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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545066/bayesian-estimation-of-directed-functional-coupling-from-brain-recordings
#1
Danilo Benozzo, Pasi Jylänki, Emanuele Olivetti, Paolo Avesani, Marcel A J van Gerven
In many fields of science, there is the need of assessing the causal influences among time series. Especially in neuroscience, understanding the causal interactions between brain regions is of primary importance. A family of measures have been developed from the parametric implementation of the Granger criteria of causality based on the linear autoregressive modelling of the signals. We propose a new Bayesian method for linear model identification with a structured prior (GMEP) aiming to apply it as linear regression method in the context of the parametric Granger causal inference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544858/effects-of-resistance-training-on-performance-in-previously-trained-endurance-runners-a-systematic-review
#2
Manuel Alcaraz-Ibañez, Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez
The aim of this work was to identify, synthesize and evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of resistance training on performance indicators in previously trained endurance runners. A database search was carried out in PubMed, Science Direct, OvidSPMedLine, Wiley, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar. In accordance with the PRISMA checklist, 18 published articles dated prior to May 2016 involving 321 endurance runners were reviewed using the PEDro scale. Resistance training led to general improvements in muscular strength, running economy, muscle power factors, and direct performance in distances between 1,500 and 10,000 m...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544106/inappropriate-prescribing-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-systematic-review-of-prevalence-associated-clinical-outcomes-and-impact-of-interventions
#3
REVIEW
Wubshet Hailu Tesfaye, Ronald L Castelino, Barbara C Wimmer, Syed Tabish R Zaidi
INTRODUCTION: Adjusting doses of renally cleared medications and/or avoidance of nephrotoxic medications are standard clinical practices in chronic kidney disease (CKD), albeit the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing (IP) in these patients remains high. Therefore, this work sought to systematically review the prevalence of IP and compare the relative effectiveness of available interventions in reducing IP in CKD. METHODS: Studies were identified searching PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, IPA, Web of Science, Ovid/Medline, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543973/advancing-the-adverse-outcome-pathway-framework-an-international-horizon-scanning-approach
#4
Carlie A LaLone, Gerald T Ankley, Scott E Belanger, Michelle R Embry, Geoff Hodges, Dries Knapen, Sharon Munn, Edward J Perkins, Murray A Rudd, Daniel L Villeneuve, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett, Xiaowei Zhang, Markus Hecker
Our ability to conduct whole-organism toxicity tests to understand chemical safety has been outpaced by the synthesis of new chemicals for a wide variety of commercial applications. As a result, scientists and risk assessors are turning to mechanistically based studies to increase efficiencies in chemical risk assessment and making greater use of in vitro and in silico methods to evaluate potential environmental and human health hazards. In this context, the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework has gained traction in regulatory science because it offers an efficient and effective means for capturing available knowledge describing the linkage between mechanistic data and the apical toxicity end points required for regulatory assessments...
June 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542796/interleukin-2-as-an-adjunct-to-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-positive-adults
#5
REVIEW
Jennifer Onwumeh, Charles I Okwundu, Tamara Kredo
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Although antiretroviral drugs have helped to improve the quality of life and life expectancy of HIV-positive individuals, there is still a need to explore other interventions that will help to further reduce the disease burden. One potential strategy is the use of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in combination with antiretroviral therapy (ART). IL-2 is a cytokine that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes and may help to boost the immune system...
