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Stress fractures

Frank Niemeyer, Lutz Claes, Anita Ignatius, Nicholaus Meyers, Ulrich Simon
Distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for generating large amounts of bone in situ for treating pathologies such as large bone defects or skeletal malformations, for instance leg-length discrepancies. While an optimized distraction procedure might have the potential to reduce the rate of complications significantly, our knowledge of the underlying mechanobiological processes is still insufficient for systematic optimization of treatment parameters such as distraction rate or fixation stiffness. We present a novel numerical model of lateral distraction osteogenesis, based on a mechanically well-controlled in vivo experiment...
2018: PloS One
Poul Christoffersen, Marion Bougamont, Alun Hubbard, Samuel H Doyle, Shane Grigsby, Rickard Pettersson
Supraglacial lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet are expanding inland, but the impact on ice flow is equivocal because interior surface conditions may preclude the transfer of surface water to the bed. Here we use a well-constrained 3D model to demonstrate that supraglacial lakes in Greenland drain when tensile-stress perturbations propagate fractures in areas where fractures are normally absent or closed. These melt-induced perturbations escalate when lakes as far as 80 km apart form expansive networks and drain in rapid succession...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Jia-Ping Pan, Xu-Can Wang, Ming-Hong Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics and clinical treatment of avulsion fracture of the lateral edge of tibial plateau(segond fracture) in knee joint injuries. METHODS: From January 2011 and December 2015, 29 patients with Segond fracture were treated with minimally invasive arthroscopy technology in intra-articular injuries combined with double anchor nail fixation in avulsion fracture of the lateral edge of tibial plateau, including 17 males and 12 females with an average age of 41 years old ranging from 27 to 62 years old...
February 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Jingwei He, Sufyan Garoushi, Pekka K Vallittu, Lippo Lassila
This study was conducted to determine whether novel experimental low-shrinkage dimethacrylate co-monomers could provide low polymerization shrinkage composites without sacrifice to degree of conversion, and mechanical properties of the composites. Experimental composites were prepared by mixing 28.6 wt% of bisphenol-A-glycidyl dimethacrylate based resin matrix ( bis -GMA) with various weight-fractions of co-monomers; tricyclo decanedimethanol dacrylate (SR833s) and isobornyl acrylate (IBOA) to 71.4 wt% of particulate-fillers...
2018: Acta Biomaterialia Odontologica Scandinavica
Riku Takahashi, Tao Lin Sun, Yoshiyuki Saruwatari, Takayuki Kurokawa, Daniel R King, Jian Ping Gong
Reinforcing hydrogels with a rigid scaffold is a promising method to greatly expand the mechanical and physical properties of hydrogels. One of the challenges of creating hydrogel composites is the significant stress that occurs due to swelling mismatch between the water-swollen hydrogel matrix and the rigid skeleton in aqueous media. This stress can cause physical deformation (wrinkling, buckling, or fracture), preventing the fabrication of robust composites. Here, a simple yet versatile method is introduced to create "macroscale" hydrogel composites, by utilizing a rigid reinforcing phase that can relieve stress-induced deformation...
