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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240704/prevalence-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-and-its-association-with-sexual-behaviour-and-alcohol-use-in-the-population-living-in-separated-and-segregated-roma-settlements-in-eastern-slovakia
#1
Ingrid Babinská, Monika Halánová, Zuzana Kalinová, Lenka Čechová, Lýdia Čisláková, Andrea Madarasová Gecková
The aim of the study was to explore sexual behaviour and the occurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in the population living in Roma settlements compared to the majority population in Slovakia and to assess the association between alcohol use and sexual behaviour within both populations. A cross-sectional population-based Hepa-Meta study was conducted in Slovakia in 2011. The final sample comprised 452 Roma and 403 non-Roma respondents. The occurrence of CT was detected by direct proof of the pathogen by PCR...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239896/ex-vivo-antiretroviral-potency-of-newer-integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitors-cabotegravir-and-bictegravir-in-hiv-1-non-b-subtypes
#2
Ujjwal Neogi, Kamlendra Singh, Shambhu G Aralaguppe, Leonard C Rogers, Duncan T Njenda, Stefan G Sarafianos, Bo Hejdeman, Anders Sönnerborg
OBJECTIVE: To determine the antiretroviral activity of the integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), raltegravir, elvitegravir, dolutegravir, cabotegravir and bictegravir, against different subtypes as well as primary and acquired drug resistance mutations (DRM) in a patient-cohort infected with diverse subtypes. DESIGN: Biochemical and virological drug sensitivity analysis using patient derived HIV-1 genes and cross-sectional/longitudinal clinical study. METHODS: Assays for inhibition of 3'-end processing (IC50-3P), strand transfer (IC50-ST) and drug sensitivity (DSA) for five INSTIs were done using patient-derived integrase or gag-pol genes from subtypes A1, B, C, 01_AE and 02_AG...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239570/spatial-analysis-of-the-prevalence-of-schistosomiasis-in-an-endemic-coastal-area-in-north-eastern-brazil
#3
Allan D Santos, Jonhnatas Silva, Ana Caroline Lima, Márcio Santos, Shirley Lima, Monalisa Amor, Carlos Santos, Arthur Vasconcelos, Silvio Dolabella, Karina C G M Araújo
Due to contact and misuse of water drainage channels, schistosomiasis has spread and become a constant concern in northeastern Brazil. The aim of this study was to monitor human cases of Schistosomiasis mansoni and the breeding areas of the snail intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata through spatial analysis in a community named Invasão do Canal do Guaxinim, located in Barra dos Coqueiros City in an endemic coastal part of the state of Sergipe, Brazil. This research was performed as a cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted with parasitological and malacological surveys...
November 27, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238502/profile-of-facial-palsy-in-arar-northern-saudi-arabia
#4
Wasan Lafi Alanazi, Nagah Mohamed Abo El-Fetoh, Shahad Lafi Alanazi, Mohammed Abdullah Alkhidhr, Mohammed Abdullah Alanazi, Dounia Saleh Alonazi, Atheer Bader Alanzi, Reem Homoud Alshammari, Mashael Jaza Alshammari, Basmah Abdullah Alanazi, Samiyah Sarhan Alanazi
Background: The term facial palsy generally refers to weakness of the facial muscles, mainly resulting from temporary or permanent damage to the facial nerve. Common causes of facial paralysis include infection or inflammation of the facial nerve, head trauma, head or neck tumor, stroke. Objective: To outline the incidence of several etiologies and the profile of patients with peripheral facial paralysis attending the outpatient clinic of the neurology department in Hospitals of Arar City, Saudi Arabia...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238456/seroepidemiological-study-of-q-fever-in-lorestan-province-western-iran-2014
#5
Mohammad Hassan Kayedi, Hamid Mokhayeri, Mehdi Birjandi, Ali Chegeni-Sharafi, Saber Esmaeili, Ehsan Mostafavi
Background and Objectives: Q fever is a zoonotic disease and farm animals serve as the main reservoir of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Q fever in sheep, in Lorestan province in western Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 330 blood samples were collected from sheep, from each county in Lorestan province. The samples were tested by ELISA for the presence of immunoglobulin (IgG) against Coxiella burnetii...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238347/langerhans-cells-programmed-by-the-epidermis
#6
REVIEW
Kalum Clayton, Andres F Vallejo, James Davies, Sofia Sirvent, Marta E Polak