May 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542520/an-efficient-semi-supervised-community-detection-framework-in-social-networks
#6
Zhen Li, Yong Gong, Zhisong Pan, Guyu Hu
Community detection is an important tasks across a number of research fields including social science, biology, and physics. In the real world, topology information alone is often inadequate to accurately find out community structure due to its sparsity and noise. The potential useful prior information such as pairwise constraints which contain must-link and cannot-link constraints can be obtained from domain knowledge in many applications. Thus, combining network topology with prior information to improve the community detection accuracy is promising...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541559/hydraulic-redistribution-under-moderate-drought-among-english-oak-european-beech-and-norway-spruce-determined-by-deuterium-isotope-labeling-in-a-split-root-experiment
#7
Benjamin D Hafner, Martina Tomasella, Karl-Heinz Häberle, Marc Goebel, Rainer Matyssek, Thorsten E E Grams
Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water through plant roots is a crucial phenomenon improving the water balance of plants and ecosystems. It is mostly described under severe drought, and not yet studied under moderate drought. We tested the potential of HR under moderate drought, hypothesizing that (H1) tree species redistribute soil water in their roots even under moderate drought and that (H2) neighboring plants are supported with water provided by redistributing plants. Trees were planted in split-root systems with one individual (i...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540260/the-quality-of-educational-services-from-students-viewpoint-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Ahmad Moosavi, Mohammad Mohseni, Hajar Ziaiifar, Saber Azami-Aghdash, Mahdi Gharasi Manshadi, Aziz Rezapour
BACKGROUND: Students' view is an important factor in assessing the quality of universities. Servqual pattern is regarded as the most prominent for services quality measurement. This study aimed to review systematically studies that investigated the quality of educational services. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating students' viewpoint about quality of educational services were conducted. Required data were collected from PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, and Iranmedex, without time restriction...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539920/technological-microbiology-development-and-applications
#9
REVIEW
Luciana C Vitorino, Layara A Bessa
Over thousands of years, modernization could be predicted for the use of microorganisms in the production of foods and beverages. However, the current accelerated pace of new food production is due to the rapid incorporation of biotechnological techniques that allow the rapid identification of new molecules and microorganisms or even the genetic improvement of known species. At no other time in history have microorganisms been so present in areas such as agriculture and medicine, except as recognized villains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539877/the-social-context-of-do-it-yourself-brain-stimulation-neurohackers-biohackers-and-lifehackers
#10
Anna Wexler
The "do-it-yourself" (DIY) brain stimulation movement began in earnest in late 2011, when lay individuals began building stimulation devices and applying low levels of electricity to their heads for self-improvement purposes. To date, scholarship on the home use of brain stimulation has focused on characterizing the practices of users via quantitative and qualitative studies, and on analyzing related ethical and regulatory issues. In this perspective piece, however, I take the opposite approach: rather than viewing the home use of brain stimulation on its own, I argue that it must be understood within the context of other DIY and citizen science movements...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539731/improved-annotations-of-23-differentially-expressed-hypothetical-proteins-in-methicillin-resistant-s-aureus
#11
Jessica Marklevitz, Laura K Harris
Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern effecting millions of people annually. Medical science has documented completely untreatable S. aureus infections. These strains are appearing in the community with increasing frequency. New diagnostic and therapeutic options are needed to combat this deadly infection. Interestingly, around 50% of the proteins in S. aureus are annotated as hypothetical. Methods to select hypothetical proteins related to antibiotic resistance have been inadequate...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539692/results-of-physiotherapy-treatments-in-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-systematic-review
#12
Irene Torres-Sánchez, Roberto Cruz-Ramírez, Irene Cabrera-Martos, Ana Díaz-Pelegrina, Marie Carmen Valenza
Purpose: The objective of this study was to review clinical trials of the effectiveness of physiotherapy compared with standard care, focused mainly on the functional status of patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods: Search strategies were developed for each of the databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science). The study eligibility criteria were as follows: (1) The objective was to assess the effect and efficacy of physiotherapy compared with standard care (which included only medical and pharmacological treatment); (2) adults subjects had AECOPD; (3) one of the outcome measures was functional status, defined as an individual's ability to perform the normal daily activities required to meet basic needs, fulfill usual roles, and maintain health and well-being; (4) it was a clinical trial; (5) it was written in English; (6) it was published between January 2009 and February 2016; and (7) the full-text article was available...
