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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453888/dual-transcriptomics-reveals-co-evolutionary-mechanisms-of-intestinal-parasite-infections-in-blue-mussels-mytilus-edulis
#1
Marieke E Feis, Uwe John, Ana Lokmer, Pieternella C Luttikhuizen, K Mathias Wegner
On theoretical grounds, antagonistic co-evolution between hosts and their parasites should be a widespread phenomenon but only received little empirical support so far. Consequently, the underlying molecular mechanisms and evolutionary steps remain elusive, especially in non-model systems. Here, we utilised the natural history of invasive parasites to document the molecular underpinnings of co-evolutionary trajectories. We applied a dual-species transcriptomics approach to experimental cross-infections of blue mussel Mytilus edulis hosts and their invasive parasitic copepods Mytilicola intestinalis from two invasion fronts in the Wadden Sea...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453831/evaluation-of-a-recombinant-multiepitope-antigen-for-diagnosis-of-hepatitis-c-virus-a-lower-cost-alternative-for-antigen-production
#2
Ronaldo Luis Thomasini, Hortencia Gisele Amaro Souza, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Antonio Helvecio Totola, Neiva Sellan Lopes Gonçales, Cristiano Xavier Lima, Mauro Martins Teixeira
BACKGROUND: The most of the hepatitis C-infected patients remain undiagnosed until they develop severe liver damage or submitted for serological screening. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a recombinant multiepitope protein for detection of IgG anti-hepatitis C virus. METHOD: A synthetic gene was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified. Human serum panel consisted of 88 positives (20 HCV genotyped) and 376 negatives for hepatitis C, 6 positives for human acquired immunodeficiency virus, 6 syphilis positives, 6 hepatitis B positives were tested by IgG antihepatitis C virus using the protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453698/corneal-collagen-cross-linking-for-the-management-of-mycotic-keratitis
#3
Elif Erdem, Ibrahim Inan Harbiyeli, Hazal Boral, Macit Ilkit, Meltem Yagmur, Reha Ersoz
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficiency of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in addition to topical voriconazole in cases with mycotic keratitis. DESIGN: Retrospective case series in a tertiary university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: CXL was performed on 13 patients with mycotic keratitis who presented poor or no response to topical voriconazole treatment. METHODS: The clinical features, symptoms, treatment results and complications were recorded retrospectively...
February 16, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453472/prevalence-of-hepatitis-d-among-patients-with-hepatitis-b-viral-infection-attending-a-tertiary-care-centre-of-nepal
#4
Kiran Regmi, Jeetendra Kaji Shrestha, Sudhamshu Kc, Bikash Jaishi, Niyanta Karki, Dipendra Khadka, Sandip Khadka
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide there is variation in prevalence of Hepatitis D viral infection. Superinfection and co infection with hepatitis B viral infection is known to occur in 15-20 million people. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital based study carried out in NAMS, Bir hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from period of January 2017 to June 2017. Consecutive patients of chronic hepatitis B viral infection of HBsAg positive with more than two-time upper normal limit of ALT were enrolled and tested for HDV IgG...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453199/simultaneous-assessment-of-clearance-metabolism-induction-and-drug-drug-interaction-potential-using-a-long-term-in-vitro-liver-model-for-a-novel-hepatitis-b-virus-inhibitor
#5
Nicole A Kratochwil, Miriam Triyatni, Martina B Mueller, Florian Klammers, Brian Leonard, Dan Turley, Josephine Schmaler, Aynur Ekiciler, Birgit Molitor, Isabelle Walter, Pierre-Alexis Gonsard, Charles A Tournillac, Alexandre Durrwell, Michaela Marschmann, Russell Jones, Mohammed Ullah, Franziska Boess, Giorgio Ottaviani, Yuyan Yin, Neil J Parrott, Stephen Fowler
Long-term in vitro liver models are now widely explored for human hepatic metabolic clearance prediction, enzyme phenotyping, cross species metabolism, comparison of low clearance drugs as well as induction studies. Here, we present studies using a long-term liver model which show how metabolism and active transport, drug-drug interactions and enzyme induction in healthy and diseased states, e.g. hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, may be assessed in a single test system to enable effective data integration for PBPK modeling...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452594/comparative-immunogenicity-of-preparations-of-yeast-derived-dengue-oral-vaccine-candidate
#6
Jyotiranjan Bal, Nguyen Ngoc Luong, Jisang Park, Ki-Duk Song, Yong-Suk Jang, Dae-Hyuk Kim
BACKGROUND: Dengue is listed as a neglected tropical disease by the Center for Disease Control and Preservation, as there are insufficient integrated surveillance strategies, no effective treatment, and limited licensed vaccines. Consisting of four genetically distinct serotypes, dengue virus (DENV) causes serious life-threatening infections due to its complexity. Antibody-dependent enhancement by pre-existing cross-reactive as well as homotypic antibodies further worsens the clinical symptoms of dengue...