Langerhans cells (LCs) reside in the epidermis as a dense network of immune system sentinels. These cells determine the appropriate adaptive immune response (inflammation or tolerance) by interpreting the microenvironmental context in which they encounter foreign substances. In a normal physiological, "non-dangerous" situation, LCs coordinate a continuous state of immune tolerance, preventing unnecessary and harmful immune activation. Conversely, when they sense a danger signal, for example during infection or when the physical integrity of skin has been compromised as a result of a trauma, they instruct T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system to mount efficient effector responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238229/coinfections-with-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-and-syphilis-among-hiv-infected-clients-in-southern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Techalew Shimelis, Yayheyirad Tassachew, Agete Tadewos, Mesfin Worku Hordofa, Anteneh Amsalu, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Endale Tadesse
Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are hepatotropic viruses of public health significance worldwide. Despite their severe clinical impact in HIV-infected patients, there is inadequate information regarding the epidemiology of hepatitis/HIV coinfections in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected patients at a tertiary hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: Stored sera, which were originally collected for the investigation of syphilis among HIV-infected clients, were analyzed in this study...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238212/effects-of-an-antimicrobial-restriction-system-on-appropriate-carbapenem-use-in-a-hospital-without-infectious-diseases-consultation
#8
Warangkhana Wanla, Wasan Katip, Sakon Supakul, Porntipa Apiwatnakorn, Sompong Khamsarn
Background: Gram-negative bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to carbapenems and are related to the use of carbapenems. Thus, the main objective of this study was to compare the appropriateness of prescribing carbapenem before and after using an antimicrobial restriction system without infectious diseases consultation. Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional before and after study was conducted in Lamphun Hospital to limit the prescription of carbapenems...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237847/a-trimeric-hiv-1-envelope-gp120-immunogen-induces-potent-and-broad-anti-v1v2-loop-antibodies-against-hiv-1-in-rabbits-and-rhesus-macaques
#9
Andrew T Jones, Venkateswarlu Chamcha, Sannula Kesavardhana, Xiaoying Shen, David Beaumont, Raksha Das, Linda S Wyatt, Celia C LaBranche, Sherry Stanfield-Oakley, Guido Ferrari, David C Montefiori, Bernard Moss, Georgia D Tomaras, Raghavan Varadarajan, Rama Rao Amara
Trimeric HIV-1 envelope (Env) immunogens are attractive due to their ability to display quaternary epitopes targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies while obscuring unfavorable epitopes. Results from the RV144 trial highlighted the importance of vaccine induced HIV-1 Env V1V2 directed antibodies, with key regions of the V2 loop as targets for vaccine-mediated protection. We recently reported that a trimeric JRFL-gp120 immunogen, generated by inserting a N-terminal trimerization domain in the V1 loop region of a cyclically permuted gp120 (cycP-gp120), induces neutralizing activity against multiple tier-2 HIV-1 isolates in guinea pigs in a DNA prime/protein boost approach...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237846/the-three-fold-axis-of-the-hiv-1-capsid-lattice-is-the-species-specific-binding-interface-for-trim5%C3%AE
#10
Damien Morger, Franziska Zosel, Martin Bühlmann, Sara Züger, Maximilian Mittelviefhaus, Benjamin Schuler, Jeremy Luban, Markus G Grütter
Rhesus TRIM5α (rhTRIM5α) potently restricts replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Restriction is mediated through direct binding of the C-terminal B30.2 domain of TRIM5α to the assembled HIV-1 capsid core. This host-pathogen interaction involves multiple capsid molecules within the hexagonal HIV-1 capsid lattice. However, the molecular details of this interaction and the precise site at which the B30.2 domain binds remains largely unknown. The human orthologue of TRIM5α (hsTRIM5α) fails to block infection by HIV-1 both in vivo and in vitro This is thought to be due to differences in binding to the capsid lattice...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237649/canadian-physicians-knowledge-and-counseling-practices-related-to-antibiotic-use-and-antimicrobial-resistance-two-cycle-national-survey
#11
Courtney R Smith, Lisa Pogany, Simon Foley, Jun Wu, Karen Timmerman, Margaret Gale-Rowe, Alain Demers
OBJECTIVE: To establish a baseline for physicians' knowledge of and counseling practices on the use of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and to determine potential changes in these measures after the implementation of a national AMR awareness campaign. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1600 physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physicians' knowledge of and counseling practices on antibiotic use and AMR at baseline and after implementation of the AMR awareness campaign...
