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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811007/acceleration-of-skin-wound-healing-by-low-dose-indirect-ionizing-radiation-in-male-rats
#1
Nasrollah Jabbari, Gholam Hossein Farjah, Behnam Ghadimi, Hajar Zanjani, Behnam Heshmatian
A recent hypothesis has revealed that low-dose irradiation (LDI) with ionizing radiation might have a promoting effect on fracture healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of direct (electron beam) and indirect (gamma-ray) low-dose ionizing irradiations on the wound healing process in male rats. In 72 male rats, a full-thickness wound was incised. The animals were randomly assigned to three groups, each with 24 rats. The first two groups were named IG-I and IG-II and respectively exposed to electron and gamma-radiations (75 cGy) immediately after the surgical procedure...
August 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810645/influence-of-the-shape-of-the-micro-finite-element-model-on-the-mechanical-properties-calculated-from-micro-finite-element-analysis
#2
Xin-Xin Wen, Hai-Long Yu, Ya-Bo Yan, Chun-Lin Zong, Hai-Jiao Ding, Xiang-Yu Ma, Tian-Sheng Wang, Wei Lei
Assessing the biomechanical properties of trabecular bone is of major biological and clinical significance for the research of bone diseases, fractures and their treatments. Micro-finite element (µFE) models are becoming increasingly popular for investigating the biomechanical properties of trabecular bone. The shapes of µFE models typically include cube and cylinder. Whether there are differences between cubic and cylindrical µFE models has not yet been studied. In the present study, cubic and cylindrical µFE models of human vertebral trabecular bone were constructed...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808627/non-ossifying-fibromas-case-series-including-in-uncommon-upper-extremity-sites
#3
Akio Sakamoto, Ryuzo Arai, Takeshi Okamoto, Shuichi Matsuda
AIM: To investigate non-ossifying fibromas (NOFs) common fibrous bone lesions in children that occur in bones of the lower extremities. METHODS: We analyzed 44 cases of NOF including 47 lesions, which were referred with a working diagnosis of neoplastic lesions. Lesions were located in the upper extremities (1 proximal humerus, 1 distal radius) and the lower extremities (25 distal femurs, 12 proximal and 4 distal tibias, and 4 proximal fibulas). RESULTS: Three cases had NOFs in multiple anatomical locations (femur and fibula in 1 case, femur and tibia in 2 cases)...
July 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807955/bilateral-pathologic-mid-tibial-stress-fractures-initial-presentation-of-mild-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#4
Fahim Merali, Mark Leung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807799/the-influence-of-yttrium-segregation-dependent-phase-partitioning-and-residual-stresses-on-the-aging-and-fracture-behaviour-of-3y-tzp-ceramics
#5
Dušan Bučevac, Tomaž Kosmač, Andraž Kocjan
The yttrium-segregation-dependent phase partitioning and residual stress development that influence both the aging and the fracture behaviour in 3Y-TZP bioceramics were studied by sintering alumina-free 3Y-TZP, varying the sintering temperature and the time, to yield ceramics with identical grain size distributions, but with different phase compositions. The structure and stability of the resulting tetragonal phases, in the form of transformable, yttria-lean t-ZrO2 (YLZ) and non-transformable, yttria-rich t"-ZrO2 and/or t'-ZrO2 (YRZ), were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM)...
August 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807072/clavicle-fracture-with-osteomyelitis-after-neck-dissection-and-post-operative-radiotherapy-case-report
#6
R Shodo, Y Sato, H Ota, A Horii
BACKGROUND: Non-traumatic bone fractures in cancer patients are usually pathological fractures due to bone metastases. In head and neck cancer patients, clavicle stress fractures may occur as a result of atrophy of the trapezius muscle after neck dissection in which the accessory nerve becomes structurally or functionally damaged. CASE REPORT: A 71-year-old man underwent modified radical neck dissection with accessory nerve preservation and post-operative radiotherapy for submandibular lymph node metastases of tongue cancer...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804727/development-of-a-prediction-model-for-stress-fracture-during-an-intensive-physical-training-program-the-royal-marines-commandos
#7
Maria T Sanchez-Santos, Trish Davey, Kirsten M Leyland, Adrian J Allsopp, Susan A Lanham-New, Andrew Judge, Nigel K Arden, Joanne L Fallowfield
BACKGROUND: Stress fractures (SFs) are one of the more severe overuse injuries in military training, and therefore, knowledge of potential risk factors is needed to assist in developing mitigating strategies. PURPOSE: To develop a prediction model for risk of SF in Royal Marines (RM) recruits during an arduous military training program. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: RM recruits (N = 1082; age range, 16-33 years) who enrolled between September 2009 and July 2010 were prospectively followed through the 32-week RM training program...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801551/fault-reactivation-and-earthquakes-with-magnitudes-of-up-to-mw4-7-induced-by-shale-gas-hydraulic-fracturing-in-sichuan-basin-china
#8
Xinglin Lei, Dongjian Huang, Jinrong Su, Guomao Jiang, Xiaolong Wang, Hui Wang, Xin Guo, Hong Fu
This paper presents a timely and detailed study of significant injection-induced seismicity recently observed in the Sichuan Basin, China, where shale-gas hydraulic fracturing has been initiated and the aggressive production of shale gas is planned for the coming years. Multiple lines of evidence, including an epidemic-type aftershock sequence model, relocated hypocenters, the mechanisms of 13 large events (M W  > 3.5), and numerically calculated Coulomb failure stress results, convincingly suggest that a series of earthquakes with moment magnitudes up to M W 4...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800707/radiographic-results-and-return-to-activity-after-sesamoidectomy-for-fracture
#9
Justin M Kane, James W Brodsky, Yahya Daoud
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available comparing the results of lateral sesamoidectomy and medial sesamoidectomy for the treatment of fractures recalcitrant to nonoperative treatment interventions. The hypothesis of this study was that sesamoidectomy for either lateral or medial sesamoid fractures would not change radiographic alignment of the first ray given the use of identical reconstruction of the plantar plate, intersesamoid ligament, and plantar ligament complex at the time of surgery...
