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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102851/cellular-prion-protein-mediates-early-apoptotic-proteome-alternation-and-phospho-modification-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#1
Saima Zafar, Christina Behrens, Hassan Dihazi, Matthias Schmitz, Inga Zerr, Walter J Schulz-Schaeffer, Sanja Ramljak, Abdul R Asif
Anti-apoptotic properties of physiological and elevated levels of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) under stress conditions are well documented. Yet, detrimental effects of elevated PrP(c) levels under stress conditions, such as exposure to staurosporine (STS) have also been described. In the present study, we focused on discerning early apoptotic STS-induced proteome and phospho-proteome changes in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells stably transfected either with an empty or PRNP-containing vector, expressing physiological or supraphysiological levels of PrP(c), respectively...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101799/antitumor-efficacy-of-slpi-promoter-controlled-expression-of-artificial-microrna-targeting-egfr-in-a-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cell-line
#2
Jia Chen, Shoude Zhang, Yi Lin, Beibei Yang, Jiang Cao
The purpose of this study was to develop a recombinant adenovirus with secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) promoter-controlled expression for gene therapy of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). An artificial microRNA targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was designed, and used to construct a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus with SLPI promoter-controlled expression. The silencing efficiency of this vector (Ad-SLPI-EGFRamiR) was detected in Hep-2 cells. Western blotting showed that the expression of 170 kD EGFR was significantly reduced in Hep-2 cells 72 h after infection with Ad-SLPI-EGFRamiR...
January 18, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101336/regulatory-elements-and-transcriptional-control-of-chicken-vasa-homologue-cvh-promoter-in-chicken-primordial-germ-cells
#3
So Dam Jin, Bo Ram Lee, Young Sun Hwang, Hong Jo Lee, Jong Seop Rim, Jae Yong Han
BACKGROUND: Primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of functional gametes, have distinct characteristics and exhibit several unique molecular mechanisms to maintain pluripotency and germness in comparison to somatic cells. They express germ cell-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) by modulating tissue-specific cis- and trans-regulatory elements. Studies on gene structures of chicken vasa homologue (CVH), a chicken RNA binding protein, involved in temporal and spatial regulation are thus important not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate germ cell fate, but also for practical applications of primordial germ cells...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101175/effect-of-mir-146a-and-mir-155-on-cardiac-xenotransplantation
#4
Zhicheng Zhao, Feng Qi, Tong Liu, Weihua Fu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of miR-146a and miR-155 in a cardiac xenograft model treated with the immunosuppressant FK506, and to construct lentiviral vectors to further study the roles of miR-146a and miR-155 in cardiac xenotransplantation. Expression levels of miR-146a and miR-155 were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and protein expression of RelA, which is a member of the nuclear factor-κB family, was examined by western blot analysis...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100871/in-vivo-direct-reprogramming-of-liver-cells-to-insulin-producing-cells-by-virus-free-overexpression-of-defined-factors
#5
Xiao-Fei Yang, Li-Wei Ren, Lu Yang, Chun-Yan Deng, Fu-Rong Li
Direct reprogramming of autologous cells from diabetes patients to insulin producing cells is a new method for pancreatic cell replacement therapy. At present, transdifferentiation among mature cells is achieved mainly by introducing foreign genes into the starting tissue with viral vector, but there are potentical safety problems. In the present study, we delivered plasmids carrying Pdx1, Neurog3 and MafA genes (PNM) into mouse hepatocytes by hydrodynamics tail vein injection, investigated islet β cells markers in transfected cells from protein and mRNA level, and then observed the long-term control of blood glucose in diabetic mice...
January 18, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100163/a-vector-based-short-hairpin-rna-targeting-aurora-b-suppresses-human-prostatic-carcinoma-growth
#6
Mei Cao, Panpan Qi, Chong Chen, Liju Song, Xuege Wang, Ningzhe Li, Daoyan Wu, Guoku Hu, Jian Zhao
Aurora kinase B, playing a vital, important role in mitosis, is frequently detected to be overexpressed in many cancer cell lines and various tumor tissues, including prostatic carcinoma. Given the essential function of Aurora kinase B in mitosis and its association with tumorigenesis, it might be a drug target for prostatic carcinoma treatment. In our study, short hairpin RNA targeting Aurora kinase B was cloned into a pGPU6 plasmid vector and then transfected into human prostatic carcinoma cells. The expression level of Aurora kinase B was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot...
