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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636447/emerging-viral-infections-in-pakistan-issues-concerns-and-future-prospects
#1
Ali Talha Khalil, Muhammad Ali, Faouzia Tanveer, Muhammad Ovais, Muhammad Idrees, Zabta Khan Shinwari, James E Hollenbeck
Emerging infectious diseases pose a serious threat to public health security; this is especially true in the underdeveloped world because of limited resources to combat them. These emerging pathogens are characterized by a novel mode of pathogenesis and, in some cases, a broad host range. Over the past few decades, Pakistan has suffered a great deal from infectious diseases such as dengue, Crimean-Congo fever, hepatitis, measles, and polio. Changing climate conditions, environmental degradation, global warming, loss of biodiversity, and other ecological determinants have a direct effect on these diseases and result in the emergence and reemergence of infectious entities...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583210/long-read-sequencing-improves-assembly-of-trichinella-genomes-10-fold-revealing-substantial-synteny-between-lineages-diverged-over-7-million-years
#3
Peter C Thompson, Dante S Zarlenga, Ming-Yuan Liu, Benjamin M Rosenthal
Genome assemblies can form the basis of comparative analyses fostering insight into the evolutionary genetics of a parasite's pathogenicity, host-pathogen interactions, environmental constraints and invasion biology; however, the length and complexity of many parasite genomes has hampered the development of well-resolved assemblies. In order to improve Trichinella genome assemblies, the genome of the sylvatic encapsulated species Trichinella murrelli was sequenced using third-generation, long-read technology and, using syntenic comparisons, scaffolded to a reference genome assembly of Trichinella spiralis, markedly improving both...
June 6, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553017/capsular-polysaccharide-is-a-main-component-of-mycoplasma-ovipneumoniae-in-the-pathogen-induced-toll-like-receptor-mediated-inflammatory-responses-in-sheep-airway-epithelial-cells
#4
Zhongjia Jiang, Fuyang Song, Yanan Li, Di Xue, Guangcun Deng, Min Li, Xiaoming Liu, Yujiong Wang
Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is characterized as an etiological agent of primary atypical pneumonia that specifically infects sheep and goat. In an attempt to better understand the pathogen-host interaction between the invading M. ovipneumoniae and airway epithelial cells, we investigated the host inflammatory responses against capsular polysaccharide (designated as CPS) of M. ovipneumoniae using sheep bronchial epithelial cells cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI) model. Results showed that CPS derived from M...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534105/bacterial-diversity-of-cosmopolitan-culex-pipiens-and-invasive-aedes-japonicus-from-germany
#5
Sina Zotzmann, Antje Steinbrink, Kathrin Schleich, Felix Frantzmann, Chinhda Xoumpholphakdy, Manuela Spaeth, Claire Valiente Moro, Patrick Mavingui, Sven Klimpel
Symbiotic bacteria have gained significant attention in recent years. For example, microbiota of some mosquito species seems to influence the development and transmission of pathogens. Furthermore, several attempts using bacteria as a paratransgenetic tool have been made in order to assist the control of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, we examined the bacterial diversity of wild-caught adult Culex (Cx.) pipiens and laboratory-reared adult Aedes japonicus (Ae. japonicus) in Germany using a culture-independent method...
July 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531298/evolution-of-bacterial-virulence
#6
Médéric Diard, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
Bacterial virulence is highly dynamic and context-dependent. For this reason, it is challenging to predict how molecular changes affect the growth of a pathogen in a host and its spread in host population. Two schools of thought have taken quite different directions to decipher the underlying principles of bacterial virulence. While molecular infection biology is focusing on the basic mechanisms of the pathogen-host interaction, evolution biology takes virulence as one of several parameters affecting pathogen spread in a host population...