August 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797745/measuring-fracture-toughness-in-biological-materials
#10
David Taylor
Many biological materials fail by cracking. Examples are bone fractures, contact damage in eggs, splits in bamboo culm and defects in cartilage. The mechanical property that best describes failure by cracking is fracture toughness, which quantifies the ease with which cracks propagate and defines a material's tolerance for pre-existing cracks and other stress concentrating features. The measurement of fracture toughness presents some challenges, especially for biological materials. To obtain valid results requires care and, in many cases, considerable ingenuity to design an appropriate specimen and test protocol...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797511/conditions-simulating-primary-bone-neoplasms
#11
REVIEW
Jodi M Carter, Benjamin Matthew Howe, Carrie Y Inwards
A number of nonneoplastic conditions can mimic tumors of bone. Some of the more common mimics of primary bone tumors include infectious, inflammatory, periosteal, and degenerative joint disease-associated lesions that produce tumorlike bone surface-based or intraosseous lesions. This article considers a spectrum of reactive and nonreactive processes including stress fracture, subchondral cysts, osteonecrosis, heterotopic ossification, osteomyelitis, sarcoidosis, and amyloidoma that can present in such a way that they are mistaken for a tumor arising primary in bone...
September 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795571/transparent-healable-elastomers-with-high-mechanical-strength-and-elasticity-derived-from-hydrogen-bonded-polymer-complexes
#12
Yan Wang, Xiaokong Liu, Siheng Li, Tianqi Li, Yu Song, Zhandong Li, Wenke Zhang, Junqi Sun
It is challenging to develop healable elastomers with combined high mechanical strength and good elasticity. Herein, a simple strategy to develop high-performance elastomers that integrate high mechanical strength, enormous stretchability, good resilience, and healability is reported. Through simply complexing poly(acrylic acid) and poly(ethylene oxide) based on hydrogen-bonding interactions, transparent composite materials that perform as elastomers are generated. The as-prepared elastomers exhibit mechanical strength (true strength at break) and toughness (fracture energy) as high as 61 MPa and 22...
August 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782069/dislocation-assisted-crack-healing-in-h-bn-nanosheets
#13
Rajesh Kumar, Avinash Parashar
Large size h-BN nanosheets are usually polycrystalline in nature and contain different types of grain boundaries. The low angle grain boundaries are usually referred as dislocations. The interaction of dislocations with the defects present in materials may affect the properties of materials. The aim of the current atomistic simulations was to study the effects of 5|7 dislocations on the mode-I fracture toughness of h-BN nanosheets. Molecular dynamics-based simulations were performed with different sets of geometrical configurations of dislocations in conjunction with centrally embedded cracks in h-BN nanosheets...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776061/role-of-graphene-in-enhancing-the-mechanical-properties-of-tio2-graphene-heterostructures
#14
Changhong Cao, Sankha Mukherjee, Jian Liu, Biqiong Wang, Maedeh Amirmaleki, Zhuole Lu, Jane Y Howe, Doug Perovic, Xueliang Sun, Chandra Veer Singh, Yu Sun, Tobin Filleter
Graphene has been integrated in many heterogeneous structures in order to take advantage of its superior mechanical properties. However, the complex mechanical response of heterogeneous films incorporating graphene is not well understood. Here, we studied the mechanical behavior of atomic layer deposition (ALD) synthesized TiO2/graphene, as a representative building block of a typical composite, to understand the mechanical behavior of heterostructures using an experiment-computational approach. The inclusion of graphene was found to significantly enhance the Young's modulus of TiO2/graphene hetero-films for films below a critical thickness of 3 nm, beyond which the Young's modulus approaches that of pure TiO2 film...
