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Improvement science

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Heinert, S., Del Rios, M., Arya, A., Amirsoltani, R., Quasim, N., Gehm, L., . . . Vanden Hoek, T. (2018). The CHAMPIONS NETWork: Training Chicago high school students as health advocates to improve health equity. Health Promotion Practice. Advance online publication. (Original DOI:10.1177/1524839918757755) In the OnlineFirst version of this article, the funding acknowledgment was omitted. The work described above was supported by the University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, the Pritzker Traubert Family Foundation, and the Baxter International Foundation (grant number 19176)...
March 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Naiding Yang, Jintao Lu, Jinfu Ye
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that individual job characteristics have a significant impact on job burnout, and the process is subject to the regulation of demographic variables. However, the influence path of job characteristics on job burnout is still a "black box". SUBJECTS AND METHODS: On the basis of a systematic literature review by employing Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI and Scopus for required information with the several keywords "Job burnout", "Emotion regulation", "Personality traits", and "Psychological stress", in this study, an improved mine rescue workers-oriented job demands-resources (JD-R) model was put forward...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Christian U Krägeloh, Oleg N Medvedev, Erin M Hill, Craig S Webster, Roger J Booth, Marcus A Henning
Measuring competitiveness is necessary to fully understand variables affecting student learning. The 14-item Revised Competitiveness Index has become a widely used measure to assess trait competitiveness. The current study reports on a Rasch analysis to investigate the psychometric properties of the Revised Competitiveness Index and to improve its precision for international comparisons. Students were recruited from medical studies at a university in New Zealand, undergraduate health sciences courses at another New Zealand university, and a psychology undergraduate class at a university in the United States...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Jinkwon Jun, Soyoung Yoo
Neuroscientific imaging evidence (NIE) has become an integral part of the criminal justice system in the United States. However, in most legal cases, NIE is submitted and used only to mitigate penalties because the court does not recognize it as substantial evidence, considering its lack of reliability. Nevertheless, we here discuss how neuroscience is expected to improve the use of NIE in the legal system. For this purpose, we classified the efforts of neuroscientists into three research strategies: cognitive subtraction, the data-driven approach, and the brain-manipulation approach...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sami S AlAbdulwahab, Shaji John Kachanathu, Abdullah Saad AlSaeed
[Purpose] Academic performance of college students can be impacted by the efficacy of students' ability and teaching methods. It is important to assess the progression of college students' cognitive abilities among different college majors and as they move from junior to senior levels. However, dearth of studies have been examined the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool to determine the aptitude of the perspective students. Therefore, this study assessed cognitive abilities of computer science and ART students...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Masato Uchiyama, Akiko Nagai, Kaori Muto
Genome editing of human embryos could become a fundamental treatment approach for genetic diseases; however, a few technical and ethical issues need to be resolved before its application in clinical settings. Presently, the Japanese government has issued a statement prohibiting human germline editing and emphasizing the need for discussions that include a wide range of perspectives. However, current discussions tend to exclude the general public. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 10,881 general adults and 1044 patients in Japan who indicated that their disease conditions are related to their genetic makeup, and clarified their attitude toward this technology...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
M A Alsalem, A A Zaidan, B B Zaidan, M Hashim, H T Madhloom, N D Azeez, S Alsyisuf
CONTEXT: Acute leukaemia diagnosis is a field requiring automated solutions, tools and methods and the ability to facilitate early detection and even prediction. Many studies have focused on the automatic detection and classification of acute leukaemia and their subtypes to promote enable highly accurate diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to review and analyse literature related to the detection and classification of acute leukaemia. The factors that were considered to improve understanding on the field's various contextual aspects in published studies and characteristics were motivation, open challenges that confronted researchers and recommendations presented to researchers to enhance this vital research area...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Christopher J L Stone, Haris M Vaid, Rajajee Selvam, Allison Ashworth, Andrew Robinson, Geneviève C Digby
Multidisciplinary cancer clinics (MDCCs) are recognized in cancer care as an alternate model of care for lung cancer patients. However, the precise MDCC characteristics that could potentially improve the quality of care in lung cancer care have not been clearly defined. We performed a systematic review of the data regarding MDCCs in the treatment of patients with lung cancer to summarize and evaluate the available evidence and to determine valuable clinic characteristics and projected outcomes. We searched Embase, Cochrane, Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science through April 2017 for studies that included ≥ 2 physician specialties in a MDCC for lung cancer...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Sarah Depaoli, Jitske Tiemensma, John M Felt
The multidimensional graded response model, an item response theory (IRT) model, can be used to improve the assessment of surveys, even when sample sizes are restricted. Typically, health-based survey development utilizes classical statistical techniques (e.g. reliability and factor analysis). In a review of four prominent journals within the field of Health Psychology, we found that IRT-based models were used in less than 10% of the studies examining scale development or assessment. However, implementing IRT-based methods can provide more details about individual survey items, which is useful when determining the final item content of surveys...