March 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Mark C Lawlor, Melissa A Kluczynski, John M Marzo
BACKGROUND: The utility of computed tomography (CT) for measuring medial clear space (MCS) for determination of the stability of supination external rotation (SER) ankle fractures and in comparison to standard radiographs is unknown. We compared MCS on gravity stress (GS) radiographs to GS and weight bearing (WB) cone-beam CT (CBCT). METHODS: An AO SER 44B3.1 ankle fracture was simulated in 10 human cadavers, also serving as controls. MCS was measured on GS radiographs, GS CBCT, and a simulated WB CBCT scan...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
Lester W M Chan, Antony W Gardner, Merng Koon Wong, Kenon Chua, Ernest B K Kwek
INTRODUCTION: Non-prosthetic peri-implant fractures (NPPIFs) are an under-reported entity. Management is challenging because of alterations in anatomy, the presence of orthopaedic implants and phenomena such as stress shielding, disuse osteopenia and fracture remodeling. The aims of this paper were to review patterns of injury, management and outcomes and to propose a classification system to aid further research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a multi-centered retrospective case series...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Yang Ju, Heping Xie, Xi Zhao, Lingtao Mao, Zhangyu Ren, Jiangtao Zheng, Fu-Pen Chiang, Yongliang Wang, Feng Gao
Quantitative visualization and characterization of stress-field evolution during fracture rapid growth is critical for understanding the mechanisms that govern the deformation and failure of solids in various engineering applications. However, the direct capture and accurate characterization of a rapidly-changing stress field during crack propagation remains a challenge. We report an experimental method to quantitatively visualize and characterize rapid evolution of the stress-field during crack propagation in a transparent disc model containing a penetrating fusiform crack...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jasmin Diallo, Joe Wagener, Christine Schweizer, Tamara Horn Lang, Roxa Ruiz, Beat Hintermann
BACKGROUND: An acute ankle sprain can result in a bony avulsion of the lateral ankle ligaments. The extent of concomitant lesions and subsequent instability patterns are not clearly understood. The high incidence of old avulsion fractures found in symptomatic chronic ankle instability may indicate the need for primary fixation. METHODS: Ten patients (5 male, 5 female; mean age, 34 years; range, 15-64 years) with bony avulsion fractures of the fibula after acute ankle sprains were included...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
Zaira S Chaudhry, Steven M Raikin, Marc I Harwood, Meghan E Bishop, Michael G Ciccotti, Sommer Hammoud
BACKGROUND: Although most anterior tibial stress fractures heal with nonoperative treatment, some may require surgical management. To our knowledge, no systematic review has been conducted regarding surgical treatment strategies for the management of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures from which general conclusions can be drawn regarding optimal treatment in high-performance athletes. PURPOSE: This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the surgical outcomes of anterior tibial stress fractures in high-performance athletes...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Yang Zhou, Dongshuai Hou, Guoqing Geng, Pan Feng, Jiao Yu, Jinyang Jiang
The mechanical properties of organic/inorganic composites can be highly dependent on the interfacial interactions. In this work, with organic polymers intercalated into the interlayer of inorganic calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), the primary binding phase of Portland cement, great ductility improvement is obtained for the nanocomposites. Employing reactive molecular dynamics, the simulation results indicate that strong interfacial interactions between the polymers and the substrate contribute greatly to strengthening the materials, when C-S-H/poly ethylene glycol (PEG), C-S-H/poly acrylic acid (PAA), and C-S-H/poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) were subject to uniaxial tension along different lattice directions...
March 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Raoul Saggini, Maurizio Migliorini, Simona Maria Carmignano, Emilio Ancona, Chiara Russo, Rosa Grazia Bellomo
Background: The cause of heel pain among soccer players is multifactorial and is related to repetitive microtrauma due to impact forces involving technical moves, but also the playground, the exercise mode, the recovery time, the climatic conditions and the footwear used. Aim: To investigate the aetiology of plantar heel pain of soccer players with the objective of proposing an example of guidelines for treatment. Methods: We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of inferior heel pain of 1473 professional, semiprofessional and amateur players...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Shuman Yang, Yunhua Luo, Lang Yang, Enrico Dall'Ara, Richard Eastell, Andrew L Goertzen, Eugene V McCloskey, William D Leslie, Lisa M Lix
BACKGROUND: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based finite element analysis (FEA) has been studied for assessment of hip fracture risk. Femoral strength (FS) is the maximum force that the femur can sustain before its weakest region reaches the yielding limit. Fracture risk index (FRI), which also considers subject-specific impact force, is defined as the ratio of von Mises stress induced by a sideways fall to the bone yield stress over the proximal femur. We compared risk stratification for prior hip fracture using FS and FRI derived from DXA-based FEA...
