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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749057/how-long-a-life-is-enough-life
#1
Daniel Callahan, Willard Gaylin
Humans have long been troubled by the prospect of old age and its culmination in death. Whether to rebel against or accept this fate have been wrestled with down through the centuries. But new medical technologies and the growing science of aging have sided with rebellion. We know that aging can be pushed back and improved in its quality. That progress is well under way, but now intensified by many scientists and Silicon Valley entrepreneurs. In 2016, Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan pledged three billion dollars toward eventually "preventing, curing or managing all diseases...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748095/the-origin-of-mathematics-and-number-sense-in-the-cerebellum-with-implications-for-finger-counting-and-dyscalculia
#2
Larry Vandervert
BACKGROUND: Mathematicians and scientists have struggled to adequately describe the ultimate foundations of mathematics. Nobel laureates Albert Einstein and Eugene Wigner were perplexed by this issue, with Wigner concluding that the workability of mathematics in the real world is a mystery we cannot explain. In response to this classic enigma, the major purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical model of the ultimate origin of mathematics and "number sense" (as defined by S. Dehaene) that is proposed to involve the learning of inverse dynamics models through the collaboration of the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex (but prominently cerebellum-driven)...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747542/meta-analysis-showing-that-ercc1-polymorphism-is-predictive-of-osteosarcoma-prognosis
#3
REVIEW
Xueyong Liu, Zhan Zhang, Chunbo Deng, Yihao Tian, Xun Ma
To investigate correlations between excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and 2 (ERCC2) polymorphisms and osteosarcoma prognosis, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies published through October 2016. Studies were identified in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Web of Science databases using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). Odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival (OS), tumor response (TR), and event-free survival (EFS) were estimated...
July 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747355/the-math-biology-values-instrument-development-of-a-tool-to-measure-life-science-majors-task-values-of-using-math-in-the-context-of-biology
#4
Sarah E Andrews, Christopher Runyon, Melissa L Aikens
In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students' personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747353/effectiveness-of-a-low-cost-graduate-student-led-intervention-on-study-habits-and-performance-in-introductory-biology
#5
Tyler D Hoskins, J D Gantz, Blake R Chaffee, Kel Arlinghaus, James Wiebler, Michael Hughes, Joyce J Fernandes
Institutions have developed diverse approaches that vary in effectiveness and cost to improve student performance in introductory science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. We developed a low-cost, graduate student-led, metacognition-based study skills course taught in conjunction with the introductory biology series at Miami University. Our approach aimed to improve performance for underachieving students by combining an existing framework for the process of learning (the study cycle) with concrete tools (outlines and concept maps) that have been shown to encourage deep understanding...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747293/improving-employee-well-being-and-effectiveness-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-web-based-psychological-interventions-delivered-in-the-workplace
#6
Stephany Carolan, Peter R Harris, Kate Cavanagh
BACKGROUND: Stress, depression, and anxiety among working populations can result in reduced work performance and increased absenteeism. Although there is evidence that these common mental health problems are preventable and treatable in the workplace, uptake of psychological treatments among the working population is low. One way to address this may be the delivery of occupational digital mental health interventions. While there is convincing evidence for delivering digital psychological interventions within a health and community context, there is no systematic review or meta-analysis of these interventions in an occupational setting...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746344/treatment-initiation-among-persons-diagnosed-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#7
Denise Evans, Kathryn Schnippel, Caroline Govathson, Tembeka Sineke, Andrew Black, Lawrence Long, Rebecca Berhanu, Sydney Rosen
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, roughly half of the drug-resistant TB cases diagnosed are reported to have been started on treatment. We determined the proportion of persons diagnosed with rifampicin resistant (RR-) TB who initiated treatment in Johannesburg after the introduction of decentralized RR-TB care in 2011. METHODS: We retrospectively matched adult patients diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed RR-TB in Johannesburg from 07/2011-06/2012 with records of patients initiating RR-TB treatment at one of the city's four public sector treatment sites (one centralized, three decentralized)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746071/toward-a-utopian-model-for-teaching-and-nonteaching-services-every-journey-begins-with-a-first-step
#8
Lisa M Bellini, Jack Ende
Nonteaching services are an imperfect step toward enabling inpatient teaching services to transition from an unregulated, natural state, driven solely by the exigencies of patient volume and throughput, to one that is more controlled and intends to achieve the proper balance between service and education. As career educators the authors prefer to view nonteaching services as critical components of an integrated system that enables the best possible patient care and learning, yet they acknowledge that, to meet the needs of patients and learners, teaching and nonteaching services alike must be truly complementary, collaborative, and integrated components of a single system...