August 4, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774103/fretting-fatigue-experiment-and-analysis-of-alsi9cu2mg-alloy
#15
Jun Wang, Hong Xu, Tiexiong Su, Yi Zhang, Zhen Guo, Huping Mao, Yangang Zhang
An investigation was carried out in order to study the fretting fatigue behavior of an AlSi9Cu2Mg aluminum alloy. The fretting fatigue tests of AlSi9Cu2Mg were performed using a specially designed testing machine. The failure mechanism of fretting fatigue was explored by studying the fracture surfaces, fretting scars, fretting debris, and micro-hardness of fretting fatigue specimens using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and micro Vickers hardness test techniques...
December 5, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773971/a-fracture-analysis-of-ti-10mo-8v-1fe-3-5al-alloy-screws-during-assembly
#16
Weifang Zhang, Yuanxing Huang, Wei Dai, Xiaoshuai Jin, Chang Yin
Titanium screws have properties that make them ideal for applications that require both a high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance, such as fastener applications for aviation and aerospace. The fracture behavior of Ti-10Mo-8V-1Fe-3.5Al (TB3) alloy screws during assembly was explored. Besides visual examination, other experimental techniques used for the investigation are as follows: (1) fracture characteristics and damage morphology via scanning electron microscopy (SEM); (2) chemical constituents via energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and hydrogen concentration testing; (3) metallographic observation; (4) stress durability embrittlement testing; and (5) torsion simulation testing...
October 19, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773962/interior-fracture-mechanism-analysis-and-fatigue-life-prediction-of-surface-hardened-gear-steel-under-axial-loading
#17
Wei Li, Hailong Deng, Pengfei Liu
The interior defect-induced fracture of surface-hardened metallic materials in the long life region has become a key issue on engineering design. In the present study, the axial loading test with fully reversed condition was performed to examine the fatigue property of a surface-carburized low alloy gear steel in the long life region. Results show that this steel represents the duplex S-N (stress-number of cycles) characteristics without conventional fatigue limit related to 10⁷ cycles. Fatigue cracks are all originated from the interior inclusions in the matrix region due to the inhabitation effect of carburized layer...
October 18, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773920/improvement-in-fatigue-performance-of-aluminium-alloy-welded-joints-by-laser-shock-peening-in-a-dynamic-strain-aging-temperature-regime
#18
Chun Su, Jianzhong Zhou, Xiankai Meng, Shu Huang
As a new treatment process after welding, the process parameters of laser shock peening (LSP) in dynamic strain aging (DSA) temperature regimes can be precisely controlled, and the process is a non-contact one. The effects of LSP at elevated temperatures on the distribution of the surface residual stress of AA6061-T6 welded joints were investigated by using X-ray diffraction technology with the sin²ϕ method and Abaqus software. The fatigue life of the welded joints was estimated by performing tensile fatigue tests...
September 26, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773915/comparative-study-on-crack-initiation-and-propagation-of-glass-under-thermal-loading
#19
Yu Wang, Qingsong Wang, Haodong Chen, Jinhua Sun, Linghui He
This paper explores the fracture process based on finite element simulation. Both probabilistic and deterministic methods are employed to model crack initiation, and several commonly used criteria are utilized to predict crack growth. It is concluded that the criteria of maximum tensile stress, maximum normal stress, and maximum Mises stress, as well as the Coulomb-Mohr criterion are able to predict the initiation of the first crack. The mixed-mode criteria based on the stress intensity factor (SIF), energy release rate, and the maximum principal stress, as well as the SIF-based maximum circumferential stress criterion are suitable to predict the crack propagation...
September 22, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773886/fatigue-and-fracture-behavior-of-a-cold-drawn-commercially-pure-aluminum-wire
#20
Jia-Peng Hou, Qiang Wang, Hua-Jie Yang, Xi-Mao Wu, Chun-He Li, Zhe-Feng Zhang, Xiao-Wu Li
Fatigue properties and cracking behavior of cold-drawn commercially pure aluminum wires (CPAWs) widely used as the overhead transmission conductors were investigated. It was found that the fracture surface of the CPAWs shows an obvious four-stage fracture characteristic, i.e., crack initiation, planar crack propagation, 45°-inclined crack propagation and final rapid fracture. The crack growth mechanisms for the CPAWs were found quite different from those for the conventional coarse-grained materials. The cracks in the CPAWs firstly grow along the grain boundaries (Stage I crack growth), and then grow along the plane of maximum shear stress during the last stage of cycling (Stage II crack growth), leading to the distinctive fracture surfaces, i...
September 8, 2016: Materials
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