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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723824/a-national-profile-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-diagnosis-and-treatment-among-us-children-aged-2-to-5-years
#1
Melissa L Danielson, Susanna N Visser, Mary Margaret Gleason, Georgina Peacock, Angelika H Claussen, Stephen J Blumberg
OBJECTIVE: Clinical guidelines provide recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with specific guidance on caring for children younger than 6 years. This exploratory study describes ADHD diagnosis and treatment patterns among young children in the United States using 2 nationally representative parent surveys. METHODS: The National Survey of Children's Health (2007-2008, 2011-2012) was used to produce weighted prevalence estimates of current ADHD and ADHD medication treatment among US children aged 2 to 5 years...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723773/development-and-validation-of-risk-stratification-delirium-prediction-model-for-critically-ill-patients-a-prospective-observational-single-center-study
#2
Yu Chen, Hang Du, Bao-Hua Wei, Xue-Ni Chang, Chen-Ming Dong
The objective is to develop a model based on risk stratification to predict delirium among adult critically ill patients and whether early intervention could be provided for high-risk patients, which could reduce the incidence of delirium.We designed a prospective, observational, single-center study. We examined 11 factors, including age, APACHE-II score, coma, emergency operation, mechanical ventilation (MV), multiple trauma, metabolic acidosis, history of hypertension, delirium and dementia, and application of Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723674/nanoparticles-and-female-reproductive-system-how-do-nanoparticles-affect-oogenesis-and-embryonic-development
#3
REVIEW
Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Along with the increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) in many walks of life, environmental exposure to NPs has raised considerable health concerns. When NPs enter a pregnant woman's body through inhalation, venous injection, ingestion or skin permeation, maternal toxic stress reactions such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, apoptosis and endocrine dyscrasia are induced in different organs, particularly in the reproductive organs. Recent studies have shown that NPs disturb the developing oocyte by invading the protective barrier of theca cells, granulosa cell layers and zona pellucida...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723199/rational-design-of-a-stimuli-responsive-polymer-electrode-interface-coupled-with-in-vivo-microdialysis-for-measurement-of-sialic-acid-in-live-mouse-brain-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Shushu Ding, Sumei Cao, Yingzi Liu, Ying Lian, Anwei Zhu, Guoyue Shi
Sensitive and selective monitoring of sialic acid (SA) in cerebral nervous system is of great importance for studying the role that SA plays in the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this work, we first reported an electrochemical biosensor based on a novel stimuli-responsive copolymer for selective and sensitive detection of SA in mouse brain. Notably, through synergetic hydrogen-bonding interactions, the copolymer could translate the recognition of SA into their conformational transition and wettability switch, which facilitated the access and enrichment of redox labels and targets to the electrode surface, thus significantly improving the detection sensitivity with the detection limit down to 0...
March 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722648/perspectives-on-the-pure-tone-audiogram
#5
REVIEW
Frank E Musiek, Jennifer Shinn, Gail D Chermak, Doris-Eva Bamiou
BACKGROUND: The pure-tone audiogram, though fundamental to audiology, presents limitations, especially in the case of central auditory involvement. Advances in auditory neuroscience underscore the considerably larger role of the central auditory nervous system (CANS) in hearing and related disorders. Given the availability of behavioral audiological tests and electrophysiological procedures that can provide better insights as to the function of the various components of the auditory system, this perspective piece reviews the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram and notes some of the advantages of other tests and procedures used in tandem with the pure-tone threshold measurement...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722486/neurotoxic-effects-of-subchronic-intratracheal-mn-nanoparticle-exposure-alone-and-in-combination-with-other-welding-fume-metals-in-rats
#6
Zsuzsanna Máté, Edina Horváth, András Papp, Krisztina Kovács, Etelka Tombácz, Dániel Nesztor, Tamás Szabó, Andrea Szabó, Edit Paulik
Manganese (Mn) is a toxic heavy metal exposing workers in various occupational settings and causing, among others, nervous system damage. Metal fumes of welding, a typical source of Mn exposure, contain a complex mixture of metal oxides partly in nanoparticle form. As toxic effects of complex substances cannot be sufficiently understood by examining its components separately, general toxicity and functional neurotoxicity of a main pathogenic welding fume metal, Mn, was examined alone and combined with iron (Fe) and chromium (Cr), also frequently found in fumes...