January 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Cherian K Kandathil, Emily A Spataro, Katri Laimi, Sami P Moubayed, Sam P Most, Mikhail Saltychev
Importance: While functional rhinoplasty has been broadly studied, to our knowledge no systematic review and meta-analysis of lateral wall repair has been done previously. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of repair of the lateral nasal wall in adult patients with nasal airway obstruction. Data Sources: Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Central, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and reference lists were searched for clinical and observational studies...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Respati W Ranakusuma, Yupitri Pitoyo, Eka D Safitri, Sarah Thorning, Elaine M Beller, Sudigdo Sastroasmoro, Chris B Del Mar
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common acute infection in children. Pain is its most prominent and distressing symptom. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for AOM, although they have only a modest effect in reducing pain at two to three days. There is insufficient evidence for benefits of other treatment options, including systemic corticosteroids. However, systemic corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, and so theoretically could be effective, either alone or as an addition to antibiotics...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Giuseppe Candilio, Emilia De Luca, Angelo Iannicelli, Guido Sciaudone, Gianluca Pellino, Rosario Sacco, Francesco Selvaggi, Giuseppe Sammarco, Gaetano Gallo
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a disabilitating growing condition and represent a challenge for every surgeon. It is associated with the activation of the inflammatory pathway and this may have a negative impact on the natural history of some rheumatic diseases. Bariatric surgery, reducing obesity, could bring to a minor activation of the well-known inflammatory pathway with improvement of these diseases. The aim of this review is to investigate the role of weight loss, achieved through bariatric surgery, in rheumatic diseases...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Karl Payne, Rachel Spruce, Andrew Beggs, Neil Sharma, Anthony Kong, Timothy Martin, Satyesh Parmar, Prav Praveen, Paul Nankivell, Hisham Mehanna
The use of circulating biochemical molecular markers in head and neck cancer holds the promise of improved diagnostics, treatment planning, and posttreatment surveillance. In this review, we provide an introduction for the head and neck surgeon of the basic science, current evidence, and future applications of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a biomarker and liquid biopsy to detect tumor genetic heterogeneity in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
March 15, 2018: Head & Neck
Brian Custer, Shimian Zou, Simone A Glynn, Julie Makani, Claude Tayou Tagny, Magdy El Ekiaby, Ester C Sabino, Nabajyoti Choudhury, Diana Teo, Kenrad Nelson, Emmanuel Peprah, LeShawndra Price, Michael M Engelgau
In April 2017, a workshop sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Division of Blood Diseases and Resources, and the Center for Translation Research and Implementation Science was held to discuss blood availability and transfusion safety in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The purpose of the workshop was to identify research opportunities for implementation science (IS) to improve the availability of safe blood and blood components and transfusion practices in LMICs. IS describes the late stages of the translational research spectrum and studies optimal and sustainable strategies to deliver proven-effective interventions...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
Salehoddin Bouya, Maryam Koochakzai, Hosein Rafiemanesh, Abbas Balouchi, Safiyeh Taheri, Mahin Badakhsh, Mahnaz Didehvar
PURPOSE: Quality of life is the most important psychological factor affecting breast cancer patients. This study aimed to examine the health related quality of life of breast cancer patients in Iran. METHODS: International (PubMed, Web of science, Scopus and Google scholar) and national (SID, Magiran) databases were searched for related studies to September 2017. The quality of the articles was evaluated using the Hoy tool. RESULTS: Out of 232 initial studies, 18 studies performed on 2263 people were included in the final stage of the study...