July 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745551/institutional-profile-of-pharmacogenetics-within-university-of-michigan-college-of-pharmacy
#9
Daniel L Hertz, Jasmine A Luzum, Amy L Pasternak, Kristen M Ward, Hao-Jie Zhu, James M Rae, Vicki L Ellingrod
The University of Michigan College of Pharmacy has made substantial investment in the area of pharmacogenomics to further bolster its activity in pharmacogenomics research, implementation and education. Four tenure-track faculty members have active research programs that focus primarily on the discovery of functional polymorphisms (HJ Zhu), and genetic associations with treatment outcomes in patients with cancer (DL Hertz), cardiovascular disease (JA Luzum) and psychiatric conditions (VL Ellingrod). Recent investments from the University and the College have accelerated the implementation of pharmacogenetics broadly across the institution and in targeted therapeutic areas...
July 26, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745090/if-smbg-accuracy-is-critical-to-patient-safety-why-are-inaccurate-meters-still-on-the-market
#10
Christopher G Parkin
In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Christiansen and colleagues report results from two studies, laboratory and clinical, that assessed the accuracy of a new blood glucose monitoring system, the Contour®Next ONE (Ascensia Diabetes Care, Parsippany, NJ, USA). The new system comprises a blood glucose meter that can link (via Bluetooth®) to the Contour™ Diabetes app, which operates on a smartphone or tablet. Results from both studies showed that the system exceeded the accuracy standards defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013...
May 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745067/participants-understanding-of-informed-consent-for-biobanking-a-systematic-review
#11
Elizabeth R Eisenhauer, Alan R Tait, Soo Young Rieh, Cynthia M Arslanian-Engoren
Nurses are increasingly asked to obtain consent from participants for biobanking studies. Biobanking has added unique complexities to informed consent. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate participants' level of understanding of the information presented during the informed consent process unique to the donation of biological specimens for research. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were utilized to conduct the review. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest bibliographic databases were searched...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743855/evaluation-of-an-occupational-health-educational-program-based-on-alumni-perceptions-in-iran-structural-equation-model
#12
Semira Mehralizadeh, Alireza Dehdashti, Masoud Motalebi Kashani
Purpose: Evaluating educational program can improve the quality of education that learners receive. The present study evaluated undergraduate occupational health educational program at Medical sciences university of Semnan, Iran, focused on the associations between alumni perceptions of learning environment and outcomes in occupational health program. Methods: cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among alumni of occupational health enrolled in an undergraduate program...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743835/adoptive-immunotherapy-shows-encouraging-benefit-on-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Binghao Zhao, Wenxiong Zhang, Dongliang Yu, Jianjun Xu, Yiping Wei
Although adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) is a novel emerging target treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), its actual efficacy remains controversial. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of AIT for NSCLC. We systematically searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, and Web of Science for relevant parallel randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and high-quality observation studies of AIT without any language restrictions. Two investigators reviewed all the texts and extracted information regarding overall survival rate (OS), progression-free survival rate (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR) from eligible studies; sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses were also conducted to reduce heterogeneityOf 319 suitable studies, 15 studies (13 RCTs and 2 observation studies) involving 1684 patients were finally included...
