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Cartilage injuries

Heba M Ismail, Athanasios Didangelos, Tonia L Vincent, Jeremy Saklatvala
Objectives Mechanical injury to cartilage predisposes to osteoarthritis (OA). Wounding the articular cartilage surface causes rapid activation of MAP kinases and NFκB mimicking the response to inflammatory cytokines. Here, we identify the upstream signalling mechanisms involved. Methods Cartilage was injured by dissecting it from the articular surface of porcine metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) or by avulsing murine proximal femoral epiphyses. Protein phosphorylation was assayed by Western blotting of cartilage lysates...
October 21, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Mamdooh Abdullah Gari, Mohammed AlKaff, Haneen S Alsehli, Ashraf Dallol, Abdullah Gari, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Roaa Kadam, Mohammed F Abuzinadah, Mazin Gari, Adel M Abuzenadah, Kalamegam Gauthaman, Heba Alkhatabi, Mohammed M Abbas
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease characterized by gradual degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in the cartilage and bone. The ECM of cartilage is a highly specified structure that is mainly composed of type II collagen and provides tensile strength to the tissue via aggrecan and proteoglycans. However, changes in the ECM composition and structure can lead to loss of collagen type II and network integrity. Several risk factors have been correlated with OA including age, genetic predisposition, hereditary factors, obesity, mechanical injuries, and joint trauma...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
Ingrid Eitzen, Hege Grindem, Agnethe Nilstad, Håvard Moksnes, May Arna Risberg
BACKGROUND: Reduced quadriceps strength influences knee function and increases the risk of knee osteoarthritis. Thus, it is of significant clinical relevance to precisely quantify strength deficits in patients with knee injuries. PURPOSE: To evaluate isokinetic concentric quadriceps muscle strength torque values, assessed both from peak torque and at specific knee flexion joint angles, in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, focal cartilage lesions, and degenerative meniscus tears...
October 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Paulo Esteves Pinto Faria, Abrahão Cavalcante Gomes de Souza Carvalho, Bárbara Masalskas, Letícia Chihara, Eduardo Sant'Ana, Osvaldo Magro Filho
One of the most impressive soft tissue injuries is the facial degloving, normally associated with industrial machines and traffic accidents. This injury is characterized by the separation of the skin and cartilage from the bones, compromising the soft tissues correlated in the trauma area, nerves, and blood vessels. A 28-year-old patient, male, was referred to Araçatuba's Santa Casa Hospital, after a motorcycle accident, hitting his face on the sidewalk. The patient was conscious, oriented, denying fainting and unconsciousness during the accident, and complaining of pain in the nasal region of the face...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
James Holton, Mohamed Imam, Jonathan Ward, Martyn Snow
There has been great interest in bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) as a cost effective method in delivering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to aid in the repair and regeneration of cartilage defects. Alongside MSCs, BMAC contains a range of growth factors and cytokines to support cell growth following injury. However, there is paucity of information relating to the basic science underlying BMAC and its exact biological role in supporting the growth and regeneration of chondrocytes. The focus of this review is the basic science underlying BMAC in relation to chondral damage and regeneration...
September 19, 2016: Orthopedic Reviews
Sebastian Zabierek, Jakub Zabierek, Adam Kwapisz, Marcin E Domzalski
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The patella plays an important role in knee biomechanics and provides anterior coverage of the knee joint. One to two percent of the population has an anatomical variant of patella called a bipartite patella that usually does not case pain. However, occasionally after injury or overuse during sport it can be a source of anterior knee pain. The purpose of this case report was to present a rare variant of bipartite patella and highlight conservative treatment of this condition...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Kristine M Fischenich, Hannah M Pauly, Keith D Button, Ryan S Fajardo, Charles E DeCamp, Roger C Haut, Tammy L Haut Donahue
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to monitor the progression of joint damage in two animal models of knee joint trauma using two non-invasive, clinically available imaging modalities. METHODS: A 3-T clinical magnet and micro-computed tomography was used to document changes immediately following injury (acute) and post injury (chronic) at time points of 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Joint damage was recorded at dissection and compared to the chronic MRI record. Fifteen Flemish Giant rabbits were subjected to a single tibiofemoral compressive impact (ACLF), and 18 underwent a combination of ACL and meniscal transection (mACLT)...
