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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913630/adaptive-nkg2c-nk-cell-response-and-the-risk-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#1
Dolores Redondo-Pachón, Marta Crespo, Jose Yélamos, Aura Muntasell, María José Pérez-Sáez, Silvia Pérez-Fernández, Joan Vila, Carlos Vilches, Julio Pascual, Miguel López-Botet
CMV infection in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) has been associated with an increased risk for graft loss and reduced host survival. CMV promotes persistent expansions of NK cells expressing the CD94/NKG2C receptor. The NKG2C (KLRC2) gene is frequently deleted, and copy number influences the adaptive response of NKG2C(+) NK cells. The distribution of NKG2C(+) NK cells and NKG2C genotypes (NKG2C(+/+), NKG2C(+/del), NKG2C(del/del)) were studied in cross-sectional (n = 253) and prospective (n = 122) KTR cohorts...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913248/no-evidence-of-local-adaptation-of-immune-responses-to-gyrodactylus-in-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#2
Shaun Robertson, Janette E Bradley, Andrew D C MacColl
Parasitism represents one of the most widespread lifestyles in the animal kingdom, with the potential to drive coevolutionary dynamics with their host population. Where hosts and parasites evolve together, we may find local adaptation. As one of the main host defences against infection, there is the potential for the immune response to be adapted to local parasites. In this study, we used the three-spined stickleback and its Gyrodactylus parasites to examine the extent of local adaptation of parasite infection dynamics and the immune response to infection...
November 29, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912949/seasonal-variations-of-prescriptions-for-the-major-syndrome-types-and-manifestations-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-tradition-chinese-medicine
#3
Yuh-Hsiang Yeh, Yiing-Jenq Chou, Nicole Huang, Christy Pu, Pesus Chou
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the seasonal variations of prescriptions for the three most common syndrome types and the three major manifestations of upper respiratory infections (URIs) according to the theories of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. We examined a random sample comprising 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance program in 2005. Primary diagnoses including International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes 460-465 and 487 were regarded as URIs, for which 160,357 prescriptions of Chinese herbal medicine were analyzed...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912817/molecular-mechanisms-of-apical-periodontitis-emerging-role-of-epigenetic-regulators
#4
REVIEW
Shebli Mehrazarin, Abdullah Alshaikh, Mo K Kang
Conventional root canal therapies yield high success rates. The treatment outcomes are negatively affected by the presence of apical periodontitis (AP), which reflects active root canal infection and inflammatory responses. Also, cross-sectional studies revealed surprisingly high prevalence of AP in the general population, especially in those with prior endodontic treatments. Hence, AP is an ongoing disease entity in endodontics that needs further understanding of the pathogenesis and disease progression. The current Chapter will discuss the basic mechanisms of AP with emphasis on emerging role of epigenetic regulators in regulation of inflammatory mediators...
January 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912091/genetic-ablation-of-axl-does-not-protect-human-neural-progenitor-cells-and-cerebral-organoids-from-zika-virus-infection
#5
Michael F Wells, Max R Salick, Ole Wiskow, Daniel J Ho, Kathleen A Worringer, Robert J Ihry, Sravya Kommineni, Bilada Bilican, Joseph R Klim, Ellen J Hill, Liam T Kane, Chaoyang Ye, Ajamete Kaykas, Kevin Eggan
Zika virus (ZIKV) can cross the placental barrier, resulting in infection of the fetal brain and neurological defects including microcephaly. The cellular tropism of ZIKV and the identity of attachment factors used by the virus to gain access to key cell types involved in pathogenesis are under intense investigation. Initial studies suggested that ZIKV preferentially targets neural progenitor cells (NPCs), providing an explanation for the developmental phenotypes observed in some pregnancies. The AXL protein has been nominated as a key attachment factor for ZIKV in several cell types including NPCs...
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911231/systematic-review-of-ventricular-peritoneal-shunt-and-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-a-safe-combination
#6
Leendert H Oterdoom, D L Marinus Oterdoom, Johannes C F Ket, J Marc C van Dijk, Pieter Scholten
OBJECTIVE Various international and national gastrointestinal guidelines take different positions on whether ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) insertion is a contraindication to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). The objective of this meta-analysis was to try to answer the question of whether VPS insertion is a contraindication to PEG. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. Electronic databases PubMed and Embase were searched using variations of the terms "ventriculo-peritoneal shunt" and "percutaneous (endoscopic) gastrostomy...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910210/microbiological-evaluation-of-the-extension-wire-and-percutaneous-epidural-lead-anchor-site-following-a-2-stage-cut-down-spinal-cord-stimulator-procedure
#7
Abdul Ghaaliq Lalkhen, Mahindra Chincholkar, Jiten Patel
OBJECTIVES: There are concerns regarding bacterial colonization of the temporary extension leads and subsequent infection risk using the 2-stage cut-down approach in spinal cord stimulation (SCS). We sought to quantify the extent of bacterial colonization of the temporary extension wire and percutaneous epidural lead anchor site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study recruiting a pragmatic sample of 25 consecutive patients listed for a cut-down trial of SCS...