May 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531227/different-microrna-profiles-reveal-the-diverse-outcomes-induced-by-ev71-and-ca16-infection-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#7
Jie Song, Yajie Hu, Jiaqi Li, Huiwen Zheng, Jingjing Wang, Lei Guo, Ruotong Ning, Hongzhe Li, Zening Yang, Haitao Fan, Longding Liu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) remain the predominant pathogens in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but the factors underlying the pathogenesis of EV71 and CA16 infections have not been elucidated. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. In the present study, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531220/highly-conserved-type-1-pili-promote-enterotoxigenic-e-coli-pathogen-host-interactions
#8
Alaullah Sheikh, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Yasmin Ara Begum, F Matthew Kuhlman, Matthew A Ciorba, Scott J Hultgren, Firdausi Qadri, James M Fleckenstein
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), defined by their elaboration of heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins, are a common cause of diarrheal illness in developing countries. Efficient delivery of these toxins requires ETEC to engage target host enterocytes. This engagement is accomplished using a variety of pathovar-specific and conserved E. coli adhesin molecules as well as plasmid encoded colonization factors. Some of these adhesins undergo significant transcriptional modulation as ETEC encounter intestinal epithelia, perhaps suggesting that they cooperatively facilitate interaction with the host...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524855/viral-hijacking-of-host-caspases-an-emerging-category-of-pathogen-host-interactions
#9
REVIEW
Patrick F Connolly, Howard O Fearnhead
Viruses co-evolve with their hosts, and many viruses have developed mechanisms to suppress or modify the host cell apoptotic response for their own benefit. Recently, evidence has emerged for the opposite strategy. Some viruses have developed the ability to co-opt apoptotic caspase activity to facilitate their own proliferation. In these strategies, viral proteins are cleaved by host caspases to create cleavage products with novel activities which facilitate viral replication. This represents a novel and interesting class of viral-host interactions, and also represents a new group of non-apoptotic roles for caspases...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512348/adaptive-evolution-of-proteins-in-hepatitis-b-virus-during-divergence-of-genotypes
#10
Shengdi Li, Zhen Wang, Yixue Li, Guohui Ding
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is classified into several genotypes, correlated with different geographic distributions, clinical outcomes and susceptible human populations. It is crucial to investigate the evolutionary significance behind the diversification of HBV genotypes, because it improves our understanding of their pathological differences and pathogen-host interactions. Here, we performed comprehensive analysis of HBV genome sequences collected from public database. With a stringent criteria, we generated a dataset of 2992 HBV genomes from eight major genotypes...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507553/virus-bacteria-rice-co-infection-in-africa-field-estimation-reciprocal-effects-molecular-mechanisms-and-evolutionary-implications
#11
Charlotte Tollenaere, Severine Lacombe, Issa Wonni, Mariam Barro, Cyrielle Ndougonna, Fatoumata Gnacko, Drissa Sérémé, Jonathan M Jacobs, Eugénie Hebrard, Sebastien Cunnac, Christophe Brugidou
Simultaneous infection of a single plant by various pathogen species is increasingly recognized as an important modulator of host resistance and a driver of pathogen evolution. Because plants in agro-ecosystems are the target of a multitude of pathogenic microbes, co-infection could be frequent, and consequently important to consider. This is particularly true for rapidly intensifying crops, such as rice in Africa. This study investigated potential interactions between pathogens causing two of the major rice diseases in Africa: the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) and the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzicola (Xoc) in order to: 1/ document virus-bacteria co-infection in rice in the field, 2/ explore experimentally their consequences in terms of symptom development and pathogen multiplication, 3/ test the hypothesis of underlying molecular mechanisms of interactions and 4/ explore potential evolutionary consequences...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494759/time-resolved-dual-transcriptomics-reveal-early-induced-nicotiana-benthamiana-root-genes-and-conserved-infection-promoting-phytophthora-palmivora-effectors
#12
Edouard Evangelisti, Anna Gogleva, Thomas Hainaux, Mehdi Doumane, Frej Tulin, Clément Quan, Temur Yunusov, Kévin Floch, Sebastian Schornack
BACKGROUND: Plant-pathogenic oomycetes are responsible for economically important losses in crops worldwide. Phytophthora palmivora, a tropical relative of the potato late blight pathogen, causes rotting diseases in many tropical crops including papaya, cocoa, oil palm, black pepper, rubber, coconut, durian, mango, cassava and citrus. Transcriptomics have helped to identify repertoires of host-translocated microbial effector proteins which counteract defenses and reprogram the host in support of infection...