December 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237500/impact-of-chronic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease
#12
Hirofumi Kamata, Takanori Asakura, Shoji Suzuki, Ho Namkoong, Kazuma Yagi, Yohei Funatsu, Satoshi Okamori, Shunsuke Uno, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Makoto Ishii, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Naoki Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: In bronchiectasis patients, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection has been associated with worse health-related quality of life (HRQL), but little is known about Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MACLD) patients in this context. This study aimed to evaluate HRQL and investigate the impact of chronic PA infection in MACLD patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the Registry of Prospective Cohort Study including MACLD patients...
December 13, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237466/rapid-detection-of-infectious-bovine-rhinotracheitis-virus-using-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assays
#13
Peili Hou, Hongmei Wang, Guimin Zhao, Chengqiang He, Hongbin He
BACKGROUND: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) is a major pathogen in cattle and has led to significant economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide, and therefore a more optimal method for the rapid diagnosis of IBRV infection is highly needed. In this study, we described the development of a lateral flow dipstrip (LFD) of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method for rapid detection of IBRV. METHODS: Distinct regions were selected as a candidate target for designing the LFD-RPA primers and probes...
December 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237464/tlr3-promotes-mmp-9-production-in-primary-human-airway-epithelial-cells-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#14
P-J Royer, K Henrio, M Pain, J Loy, A Roux, A Tissot, P Lacoste, C Pison, S Brouard, A Magnan
BACKGROUND: Airway epithelial cells (AEC) act as the first line of defence in case of lung infections. They constitute a physical barrier against pathogens and they participate in the initiation of the immune response. Yet, the modalities of pathogen recognition by AEC and the consequences on the epithelial barrier remain poorly documented. METHOD: We investigated the response of primary human AEC to viral (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, poly(I:C)) and bacterial (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) stimulations in combination with the lung remodeling factor Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β)...
December 13, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237078/determinants-of-peripheral-muscle-strength-and-activity-in-daily-life-in-people-with-bronchiectasis
#15
Anderson Alves de Camargo, Jacqueline C Boldorini, Anne E Holland, Rejane A Silva de Castro, Fernanda de Cordoba Lanza, Rodrigo A Athanazio, Samia Z Rached, Regina Carvalho-Pinto, Alberto Cukier, Rafael Stelmach, Simone Dal Corso
Background: Bronchiectasis is characterized by a progressive structural lung damage, recurrent infections and chronic inflammation which compromise the exertion tolerance, and may have an impact on skeletal muscle function and physical function. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare peripheral muscle strength, exercise capacity, and physical activity in daily life between participants with bronchiectasis and controls and to investigate the determinants of the peripheral muscle strength and physical activity in daily life in bronchiectasis...