February 16, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452288/repetitive-tlr-3-activation-in-the-lung-induces-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-and-cachexia
#7
Ted G Graber, Brandy L Rawls, Bing Tian, William J Durham, Camille R Brightwell, Allan R Brasier, Blake B Rasmussen, Christopher S Fry
Due to immunosenescence, older adults are particularly susceptible to lung-based viral infections, with increased severity of symptoms in those with underlying chronic lung disease. Repeated respiratory viral infections produce lung maladaptations, accelerating pulmonary dysfunction. Toll like 3 receptor (TLR3) is a membrane protein that senses exogenous double-stranded RNA to activate the innate immune response to a viral infection. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] mimics double stranded RNA and has been shown to activate TLR3...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451887/evaluating-diagnostic-indicators-of-urogenital-schistosoma-haematobium-infection-in-young-women-a-cross-sectional-study-in-rural-south-africa
#8
Hashini Nilushika Galappaththi-Arachchige, Sigve Holmen, Artemis Koukounari, Elisabeth Kleppa, Pavitra Pillay, Motshedisi Sebitloane, Patricia Ndhlovu, Lisette van Lieshout, Birgitte Jyding Vennervald, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Myra Taylor, Eyrun Floerecke Kjetland
BACKGROUND: Urine microscopy is the standard diagnostic method for urogenital S. haematobium infection. However, this may lead to under-diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis, as the disease may present itself with genital symptoms in the absence of ova in the urine. Currently there is no single reliable and affordable diagnostic method to diagnose the full spectrum of urogenital S. haematobium infection. In this study we explore the classic indicators in the diagnosis of urogenital S...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451611/factors-associated-with-hiv-co-infection-in-cases-of-acquired-syphilis-reported-in-a-reference-center-for-sexually-transmitted-diseases-and-aids-in-the-municipality-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-2014
#9
Carla Gianna Luppi, Solange Eduardo Chabu Gomes, Roberto José Carvalho da Silva, Amanda Miyako Ueno, Anna Maria Kamimura Dos Santos, Ângela Tayra, Renata Ferreira Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: to describe sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and to identify factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in cases of acquired syphilis reported in a Reference Center for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) and AIDS. METHODS: cross-sectional study with secondary data from a Reference Center for STD and AIDS in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2014; the Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)...
2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450466/diagnostic-criteria-of-ulcerative-pyoderma-gangrenosum-a-delphi-consensus-of-international-experts
#10
Emanual Maverakis, Chelsea Ma, Kanade Shinkai, David Fiorentino, Jeffrey P Callen, Uwe Wollina, Angelo Valerio Marzano, Daniel Wallach, Kyoungmi Kim, Courtney Schadt, Anthony Ormerod, Maxwell A Fung, Andrea Steel, Forum Patel, Rosie Qin, Fiona Craig, Hywel C Williams, Frank Powell, Alexander Merleev, Michelle Y Cheng
Importance: Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare inflammatory skin condition that is difficult to diagnose. Currently, it is a "diagnosis of exclusion," a definition not compatible with clinical decision making or inclusion for clinical trials. Objective: To propose and validate diagnostic criteria for ulcerative pyoderma gangrenosum. Evidence Review: Diagnostic criteria were created following a Delphi consensus exercise using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method...
February 14, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449842/pan-influenza-a-protection-by-prime-boost-vaccination-with-cold-adapted-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-in-a-mouse-model
#11
Yo Han Jang, Joo Young Kim, Young Ho Byun, Ahyun Son, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Jun Chang, Baik Lin Seong
Influenza virus infections continually pose a major public health threat with seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics worldwide. While currently licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection, antigenic drift and shift occasionally render the viruses resistant to the host immune responses, which highlight the need for a vaccine that provides broad protection against multiple subtypes. In this study, we suggest a vaccination strategy using cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) to provide a broad, potent, and safe cross-protection covering antigenically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) groups 1 and 2 influenza viruses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449049/extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-national-study-of-antimicrobial-treatment-for-pediatric-urinary-tract-infection
#12
M Lagree, S Bontemps, R Dessein, F Angoulvant, F Madhi, A Martinot, R Cohen, F Dubos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical practices for ESBL-producing urinary tract infection (UTI) in France. METHODS: We performed an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study in 22 pediatric departments of university or secondary care hospitals. We collected data of the last five patients presenting with ESBL-producing UTI in 2012 and the physicians' therapeutic approach to two case vignettes of acute non-septic ESBL-producing pyelonephritis (7-month-old girl) and cystitis (30-month-old girl)...
February 12, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447884/knowledge-and-attitudes-of-early-childhood-development-practitioners-towards-hearing-health-in-poor-communities
#13
Shouneez Yousuf Hussein, De Wet Swanepoel, Leigh Biagio de Jager, Faheema Mahomed-Asmail
OBJECTIVE: Within the educational sector of low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), formal and informal early childhood development (ECD) centers are often the first point of contact for majority of children. Since early hearing detection services are mostly absent in LMICs, these ECD centers may serve as the first point of access to screenings for these children. ECD practitioner awareness regarding hearing and hearing loss is essential for the successful implementation of hearing screening programs...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447400/prevalence-and-clinical-correlation-of-superficial-fungal-foot-infection-in-thai-naval-rating-cadets
#14
Punyawee Ongsri, Sumanas Bunyaratavej, Charussri Leeyaphan, Penvadee Pattanaprichakul, Pattachee Ongmahutmongkol, Chulaluk Komoltri, Kanokvalai Kulthanan
Background: Superficial fungal foot infection is one of the most important dermatological diseases currently affecting military personnel. Many Thai naval rating cadets are found to suffer from superficial fungal foot infections and their sequels. Objective: To investigate prevalence, potent risk factors, responding pathogens and clinical correlation of superficial fungal foot infection in Thai naval rating cadets training in Naval rating school, Sattahip, Thailand...
