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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651402/-consecutive-cross-sectional-survey-of-prevalence-of-hiv-infection-std-and-related-factors-in-vietnamese-female-sex-workers-at-a-china-vietnam-border-area-2014-2015
#1
J Zhu, R Yuan, D Hu, Z B Zhu, X Yang, N Wang, B Wang
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of HIV infection/STD and related factors in Vietnamese female sex workers (FSWs). Methods: Consecutive cross-sectional surveys were conducted in June 2014, December 2014, May 2015 and November 2015 in Hekou, a county bordering Vietnam in Yunnan province. Convenience sampling were adopted to select 1 058 Vietnamese FSWs aged>16 years. Questionnaire interview were used to collect the information about their demographics, sexual behaviors and drug use. Serum and urine samples were collected for HIV infection/STD detection and drug use test...
May 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651401/-investigation-of-group-sex-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-taizhou-zhejiang-province-2013-2015
#2
H J Lin, Y C Zhang, W W Shen, Q H Wu, Y Y Xu, D H Qiu, Y Y Ding, N He
Objective: To understand the prevalence of group sex in men who have sex with men (MSM) and related factors in Taizhou, Zhejiang province. Methods: From March 2013 to September 2015, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among MSM recruited from gay bars or bath houses in Taizhou by using questionnaire to collect the information about their sexual behavior and HIV test. Results: A total of 1 435 MSM were recruited, 179 of them (12.5%) were HIV infected, 231 (16.1%) reported group sex during the past year. Compared with MSM without group sex, more MSM with group sex had more than ten male sexual partners (53...
May 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651400/-mobile-internet-based-survey-of-current-status-of-hiv-test-and-related-factors-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-college-students-in-china
#3
Y Y Jin, J Xu, Z Jiang, Z Y Wu
Objective: To assess the current status of HIV test during the past year and related factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in college students in China. Methods: Based on a MSM website, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 500 MSM in college students aged 18-25 years, who were selected based on the estimated HIV detection rate of 50% in this population, by means of mobile phone questionnaire survey. χ(2) test and non-conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify the factors related with HIV test, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651078/leuconostoc-mesenteroides-and-leuconostoc-pseudomesenteroides-bacteriophages-genomics-and-cross-species-host-ranges
#4
Silvina A Pujato, Daniela M Guglielmotti, Manuel Martínez-García, Andrea Quiberoni, Francisco J M Mojica
Unveiling virus-host interactions are relevant for understanding the biology and evolution of microbes globally, but in particular, it has also a paramount impact on the manufacture of fermented dairy products. In this study, we aim at characterizing phages infecting the commonly used heterofermentative Leuconostoc spp. on the basis of host range patterns and genome analysis. Host range of six Leuconostoc phages was investigated using three methods (efficiency of plaquing, spot and turbidity tests) against Ln...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650937/weak-hiv-antibody-responses-in-perinatally-infected-young-adults
#5
Allison R Kirkpatrick, Aylin B Unsal, Joel N Blankson, Richard D Moore, Thomas C Quinn, Colleen Hadigan, Oliver Laeyendecker
We compared the antibody response to HIV using two serologic cross-sectional incidence assays in adults with perinatally-acquired HIV, to elite controllers and individuals exposed to antiretroviral therapy who were all infected as adults. Low antibody responses were seen more frequently in adults with perinatally-acquired HIV, both overall and when stratified by viral suppression status.
June 23, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650402/hiv-hbv-co-infection-is-a-significant-risk-factor-for-liver-fibrosis-in-tanzanian-hiv-infected-adults
#6
Claudia Hawkins, Beatrice Christian, Emanuel Fabian, Irene Macha, Cecilia Gawile, Shida Mpangala, Nzovu Ulenga, Chloe L Thio, Lauren Rose Ammerman, Ferdinand Mugusi, Wafaie Fawzi, Richard Green, Robert Murphy
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of liver disease associated with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and HIV is unknown. We characterized liver disease using aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and FIB-4 in patients with HIV, HBV, and HIV/HBV co-infection in Tanzania. METHODS: Using a cross sectional design, we compared the prevalence of liver fibrosis in treatment-naive HIV mono-infected, HBV mono-infected, and HIV/HBV co-infected adults enrolled at Management and Development for Health (MDH)-supported HIV treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650400/high-need-to-switch-cart-or-co-medication-with-the-initiation-of-daas-in-elderly-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients
#7
Elise J Smolders, Colette Smit, Clara Tmm De Kanter, Anton Dofferhoff, Joop E Arends, Kees Brinkman, Bart Rijnders, Marc Van Der Valk, Peter Reiss, David M Burger
BACKGROUD: To describe the use of non-antiretroviral co-medication and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients, and to predict the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV. METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study, using the Dutch nationwide ATHENA observational HIV cohort database. All patients with a known HIV/HCV co-infection on 1 January 2015 were included...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649808/development-of-a-real-time-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-detection-of-burkholderia-mallei
#8
V Pal, A Saxena, S Singh, A K Goel, J S Kumar, M M Parida, G P Rai
Burkholderia mallei is the aetiological agent of glanders, a highly contagious and re-emerging zoonotic disease. Early diagnosis of glanders is critically important to ensure timely treatment with appropriate antibiotics in humans, and to prevent spread of infection in animals. Molecular detection of B. mallei has always been troublesome because of its genetic similarity with Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. In present investigation, a set of six B. mallei-specific primers were designed and a simple, rapid, specific and sensitive real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for detection of B...