December 2, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908746/willingness-to-pay-for-a-dengue-vaccine-and-its-associated-determinants-in-indonesia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-survey-in-aceh
#8
Harapan Harapan, Samsul Anwar, Aslam Bustaman, Arsil Radiansyah, Pradiba Angraini, Riny Fasli, Salwiyadi Salwiyadi, Reza Akbar Bastian, Ade Oktiviyari, Imaduddin Akmal, Muhammad Iqbalamin, Jamalul Adil, Fenni Henrizal, Darmayanti Darmayanti, Mahmuda Mahmuda, Mudatsir Mudatsir, Allison Imrie, R Tedjo Sasmono, Ulrich Kuch, Ziv Shkedy, Setia Pramana
Vaccination strategies are being considered as a part of dengue prevention programs in endemic countries. To accelerate the introduction of dengue vaccine into the public sector program and private markets, understanding the private economic benefits of a dengue vaccine is therefore essential. The aim of this study was to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) for a dengue vaccine among community members in Indonesia and its associated explanatory variables. A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine regencies of Aceh province, Indonesia, from November 2014 to March 2015...
November 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907940/ct-guided-percutaneous-spine-biopsy-in-suspected-infection-or-malignancy-a-study-of-214-patients
#9
J Rehm, S Veith, M Akbar, H U Kauczor, M A Weber
Purpose: To retrospectively determine the effectiveness and accuracy of CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of malignant and inflammatory bone lesions of the spine and to assess the reliability of pre-biopsy CT and MRI. Materials and Methods: 214 patients with lesions of the spine, which were suspicious either for being malignant or inflammatory, underwent CT-guided biopsy for pathological and/or microbiological detection. Biopsy samples were sent for histological examination in 128/214 patients, for microbiological analysis in 17/214 patients and for both analyses in 69/214 patients...
December 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907933/evaluation-of-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-s-knowledge-about-toxoplasmosis-in-rio-grande-rs-brazil
#10
Lis Maurente Lehmann, Paula Costa Santos, Carlos James Scaini
Introduction Toxoplasmosis a parasitic zoonosis of global distribution, responsible for disorders during gestation can cause fetal death or congenital anomalies. Objective To evaluate the knowledge of toxoplasmosis among pregnant and postpartum women treated at the University Hospital of the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 100 pregnant and postpartum women at the University Hospital. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire and gave consent for data relating to serological examinations to be abstracted from their medical records...
December 1, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907928/cytomorphological-analysis-of-lymph-node-lesions-in-hiv-positive-patients-with-cd4-count-correlation-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Sadia Siddiqa Nasser, Rashmi K Patil, Shreekanth K Kittur
OBJECTIVES: To study the cytomorphological spectrum of lymph node lesions in HIV-positive patients and correlate the cytological findings with the CD4 count. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 23 months' duration which included 110 HIV-positive cases proved according to the guidelines of the National AIDS Control Organisation. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was done on clinically palpable lymph nodes. Special stains and culture were done wherever necessary...