March 8, 2018: Bone
J D Afroze, M J Abden, M A Islam
Hydroxyapatite-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (HA-fMWCNT) magnetic nanocomposite was successfully prepared using a novel slurry-compounding method. The prepared HA-fMWCNT nanocomposite with the addition of small amount (0.5 wt%) of fMWCNT exhibited much greater improvement in mechanical properties due to strong interfacial adhesion between acid-treated MWCNTs fillers and HA matrix, thus efficient stress transfer to nanotubes from the matrix. The nanocomposite exhibited excellent haemocompatibility...
May 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
T J A G Münker, S E C M van de Vijfeijken, C S Mulder, V Vespasiano, A G Becking, C J Kleverlaan, A G Becking, L Dubois, L H E Karssemakers, D M J Milstein, S E C M van de Vijfeijken, P R A M Depauw, F W A Hoefnagels, W P Vandertop, C J Kleverlaan, T J A G Münker, T J J Maal, E Nout, M Riool, S A J Zaat
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, personalized medical devices are frequently used for patients. Due to the manufacturing procedure sterilization is required. How different sterilization methods affect the mechanical behavior of these devices is largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based materials (Vertex Self-Curing, Palacos R+G, and NextDent C&B MFH) were sterilized with different sterilization methods: ethylene oxide, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, autoclavation, and γ-irradiation...
January 31, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Sangkyu Lee, Gyuyong Kim, Hongseop Kim, Minjae Son, Gyeongcheol Choe, Jeongsoo Nam
This study evaluates the fracture properties and rear-face strain distribution of nonreinforced and hooked steel fiber-reinforced concrete panels penetrated by projectiles of three different nose shapes: sharp, hemispherical, and flat. The sharp projectile nose resulted in a deeper penetration because of the concentration of the impact force. Conversely, the flat projectile nose resulted in shallower penetrations. The penetration based on different projectile nose shapes is directly related to the impact force transmitted to the rear face...
March 9, 2018: Materials
Camille Aubin-Lemay, Philippe Acar, Nayif Alnaif, Abdulrahman Alamri, Alain Joe Azzi, Sabrina Cugno
The authors present a rare case of nontraumatic medial orbital wall fracture in an 11-year-old girl. Fractures of the orbital wall secondary to nose blowing have not been previously described in the pediatric population. The patient reported a history of chronic forceful nose blowing, followed by periorbital swelling after an episode of vigorous nose blowing. Erroneous diagnoses of sinusitis and periorbital cellulitis lead to unnecessary antibiotic treatment. The authors hypothesize that repeated and aggressive nose blowing is analogous to stress fractures, leading to weakening and eventual fracture of the medial orbital wall...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
O Ustun, A N Ozturk
Background: Fractures in porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) are a significant clinical problem. Preparation designs can affect stress distribution, which leads to fractures in PLVs. Therefore, identification of the most favorable preparation design in terms of stress distribution is required. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the functional stress patterns of PLVs with featheredge, incisal bevel, and overlapped preparation designs under 0°, 60°, and 120° functional loads using finite element analysis...
March 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Tsutomu Sugihara, Mitsuru Koizumi, Keiko Hayakawa, Yoshinori Ito, Naohiro Sata
Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) occur in both osteoporosis patients and cancer patients who receive long-term bisphosphonate treatment. Denosumab offers an alternative approach for the treatment of bone metastases. We describe a 59-year-old woman with a history of breast carcinoma and bone metastasis who was prescribed denosumab for 4 years. The patient had no history of any prior bisphosphonate use. Bone scintigraphy showed an abnormal uptake in the right femur, which was confirmed as an impending AFF or atypical femoral stress reaction...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Jo Anne Au Yong, Daniel D Lewis, Scott B Citino, Mark W Cunningham, Alan R Cross, James P Farese, Luisito S Pablo
The clinical outcomes of six free-ranging Florida panthers ( Puma concolor coryi) that underwent surgical stabilization of appendicular long-bone fractures (three femoral fractures, one tibial and one tibial and fibular fracture and two radial and ulnar fractures) were evaluated. These panthers presented to the University of Florida from 2000-2014. Estimated age of the panthers ranged from 0.5 to 4.5 yr, and weights ranged from 22 to 65 kg. Causes of injuries were vehicular collision ( n = 4) and capture related ( n = 2)...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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