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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158918/challenges-with-surveillance-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-intensive-care-units-in-south-africa
#1
Saajida Mahomed, Ozayr Mahomed, A Willem Sturm, Stephen Knight, Prashini Moodley
Background: The incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the public health sector in South Africa is not known due to the lack of a surveillance system. We report on the challenges experienced in the implementation of a surveillance system for HAIs in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: A passive, paper-based surveillance system was piloted in eight ICUs to measure the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and central line-associated bloodstream infection...
2017: Critical Care Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158277/high-dose-daptomycin-is-effective-as-an-antibiotic-lock-therapy-in-a-rabbit-model-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-catheter-related-infection
#2
Jana Basas, Marta Palau, Carlos Ratia, José Luis Del Pozo, María Teresa Martín-Gómez, Xavier Gomis, Eduard Torrents, Benito Almirante, Joan Gavaldà
Long-term catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) involving coagulase-negative Staphylococci are associated with poor patient outcomes, increased hospitalization and high treatment costs. The use of vancomycin-lock therapy has been an important step forward to treat these biofilms although failures appear in 20% of patients. In this study, we report that a high dose of daptomycin-lock therapy may offer a therapeutic advantage for these CRBSI in just 24 h of treatment.
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156852/risk-factors-for-recurrent-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#3
Rana İşgüder, İlker Devrim, Gökhan Ceylan, Ahu Kara, Gamze Gülfidan, Hasan Ağın
Background/aim: It is recommended that a central venous catheter (CVC) be removed if central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) has been diagnosed. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the risk factors for recurrent CLABSI in reinserted catheters in a pediatric intensive care unit. Materials and methods: Patients with recurrent and nonrecurrent CLABSI were compared in terms of the catheter exchange interval, the interval between negative blood culture and reinsertion of the CVC, and the pre-/reinsertion treatment duration...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154382/review-of-strategies-to-reduce-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-clabsi-and-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-cauti-in-adult-icus
#4
Payal K Patel, Ashwin Gupta, Valerie M Vaughn, Jason D Mann, Jessica M Ameling, Jennifer Meddings
Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) are costly and morbid. Despite evidence-based guidelines, Some intensive care units (ICUs) continue to have elevated infection rates. In October 2015, we performed a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature within the PubMed and Cochrane databases for interventions to reduce CLABSI and/or CAUTI in adult ICUs and synthesized findings using a narrative review process. The interventions were categorized using a conceptual model, with stages applicable to both CAUTI and CLABSI prevention: (stage 0) avoid catheter if possible, (stage 1) ensure aseptic placement, (stage 2) maintain awareness and proper care of catheters in place, and (stage 3) promptly remove unnecessary catheters...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148930/use-of-mixed-oil-fat-emulsion-to-improve-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-long-term-home-parenteral-nutrition-a-case-report
#5
Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a life-saving therapy for patients who are not able to use their gastrointestinal tract. There are a number of complications associated with HPN, including metabolic bone disease, intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), and catheter-related bloodstream infections. We present a case of a 32-year-old HPN patient who initially developed biopsy-proven IFALD (total bilirubin, 2.4 mg/dL) while on long-term HPN. His HPN was initiated due to myopathic intestinal dysmotility and pseudo-obstruction when he was 15 years old...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148002/targeting-zero-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-in-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-a-retrospective-matched-case-control-study
#6
Daniele G Biasucci, Mauro Pittiruti, Alessandra Taddei, Enzo Picconi, Alessandro Pizza, Davide Celentano, Marco Piastra, Giancarlo Scoppettuolo, Giorgio Conti
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a new three-component 'bundle' for insertion and management of centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs), designed to minimize catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in critically ill children. METHODS: Our 'bundle' has three components: insertion, management, and education. Insertion and management recommendations include: skin antisepsis with 2% chlorhexidine; maximal barrier precautions; ultrasound-guided venipuncture; tunneling of the catheter when a long indwelling time is expected; glue on the exit site; sutureless securement; use of transparent dressing; chlorhexidine sponge dressing on the 7th day; neutral displacement needle-free connectors...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142743/anti-candida-activity-of-antimicrobial-impregnated-central-venous-catheters
#7
L Cobrado, A Silva-Dias, M M Azevedo, A Rodrigues
