Redox balance is essential for the survival, growth and multiplication of malaria parasites and oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of action of many antimalarial drugs. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays an important role in redox signalling and pathogen-host cell interactions. For monitoring intra- and subcellular redox events, highly sensitive and specific probes are required. Here, we stably expressed the ratiometric H2O2 redox sensor roGFP2-Orp1 in the cytosol and the mitochondria of Plasmodium falciparum (P...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860554/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-the-host-selection-fitness-mechanisms-of-the-rhizoctonia-solani-ag1ia-pathogen
#20
Yuan Xia, Binghong Fei, Jiayu He, Menglin Zhou, Danhua Zhang, Linxiu Pan, Shuangcheng Li, Yueyang Liang, Lingxia Wang, Jianqing Zhu, Ping Li, Aiping Zheng
Rhizoctonia solani AG1IA is a major generalist pathogen that causes sheath blight. Its genome, which was the first to be sequenced from the Rhizoctonia genus, may serve as a model for studying pathogenic mechanisms. To explore the pathogen-host fitness mechanism of sheath-blight fungus, a comprehensive comparative transcriptome ecotype analysis of R. solani AG1IA isolated from rice, soybean and corn during infection was performed. Special characteristics in gene expression, gene ontology terms and expression of pathogenesis-associated genes, including genes encoding secreted proteins, candidate effectors, hydrolases, and proteins involved in secondary metabolite production and the MAPK pathway, were revealed...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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