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Stress fractures

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332029/biomechanical-effects-of-uss-fixation-with-different-screw-insertion-depths-on-the-vertebrae-stiffness-and-screw-stress-for-the-treatment-of-the-l1-fracture
#1
Jifeng Liu, Sheng Yang, Jianmin Lu, Dapeng Fu, Xipeng Liu, Depeng Shang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biomechanical effects of internal fixation with different screw insertion depths on vertebrae stiffness and screw stress for L1 fracture. METHODS: The established L1 fracture was fixed with 10 different depths of screw insertion: 10-100% screw-path length (SPL). Loading on the T12 endplate was simulated. RESULTS: Screws inserted to 60-100% depths has a higher axial displacement of screw against injured vertebrae and maximum stress of screws compared to those of screws inserted to 30-50% depths and 10-20% (P< 0...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326977/monitoring-reservoir-response-to-earthquakes-and-fluid-extraction-salton-sea-geothermal-field-california
#2
Taka'aki Taira, Avinash Nayak, Florent Brenguier, Michael Manga
Continuous monitoring of in situ reservoir responses to stress transients provides insights into the evolution of geothermal reservoirs. By exploiting the stress dependence of seismic velocity changes, we investigate the temporal evolution of the reservoir stress state of the Salton Sea geothermal field (SSGF), California. We find that the SSGF experienced a number of sudden velocity reductions (~0.035 to 0.25%) that are most likely caused by openings of fractures due to dynamic stress transients (as small as 0...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325026/failure-of-sternal-wires-depends-on-the-number-of-turns-and-plastic-deformation-combined-experimental-and-computational-approach
#3
Lukas Capek, Petr Henys, Martin Kalab, Pavel Solfronk
OBJECTIVES: The number of turns at the end of a wire closure is not described or discussed in any cardiosurgical guidelines. The hands-on experience of the surgeon plays a significant role. The aim of this work was to clarify the relationship between the number of turns of the suture and the resulting strength of the sternal fixation. METHODS: The study was performed in 2 independent steps. The first step was a finite element simulation, where the stress and strain distribution of the sternal fixation was observed...
January 8, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324724/evaluation-of-oxidative-stress-levels-and-antioxidant-enzyme-activities-in-burst-fractures
#4
Fetullah Kuyumcu, Abdurrahman Aycan
BACKGROUND Spinal burst fractures are pathologies that occur in spinal injuries and cause significant mortality and morbidity as a result. Burst fractures in spinal cord injuries can result in rapid and significant oxidative stress. In addition to the primary injury in severe spinal cord injuries, subsequent secondary lesions are mainly due to inflammatory cascade activation and excessive production of free radicals. This study evaluated oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme levels in burst fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty patients with burst fractures were diagnosed and underwent surgery and 20 healthy control subjects were included in the study...
January 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318344/severe-casualties-from-bastille-day-attack-in-nice-france
#5
Federico Solla, Joseph Carboni, Arnaud Fernandez, Audrey Dupont, Nathalie Chivoret, Gilles Brézac, Virginie Rampal, Jean Bréaud
PURPOSE: To describe the most severe casualties from the July 14th, 2016 terror attack in Nice that were treated at the Lenval University Children's Hospital (LUCH) of Nice (France). METHODS: Retrospective study about casualties treated at LUCH from Bastille Day Attack with injuries resulting in the need for surgery, resuscitation, or death. The type of lesions and surgery, duration of hospitalizations, complications, psychological status, and outcome at discharge were collected...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315048/outcome-of-surgical-management-of-stress-fractures-in-high-demand-individuals
#6
C Maden, A Robbins, A Volpin, C Biz, S Konan
Stress fractures represent one-fifth of overuse injuries in sport. Successful healing of stress fractures in high demand individuals is important to prevent complications upon early return to activity. This article reviews the literature on outcomes of surgical management of stress fractures in high demand individuals. An online literature search was carried out for articles published up to and including January 2017. Twenty five papers were reviewed. In the majority of studies, no complications were reported, clinical and radiographic healing was achieved, and patients returned to their premorbid level of activity...
January 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312872/weight-bearing-cone-beam-ct-scan-versus-gravity-stress-radiography-for-analysis-of-supination-external-rotation-injuries-of-the-ankle
#7
John M Marzo, Melissa A Kluczynski, Corey Clyde, Mark J Anders, Christopher E Mutty, Christopher A Ritter
For AO 44-B2 ankle fractures of uncertain stability, the current diagnostic standard is to obtain a gravity stress radiograph, but some have advocated for the use of weight-bearing radiographs. The primary aim was to compare measures of medial clear space (MCS) on weight-bearing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans versus gravity stress radiographs for determining the state of stability of ankle fractures classified as AO SER 44-B2 or Weber B. The secondary aim was to evaluate the details offered by CBCT scans with respect to other findings that may be relevant to patient care...