Background: Whenever the rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) remains high even after the implementation of preventive strategies, the use of chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine (CSS) or minocycline/rifampin (MR)-impregnated central venous catheters (CVCs) is currently recommended. Nevertheless, the efficacy of such CVCs against Candida albicans and other emerging non-albicans spp. has been insufficiently studied. This study aims to compare the activity of CSS and MR-impregnated CVCs against the yeasts most frequently isolated from CLABSIs...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135819/prophylactic-rtpa-in-the-prevention-of-line-associated-thrombosis-and-infection-in-short-bowel-syndrome
#8
Lynn M Malec, James Cooper, Jeffrey Rudolph, Marian G Michaels, Margaret V Ragni
BACKGROUND: Central venous access devices (CVADs) are essential for total parenteral nutrition administration in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, they are fraught with complications including infection and venous thromboembolism (VTE), which increases associated morbidity and mortality in this population. There is evidence linking the development of CVAD-associated thrombosis and line-related infection. Thus, it has been postulated that prevention of catheter-related clot formation could minimize the risk of infection originating from the catheter...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128346/mortality-risk-factors-among-non-icu-patients-with-nosocomial-vascular-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-a-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Patrick Saliba, Ana Hornero, Guillermo Cuervo, Immaculada Grau, Emilio Jimenez, Dolors García, Fe Tubau, Jose María Martínez-Sánchez, Jordi Carratalà, Miquel Pujol
BACKGROUND: Vascular catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are highly preventable hospital-acquired infections and a major threat to patient safety. While there is significant information regarding CRBSI outcome among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, data regarding non-ICU patients are scarce. AIM: To determine the risk factors associated with 30-day mortality among non-ICU patients with nosocomial CRBSIs. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of non-ICU patients with nosocomial CRBSIs in a tertiary-care centre, between January 2004 and December 2014...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126814/a-daily-topical-decontamination-regimen-reduces-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-in-haematology-patients
#10
C Samuelson, H Kaur, E I Kritsotakis, S D Goode, A Nield, D Partridge
OBJECTIVES: To assess impact of a topical decontamination regimen on rates of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in intensively-treated haematology patients. METHODS: A historically-controlled cohort study was used to evaluate the effect of applying chlorhexidine or Octenisan® body washes and nasal Prontoderm® ointment for 5 days around the time of Hickman line insertion on the incidence of CRBSI and infection-free catheter time. Lines inserted during a 24 month period prior to implementation of the decolonisation regimen were compared with those inserted during a 12 month period after the intervention was applied...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119023/improvement-in-quality-metrics-outcomes-and-patient-and-family-satisfaction-in-a-neurosciences-intensive-care-unit-after-creation-of-a-dedicated-neurocritical-care-team
#11
Yaw Sarpong, Premkumar Nattanmai, Ginger Schelp, Robert Bell, Keerthivaas Premkumar, Erin Stapleton, Ashley McCormick, Christopher R Newey
Introduction: Dedicated neurointensivists have been shown to improve outcome measurements in the neurosciences intensive care unit (NSICU). Quality outcome data in relation to patient and family satisfaction is lacking. This study evaluated the impact of newly appointed neurointensivists and creation of a neurocritical care team on quality outcome measures including patient satisfaction in a NSICU. Methods: This is a retrospective study of data over 36 months from a 14-bed NSICU evaluating quality outcome measures and anonymous patient satisfaction questionnaires before and after neurointensivists appointment...
2017: Critical Care Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108783/implementation-of-a-national-bundle-care-program-to-reduce-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-intensive-care-units-in-taiwan
#12
Chih-Cheng Lai, Cong-Tat Cia, Hsiu-Tzy Chiang, Yung-Chung Kung, Zhi-Yuan Shi, Yin-Ching Chuang, Chun-Ming Lee, Wen-Chien Ko, Po-Ren Hsueh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study assessed the effect of the central line bundle on the rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in intensive care units (ICUs) in Taiwan. METHODS: This national study was conducted in 27 ICUs with 404 beds total, including 15 medical ICUs, 11 surgical ICUs, and one mixed ICU. The study period was divided into two phases: a pre-intervention (between June 1, 2011 and October 31, 2011) and intervention phase (between December 1, 2011 and October 31, 2012)...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101989/acr-appropriateness-criteria-%C3%A2-radiologic-management-of-central-venous-access
#13
Colette M Shaw, Shrenik Shah, Baljendra S Kapoor, Thomas R Cain, Drew M Caplin, Khashayar Farsad, M-Grace Knuttinen, Margaret H Lee, Joseph J McBride, Jeet Minocha, Elizabeth V Robilotti, Paul J Rochon, Richard Strax, Elrond Y L Teo, Jonathan M Lorenz
Obtaining central venous access is one of the most commonly performed procedures in hospital settings. Multiple devices such as peripherally inserted central venous catheters, tunneled central venous catheters (eg, Hohn catheter, Hickman catheter, C. R. Bard, Inc, Salt Lake City UT), and implantable ports are available for this purpose. The device selected for central venous access depends on the clinical indication, duration of the treatment, and associated comorbidities. It is important for health care providers to familiarize themselves with the types of central venous catheters available, including information about their indications, contraindications, and potential complications, especially the management of catheters in the setting of catheter-related bloodstream infections...