December 9, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237050/serum-levels-of-il-6-il-8-tnf-%C3%AE-and-tgf-%C3%AE-in-chronic-hbv-infected-patients-effect-of-depression-and-anxiety
#16
Reza Bahramabadi, Mahmood Sheikh Fathollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Hashemi, Amin Safari Arababadi, Minoo Safari Arababadi, Hassan Yousefi-Daredor, Reza Bidaki, Mehdi Khaleghinia, Mohammad Hossein Bakhshi, Yaser Yousefpoor, Yaser Eskandari Torbaghan, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
Objective: To assess the effects of depression and anxiety on serum cytokine levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 healthy control individuals and 60 patients with CHB participated after filling out standard questionnaires. We examined their serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and TGF-β levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Results: In patients with CHB compared with healthy controls, serum levels of IL-8 were significantly increased, whereas IL-6 and TGF-β levels were significantly decreased...
December 11, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236996/entamoeba-species-in-south-africa-correlations-with-the-host-microbiome-parasite-burdens-and-first-description-of-entamoeba-bangladeshi-outside-of-asia
#17
Renay Ngobeni, Amidou Samie, Shannon Moonah, Koji Watanabe, William A Petri, Carol Gilchrist
Background: Diarrhea is frequent in communities without clean water, which include low-income South African populations in Giyani and Pretoria. In these populations, the amount of diarrhea caused by Entamoeba histolytica, inclusive of all ages, sexes, and human immunodeficiency virus status, is uncertain. Infection with E. histolytica can modulate the host microbiota, and a key species indicative of this is the Prevotella copri pathobiont. Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients attending gastroenterology clinics was conducted to determine the frequency and burden of 4 Entamoeba species and P...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236994/group-g-streptococcus-induces-an-autoimmune-il-17a-ifn-%C3%AE-mediated-carditis-in-the-lewis-rat-model-of-rheumatic-heart-disease
#18
Suchandan Sikder, Natasha L Williams, Alanna E Sorenson, Md A Alim, Miranda E Vidgen, Nicole J Moreland, Catherine M Rush, Robert S Simpson, Brenda L Govan, Robert E Norton, Madeleine W Cunningham, David J McMillan, Kadaba S Sriprakash, Natkunam Ketheesan
Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (ARF/RHD) have long been described as autoimmune sequelae of Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. Both antibody and T-cell responses against immunodominant GAS virulence factors including M-protein, cross-react with host tissue proteins triggering an inflammatory response leading to permanent heart damage. However, in some ARF/RHD endemic regions, throat carriage of GAS is low. As Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE), also known as β-hemolytic groups C and G streptococci (GCS/GGS) also express M-protein, we postulated that streptococci other than GAS may have the potential to initiate or exacerbate ARF/RHD...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236788/aflatoxin-and-viral-hepatitis-exposures-in-guatemala-molecular-biomarkers-reveal-a-unique-profile-of-risk-factors-in-a-region-of-high-liver-cancer-incidence
#19
Joshua W Smith, Maria F Kroker-Lobos, Mariana Lazo, Alvaro Rivera-Andrade, Patricia A Egner, Heiner Wedemeyer, Olga Torres, Neal D Freedman, Katherine A McGlynn, Eliseo Guallar, John D Groopman, Manuel Ramirez-Zea
Liver cancer is an emerging global health issue, with rising incidence in both the United States and the economically developing world. Although Guatemala experiences the highest rates of this disease in the Western hemisphere and a unique 1:1 distribution in men and women, few studies have focused on this population. Thus, we determined the prevalence and correlates of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and hepatitis virus infection in Guatemalan adults. Healthy men and women aged ≥40 years (n = 461), residing in five departments of Guatemala, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study from May-October of 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234981/sarcopenia-after-induction-therapy-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-its-clinical-significance
#20
Daisuke Suzuki, Ryoji Kobayashi, Hirozumi Sano, Daiki Hori, Kunihiko Kobayashi
Muscle weakness is one of the most serious problems during chemotherapy for childhood hematological malignancies. It may be caused by long-term hospitalization, unfavorable physical conditions, and restricted activities. Although the concept of sarcopenia is becoming widely recognized, especially in geriatric medicine, there have been few reports about sarcopenia in pediatric patients with hematological malignancies. A total of 47 consecutive first-onset acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients who underwent induction therapy between January 2011 and September 2016 were investigated...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
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