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Cross infection

Yanan Li, Jianchang Wang, Jinfeng Wang, Libing Liu, Ruoxi Zhang, Ruihan Shi, Qingan Han, Jiguo Sun, Wanzhe Yuan
Porcine proliferative enteritis is a common diarrheal disease characterized by thickening of the intestinal mucosa in swine due to enterocyte proliferation, which is caused by Lawsonia intracellularis. In this study, a real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect L. intracellularis based on the conserved region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The optimal reaction conditions of the real-time LAMP was 65 °C for 60 min. The LAMP products could be detected by both real-time turbidity and direct visual inspection...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Awadalkareem Adam, Tom Schüttoff, Sven Reiche, Christian Jassoy
OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence of dengue in central and eastern Sudan and the breadth of neutralizing antibody responses. METHODS: Blood was drawn from 483 patients with fever who visited outpatient clinics in Port Sudan, Red Sea state, in three towns in Kassala state and in El Obeid, North Kordofan in December 2012 and January 2013. Sera were tested for dengue virus IgG and IgM by ELISA (Panbio) and sera without serologic evidence of acute infection (IgM negative) were used for the analysis of the seroprevalence...
June 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Victor Riitho, Magdalena Larska, Rebecca Strong, S Anna La Rocca, Nicolas Locker, Stefan Alenius, Falko Steinbach, Lihong Liu, Åse Uttenthal, Simon P Graham
Atypical ruminant pestiviruses are closely related to the two bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) species, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. While there is evidence of cross-protective immune responses between BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, despite antigenic differences, there is little information on the antigenic cross-reactivity with atypical ruminant pestiviruses. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the specificity of antibody and T cell responses induced by experimental infection of calves with BVDV-1 strain Ho916, Th/04_KhonKaen (TKK), an Asiatic atypical ruminant pestivirus, or co-infection with both viruses...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
J C Simwaka, Evans M Mpabalwani, Mapaseka Seheri, Ina Peenze, Mwaka Monze, Belem Matapo, Umesh D Parashar, Jacob Mufunda, Jeffrey M Mphahlele, Jacqueline E Tate, Jason M Mwenda
BACKGROUND: Following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine into the routine immunization schedule, the burden of rotavirus disease has significantly reduced in Zambia. Although rotavirus vaccines appear to confer good cross-protection against both vaccine and non-vaccine strains, concerns about strain replacement following vaccine implementation remain. We describe the diversity of the circulating rotavirus strains before and after the Rotarix® vaccine was introduced in Lusaka from January 2012...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
Louise A Kelly-Hope, Janet Hemingway, Mark J Taylor, David H Molyneux
In West and Central Africa, there is a need to establish the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti in areas that are co-endemic for Loa loa, in order to implement the appropriate strategies to scale-up interventions for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF). Due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) to ivermectin in individuals with high L. loa microfilaraemia, the current strategy recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is twice yearly mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole, supplemented by vector control targeting the Anopheles vectors...
June 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Mahwish Aftab, Iram Amin, Muhammad Idrees, Amjad Ali, Shazia Rafique, Shagufta Naz
OBJECTIVES: HBV and HDV are major public health problems with millions affected globally and Pakistan accounts for a significant proportion of the global Hepatitis burden. This cross sectional study was designed to assess the general epidemiological and virological features of HBV and HDV in the Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhawa (KP) provinces of Pakistan. METHODS: A total of 1890 HBV patients from March 2016 to May 2017 were recruited in the study and the presence of HDV was retrospectively evaluated in all participants...
