keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Nervous system

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346963/point-of-care-testing-in-neurosurgery
#1
Christopher Beynon, Lars Wessels, Andreas W Unterberg
Coagulation disorders can have a major impact on the outcome of neurosurgical patients. The central nervous system is located within the closed space of the skull, and therefore, intracranial hemorrhage can lead to intracranial hypertension. Acute brain injury has been associated with alterations of various hemostatic parameters. Point-of-care (POC) techniques such as rotational thromboelastometry are able to identify markers of coagulopathy which are not reflected by standard assessment of hemostasis (e.g...
March 27, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346857/the-influence-of-epicardial-fat-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-on-heart-rate-recovery-in-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Kyoung Im Cho, Eun Ah Jo, Sang Hoon Cho, Bo Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissues reflecting visceral fat accumulations of the heart are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and can be a predictor of other cardiometabolic diseases. It can adversely influence autonomic nervous system (ANS) of heart. Heart rate recovery (HRR) is an easy method for measuring ANS dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are related to HRR in patients with MetS...
March 27, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346748/the-brain-of-the-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis-surface-configuration-encephalization-quotient-and-analysis-of-the-existing-literature
#3
Jean-Marie Graïc, Antonella Peruffo, Cristina Ballarin, Bruno Cozzi
The anatomy of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758) has been poorly studied, except for the circulatory system. In particular, only a handful of studies have concerned the brain of this species since the first description in 1839. Accordingly, only a very few articles discussing encephalization mentioned the giraffe or used it in their calculations. In this article, we performed a thorough examination of the literature including old and grey, regarding the central nervous system of the giraffe...
March 27, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346471/effect-of-functional-sympathetic-nervous-system-impairment-of-the-liver-and-abdominal-visceral-adipose-tissue-on-circulating-triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins
#4
Michael F La Fountaine, Christopher M Cirnigliaro, Steven C Kirshblum, Cristin McKenna, William A Bauman
BACKGROUND: Interruption of sympathetic innervation to the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in animal models has been reported to reduce VAT lipolysis and hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether functional impairment of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation to tissues of the abdominal cavity reduce circulating concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and VLDL particles (VLDL-P) was tested in men with spinal cord injury (SCI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346464/sympathetic-nervous-system-activity-and-anti-lipolytic-response-to-iv-glucose-load-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-obese-and-obese-type-2-diabetic-subjects
#5
Uwe Schumann, Christopher P Jenkinson, Andreas Alt, Martina Zügel, Jürgen M Steinacker, Marion Flechtner-Mors
The study aim was to investigate the effect of endogenous insulin release on lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation in obese subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In 14 obese female T2D subjects, or 14 obese non-T2D controls, glycerol concentration was measured in response to the α1,2,ß-agonist norepinephrine, the α1-agonist norfenefrine and the ß2-agonist terbutaline (each 10-4 M), using the microdialysis technique. After 60 minutes of stimulation, an intravenous glucose load (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346397/the-process-and-regulatory-components-of-inflammation-in-brain-oncogenesis
#6
REVIEW
A G M Mostofa, Surendra R Punganuru, Hanumantha Rao Madala, Mohammad Al-Obaide, Kalkunte S Srivenugopal
Central nervous system tumors comprising the primary cancers and brain metastases remain the most lethal neoplasms and challenging to treat. Substantial evidence points to a paramount role for inflammation in the pathology leading to gliomagenesis, malignant progression and tumor aggressiveness in the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment. This review summarizes the salient contributions of oxidative stress, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenases, and transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) and the associated cross-talks to the inflammatory signaling in CNS cancers...
March 27, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346104/bioengineered-3d-glial-cell-culture-systems-and-applications-for-neurodegeneration-and-neuroinflammation
#7
P Marc D Watson, Edel Kavanagh, Gary Allenby, Matthew Vassey
Neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are key features in a range of chronic central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as acute conditions like stroke and traumatic brain injury, for which there remains significant unmet clinical need. It is now well recognized that current cell culture methodologies are limited in their ability to recapitulate the cellular environment that is present in vivo, and there is a growing body of evidence to show that three-dimensional (3D) culture systems represent a more physiologically accurate model than traditional two-dimensional (2D) cultures...