October 15, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Jonathan T Kaplan, Corey P Neu, Hicham Drissi, Nancy C Emery, David M Pierce
Osteoarthritis and articular cartilage injuries are common conditions in human joints and a frequent cause of pain and disability. Unfortunately, cartilage is avascular and has limited capabilities for self-repair. Despite the societal impact, there is little information on the dynamic process of cartilage degeneration. We performed a series of cyclic unconfined compression tests motivated by in vivo loading conditions and designed to generate mechanical fatigue. We examined the functional (both stress-stretch and creep) responses of the tissue after recovery from a specified number of loading cycles, as well as histology and second harmonic generation microscopy images...
October 1, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Sung Il Wang
In symptomatic discoid medial meniscus, partial meniscectomy is the principal treatment method and can yield promising short-term results. However, unlike the nondiscoid meniscus, discoid medial meniscus is frequently associated with horizontal cleavage tears, attributable to the presence of myxoid degeneration in the intrameniscal substance, in that it may potentially occur deteriorating long-term results because of re-tearing of remaining meniscus or secondary degeneration of cartilage of the medial compartment after meniscectomy...
October 14, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Donald Nuss, Robert J Obermeyer, Robert E Kelly
Repair of pectus excavatum began at the beginning of the 20(th) century before endotracheal intubation was standard practice. Surgeons therefore developed techniques that corrected the deformity using an open procedure via the anterior chest wall. Initial techniques were unsatisfactory, but by the 1930s the partial rib resection and sternal osteotomy technique had been developed and was used in combination with external traction post-operatively to prevent the sternum from sinking back into the chest. In 1949, Ravitch recommended complete resection of the costal cartilages and complete mobilization of the sternum without external traction, and in 1961 Adkins and Blades introduced the concept of a substernal strut for sternal support...
September 2016: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
J Miotla Zarebska, A Chanalaris, C Driscoll, A Burleigh, R E Miller, A M Malfait, B Stott, T L Vincent
OBJECTIVE: The role of inflammation in structural and symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) remains unclear. One key mediator of inflammation is the chemokine CCL2, primarily responsible for attracting monocytes to sites of injury. We investigated the role of CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 in experimental OA. DESIGN: OA was induced in 10 week old male wild type, Ccl2(-/-) and Ccr2(-/-) mice, by destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM). RNA was extracted from whole joints at 6h and 7 days post surgery and examined by RT-PCR...
October 13, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Mohammad A Yabroudi, Haukur Björnsson, Andrew D Lynch, Bart Muller, Kristian Samuelsson, Majd Tarabichi, Jón Karlsson, Freddie H Fu, Christopher D Harner, James J Irrgang
BACKGROUND: Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery occurs in 5% to 15% of individuals undergoing ACL reconstruction. Identifying predictors for revision ACL surgery is of essence in the pursuit of creating adequate prevention programs and to identify individuals at risk for reinjury and revision. PURPOSE: To determine predictors of revision ACL surgery after failed primary ACL reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3...
