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Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Pardeep Kumar, F Matthew Kuhlmann, Kirandeep Bhullar, Hyungjun Yang, Bruce A Vallance, Lijun Xia, Qingwei Luo, James M Fleckenstein
At present, there is no vaccine for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), an important cause of diarrheal illness. Nevertheless, recent microbial pathogenesis studies have identified a number of molecules produced by ETEC that contribute to its virulence and which provide novel antigenic targets to complement canonical vaccine approaches. EtpA is a secreted two-partner adhesin, that is conserved within the ETEC pathovar. EtpA interacts with the tips of ETEC flagella to promote bacterial adhesion, toxin delivery and intestinal colonization by forming molecular bridges between the bacteria and the epithelial surface...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Yujing Bi
As a pathogen of plague, Yersinia pestis caused three massive pandemics in history that killed hundreds of millions of people. Yersinia pestis is highly invasive, causing severe septicemia which, if untreated, is usually fatal to its host. To survive in the host and maintain a persistent infection, Yersinia pestis uses several stratagems to evade the innate and the adaptive immune responses. For example, infections with this organism are biphasic, involving an initial "noninflammatory" phase where bacterial replication occurs initially with little inflammation and following by extensive phagocyte influx, inflammatory cytokine production, and considerable tissue destruction, which is called "proinflammatory" phase...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Łukasz Hołubiuk, Jacek Imiela
Helicobacter pylori infection has accompanied man for thousands of years. In some infected patients, a complex and dynamic pathogen-host reaction triggers pathogenic pathways resulting in development, inter alia, of atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (both gastric and duodenal), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Large-scale eradication therapy is associated with a rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, gut flora composition disturbances, and increased risk of development, inter alia, of paediatric infectious diarrhoeas, atopic diseases, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma...
2016: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Yanan Li, Zhongjia Jiang, Di Xue, Guangcun Deng, Min Li, Xiaoming Liu, Yujiong Wang
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is a species of Mycoplasma bacteria that specifically infects sheep and goat, causing ovine infectious pleuropneumonia. However, the mechanism underlying the pathogen-host interaction between M. ovipneumoniae and airway epithelial cells is unknown. METHODS: A primary air-liquid interface (ALI) epithelial culture model generated from the bronchial epithelial cells of Ningxia Tan sheep (ovis aries) was employed to explore the potential mechanism of M...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Héloïse Lucaccioni, Laurent Granjon, Ambroise Dalecky, Odile Fossati, Jean Le Fur, Jean-Marc Duplantier, Pascal Handschumacher
In the contemporary context of zoonosis emergence and spread, invasive species are a major issue since they represent potential pathogen hosts. Even though many progresses have been done to understand and predict spatial patterns of invasive species, the challenge to identify the underlying determinants of their distribution remains a central question in invasion biology. This is particularly exacerbated in the case of commensal species that strictly depend on humankind for dispersal and perennial establishment of new populations...
2016: PloS One
Yann Dussert, Jérôme Gouzy, Sylvie Richart-Cervera, Isabelle D Mazet, Laurent Delière, Carole Couture, Ludovic Legrand, Marie-Christine Piron, Pere Mestre, François Delmotte
Plasmopara viticola is a biotrophic pathogenic oomycete responsible for grapevine downy mildew. We present here the first draft of the P. viticola genome. Analysis of this sequence will help in understanding plant-pathogen interactions in oomycetes, especially pathogen host specialization and adaptation to host resistance.
2016: Genome Announcements
Alison J Scott, Bryn Flinders, Joanna Cappell, Tao Liang, Rebecca S Pelc, Bao Tran, David P A Kilgour, Ron M A Heeren, David R Goodlett, Robert K Ernst
The discovery of novel pathogenic mechanisms engaged during bacterial infections requires the evolution of advanced techniques. Here, we evaluate the dual polarity matrix norharmane (NRM) to improve detection of bacterial lipid A (endotoxin), from host and vector tissues infected with Francisella novicida (Fn). We evaluated NRM for improved detection and characterization of a wide range of lipids in both positive and negative polarities, including lipid A and phospholipids across a range of matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI)-coupled applications...
September 19, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Xie Jianping, Han Yubo, Liu Gang, Bai Linquan
In 2015, there are significant progresses in many aspects of the microbial genetics in China. To showcase the contribution of Chinese scientists in microbial genetics, this review surveys several notable progresses in microbial genetics made largely by Chinese scientists, and some key findings are highlighted. For the basic microbial genetics, the components, structures and functions of many macromolecule complexes involved in gene expression regulation have been elucidated. Moreover, the molecular basis underlying the recognition of foreign nucleic acids by microbial immune systems was unveiled...
September 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Rinat Tardi-Ovadia, Raphael Linker, Leah Tsror
Fungi can modify the pH in and/or around the infected site via alkalinization or acidification and pH monitoring may provide valuable information on host-fungus interactions. The objective of the present study was to examine the ability of two fungi, Colletotrichum coccodes and Helminthosporium solani, to modify the pH of potato tuber during artificial inoculation in situ. Both fungi cause blemishes on potato tubers which downgrade tuber quality and yield. Direct visualization and estimation of pH change near the inoculation area were achieved using pH indicators and image analysis...
September 19, 2016: Phytopathology
Charles L Raison, Andrew H Miller
Significant attention has been paid to the potential adaptive value of depression as it relates to interactions with people in the social world. However, in this review, we outline the rationale of why certain features of depression including its environmental and genetic risk factors, its association with the acute phase response and its age of onset and female preponderance appear to have evolved from human interactions with pathogens in the microbial world. Approaching the relationship between inflammation and depression from this evolutionary perspective yields a number of insights that may reveal important clues regarding the origin and epidemiology of the disorder as well as the persistence of its risk alleles in the modern human genome...