June 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Emma M Harding-Esch, Sebastian S Fuller, S-L Christine Chow, Achyuta V Nori, Mark A Harrison, Mathew Parker, Olaf Piepenburg, Matthew S Forrest, David G Brooks, Rajul Patel, Phillip Hay, Nicola Fearnley, Marcus J Pond, J Kevin Dunbar, Philip D Butcher, Timothy Planche, Catherine M Lowndes, S Tariq Sadiq
OBJECTIVES: Rapid and accurate sexually transmitted infection diagnosis can reduce onward transmission and improve treatment efficacy. We evaluated the accuracy of a 15-minute run-time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-based prototype point-of-care test (TwistDx) for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). METHODS: Prospective, multi-centre study of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients attending three English sexual health clinics. Research samples provided were: additional self-collected vulvo-vaginal swab (SCVS) (females); first-catch urine (FCU) aliquot (females and males)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Qing Zhou, Qingquan Kong, Bo Gao
Objective: To analyze the treatment of Gartland type Ⅱ and Ⅲ supracondylar fracture of the humerus in children. Methods: Between January 2015 and January 2017, 45 cases of Gartland type Ⅱ and Ⅲ supracondylar fracture of the humerus were treated. There were 28 boys and 17 girls with an age of 1-13 years (mean, 5.7 years). The causes of injury included sports injury in 43 cases and falling from height in 2 cases. Fractures were classified as type Ⅱ in 12 cases and type Ⅲ in 33 cases according to Gartland classification...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Debra A Fleischman, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Sue Leurgans, Sheila M Keating, Melissa Lamar, David A Bennett, Oluwatoyin M Adeyemi, Lisa L Barnes
Objective: HIV infection sets off an immediate immune response and inflammatory cascade that can lead to neuronal injury and cognitive impairment, but the relationship between immune markers, regional brain volumes, and cognition remains understudied in HIV-infected adults. Methods: Cross-sectional associations were examined between serum immune markers of activation (neopterin) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and C-reactive protein) with regional brain volumes (cortical, subcortical, total gray matter, hippocampus, and subfields) and cognition in 66 HIV-infected, virally suppressed, adults who underwent 3...
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Helen A Fletcher, Mitali Chatterjee, Andrea Cooper, Tracy Hussell, Paul M Kaye, Joann Prior, Rajko Reljic, Samantha Vermaak, Martin Vordermeier, Ann Williams, Helen McShane
For several complex intracellular pathogens, we have an urgent need for effective vaccines and yet there are common barriers to vaccine development. These diseases, including tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, leprosy and melioidosis, cause a huge burden of disease and disproportionately affect low and middle income countries. They are therefore often neglected due to the marginalisation of affected populations and the poor predicted commercial return on investment. Barriers to vaccine development include an incomplete understanding of protective immunity and translation from the bench into clinical vaccine trials...
2018: F1000Research
Tong Shao, Wei Shi, Jia-Yu Zheng, Xiao-Xiao Xu, Ai-Fu Lin, Li-Xin Xiang, Jian-Zhong Shao
CD58 and CD2 have long been known as a pair of reciprocal adhesion molecules involved in the immune modulations of CD8+ T and NK-mediated cellular immunity in humans and several other mammals. However, the functional roles of CD58 and CD2 in CD4+ T-mediated adaptive humoral immunity remain poorly defined. Moreover, the current functional observations of CD58 and CD2 were mainly acquired from in vitro assays, and in vivo investigation is greatly limited due to the absence of a Cd58 homology in murine models...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Heloisa Helena Nímia, Viviane Fernandes Carvalho, Cesar Isaac, Francisley Ávila Souza, Rolf Gemperli, André Oliveira Paggiaro
The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to compare the effect of Silver Sulfadiazine (SSD) with other new dressings, with or without silver, on healing and infection prevention in burns. The electronic search was carried out in the electronic databases of Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Lilacs and BVS. The articles included were randomized clinical trials about burn treatment with SSD, which evaluated the healing and infection of burn wounds in humans. The exclusion criteria included articles, editorials and letters published in the form of abstracts, unpublished reports and case series, cross-sectional, observational experimental studies, and the use of sulfadiazine for other types of wounds...
June 11, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
L González-Álvarez, M J García-Pola, J M Garcia-Martin
INTRODUCTION: Geographic tongue (GT) is a lesion of unknown origin associated with systemic diseases and therefore involves multidisciplinary care. METHODS: We performed a literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane databases. The selection criteria were consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews protocol. We considered as inclusion criteria journal articles designed on cases of cohorts, cross-sectional studies, cases and controls and randomised clinical trials in the pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic context...