February 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346043/structural-abnormalities-in-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-and-a-normal-behavioral-profile-in-contactin-5-deficient-mice
#8
Kristel T E Kleijer, Denise van Nieuwenhuize, Henk A Spierenburg, Sara Gregorio-Jordan, Martien J H Kas, J Peter H Burbach
Contactin-5 (Cntn5) is an immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule that is exclusively expressed in the central nervous system. In view of its association with neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study focused on Cntn5-positive areas in the forebrain and aimed to explore the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of the Cntn5 null mutant (Cntn5(-/-)) mouse in relation to these areas and ASD symptomatology. A newly generated antibody enabled us to elaborately describe the spatial expression pattern of Cntn5 in P7 wild type (Cntn5(+/+)) mice...
March 27, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345876/engineering-cellular-microenvironments-with-photo-and-enzymatically-responsive-hydrogels-toward-biomimetic-3d-cell-culture-models
#9
Roger Y Tam, Laura J Smith, Molly S Shoichet
Conventional cell culture techniques using 2D polystyrene or glass have provided great insight into key biochemical mechanisms responsible for cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell-cell interactions. However, the physical and chemical properties of 2D culture in vitro are dramatically different than those found in the native cellular microenvironment in vivo. Cells grown on 2D substrates differ significantly from those grown in vivo, and this explains, in part, why many promising drug candidates discovered through in vitro drug screening assays fail when they are translated to in vivo animal or human models...
March 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345868/immune-system-activation-and-depression-roles-of-serotonin-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-periphery
#10
Matthew James Robson, Meagan A Quinlan, Randy D Blakely
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has long been recognized as a key contributor to the regulation of mood and anxiety and is strongly associated with the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Although more known for its roles within the central nervous system (CNS), 5-HT is recognized to modulate several key aspects of immune system function that may contribute to the development of MDD. Copious amounts of research have outlined a connection between alterations in immune system function, inflammation status and MDD...
March 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345801/zc4h2-deletions-can-cause-severe-phenotype-in-female-carriers
#11
Cristina Zanzottera, Donatella Milani, Enrico Alfei, Ambra Rizzo, Stefano D'Arrigo, Susanna Esposito, Chiara Pantaleoni
ZC4H2 is involved in human brain development, and, if mutated, can be responsible for a rare X-linked disorder, originally presented in literature as Wieacker-Wolff syndrome and Miles-Carpenter syndrome. In males, severe intellectual disability is associated with variable symptoms of central and peripheral nervous system involvement, such as spasticity, hyperreflexia, muscle weakness, and arthrogryposis. Female carriers are usually described as asymptomatic or only mildly affected. Here, we report on a girl carrying a de novo deletion of ZC4H2 detected by array-CGH analysis...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345745/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessment-of-the-abuse-potential-of-pf614-a-novel-bio-md%C3%A2-prodrug-of-oxycodone
#12
D Lynn Kirkpatrick, William K Schmidt, Ricardo Morales, John Cremin, Julie Seroogy, Craig Husfeld, Thomas Jenkins
OBJECTIVE: The need for pain medication which will not lead to abuse is well recognized. Ensysce has designed prodrug analogs of the commonly used pain medications including hydromorphone, oxycodone (OC), hydrocodone, and morphine that limit their use to oral delivery, two of which are in clinical development. This study was undertaken to demonstrate that PF614, an extended-release prodrug of OC, allows the release of OC as designed when delivered orally, yet it resists ex vivo extraction with household chemicals and is pharmacologically inactive when administered by nonoral routes (nasal and parenteral), thereby substantially reducing its intravenous (IV) and intranasal abuse potential...
January 2017: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345738/-exploring-the-dark-continent-medical-image-and-brain
#13
REVIEW
A Garcia-Molina, A Ensenat
INTRODUCTION: Until the late 19th century, direct observation of the central nervous system was practically impossible. The discovery of X-rays in 1895 and their subsequent application in the field of medicine brought about a shift of paradigm that completely revolutionised the way in which neurology was practised. The possibility of viewing the inside of the brain had a pronounced impact on clinical practice, and enriched the diagnosis and treatment of brain pathologies in a manner that was unimaginable up until then...
April 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345735/-supratentorial-cavernous-malformations-in-an-argentinian-institution-experience-with-surgical-treatment
#14
G E Vergara, A Cervio, M Farez, R Mormandi, S Condomi-Alcorta, J Salvat
INTRODUCTION: Cavernous malformations are vascular malformations of the central nervous system formed by a group of capillaries not covered by pia mater and communicated to the vascular system at very low pressure with very slow flow. Surgery or radiosurgery are the treatment modalities. AIMS: To analyze our results after surgical treatment of supratentorial cavernous malformations, reviewing clinical presentation, surgical indications and postoperative complications...