November 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099537/use-of-peripherally-inserted-central-venous-catheters-piccs-in-children-receiving-autologous-or-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
Stefano Benvenuti, Rosanna Ceresoli, Giovanni Boroni, Filippo Parolini, Fulvio Porta, Daniele Alberti
INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to present our experience with the use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in pediatric patients receiving autologous or allogenic blood stem-cell transplantation. The insertion of the device in older children does not require general anesthesia and does not require a surgical procedure. METHODS: From January 2014 to January 2017, 13 PICCs were inserted as a central venous device in 11 pediatric patients submitted to 14 autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, at the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit of the Children's Hospital of Brescia...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096992/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-mortality-in-bloodstream-infection-by-cp-kp-esbl-e-candida-and-cdi-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#15
Silvia Corcione, Roberto Angilletta, Stefania Raviolo, Claudia Filippini, Lucina Fossati, Giovanni Di Perri, Rossana Cavallo, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa
BACKGROUND: The incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) and of bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by Candida spp., ESBL-E-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (CP-Kp) is associated with high mortality. METHODS: We conducted a single centre retrospective study on patients admitted to Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy, from January 2013 to April 2015 with CDI or BSI caused by Candida, ESBL-E or CP-Kp. For each patient demographic, clinical and microbiological data were collected...
October 30, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095200/emerging-multidrug-resistant-candida-species
#16
Arnaldo L Colombo, João N de Almeida Júnior, Jesus Guinea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the epidemiology, strategies for early detection, and clinical management of infections caused by the most commonly found multidrug-resistant (MDR) Candida spp. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing numbers of reports describing invasive infections by MDR Candida auris and Candida glabrata has been reported in medical centers worldwide. SUMMARY: We checked all papers published along the last 10 years describing epidemiological, diagnostic, and clinical aspects of infections by MDR Candida spp...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051092/a-study-on-the-targeted-surveillance-of-nosocomial-infection-in-intensive-care-units-of-177-hospitals-in-jiangsu-province-of-china
#17
Yang Li, Xiao-Li Cao, Hai Ge, Yi-Hong Jiang, Hong Zhou, Wei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections (NIs) impact care and costs in hospitals across the globe. There are minimal data on targeted surveillance of NI in intensive care units (ICUs), and data specific to the risk factors for NI are especially limited. METHODS: One hundred seventy-seven secondary and tertiary hospitals performed NI targeted surveillance in their ICUs. The data were collected and summarized by Minke software, then fed back once per quarter. RESULTS: The incidence of NI appeared to decrease, and the incidence of NI per 1000 patient-days and adjusted incidence were 25...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046746/perspectives-on-non-neoformans-cryptococcal-opportunistic-infections
#18
REVIEW
Nichole Smith, Matthew Sehring, Jefferson Chambers, Preeti Patel
Non-neoformans Cryptococcus species, including C. laurentii and C. albidus, have historically been classified as exclusively saprophytic. However, recent studies have increasingly implicated these organisms as the causative agent of opportunistic infections in humans. Herein, the case is presented of C. laurentii meningitis in a critically ill patient receiving corticosteroids. C. laurentii has been implicated in an additional 18 cases of opportunistic infection, predominantly of the skin, bloodstream, and central nervous system...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046215/prospective-surveillance-of-device-associated-health-care-associated-infection-in-an-intensive-care-unit-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-new-delhi-india
#19
Shilpee Kumar, Poornima Sen, Rajni Gaind, Pardeep Kumar Verma, Poonam Gupta, Prem Rose Suri, Sunita Nagpal, Anil Kumar Rai
BACKGROUND: Surveillance of health care-associated infections (HAIs) plays a key role in the hospital infection control program and reduction of HAIs. In India, most of the surveillance of HAIs is reported from private sector hospitals that do not depict the situation of government sector hospitals. Other studies do not confirm with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance criterion, or deal with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) instead of ventilator-associated event (VAE)...
October 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032585/infection-surveillance-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients
#20
Daniela Caldas Teixeira, Lilian Martins Oliveira Diniz, Paulo Henrique Orlandi Mourão, Fabiana Maria Kakehashi, Antonio Vaz de Macedo, Helena Duani, Wanessa Trindade Clemente, Karla Emília de Sá Rodrigues, Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli
OBJECTIVE: Describe the profile of reported Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) in pediatric patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at a reference center. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of pediatric patients who were submitted to HSCT from 2008 to 2016. The criteria for HAI were based on those established by the National Healthcare Safety Network. Data were collected by active surveillance performed daily by professionals. This study was approved by the Institutional Research Ethics Committee...
October 15, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
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