February 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100033/relaxin-3-inputs-target-hippocampal-interneurons-and-deletion-of-hilar-relaxin-3-receptors-in-floxed-rxfp3-mice-impairs-spatial-memory
#7
M Haidar, G Guèvremont, C Zhang, Rad Bathgate, E Timofeeva, C M Smith, A L Gundlach
Hippocampus is innervated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) 'projection' neurons of the nucleus incertus (NI), including a population expressing the neuropeptide, relaxin-3 (RLN3). In studies aimed at gaining an understanding of the role of RLN3 signaling in hippocampus via its Gi/o -protein-coupled receptor, RXFP3, we examined the distribution of RLN3-immunoreactive nerve fibres and RXFP3 mRNA-positive neurons in relation to hippocampal GABA neuron populations. RLN3-positive elements were detected in close-apposition with a substantial population of somatostatin (SST)- and GABA-immunoreactive neurons, and a smaller population of parvalbumin- and calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in different hippocampal areas, consistent with the relative distribution patterns of RXFP3 mRNA and these marker transcripts...
January 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099817/applying-proteomics-to-tick-vaccine-development-where-are-we
#8
Margarita Villar, Anabel Marina, José de la Fuente
Ticks are second to mosquitoes as a vector of human diseases and are the first vector of animal diseases with a great impact on livestock farming. Tick vaccines represent a sustainable and effective alternative to chemical acaricides for the control of tick infestations and transmitted pathogens. The application of proteomics to tick vaccine development is a fairly recent area, which has resulted in the characterization of some tick-host-pathogen interactions and the identification of candidate protective antigens...
January 18, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099492/priming-cross-protective-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-specific-immunity-using-live-vectored-mosaic-antigens
#9
Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Xin Fang, Suryakant D Waghela, Jocelyn Bray, Leo M Njongmeta, Andy Herring, Karim W Abdelsalam, Christopher Chase, Waithaka Mwangi
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) plays a key role in bovine respiratory disease complex, which can lead to pneumonia, diarrhea and death of calves. Current vaccines are not very effective due, in part, to immunosuppressive traits and failure to induce broad protection. There are diverse BVDV strains and thus, current vaccines contain representative genotype 1 and 2 viruses (BVDV-1 & 2) to broaden coverage. BVDV modified live virus (MLV) vaccines are superior to killed virus vaccines, but they are susceptible to neutralization and complement-mediated destruction triggered by passively acquired antibodies, thus limiting their efficacy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098415/intracranial-aav-ifn-%C3%AE-gene-therapy-eliminates-invasive-xenograft-glioblastoma-and-improves-survival-in-orthotopic-syngeneic-murine-model
#10
Dwijit GuhaSarkar, James Neiswender, Qin Su, Guangping Gao, Miguel Sena-Esteves
The highly invasive property of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and genetic heterogeneity are largely responsible for tumor recurrence after the current standard-of-care treatment and thus a direct cause of death. Previously, we have shown that intracranial interferon-beta (IFN-β) gene therapy by locally administered adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) successfully treats noninvasive orthotopic glioblastoma models. Here, we extend these findings by testing this approach in invasive human GBM xenograft and syngeneic mouse models...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096488/novel-superspreader-bacteriophages-promote-horizontal-gene-transfer-by-transformation
#11
Eric C Keen, Valery V Bliskovsky, Francisco Malagon, James D Baker, Jeffrey S Prince, James S Klaus, Sankar L Adhya
: Bacteriophages infect an estimated 10(23) to 10(25) bacterial cells each second, many of which carry physiologically relevant plasmids (e.g., those encoding antibiotic resistance). However, even though phage-plasmid interactions occur on a massive scale and have potentially significant evolutionary, ecological, and biomedical implications, plasmid fate upon phage infection and lysis has not been investigated to date. Here we show that a subset of the natural lytic phage population, which we dub "superspreaders," releases substantial amounts of intact, transformable plasmid DNA upon lysis, thereby promoting horizontal gene transfer by transformation...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096483/the-gut-microbiome-of-the-vector-lutzomyia-longipalpis-is-essential-for-survival-of-leishmania-infantum
#12
Patrick H Kelly, Sarah M Bahr, Tiago D Serafim, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Claudio Meneses, John R Kirby, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Mary E Wilson
: The vector-borne disease leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania species protozoa, is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand flies. Development of Leishmania to infective metacyclic promastigotes in the insect gut, a process termed metacyclogenesis, is an essential prerequisite for transmission. Based on the hypothesis that vector gut microbiota influence the development of virulent parasites, we sequenced midgut microbiomes in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis with or without Leishmania infantum infection...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095922/long-noncoding-rna-braveheart-promotes-cardiogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro
#13
Jingying Hou, Huibao Long, Changqing Zhou, Shaoxin Zheng, Hao Wu, Tianzhu Guo, Quanhua Wu, Tingting Zhong, Tong Wang
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have limited potential of cardiogenic differentiation. In this study, we investigated the influence of long noncoding RNA Braveheart (lncRNA-Bvht) on cardiogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. METHODS: MSCs were obtained from C57BL/6 mice and cultured in vitro. Cells were divided into three groups: blank control, null vector control, and lncRNA-Bvht. All three groups experienced exposure to hypoxia (1% O2) and serum deprivation for 24 h, and 24 h of reoxygenation (20% O2)...