September 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Jeffrey A Guy, Lisa M Knight, Yinding Wang, Jeanette M Jerrell
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries may be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity, comorbid psychiatric or medical conditions, and the prescribed psychostimulant. METHODS: A population-based, retrospective cohort design was employed using South Carolina's Medicaid claims data set covering outpatient and inpatient medical services and medication prescriptions over an 11-year period (January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2006) for patients ≤ 17 years of age with ≥ 2 visits for ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes for ADHD...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Connie Y Chang, Daniel I Rosenthal, Deborah M Mitchell, Atsuhiko Handa, Susan V Kattapuram, Ambrose J Huang
Metabolic bone diseases are a diverse group of diseases that result in abnormalities of (a) bone mass, (b) structure mineral homeostasis, (c) bone turnover, or (d) growth. Osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease, results in generalized loss of bone mass and deterioration in the bone microarchitecture. Impaired chondrocyte development and failure to mineralize growth plate cartilage in rickets lead to widened growth plates and frayed metaphyses at sites of greatest growth. Osteomalacia is the result of impaired mineralization of newly formed osteoid, which leads to characteristic Looser zones...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Humberto G Rosas
Although rare, posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries can result in sustained instability and failed cruciate ligament reconstruction if they are not diagnosed. The anatomy of the PLC was once thought to be perplexing and esoteric-in part because of the varying nomenclature applied to this region in the literature, which added unnecessary complexity. More recently, three major structures have been described as the primary stabilizers of the PLC on the basis of biomechanical study findings: the lateral collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteofibular ligament...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Megan K Mills, Colin D Strickland, Mary K Jesse, Peter A Lowry, Omer Mei-Dan, Jonathan A Flug
Osteoarthritis of the hip remains a prevalent disease condition that influences ever-changing treatment options. Procedures performed to correct anatomic variations, and, in turn, prevent or slow the progression of osteoarthritis, are aptly referred to as types of hip preservation surgery (HPS). Conditions that predispose individuals to femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), including pincer- and cam-type morphology, and hip dysplasia are specifically targeted in HPS. Common surgical interventions include acetabuloplasty, osteochondroplasty, periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), and derotational femoral osteotomy (DFO)...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Tarek M Hegazi, Jeffrey A Belair, Eoghan J McCarthy, Johannes B Roedl, William B Morrison
Injuries of the hip and surrounding structures represent a complex and commonly encountered scenario in athletes, with improper diagnosis serving as a cause of delayed return to play or progression to a more serious injury. As such, radiologists play an essential role in guiding management of athletic injuries. Familiarity with hip anatomy and the advantages and limitations of various imaging modalities is of paramount importance for accurate and timely diagnosis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is often the modality of choice for evaluating many of the injuries discussed, although preliminary evaluation with conventional radiography and use of other imaging modalities such as ultrasonography (US), computed tomography, and bone scintigraphy may be supplementary or preferred in certain situations...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Fabian Wong, Rebecca Mills, Nadeem Mushtaq, Roland Walker, Samrendu K Singh, Ali Abbasian
INTRODUCTION: Various methods using CT scan have been described to diagnose distal tibiofibular syndesmotic injuries. However, CT scan does not take into account the amount of cartilage within the distal tibiofibular joint and could therefore lead to false positive results. We present the first study correlating the findings of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis on CT and MRI scans. METHODS: CT and MRI scan of consecutive patients over a period of 18 months, and of a time lapsed less than 12 months between the two imaging modalities, were reviewed...
June 23, 2016: Foot
Mildred C Embree, Mo Chen, Serhiy Pylawka, Danielle Kong, George M Iwaoka, Ivo Kalajzic, Hai Yao, Chancheng Shi, Dongming Sun, Tzong-Jen Sheu, David A Koslovsky, Alia Koch, Jeremy J Mao
Tissue regeneration using stem cell-based transplantation faces many hurdles. Alternatively, therapeutically exploiting endogenous stem cells to regenerate injured or diseased tissue may circumvent these challenges. Here we show resident fibrocartilage stem cells (FCSCs) can be used to regenerate and repair cartilage. We identify FCSCs residing within the superficial zone niche in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. A single FCSC spontaneously generates a cartilage anlage, remodels into bone and organizes a haematopoietic microenvironment...
October 10, 2016: Nature Communications
Lin Lin, Jing-Sheng Li, Willem A Kernkamp, Ali Hosseini, ChangWan Kim, Peng Yin, Lianxin Wang, Tsung-Yuan Tsai, Peter Asnis, Guoan Li
This study was to investigate the in vivo tibiofemoral cartilage contact locations before and after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction at 6 and 36 months. Ten patients with unilateral ACL injury were included. A step-up motion was analyzed using a combined magnetic resonance modeling and dual fluoroscopic imaging techniques. The preoperative (i.e. ACL deficient and healthy contralateral) and postoperative cartilage contact locations at 6 and 36 months were analyzed. Similar patterns of the cartilage contact locations during the step-up motion were found for the preoperative and postoperative knee states as compared to the preoperative healthy contralateral side...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
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