December 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311022/three-dimensional-titanium-miniplates-for-fixation-of-subcondylar-mandibular-fractures-comparison-of-five-designs-using-patient-specific-finite-element-analysis
#8
Mhd Hassan Albogha, Yoshihide Mori, Ichiro Takahashi
PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study is to compare the performance of five designs of three-dimensional titanium miniplates (lambda, strut, delta, rhombic and trapezoid) for fixation of subcondylar mandibular fracture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional models were constructed for the five miniplates with their screws and integrated into a virtually fractured mandible that was derived from a computed tomographic image of living human. Patient-specific finite element models were analyzed to compare the performances of the miniplates...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308877/improved-battery-performance-of-nano-crystalline-si-anodes-utilized-by-radio-frequency-rf-sputtered-multifunctional-amorphous-si-coating-layers
#9
In-Kyoung Ahn, Young-Joo Lee, Sekwon Na, So-Yeon Lee, Dae-Hyun Nam, Ji-Hoon Lee, Young-Chang Joo
Despite the high theoretical specific capacity of Si, commercial Li-ion batteries (LIBs) based on Si are still not feasible due to unsatisfactory cycling stability. Herein, amorphous Si (a-Si)-coated nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) formed by versatile radio frequency (RF) sputtering systems is proposed as a promising anode material for LIBs. Compared to uncoated nc-Si (retention of 0.6% and coulombic efficiency (CE) of 79.7%), the a-Si-coated nc-Si (nc-Si@a-Si) anodes show greatly improved cycling retention (C50th/C1st) of ~ 50% and a 1st CE of 86...
January 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308606/a-finite-element-analysis-of-the-stress-distribution-to-the-mandible-from-impact-forces-with-various-orientations-of-third-molars
#10
Yun-Feng Liu, Russell Wang, Dale A Baur, Xian-Feng Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the stress distribution to the mandible, with and without impacted third molars (IM3s) at various orientations, resulting from a 2000-Newton impact force either from the anterior midline or from the body of the mandible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3D mandibular virtual model from a healthy dentate patient was created and the mechanical properties of the mandible were categorized to 9 levels based on the Hounsfield unit measured from computed tomography (CT) images...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305998/effects-of-mechanical-loading-on-cortical-defect-repair-using-a-novel-mechanobiological-model-of-bone-healing
#11
Chao Liu, Robert Carrera, Vittoria Flamini, Lena Kenny, Pamela Cabahug-Zuckerman, Benson M George, Daniel Hunter, Bo Liu, Gurpreet Singh, Philipp Leucht, Kenneth A Mann, Jill A Helms, Alesha B Castillo
Mechanical loading is an important aspect of post-surgical fracture care. The timing of load application relative to the injury event may differentially regulate repair depending on the stage of healing. Here, we use a novel mechanobiological model of cortical defect repair that offers several advantages including its technical simplicity and spatially confined repair program, making effects of both physical and biological interventions more easily assessed. Using this model, we show that daily loading (5N peak load, 2Hz, 60 cycles, 4 consecutive days) during hematoma consolidation and inflammation disrupts the injury site and activates cartilage formation on the periosteal surface adjacent to the defect...
January 3, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304957/editorial-commentary-it-s-the-fracture-not-the-fragment-that-causes-the-pain-posteromedial-elbow-impingement-in-baseball-players
#12
EDITORIAL
Shawn W O'Driscoll
Posterior impingement pain in baseball players is typically due to a fractured olecranon osteophyte. Computed tomographic (CT) scanning is the imaging of choice when evaluating posterior or posteromedial elbow pain in athletes who have subjected the elbow to excessive stresses such as occur in overhead throwing and weightlifting. Sometimes the fracture fragment can be so small that it might not be detected on plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, or even at the time of arthroscopy. Symptomatic fractured olecranon osteophytes can be diagnosed clinically with the extension impingement test or arm bar test...
January 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303320/friction-of-shear-fracture-zones
#13
T I Riikilä, J I Pylväinen, J Åström
A shear fracture of brittle solids under compression undergoes a substantial evolution from the initial microcracking to a fully formed powder-filled shear zone. Experiments covering the entire process are relatively easy to conduct, but they are very difficult to investigate in detail. Numerically, the large strain limit has remained a challenge. An efficient simulation model and a custom-made experimental device are employed to test to what extent a shear fracture alone is sufficient to drive material to spontaneous self-lubrication...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301852/potein-kinase-g-activation-reverses-oxidative-stress-and-restores-osteoblast-function-and-bone-formation-in-male-mice-with-type-1-diabetes
#14
Hema Kalyanaraman, Gerburg Schwaerzer, Ghania Ramdani, Francine Castillo, Brian T Scott, Wolfgang Dillmann, Robert L Sah, Darren E Casteel, Renate B Pilz
Bone loss and fractures are under-recognized complications of type 1 diabetes, and are primarily due to impaired bone formation by osteoblasts. The mechanisms leading to osteoblast dysfunction in diabetes are incompletely understood, but insulin deficiency, poor glycemic control, and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress likely contribute. Here we show that insulin promotes osteoblast proliferation and survival via the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signal transduction pathway, and that PKG stimulation of Akt provides a positive feedback loop...