June 11, 2018: Revista Clínica Española
Rui Huang, Huiying Rao, Jia Shang, Hong Chen, Jun Li, Qing Xie, Zhiliang Gao, Lei Wang, Jia Wei, Jianning Jiang, Jian Sun, Jiaji Jiang, Lai Wei
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common liver infections, with a decrement in HRQoL of HCV patients. This study aims to assess Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese patients with chronic HCV infection, and to identify significant predictors of the HRQoL in these patients of China. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, treatment-naïve Han ethnic adults with chronic HCV infection were enrolled. Adopting European Quality of Life scale (EQ-5D) and EuroQOL visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) were used to qualify HRQoL...
June 15, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Zhen Li, Jamie P Morano, Kaveh Khoshnood, Evelyn Hsieh, Yu Sheng
BACKGROUND: HIV-related stigma among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has been associated with many negative consequences, including poor adherence to therapy and undue psychological stress. However, the relative influence of specific demographic and situational factors contributing to HIV-related stigma among rural PLWHA in central China remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the level of HIV-related stigma among rural PLWHA across specific demographic and situational factors in central China...
June 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Adane Bitew, Yeshiwork Abebaw
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a global issue of concern due to its association with economic costs, sexually transmitted infections, and ascending genital tract infection. The aim of this study was to determine species distribution and antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to December 2016 at the Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia. Vaginal swabs collected from study subjects that were clinically diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis were cultured...
June 15, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Lou S Herman, Kimberly Fornace, Jody Phelan, Matthew J Grigg, Nicholas M Anstey, Timothy William, Robert W Moon, Michael J Blackman, Chris J Drakeley, Kevin K A Tetteh
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysian Borneo, with reporting limited to clinical cases presenting to health facilities and scarce data on the true extent of transmission. Serological estimations of transmission have been used with other malaria species to garner information about epidemiological patterns. However, there are a distinct lack of suitable serosurveillance tools for this neglected disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using in silico tools, we designed and expressed four novel P...
June 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Romina Buchs, Bruno Lehner, Phillippe Meuwly, Bruno Schnyder
<i>C. albicans</i> frequently causes recurrent intimal infectious disease (ID). This demands the treatment of multiple phases of the infection. The objective of this study was to uncover the host-pathogen-interaction using 2D epithelium cell-barrier and 3D subepithelium tissue cells of human mucosa. The 2D cell cultures assessed <i>C. albicans</i> adhesion. Addition of the anti-fungal drug Fluconazol did not inhibit the adhesion, despite its pathogen growth inhibition (MIC value 0.08μg/mL)...
June 14, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
A Yu Tsukanov, D S Akhmetov, A I Blesman, E A Rogachev
INTRODUCTION: Encrustation and biofilm formation is a clinical problem occurring with indwelling urinary drainage devices routinely used in urological practice. AIM: To investigate the impact of ureteral stent surface on encrustation and biofilm formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polyurethane stents of two manufacturers were examined using the scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy before use and three weeks after their initial ureteral placement in patients with no evidence of a urinary tract infection and urolithiasis...
May 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Yasuko Sagara, Masako Iwanaga, Maiko Morita, Yasuhiro Sagara, Hitomi Nakamura, Hideaki Hirayama, Kazuo Irita
Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) infection is endemic in Japan, particularly clustered in the southwestern district, Kyushu-Okinawa, which consists of eight prefectures that further consist of 274 municipalities. However, no information is available about the fine-scale distribution of HTLV-1 infection within Kyushu-Okinawa. In order to assess the municipal-level distribution of people with HTLV-1 infection in Kyushu-Okinawa, we performed a cross-sectional study using a fine-scale geographic-information-system map based on HTLV-1 screening test results from the Japanese Red Cross database from September 2012 to February 2014...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
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