March 14, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Tassia Cristina Decimoni, Roseli Leandro, Luciana Martins Rozman, Dawn Craig, Cynthia P Iglesias, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh Novaes, Patrícia Coelho de Soárez
Background: Brazil has sought to use economic evaluation to support healthcare decision-making processes. While a number of health economic evaluations (HEEs) have been conducted, no study has systematically reviewed the quality of Brazilian HEE. The objective of this systematic review was to provide an overview regarding the state of HEE research and to evaluate the number, characteristics, and quality of reporting of published HEE studies conducted in a Brazilian setting. Methods: We systematically searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Latin American, and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences Database, Scientific Electronic Library Online, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, health technology assessment Database, Bireme, and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde Economia da Saúde ); citation indexes (SCOPUS, Web of Science), and Sistema de Informação da Rede Brasileira de Avaliação de Tecnologia em Saúde ...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Mustafa Afifi
OBJECTIVE: To find the association of Empathy, Self-Efficacy, and/or Hope with readiness for lifelong learning among medical students. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2016 at Ras Al-Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University in the United Arab Emirates, and comprised medical students from all five years. A self-reporting questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data .Standard scales and analysis of variance test were used to compare the mean scores of different variables for different groups...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Vessela Stamenova, Brian Levine
Our objective was to review the literature and quantitatively summarise the effectiveness of Goal Management Training® (GMT) (alone or in combination with other training approaches) in improving executive functions in adult populations. Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global were searched for articles citing "goal management training". Any group trials (n > 3) in adults that used multiple-session GMT programmes were included in the analyses. Outcome variables were extracted and classified into one of nine cognitive measures domains: executive functioning tasks, everyday executive functioning tasks, subjective executive tasks rated by the patient, subjective executive tasks rated by proxy, working memory, speed of processing, long-term memory, instrumental activities of daily living and general mental health status questionnaires...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Yu Moriguchi, Dae-Sung Lee, Ryota Chijimatsu, Khair Thamina, Kazuto Masuda, Dai Itsuki, Hideki Yoshikawa, Satoshi Hamaguchi, Akira Myoui
In the physiochemical sciences, plasma is used to describe an ionized gas. Previous studies have implicated plasma surface treatment in the enhancement of hydrophilicity of implanted musculoskeletal reconstructive materials. Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics, widely used in bone tissue regeneration, have made great advancements to skeletal surgery. In the present study, we investigate the impact of low-pressure plasma on the interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA) both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, when used with oxygen, can augment the hydrophilicity of non-porous HA surfaces and the osteoconductivity of the IP-CHA disc via increased water penetration of inner porous structures, as demonstrated through microfocus computed tomography (μCT) assay...
2018: PloS One
Erin Ingram, Douglas Golick
To improve students' understanding and appreciation of insects, entomology education efforts have supported insect incorporation in formal education settings. While several studies have explored student ideas about insects and the incorporation of insects in elementary and middle school classrooms, the topic of how and why insects are incorporated in secondary science classrooms remains relatively unexplored. Using survey research methods, this study addresses the gap in the literature by (1) describing in-service secondary science teachers' incorporation of insects in science classrooms; (2) identifying factors that support or deter insect incorporation and (3) identifying teachers' preferred resources to support future entomology education efforts...
March 14, 2018: Insects
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