October 12, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Daniel Andritschke, Sabrina Dilling, Mario Emmenlauer, Tobias Welz, Fabian Schmich, Benjamin Misselwitz, Pauli Rämö, Klemens Rottner, Eugen Kerkhoff, Teiji Wada, Josef M Penninger, Niko Beerenwinkel, Peter Horvath, Christoph Dehio, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Tm) is a leading cause of diarrhea. The disease is triggered by pathogen invasion into the gut epithelium. Invasion is attributed to the SPI-1 type 3 secretion system (T1). T1 injects effector proteins into epithelial cells and thereby elicits rearrangements of the host cellular actin cytoskeleton and pathogen invasion. The T1 effector proteins SopE, SopB, SopE2 and SipA are contributing to this. However, the host cell factors contributing to invasion are still not completely understood...
2016: PloS One
Carrie A Cowardin, Erica L Buonomo, Mahmoud M Saleh, Madeline G Wilson, Stacey L Burgess, Sarah A Kuehne, Carsten Schwan, Anna M Eichhoff, Friedrich Koch-Nolte, Dena Lyras, Klaus Aktories, Nigel P Minton, William A Petri
Clostridium difficile is the most common hospital acquired pathogen in the USA, and infection is, in many cases, fatal. Toxins A and B are its major virulence factors, but expression of a third toxin, known as C. difficile transferase (CDT), is increasingly common. An adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosyltransferase that causes actin cytoskeletal disruption, CDT is typically produced by the major, hypervirulent strains and has been associated with more severe disease. Here, we show that CDT enhances the virulence of two PCR-ribotype 027 strains in mice...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Yang Luo, Erica Y Jacobs, Todd M Greco, Kevin D Mohammed, Tommy Tong, Sarah Keegan, James M Binley, Ileana M Cristea, David Fenyö, Michael P Rout, Brian T Chait, Mark A Muesing
Although genetically compact, HIV-1 commandeers vast arrays of cellular machinery to sustain and protect it during cycles of viral outgrowth. Transposon-mediated saturation linker scanning mutagenesis was used to isolate fully replication-competent viruses harbouring a potent foreign epitope tag. Using these viral isolates, we performed differential isotopic labelling and affinity-capture mass spectrometric analyses on samples obtained from cultures of human lymphocytes to classify the vicinal interactomes of the viral Env and Vif proteins as they occur during natural infection...
May 23, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Carina Félix, Ana S Duarte, Rui Vitorino, Ana C L Guerreiro, Pedro Domingues, António C M Correia, Artur Alves, Ana C Esteves
Environmental alterations modulate host-microorganism interactions. Little is known about how climate changes can trigger pathogenic features on symbiont or mutualistic microorganisms. Current climate models predict increased environmental temperatures. The exposing of phytopathogens to these changing conditions can have particularly relevant consequences for economically important species and for humans. The impact on pathogen/host interaction and the shift on their biogeographical range can induce different levels of virulence in new hosts, allowing massive losses in agricultural and health fields...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jie Li, Qi-Yao Chai, Cui Hua Liu
The ubiquitin system comprises enzymes that are responsible for ubiquitination and deubiquitination, as well as ubiquitin receptors that are capable of recognizing and deciphering the ubiquitin code, which act in coordination to regulate almost all host cellular processes, including host-pathogen interactions. In response to pathogen infection, the host innate immune system launches an array of distinct antimicrobial activities encompassing inflammatory signaling, phagosomal maturation, autophagy and apoptosis, all of which are fine-tuned by the ubiquitin system to eradicate the invading pathogens and to reduce concomitant host damage...
September 2016: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Andreas Porse, Kristian Schønning, Christian Munck, Morten O A Sommer
Large conjugative plasmids are important drivers of bacterial evolution and contribute significantly to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Although plasmid borne multidrug resistance is recognized as one of the main challenges in modern medicine, the adaptive forces shaping the evolution of these plasmids within pathogenic hosts are poorly understood. Here we study plasmid-host adaptations following transfer of a 73 kb conjugative multidrug resistance plasmid to naïve clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli...
November 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Damián Lobato-Márquez, Ramón Díaz-Orejas, Francisco García-Del Portillo
Bacterial virulence relies on a delicate balance of signals interchanged between the invading microbe and the host. This communication has been extensively perceived as a battle involving harmful molecules produced by the pathogen and host defenses. In this review, we focus on a largely unexplored element of this dialogue, as are toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems of the pathogen. TA systems are reported to respond to stresses that are also found in the host and, as a consequence, could modulate the physiology of the intruder microbe...
September 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Francisco Amil-Ruiz, José Garrido-Gala, José Gadea, Rosario Blanco-Portales, Antonio Muñoz-Mérida, Oswaldo Trelles, Berta de Los Santos, Francisco T Arroyo, Ana Aguado-Puig, Fernando Romero, José-Ángel Mercado, Fernando Pliego-Alfaro, Juan Muñoz-Blanco, José L Caballero
Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ursula Schell, Sylvia Simon, Hubert Hilbi
The Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila colonizes extracellular environmental niches and infects free-living protozoa. Upon inhalation into the human lung, the opportunistic pathogen grows in macrophages and causes a fulminant pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. L. pneumophila employs a biphasic life cycle, comprising a replicative, non-virulent, and a stationary, virulent form. In the latter phase, the pathogen produces a plethora of so-called effector proteins, which are injected into host cells, where they subvert pivotal processes and promote the formation of a distinct membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole...
2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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