2017: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539060/a-systematic-review-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-interventions-in-the-emergency-department
#13
Mia Losier, Tasha D Ramsey, Kyle John Wilby, Emily K Black
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To improve antimicrobial utilization, development and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs in the emergency department (ED) has been recommended. The primary objective of this review was to characterize antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) in the ED and to identify interventions that improve patient outcomes or process of care and/or reduce consequences of antimicrobial use. METHODS: This study was completed as a systematic review...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538813/mechanisms-of-endothelial-protection-by-natural-bioactive-compounds-from-fruit-and-vegetables
#14
Bernardita Monsalve, Anibal Concha-Meyer, Iván Palomo, Eduardo Fuentes
The endothelium is fundamental for the regulation of vascular tone and structure. Under disease conditions, including the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, the endothelium loses its protective role and becomes a proatherosclerotic structure. In this article we searched for strategies from PUBMED and Science Direct databases using the following key words: endothelium, natural bioactive compounds, polyphenols and cardiovascular diseases. The search was restricted to english language papers. Studies have identified the contribution of diet to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538726/large-conservation-gains-possible-for-global-biodiversity-facets
#15
Laura J Pollock, Wilfried Thuiller, Walter Jetz
Different facets of biodiversity other than species numbers are increasingly appreciated as critical for maintaining the function of ecosystems and their services to humans. While new international policy and assessment processes such as the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) recognize the importance of an increasingly global, quantitative and comprehensive approach to biodiversity protection, most insights are still focused on a single facet of biodiversity-species...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538603/a-systematic-review-of-the-exercise-effect-on-bone-health-the-importance-of-assessing-mechanical-loading-in-perimenopausal-and-postmenopausal-women
#16
Borja Sañudo, Moisés de Hoyo, Jesús Del Pozo-Cruz, Luis Carrasco, Borja Del Pozo-Cruz, Sergio Tejero, Elwyn Firth
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this systematic review were to determine the general effects of exercise on areal bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, and to provide information on the most suitable bone-loading exercise regimens that may improve bone health in this population group. METHODS: A computerized, systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and The Cochrane Library, from January 2005 to November 2015, to identify all randomized controlled trials related to exercise in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women...
May 22, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538056/engaging-all-employees-in-efforts-to-achieve-high-reliability
#17
Anne Marie Benedicto
DRAMATIC AND NUMEROUS advances in science, technology, and medicine provide new opportunities to keep people healthy as well as to diagnose, treat, and cure disease. Unfortunately, increasing complexity increases opportunities for mistakes and errors, particularly in healthcare organizations as they struggle to prevent patient harm (). Safety problems persist and harm to patients continues despite widespread attention to the need for improvement ().An engaged and empowered workforce is critical to improving the patient experience, improving health outcomes, and correcting unsafe conditions ()...
July 2017: Frontiers of Health Services Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537951/an-interprofessional-course-on-substance-use-disorders-for-health-professions-students
#18
Andrew J Muzyk, Chris Tew, Allie Thomas-Fannin, Sanjai Dayal, Reina Maeda, Nicole Schramm-Sapyta, Kathryn M Andolsek, Shelley Holmer
PROBLEM: Substance use disorders (SUDs) affect millions of Americans. Nevertheless, there is insufficient health care resource allocation for these patients. One reason may be the lack of education and training about SUDs in health professions programs. APPROACH: The authors developed a required, interprofessional SUDs course for health professions students completing a one-month psychiatry clerkship within the Duke University Health System starting in November 2015...
May 23, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536601/geneticizing-ethnicity-and-diet-anti-doping-science-and-its-social-impact-in-the-age-of-post-genomics
#19
Jaehwan Hyun
While gene doping and other technological means of sport enhancement have become a topic of ethical debate, a major outcome from genomic research in sports is often linked to the regulation of doping. In particular, researchers within the field of anti-doping science, a regulatory science that aims to develop scientific solutions for regulating doped athletes, have conducted genomic research on anabolic-androgenic steroids. Genomic knowledge on anabolic-androgenic steroids, a knowledge base that has been produced to improve doping regulation, has caused the 'geneticization' of cultural objects such as ethnic identities and dietary habits...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536494/adjuvant-chemotherapy-with-paclitaxel-and-cisplatin-in-lymph-node-positive-thoracic-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Liangze Zhang, Weiwei Li, Xiao Lyu, Yan Song, Yousheng Mao, Shaoming Wang, Jing Huang
OBJECTIVE: No standard postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy has ever been established in node-positive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This is a study to explore the effect of postoperative paclitaxel (PTX) and cisplatin (DDP) in lymph node-positive, completely resected thoracic ESCC patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective phase II trial. Patients had pathologically node-positive thoracic ESCC with negative margins. Outcomes of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared with a matched historical control cohort...
April 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
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