February 13, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447271/parents-knowledge-beliefs-and-acceptance-of-the-hpv-vaccination-in-relation-to-their-socio-demographics-and-religious-beliefs-a-cross-sectional-study-in-thailand
#15
Maria Grandahl, Seung Chun Paek, Siriwan Grisurapong, Penchan Sherer, Tanja Tydén, Pranee Lundberg
Thailand has one of the world's highest prevalence of cervical cancer, mainly caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infections can successfully be prevented by vaccination, which is available at a cost but not yet implemented in the national vaccination program. Parents play a critical role in deciding whether to vaccinate their child against HPV. Thus, the aim was to examine the association between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447249/a-paralogous-pair-of-mammalian-host-restriction-factors-form-a-critical-host-barrier-against-poxvirus-infection
#16
Xiangzhi Meng, Fushun Zhang, Bo Yan, Chuanping Si, Hiroaki Honda, Akiko Nagamachi, Lu-Zhe Sun, Yan Xiang
Host restriction factors constitute a formidable barrier for viral replication to which many viruses have evolved counter-measures. Human SAMD9, a tumor suppressor and a restriction factor for poxviruses in cell lines, is antagonized by two classes of poxvirus proteins, represented by vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 and C7. A paralog of SAMD9, SAMD9L, is also encoded by some mammals, while only one of two paralogs is retained by others. Here, we show that SAMD9L functions similarly to SAMD9 as a restriction factor and that the two paralogs form a critical host barrier that poxviruses must overcome to establish infection...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447156/west-nile-and-st-louis-encephalitis-viral-genetic-determinants-of-avian-host-competence
#17
Payal D Maharaj, Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Stanley A Langevin, Michael Anishchenko, Richard A Bowen, William K Reisen, Aaron C Brault
West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV) virus are enzootically maintained in North America in cycles involving the same mosquito vectors and similar avian hosts. However, these viruses exhibit dissimilar viremia and virulence phenotypes in birds: WNV is associated with high magnitude viremias that can result in mortality in certain species such as American crows (AMCRs, Corvus brachyrhynchos) whereas SLEV infection yields lower viremias that have not been associated with avian mortality. Cross-neutralization of these viruses in avian sera has been proposed to explain the reduced circulation of SLEV since the introduction of WNV in North America; however, in 2015, both viruses were the etiologic agents of concurrent human encephalitis outbreaks in Arizona, indicating the need to re-evaluate host factors and cross-neutralization responses as factors potentially affecting viral co-circulation...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446749/the-seroprevalence-of-cystic-echinococcosis-in-a-rural-normal-population-southwestern-iran
#18
Molouk Beiromvand, Abdollah Rafiei, Esmat Panabad
INTRODUCTION: Cystic echinococcosis is a neglected zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution, which occurs mainly in pastoral regions. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto, is the main agent of human infection. Although Iran is an endemic area for CE in the Middle East, lack of data regarding the disease among rural inhabitants of Khuzestan province in recent years, persuaded us to perform the current study. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 using simple random sampling method in 15 villages of Shushtar county, southwestern Iran...
February 13, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445723/cord-care-practices-a-perspective-of-contemporary-african-setting
#19
Tolulope O Afolaranmi, Zuwaira I Hassan, Ofakunrin O Akinyemi, Sarah S Sule, Matthew U Malete, Choji Pam Choji, Danjuma A Bello
Background: Cord care is the series of steps applied in handling of the umbilical cord after delivery of the new born. Globally, an estimated 4 million deaths occur annually within the first 4 weeks of life and 1.5 million of these deaths are attributable to infections. In Nigeria, studies have reported umbilical cord infections accounting for between 10 and 19% of neonatal admissions and resultant estimated 30-49% neonatal deaths. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of cord care within a contemporary setting...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445619/incidence-and-biochemical-parameters-of-dermatophilosis-in-nigerian-cattle-breeds-from-livestock-markets-oyo-state-nigeria
#20
Sunday Charles Olaogun, Keleshi Joseph Onwuzuruike
Dermatophilosis is one of the major economically important diseases of cattle in Nigeria. Managing the condition has been very challenging and re-occurrence has been reported with moderate to high morbidity and mortality. The incidence and biochemical features of cattle with dermatophilosis was conducted in June to December 2016 across the four geopolitical zones of Oyo state, Nigeria. Clinical diagnosis were made based on appearance of dermatophilosis lesion, breeds morphologically characterized, ageing were based on rostral dentition and severity based on the extent and nature of the lesion...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
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