July 19, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721986/evaluation-of-analgesic-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-a-combination-of-tramadol-ibuprofen-in-experimental-animals
#7
Chidambarann Suthakaran, Muniyagounder K Kayalvizhi, Karnam Nithya, Thozhudalangudy Ar Raja
BACKGROUND: Pain is the major concern of patients attending dental clinics, and satisfactory pain relief has always been difficult to achieve. Since the pathophysiology of pain is a complex, central and peripheral nervous system process, combined analgesic regimens with different mechanisms of action as a multimodal approach are becoming popular among the clinicians and dentists. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of ibuprofen and tramadol when used alone or in combination in animal models of pain and inflammation...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721938/practical-clues-for-diagnosing-wwox-encephalopathy
#8
Oana Tarta-Arsene, Diana Barca, Dana Craiu, Catrinel Iliescu
The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase gene is implicated in autosomal recessive disorders of the central nervous system, expressed either as spinocerebellar ataxia or as a severe form with early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Here, we describe the electroclinical evolution of these disorders, adding new diagnostic clues based on a case study. The patient, a boy with early-onset epilepsy, presented with profound global developmental delay, persistent hypsarrhythmia, and epileptic spasms, associated with progressive cerebral atrophy without microcephaly...
July 19, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721826/clinical-uses-of-melatonin-in-neurological-diseases-and-mental-and-behavioural-disorders
#9
Emilio J Sánchez-Barceló, Noemi R Revilla, María D Mediavilla, Carmen Martínez-Cué, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is a molecule with numerous properties applicable to the treatment of neurological diseases. Among these properties are the following: potent scavenger of oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, anti-inflammatory features, immuno-enhancing nature, and modulation of circadian rhythmicity. Furthermore, low concentrations of melatonin are usually found in patients with neurological diseases and mental disorders. The positive results obtained in experimental models of diverse pathologies, including diseases of the nervous system (e...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721554/feasibility-of-a-self-help-web-based-intervention-targeting-young-cancer-patients-with-sexual-problems-and-fertility-distress
#10
Maria Wiklander, Johanna Strandquist, Claire Micaux Obol, Lars E Eriksson, Jeanette Winterling, Kenny A Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kerstin Sjögren Fugl-Meyer, Johan Ahlgren, Per Ljungman, Claudia Lampic, Lena Wettergren
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of a self-help web-based intervention to alleviate sexual problems and fertility distress in adolescents and young adults with cancer. METHODS: Twenty-three persons with cancer (19 women and 4 men, age 18-43, 1-5 years post-diagnosis of lymphoma, breast, gynecologic, central nervous system, or testicular cancer) were recruited to test a 2-month web-based program targeting sexual problems or fertility distress...
July 18, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721398/calcium-stimulated-adenylyl-cyclase-subtype-1-ac1-contributes-to-ltp-in-the-insular-cortex-of-adult-mice
#11
Manabu Yamanaka, Takanori Matsuura, Haili Pan, Min Zhuo
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is a key form of cortical plasticity. The insular cortex (IC) is known to play important roles in pain perception, aversive memory and mood disorders. LTP has been recently reported in the IC, however, the signaling pathway for IC LTP remains unknown. Here, we investigated the synaptic mechanism of IC LTP. We found that IC LTP induced by the pairing protocol was N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) dependent, and expressed postsynaptically, since paired-pulse ratio (PPR) was not affected...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721351/cerebral-epidural-abscess-secondary-to-blastomyces-masquerading-as-an-epidermoid-tumor
#12
Cody Doberstein, Abass Noor, David Choi, Jacob Smith, Darren Groh, Leonard Mermel, Curtis Doberstein
There have been infrequent reports of isolated central nervous system blastomycosis. We report a case of intracranial epidural abscess secondary to Blastomyces dermatitidis in a patient residing in Rhode Island with a history of remote travel to an endemic area. The clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of this unique case are reviewed.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721144/clinical-implications-of-plasma-nogo-a-levels-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#13
Yu Ding, Bei-Bei Gao, Liang Zhou, Xian-Hua Ye, Hong Li, Lei Lai, Jin-Yu Huang
INTRODUCTION: Nogo-A is an important neurite growth-regulatory protein in the adult and developing nervous system. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that Nogo-A plays important roles in cardiac development and may act as a potential indicator for heart failure. In addition, increased oxidative stress has been found in individuals with cardiovascular diseases. However, not much is known regarding the expression levels of Nogo-A and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD)...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721050/the-use-of-natalizumab-for-multiple-sclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Rachel Brandstadter, Ilana Katz Sand
Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody that acts as an α4 integrin antagonist to prevent leukocyte trafficking into the central nervous system. It is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Natalizumab demonstrated high efficacy in Phase III trials by reducing the annualized relapse rate, preventing multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion accumulation on magnetic resonance imaging, and decreasing the probability of sustained progression of disability...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721049/the-potential-role-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-hiv-associated-depression-a-review-of-literature
#15
REVIEW
William C Nicholson, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Linda Moneyham, David E Vance
Depression is the most common comorbidity and neuropsychiatric complication in HIV. Estimates suggest that the prevalence rate for depression among HIV-infected individuals is three times that of the general population. The association between HIV and clinical depression is complex; however, chronic activation of inflammatory mechanisms, which disrupt central nervous system (CNS) function, may contribute to this association. Disruptions in CNS function can result in cognitive disorders, social withdrawal, fatigue, apathy, psychomotor impairment, and sleep disturbances, which are common manifestations in depression and HIV alike...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721047/the-role-of-microglia-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Chun Luo, Chongdong Jian, Yuhan Liao, Qi Huang, Yuejuan Wu, Xixia Liu, Donghua Zou, Yuan Wu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in the CNS; they play an important role in the processes of demyelination and remyelination in MS. Microglia can function as antigen-presenting cells and phagocytes. In the past, microglia were considered to be the same cell type as macrophages, and researchers have different opinions about the role of microglia in MS. This review focuses on the original classification of microglia and their role in the pathogenesis of MS...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720882/cell-type-specific-differences-in-promoter-activity-of-the-als-linked-c9orf72-mouse-ortholog
#17
Abraham J Langseth, Juhyun Kim, Janet E Ugolino, Yajas Shah, Ho-Yon Hwang, Jiou Wang, Dwight E Bergles, Solange P Brown
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of inherited forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mechanisms have been proposed to underlie this disease, but the pathogenic pathways are not fully understood. To better understand the involvement of different cell types in the pathogenesis of ALS, we systematically analyzed the distribution of promoter activity of the mouse ortholog of C9orf72 in the central nervous system...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720830/effect-of-cxcl12-cxcr4-signaling-on-neuropathic-pain-after-chronic-compression-of-dorsal-root-ganglion
#18
Yang Yu, Xini Huang, Yuwei Di, Lintao Qu, Ni Fan
Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain state that often accompanies tissue damage, inflammation or injury of the nervous system. However the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. Here, we showed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 were upregulated in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after chronic compression of DRG (CCD), and some CXCR4 immunopositive neurons were also immunopositive for the nociceptive neuronal markers IB4, TRPV1, CGRP, and substance P. The incidence and amplitude of CXCL12-induced Ca(2+) response in primary sensory neurons from CCD mice was significantly increased compared to those from control animals...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720792/optical-read-out-of-neural-activity-in-mammalian-peripheral-axons-calcium-signaling-at-nodes-of-ranvier
#19
Arjun K Fontaine, Emily A Gibson, John H Caldwell, Richard F Weir
Current neural interface technologies have serious limitations for advanced prosthetic and therapeutic applications due primarily to their lack of specificity in neural communication. An optogenetic approach has the potential to provide single cell/axon resolution in a minimally invasive manner by optical interrogation of light-sensitive reporters and actuators. Given the aim of reading neural activity in the peripheral nervous system, this work has investigated an activity-dependent signaling mechanism in the peripheral nerve...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720718/phosphorylation-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-by-mutant-lrrk2-promotes-aicd-activity-and-neurotoxicity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Zhong-Can Chen, Wei Zhang, Ling-Ling Chua, Chou Chai, Rong Li, Lin Lin, Zhen Cao, Dario C Angeles, Lawrence W Stanton, Jian-He Peng, Zhi-Dong Zhou, Kah-Leong Lim, Li Zeng, Eng-King Tan
Mutations in LRRK2, which encodes leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, are the most common genetic cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), a degenerative disease of the central nervous system that causes impaired motor function and, in advanced stages, dementia. Dementia is a common symptom of another neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer's disease, and research suggests that there may be pathophysiological and genetic links between the two diseases. Aggregates of β amyloid [a protein produced through cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP)] are seen in both diseases and in PD patients carrying G2019S-mutant LRRK2...
July 18, 2017: Science Signaling
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