April 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345587/derivation-of-functional-human-astrocytes-from-cerebral-organoids
#15
Rômulo Sperduto Dezonne, Rafaela Costa Sartore, Juliana Minardi Nascimento, Verônica M Saia-Cereda, Luciana Ferreira Romão, Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon, Jorge Marcondes de Souza, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Stevens Kastrup Rehen, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara Gomes
Astrocytes play a critical role in the development and homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocyte dysfunction results in several neurological and degenerative diseases. However, a major challenge to our understanding of astrocyte physiology and pathology is the restriction of studies to animal models, human post-mortem brain tissues, or samples obtained from invasive surgical procedures. Here, we report a protocol to generate human functional astrocytes from cerebral organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345586/new-insights-into-mononuclear-phagocyte-biology-from-the-visual-system
#16
REVIEW
Nancy J Reyes, Emily G O'Koren, Daniel R Saban
Major advances in mononuclear phagocyte biology have been made but key questions pertinent to their roles in health and disease remain, including in the visual system. One problem concerns how dendritic cells can trigger immune responses from certain tightly regulated immune- privileged sites of the eye. Another, albeit separate, problem involves whether there are functional specializations for microglia versus monocytes in retinal neurodegeneration. In this Review, we examine novel insights in eye immune privilege and, separately, we discuss recent inroads concerning retinal degeneration...
March 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345118/effect-of-paullinia-cupana-mart-commercial-extract-during-the-aging-of-middle-age-wistar-rats-differential-effects-on-the-hippocampus-and-striatum
#17
Moara Rodrigues Mingori, Luana Heimfarth, Charles Francisco Ferreira, Henrique Mautone Gomes, Karla Suzana Moresco, Jeferson Delgado, Sabrina Roncato, Fares Zeidán-Chuliá, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira
During aging, there is a marked decline in the antioxidant capacity of brain tissue, leading to a gradual loss of the antioxidant/oxidant balance, which causes oxidative damage. The effects of Paullinia cupana Mart. extract, which is described as being rich in caffeine and many polyphenol compounds, on the central nervous system have not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to therefore investigate the effect of a commercial guarana extract (CGE) on cognitive function, oxidative stress, and brain homeostasis proteins related to cognitive injury and senescence in middle age, male Wistar rats...
March 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345117/inwardly-rectifying-k-currents-in-cultured-oligodendrocytes-from-rat-optic-nerve-are-insensitive-to-ph
#18
Alberto Pérez-Samartín, Edith Garay, Juan Pablo H Moctezuma, Abraham Cisneros-Mejorado, María Victoria Sánchez-Gómez, Guadalupe Martel-Gallegos, Leticia Robles-Martínez, Manuel Canedo-Antelo, Carlos Matute, Rogelio O Arellano
Inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channel expression signals at an advanced stage of maturation during oligodendroglial differentiation. Knocking down their expression halts the generation of myelin and produces severe abnormalities in the central nervous system. Kir4.1 is the main subunit involved in the tetrameric structure of Kir channels in glial cells; however, the precise composition of Kir channels expressed in oligodendrocytes (OLs) remains partially unknown, as participation of other subunits has been proposed...
March 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344993/bringing-neural-cell-therapies-to-the-clinic-past-and-future-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Stefan Irion, Susan E Zabierowski, Mark J Tomishima
Cell replacement therapy in the nervous system has a rich history, with ∼40 years of research and ∼30 years of clinical experience. There is compelling evidence that appropriate cells can integrate and function in the dysfunctioning human nervous system, but the clinical results are mixed in practice. A number of factors conspire to vary patient outcome: the indication, cell source, patient selection, and team performing transplantation are all variables that can affect efficacy. Most early clinical trials have used fetal cells, a limited cell source that resists scale and standardization...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344867/cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-are-both-needed-to-induce-paraneoplastic-neurological-disease-in-a-mouse-model
#20
Christina Gebauer, Béatrice Pignolet, Lidia Yshii, Emilie Mauré, Jan Bauer, Roland Liblau
Paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PNDs) are rare human autoimmune diseases that mostly affect the central nervous system (CNS). They are triggered by an efficient immune response against a neural self-antigen that is ectopically expressed in neoplastic tumors. Due to this shared antigenic expression, the immune system reacts not only to tumor cells but also to neural cells resulting in neurological damage. Growing data point to a major role of cell-mediated immunity in PNDs associated to autoantibodies against intracellular proteins...
2017: Oncoimmunology
keyword
keyword
12526
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"