June 25, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649618/synergistic-effects-of-influenza-and-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-mptp-can-be-eliminated-by-the-use-of-influenza-therapeutics-experimental-evidence-for-the-multi-hit-hypothesis
#9
Shankar Sadasivan, Bridgett Sharp, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Richard Jay Smeyne
Central Nervous System inflammation has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (Ransohoff, Science 353: 777-783, 2016; Kannarkat et al. J. Parkinsons Dis. 3: 493-514, 2013). Here, we examined if the H1N1 influenza virus (Studahl et al. Drugs 73: 131-158, 2013) could synergize with the parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (Jackson-Lewis et al. in Mark LeDoux (ed) Movement Disorders: Genetics and Models: 287-306, Elsevier, 2015) to induce a greater microglial activation and loss of substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons than either insult alone...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649402/evolutionary-adaptations-of-biofilms-infecting-cystic-fibrosis-lungs-promote-mechanical-toughness-by-adjusting-polysaccharide-production
#10
Kristin Kovach, Megan Davis-Fields, Yasuhiko Irie, Kanishk Jain, Shashvat Doorwar, Katherine Vuong, Numa Dhamani, Kishore Mohanty, Ahmed Touhami, Vernita D Gordon
Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, largely polysaccharides. Multiple types of extracellular polymeric substances can be produced by a single bacterial strain. The distinct polymer components of biofilms are known to provide chemical protection, but little is known about how distinct extracellular polysaccharides may also protect biofilms against mechanical stresses such as shear or phagocytic engulfment. Decades-long infections of Pseudomonas. aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients are natural models for studies of biofilm fitness under pressure from antibiotics and the immune system...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649308/association-between-spirometry-controlled-chest-ct-scores-using-computer-animated-biofeedback-and-clinical-markers-of-lung-disease-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#11
Thomas Kongstad, Kent Green, Frederik Buchvald, Marianne Skov, Tania Pressler, Kim Gjerum Nielsen
Background: Computed tomography (CT) of the lungs is the gold standard for assessing the extent of structural changes in the lungs. Spirometry-controlled chest CT (SCCCT) has improved the usefulness of CT by standardising inspiratory and expiratory lung volumes during imaging. This was a single-centre cross-sectional study in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Using SCCCT we wished to investigate the association between the quantity and extent of structural lung changes and pulmonary function outcomes, and prevalence of known CF lung pathogens...
2017: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649250/immunity-in-protochordates-the-tunicate-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Nicola Franchi, Loriano Ballarin
Tunicates are the closest relatives of vertebrates, and their peculiar phylogenetic position explains the increasing interest toward tunicate immunobiology. They are filter-feeding organisms, and this greatly influences their defense strategies. The majority of the studies on tunicate immunity were carried out in ascidians. The tunic acts as a first barrier against pathogens and parasites. In addition, the oral siphon and the pharynx represent two major, highly vascularized, immune organs, where circulating hemocytes can sense non-self material and trigger immune responses that, usually, lead to inflammation and phagocytosis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648806/the-evolutionary-consequences-of-stepwise-infection-processes
#13
REVIEW
Matthew D Hall, Gilberto Bento, Dieter Ebert
Molecular and cellular studies reveal that the resistance of hosts to parasites and pathogens is a cascade-like process with multiple steps required to be passed for successful infection. By contrast, much of evolutionary reasoning is based on strongly simplified, one- or two-step infection processes with simple genetics or on resistance being a quantitative trait. Here we attempt a conceptual unification of these two perspectives with the aim of cross-fostering research and filling some of the gaps in our concepts of the ecology and evolution of disease...