May 11, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486484/the-rhizoctonia-solani-ag1-ib-isolate-7-3-14-transcriptome-during-interaction-with-the-host-plant-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l
#13
Bart Verwaaijen, Daniel Wibberg, Magdalena Kröber, Anika Winkler, Rita Zrenner, Hanna Bednarz, Karsten Niehaus, Rita Grosch, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter
The necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most economically important soil-borne pathogens of crop plants. Isolates of R. solani AG1-IB are the major pathogens responsible for bottom-rot of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and are also responsible for diseases in other plant species. Currently, there is lack of information regarding the molecular responses in R. solani during the pathogenic interaction between the necrotrophic soil-borne pathogen and its host plant. The genome of R. solani AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14) was recently established to obtain insights into its putative pathogenicity determinants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473725/epidemiological-clinical-and-virologic-features-of-two-family-clusters-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-infections-in-southeast-china
#14
Jianfeng Xie, Yuwei Weng, Jianming Ou, Lin Zhao, Yanhua Zhang, Jinzhang Wang, Wei Chen, Meng Huang, Wenqiong Xiu, Hongbin Chen, Yongjun Zhang, Binshan Wu, Wenxiang He, Ying Zhu, Libin You, Zhimiao Huang, Canming Zhang, Longtao Hong, Wei Wang, Kuicheng Zheng
This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological, clinical, and virologic characteristics of avian influenza A (H7N9) confirmed cases from two family clusters in Southeast China. Epidemiological data of the H7N9 confirmed cases and their close contacts were obtained through interviews and reviews of medical records. Of the four patients in these two family clusters, two cases had mild symptoms, one had severe symptoms, and one died. Three of the four patients had a history of exposure to live poultry or contaminated environments...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448019/a-tandem-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-approach-for-metabolite-analysis-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
David J Samuels, Zhe Wang, Kyu Y Rhee, Shaun R Brinsmade
In an effort to thwart bacterial pathogens, hosts often limit the availability of nutrients at the site of infection. This limitation can alter the abundances of key metabolites to which regulatory factors respond, adjusting cellular metabolism. In recent years, a number of proteins and RNA have emerged as important regulators of virulence gene expression. For example, the CodY protein responds to levels of branched-chain amino acids and GTP and is widely conserved in low G+C Gram-positive bacteria. As a global regulator in Staphylococcus aureus, CodY controls the expression of dozens of virulence and metabolic genes...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447026/genome-dynamics-of-escherichia-coli-during-antibiotic-treatment-transfer-loss-and-persistence-of-genetic-elements-in-situ-of-the-infant-gut
#16
Andreas Porse, Heidi Gumpert, Jessica Z Kubicek-Sutherland, Nahid Karami, Ingegerd Adlerberth, Agnes E Wold, Dan I Andersson, Morten O A Sommer
Elucidating the adaptive strategies and plasticity of bacterial genomes in situ is crucial for understanding the epidemiology and evolution of pathogens threatening human health. While much is known about the evolution of Escherichia coli in controlled laboratory environments, less effort has been made to elucidate the genome dynamics of E. coli in its native settings. Here, we follow the genome dynamics of co-existing E. coli lineages in situ of the infant gut during the first year of life. One E. coli lineage causes a urinary tract infection (UTI) and experiences several alterations of its genomic content during subsequent antibiotic treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438921/null-expectations-for-disease-dynamics-in-shrinking-habitat-dilution-or-amplification
#17
Christina L Faust, Andrew P Dobson, Nicole Gottdenker, Laura S P Bloomfield, Hamish I McCallum, Thomas R Gillespie, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Raina K Plowright
As biodiversity declines with anthropogenic land-use change, it is increasingly important to understand how changing biodiversity affects infectious disease risk. The dilution effect hypothesis, which points to decreases in biodiversity as critical to an increase in infection risk, has received considerable attention due to the allure of a win-win scenario for conservation and human well-being. Yet some empirical data suggest that the dilution effect is not a generalizable phenomenon. We explore the response of pathogen transmission dynamics to changes in biodiversity that are driven by habitat loss using an allometrically scaled multi-host model...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421074/immunometabolic-phenotype-alterations-associated-with-the-induction-of-disease-tolerance-and-persistent-asymptomatic-infection-of-salmonella-in-the-chicken-intestine
#18
REVIEW
Michael H Kogut, Ryan J Arsenault
The adaptation of Salmonella enterica to the eukaryotic host is a key process that enables the bacterium to survive in a hostile environment. Salmonella have evolved an intimate relationship with its host that extends to their cellular and molecular levels. Colonization, invasion, and replication of the bacteria in an appropriate host suggest that modification of host functions is central to pathogenesis. Intuitively, this subversion of the cell must be a complex process, since hosts are not inherently programmed to provide an environment conducive to pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401063/scm-the-m-protein-of-streptococcus-canis-binds-immunoglobulin-g
#19
Simone Bergmann, Inga Eichhorn, Thomas P Kohler, Sven Hammerschmidt, Oliver Goldmann, Manfred Rohde, Marcus Fulde
The M protein of Streptococcus canis (SCM) is a virulence factor and serves as a surface-associated receptor with a particular affinity for mini-plasminogen, a cleavage product of the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin. Here, we report that SCM has an additional high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding activity. The ability of a particular S. canis isolate to bind to IgG significantly correlates with a scm-positive phenotype, suggesting a dominant role of SCM as an IgG receptor. Subsequent heterologous expression of SCM in non-IgG binding S...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399208/acquisition-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-infection-by-larval-ixodes-scapularis-acari-ixodidae-associated-with-engorgement-measures
#20
J Couret, M C Dyer, T N Mather, S Han, J I Tsao, R A Lebrun, H S Ginsberg
Measuring rates of acquisition of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner, by the larval stage of Ixodes scapularis Say is a useful tool for xenodiagnoses of B. burgdorferi in vertebrate hosts. In the nymphal and adult stages of I. scapularis, the duration of attachment to hosts has been shown to predict both body engorgement during blood feeding and the timing of infection with B. burgdorferi. However, these relationships have not been established for the larval stage of I...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
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