January 4, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299189/in-vitro-resistance-to-fracture-of-two-nickel-titanium-rotary-instruments-made-with-different-thermal-treatments
#15
Gabriele Miccoli, Gianfranco Gaimari, Marco Seracchiani, Antonio Morese, Tatyana Khrenova, Dario Di Nardo
Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate effectiveness of different heat treatments in improving Ni-Ti endodontic rotary instruments' resistance to fracture. Methods: 24 new NiTi instruments similar in length and shape: 12 M3 instruments, tip size 25 and .06 taper (United Dental, Shanghai, China), and 12 M3 Pro Gold instruments tip size 25 and .06 taper (United Dental, Shanghai, China), were tested in a 60° curved artificial root canal. Each group received a different heat treatment...
April 2017: Annali di Stomatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298621/the-use-of-a-proximal-femoral-nail-as-a-hip-prosthesis-a-biomechanical-analysis-of-a-newly-designed-implant
#16
Mehmet Nuri Konya, Feza Korkusuz, Gokhan Maralcan, Teyfik Demir, Ahmet Aslan
Complication rates of hip fractures after proximal femoral nail are not rare. In such fractures, treatment invariably comprises the extraction of proximal femoral nail and the introduction of a different hip prosthesis. To solve this problem, we aimed to develop a new implant, the modular nail prosthesis, which combines an intramedullary nail with a hip prosthesis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of stress load distribution on the stem using finite element analysis under laboratory conditions...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297808/captive-management-of-wild-impala-aepyceros-melampus-during-intensive-immobilization-and-general-anesthesia-study-trials
#17
Gareth E Zeiler, Leith C R Meyer
Immobilization and anesthesia of impala ( Aepyceros melampus) has become a popular research theme. This demand is brought about by the increased need to immobilize and anesthetize impala and other medium-sized wild ungulates because of their increased value in game ranching and zoological collections. To improve our understanding of immobilization and general anesthesia in these species, it is paramount to be able to study them in a practical, safe research environment that does not cause harm or unnecessary stress to the animals...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295584/mortality-rate-associated-with-admission-hyperglycemia-in-traumatic-femoral-fracture-patients-is-greater-than-non-diabetic-normoglycemic-patients-but-not-diabetic-normoglycemic-patients
#18
Cheng-Shyuan Rau, Shao-Chun Wu, Yi-Chun Chen, Peng-Chen Chien, Hsiao-Yun Hsieh, Pao-Jen Kuo, Ching-Hua Hsieh
Background: Admission hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. However, admission hyperglycemia is not only associated with stress-induced hyperglycemia (SIH) but also with diabetic hyperglycemia (DH); furthermore, patients with normoglycemia may not only have non-diabetic normoglycemia (NDN) but also have a possibility of diabetic normoglycemia (DN), with the diabetes under control. This study aimed to assess the effects of SIH and DH on the mortality outcomes of traumatic femoral fracture patients with NDN and DN...
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287397/effects-of-pre-cooked-cheeses-of-different-emulsifying-conditions-on-mechanical-properties-and-microstructure-of-processed-cheese
#19
Wei Fu, Yurika Watanabe, Keita Inoue, Natsumi Moriguchi, Kazunao Fusa, Yuya Yanagisawa, Takaaki Mutoh, Takashi Nakamura
The effect of pre-cooked cheeses of different emulsifying conditions on the viscosities, mechanical properties, fat globules, and microstructure of processed cheese was investigated, and changes in protein network relating to the creaming effect and the occurrence of yielding point were discussed. The addition of pre-cooked cheeses with a short stirring time had no obvious impact on the fat globules and protein network. The random network brought low viscosities and a gradual increase in the fracture stress/strain curve...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287225/failure-behaviour-of-rat-vertebrae-determined-through-simultaneous-compression-testing-and-micro-ct-imaging
#20
Justin J Morton, Matthew Bennison, W Brent Lievers, Stephen D Waldman, A Keith Pilkey
Skeletal fractures, including those resulting from osteoporosis, result in significant healthcare and societal costs on an annual basis. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which these fractures occur. Incremental compression testing combined with micro-CT imaging has been used to visualize the progression of failure in trabecular bone samples; however, these studies have ignored the potential contributions of the cortical shell. In the current study, incremental compression testing with simultaneous micro-CT imaging was performed on rat vertebrae from multiple disease states (healthy control, osteoporotic, osteoporotic + treatment)...
December 26, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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