June 22, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648664/high-dose-ivig-successfully-reduces-high-rhgaa-igg-antibody-titers-in-a-crim-negative-infantile-pompe-disease-patient
#14
Mugdha Rairikar, Zoheb B Kazi, Ankit Desai, Crista Walters, Amy Rosenberg, Priya S Kishnani
Alglucosidase alfa (rhGAA) has altered the course of an otherwise fatal outcome in classic infantile Pompe disease (IPD), which presents with cardiomyopathy and severe musculoskeletal involvement. However, the response to therapy is determined by several factors including the development of high and sustained antibody titers (HSAT) to rhGAA. Cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM) negative patients are at the highest risk for development of HSAT. Immune tolerance induction (ITI) with methotrexate, rituximab, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been largely successful in preventing the immune response and in achieving tolerance when done in conjunction with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) initiation...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648540/pedicled-vein-grafts-in-coronary-operation-perioperative-data-from-a-randomized-trial
#15
Øystein Pettersen, Per Magnus Haram, Anders Winnerkvist, Asbjørn Karevold, Alexander Wahba, Maryann Stenvik, Rune Wiseth, Knut Hegbom, Dag Ole Nordhaug
BACKGROUND: Less-than-optimal long-term patency of the saphenous vein is one of the main obstacles for the success of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Results from the IMPROVE-CABG trial has shown that harvesting the saphenous vein with a pedicle of perivascular tissue less than 5 mm while using manual distention provides comparable occlusion rates but significantly less intimal hyperplasia at early follow-up. The impact of pedicled veins on duration of operations, leg wound infections, and postoperative bleeding is unknown...
June 22, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647849/the-clinical-outcomes-of-using-a-new-cross-linked-hyaluronan-gel-in-endoscopic-frontal-sinus-surgery
#16
Teoman Dal, Seçil Bahar
In endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) synechiae formation and ostial stenosis are frequently encountered. This is not uncommon after frontal recess and ostium interventions due to the narrow recess and difficult anatomy of the region. The goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the new cross-linked hyaluronan gel-PureRegen(®) Gel Sinus-on wound healing and synechiae prevention in endoscopic frontal sinus surgery. The study consists of two groups of patients who underwent ESS, including frontal sinus surgery...
June 24, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647345/cutaneous-nod2-expression-regulates-the-skin-microbiome-and-wound-healing-in-a-murine-model
#17
Helen Williams, Rachel A Crompton, Helen A Thomason, Laura Campbell, Gurdeep Singh, Andrew J McBain, Sheena M Cruickshank, Matthew J Hardman
The skin microbiome exists in dynamic equilibrium with the host but when the skin is compromised, bacteria can colonise the wound and impair wound healing. Thus the interplay between normal skin-microbial interactions versus pathogenic-microbial interactions in wound repair is important. Bacteria are recognised by innate host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and we previously demonstrated an important role for the PRR NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domains-containing protein 2) in skin wound repair...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647332/longitudinal-relationship-between-fecal-culture-fecal-quantitative-pcr-and-milk-elisa-in-mycobacterium-avium-ssp-paratuberculosis-infected-cows-from-low-prevalence-dairy-herds
#18
A Beaver, R W Sweeney, E Hovingh, D R Wolfgang, Y T Gröhn, Y H Schukken
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of ruminant Johne's disease, presents a particular challenge with regard to infection mitigation on dairy farms. Diagnostic testing strategies to identify and quantify MAP and associated antibodies are imperfect, and certain facets of the relationship between diagnostic tests remain to be explored. Additional repeated-measures data from known infected animals are needed to complement the body of cross-sectional research on Johne's disease-testing methods...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647187/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-blastocystis-infection-among-underprivileged-communities-in-rural-malaysia
#19
Nabilah Amelia Mohammad, Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi, Norhayati Moktar, Tengku Shahrul Anuar
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of Blastocystis among underprivileged communities living in rural Malaysia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 253 participants aged between 1 and 85 years. Stool samples were examined using Wheatley's trichrome stain after in-vitro cultivation in Jones' medium to detect the presence of Blastocystis. Information pertaining to the demography, socioeconomic and environment were collected using pre-validated questionnaires...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647133/-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-testing-in-dental-practice
#20
Jesús Eduardo Elizondo, Ana Cecilia Treviño, Deborah Violant, Ana María Rivas-Estilla, Mario Moisés Álvarez
OBJECTIVE: To explore the attitudes of men who have sex with men (MSM) towards the implementation of rapid HIV-1/2 testing in the dental practice, and to evaluate MSM's perceptions of stigma and discrimination related to sexual orientation by dental care professionals. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a self-administered, anonymous, structured analytical questionnaire answered by 185 MSM in Mexico. The survey included sociodemographic variables, MSM's perceptions towards public and private dental providers, and dental services, as well as their perception towards rapid HIV-1/2 testing in the dental practice...
June 21, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
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