December 2, 2016: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907009/moderate-levels-of-pre-treatment-hiv-1-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-detected-in-the-first-south-african-national-survey
#12
Kim Steegen, Sergio Carmona, Michelle Bronze, Maria A Papathanasopoulos, Gert van Zyl, Dominique Goedhals, William MacLeod, Ian Sanne, Wendy S Stevens
BACKGROUND: In order to assess the level of transmitted and/or pre-treatment antiretroviral drug resistance to HIV-1, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that regular surveys are conducted. This study's objective was to assess the frequency of HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance in patients initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the public sector throughout South Africa. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted using probability proportional to size sampling...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906980/patterns-of-sexual-behavior-in-lowland-thai-youth-and-ethnic-minorities-attending-high-school-in-rural-chiang-mai-thailand
#13
Linda Aurpibul, Arunrat Tangmunkongvorakul, Patou Masika Musumari, Kriengkrai Srithanaviboonchai, Surapee Tarnkehard
INTRODUCTION: The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906164/early-sigmoidoscopy-or-colonoscopy-is-associated-with-improved-hospital-outcomes-in-ulcerative-colitis-related-hospitalization
#14
Kenneth Obi, Alice Hinton, Lindsay Sobotka, Razvan Arsenescu, Somashekar G Krishna, Edward J Levine, Cheng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Performing a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy is recommended for assessment of disease activity, excluding infection, and guiding medical treatment during ulcerative colitis (UC)-related hospitalizations. However, it is unknown whether the timing of endoscopy impacts clinical outcomes. The objective of our study was to determine the impact of timing of endoscopy on hospital outcomes in patients with UC-related hospitalizations. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2006-2013)...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906100/an-isothermal-dna-amplification-method-for-detection-of-onchocerca-volvulus-infection-in-skin-biopsies
#15
Ole Lagatie, Michelle Merino, Linda Batsa Debrah, Alexander Y Debrah, Lieven J Stuyver
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of infection with the nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus are currently based on the microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin biopsies. Alternative approaches based on amplification of parasitic DNA in these skin biopsies are currently being explored. Mostly this is based on the detection of the O-150 repeat sequence using PCR based techniques. METHODS: An isothermal, loop-mediated amplification method has been designed using the mitochondrial O...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906008/sero-prevalence-of-hbv-and-associated-risk-factors-among-hiv-positive-individuals-attending-art-clinic-at-mekelle-hospital-tigray-northern-ethiopia
#16
Letebrhan Weldemhret, Tsehaye Asmelash, Rashmi Belodu, Dawit Gebreegziabiher
BACKGROUND: Because of the shared mean of transmission, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of an important cause of co-morbidity and mortality in peoples living with HIV/AIDS. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors in HIV/AIDS positive individuals attending ART clinic at Mekelle hospital, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from August to October 2014 in HIV/AIDS positive adult individuals...
February 4, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906002/hiv-1-genetic-diversity-and-its-distribution-characteristics-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-1-individuals-in-hebei-province-china
#17
Xinli Lu, Cuiying Zhao, Wei Wang, Chenxi Nie, Yuqi Zhang, Hongru Zhao, Suliang Chen, Ze Cui
BACKGROUND: Since the first HIV-1 case in 1989, Hebei province has presented a clearly rising trend of HIV-1 prevalence, and HIV-1 genetic diversity has become the vital barrier to HIV prevention and control in this area. To obtain detailed information of HIV-1 spread in different populations and in different areas of Hebei, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological investigation was performed across the province. METHODS: Blood samples of 154 newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals were collected from ten prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling...
January 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905984/assessing-the-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-first-response-hiv-1-2-test-kit-with-whole-blood-and-serum-samples-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Raymond Boadu, George Darko, Priscilla Nortey, Patricia Akweongo, Bismark Sarfo
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Rapid diagnostic Test (RDT) kits are the preferred assays for HIV testing in many countries. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission, Know Your Status Campaigns, Blood-Safety, Voluntary Counseling and Testing are major strategies adapted to control transmission of the virus and the pivot of these interventions is either screening or diagnosing individuals through testing. There are reports of inconsistent sensitivity and specificity with whole blood and serum samples collected from the same individual...
February 16, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905894/seroprevalence-of-bordetella-pertussis-specific-immunoglobulin-g-antibody-levels-among-asymptomatic-individuals-aged-4-to-24%C3%A2-years-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study-from-sri-lanka
#19
Shamithra Sigera, Jennifer Perera, Jeyanthakumar Rasarathinam, Dulani Samaranayake, Dileepa Ediriweera
BACKGROUND: In Sri Lanka pertussis continues to circulate in the community and cases among adolescents and adults have been reported despite 95% coverage of the four dose pertussis vaccination during early childhood. Waning of immunity following natural infection or immunization may contribute to the persistent circulation. An adolescent booster dose is not included in the national immunization schedule of Sri Lanka, although this is routine practice in many countries. Therefore information on immunity to pertussis in the adolescent group is needed prior to considering vaccination schedule changes...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905075/a-description-of-medication-errors-reported-by-pharmacists-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#20
Shane Pawluk, Myriam Jaam, Fatima Hazi, Moza Sulaiman Al Hail, Wessam El Kassem, Hanan Khalifa, Binny Thomas, Pallivalappila Abdul Rouf
Background Patients in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are at an increased risk for medication errors. Objective The objective of this study is to describe the nature and setting of medication errors occurring in patients admitted to an NICU in Qatar based on a standard electronic system reported by pharmacists. Setting Neonatal intensive care unit, Doha, Qatar. Method This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on medication errors reported electronically by pharmacists in the NICU between January 1, 2014 and April 30, 2015...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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