July 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743591/terminology-supported-archiving-and-publication-of-environmental-science-data-in-pangaea-open-access
#14
Michael Diepenbroek, Uwe Schindler, Robert Huber, Stéphane Pesant, Markus Stocker, Janine Felden, Melanie Buss, Matthias Weinrebe
Exemplified on the information system PANGAEA, we describe the application of terminologies for archiving and publishing environmental science data. A Terminology Catalogue (TC) was embedded into the system, with interfaces allowing to replicate and to manually work on terminologies. For data ingest and archiving, we show how the TC can improve structuring and harmonizing lineage and content descriptions of data sets. Key is the conceptualization of measurement and observation types (parameters) and methods, for which we have implemented a basic syntax and rule set...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742984/single-versus-combined-immunoregulatory-approach-using-pd-1-and-ctla-4-modulators-in-controlling-sepsis
#15
Courtney P Rudick, David L Cornell, Devendra K Agrawal
Sepsis is a disease process characterized by an extreme inflammatory response followed by a period of severe immunosuppression. In recent years, there has been improved survival in the initial immune response during systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and compensatory anti-inflammatory response, yet is mostly unchanged with 18-30% mortality during the later stage of sepsis despite numerous Phase 3 clinical trials. Areas covered: This review article presents a critical evaluation of the most promising newer studies aimed at improving the immunosuppressive stage of sepsis...
July 25, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742717/integrating-an-interprofessional-education-experience-into-a-human-physiology-course
#16
Scott Edwards, Patricia E Molina, Kathleen H McDonough, Donald E Mercante, Tina P Gunaldo
PURPOSE: To obtain physician assistant (PA) student perceptions about an interprofessional education (IPE) training experience embedded in a multidisciplinary science course. METHODS: An IPE training experience was integrated into a graduate human physiology course offered to PA, physical therapy, and graduate studies students. The focus of the activity related to the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) competency domains of (1) roles and responsibilities and (2) teams and teamwork...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742309/knowledge-of-rare-diseases-among-health-care-students-%C3%A2-the-effect-of-targeted-education
#17
Kamil Jonas, Marcin Waligóra, Mateusz Hołda, Joanna Sulicka-Grodzicka, Magdalena Strach, Piotr Podolec, Grzegorz Kopeć
BACKGROUND: Poor knowledge on rare diseases (RD) results in a significant delay in their diagnosis and treatment. So far there are no standards of university education in RD. We assessed knowledge on RD among healthcare students and the effectiveness of targeted education. METHODS: We conducted an internet-based survey among students of the faculty of medicine, pharmacy and health sciences. Questions regarded personal information, definition and epidemic data on RD...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742287/quality-of-life-of-intermittent-urinary-catheterization-users-and-their-caregivers-a-scoping-review
#18
Laís Fumincelli, Alessandra Mazzo, José Carlos Amado Martins, Fernando Manuel Dias Henriques, Daniela Cardoso, Manuel Alves Rodrigues
AIMS: This study aimed to examine and map the scientific evidences regarding quality of life in neurogenic bladder patients and consequently their caregivers by means of a scoping review. DESIGN: This is a scoping review proposal of the Joanna Briggs Institute. METHODS: It was conducted to examine and map the scientific evidences about quality of life (QoL) in neurogenic bladder patients and their caregivers, to identify the meanings attributed to QoL and its relation with intermittent urinary catheterization...
August 2017: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741988/comparison-of-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia-intermedia-and-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-in-southern-iran
#19
Sezaneh Haghpanah, Sara Vahdati, Mehran Karimi
Increased life expectancy in patients with β-thalassemia (β-thal) requires healthcare professionals to give greater attention to improving their quality of life (QoL). We aimed to evaluate health-related QoL (HRQoL) and its determinants in patients with β-thal intermedia (β-TI) compared with β-thal major (β-TM). In this cross sectional study, 118 patients with β-TI, referred to the Thalassemia Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, were investigated by convenience sampling from January to June 2014 in southern Iran...
July 25, 2017: Hemoglobin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741747/defending-the-scientific-integrity-of-conservation-policy-processes
#20
Carlos Carroll, Brett Hartl, Gretchen T Goldman, Daniel J Rohlf, Adrian Treves, Jeremy T Kerr, Euan G Ritchie, Richard T Kingsford, Katherine E Gibbs, Martine Maron, James E M Watson
Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration...
July 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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