January 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095418/novel-vector-control-approaches-the-future-for-prevention-of-zika-virus-transmission
#14
Lorenz von Seidlein, Alexander S Kekulé, Daniel Strickman
In a Perspective accompanying Abad-Franch and colleagues, Lorenz von Seidlein, Alexander Kekulé, and Daniel Strickman discuss the importance of developing effective strategies to minimize mosquito-borne transmission of human diseases.
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095414/mosquito-disseminated-insecticide-for-citywide-vector-control-and-its-potential-to-block-arbovirus-epidemics-entomological-observations-and-modeling-results-from-amazonian-brazil
#15
Fernando Abad-Franch, Elvira Zamora-Perea, Sérgio L B Luz
BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne viruses threaten public health worldwide. When the ratio of competent vectors to susceptible humans is low enough, the virus's basic reproductive number (R0) falls below 1.0 (each case generating, on average, <1.0 additional case) and the infection fades out from the population. Conventional mosquito control tactics, however, seldom yield R0 < 1.0. A promising alternative uses mosquitoes to disseminate a potent growth-regulator larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), to aquatic larval habitats; this kills most mosquito juveniles and substantially reduces adult mosquito emergence...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095406/a-two-locus-model-of-the-evolution-of-insecticide-resistance-to-inform-and-optimise-public-health-insecticide-deployment-strategies
#16
Bethany Levick, Andy South, Ian M Hastings
We develop a flexible, two-locus model for the spread of insecticide resistance applicable to mosquito species that transmit human diseases such as malaria. The model allows differential exposure of males and females, allows them to encounter high or low concentrations of insecticide, and allows selection pressures and dominance values to differ depending on the concentration of insecticide encountered. We demonstrate its application by investigating the relative merits of sequential use of insecticides versus their deployment as a mixture to minimise the spread of resistance...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094982/bacterial-genome-editing-via-a-designed-toxin-antitoxin-cassette
#17
Jie Wu, Aihua Deng, Qinyun Sun, Hua Bai, Zhaopeng Sun, Xiuling Shang, Yun Zhang, Qian Liu, Yong Liang, Shuwen Liu, Yongsheng Che, Tingyi Wen
Manipulating the bacterial genomes in an efficient manner is essential to biological and biotechnological research. Despite usage of various modules for genomic editing with counter-selectable markers including the toxin genes, an easy-to-use and highly designable toxin-antitoxin (TA) cassette without causing any leakages is urgently needed for efficient genome editing of the Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we reprogramed the bacterial TA systems as a toxin counter-selectable cassette regulated by an antitoxin switch (TCCRAS) for genetic modifications in the extensively studied and utilized Gram-positive bacteria, B...
January 17, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094293/the-transmission-potential-of-malaria-infected-mosquitoes-an-gambiae-keele-an-arabiensis-ifakara-is-altered-by-the-vertebrate-blood-type-they-consume-during-parasite-development
#18
S Noushin Emami, Lisa C Ranford-Cartwright, Heather M Ferguson
The efficiency of malaria parasite development within mosquito vectors (sporogony) is a critical determinant of transmission. Sporogony is thought to be controlled by environmental conditions and mosquito/parasite genetic factors, with minimal contribution from mosquito behaviour during the period of parasite development. We tested this assumption by investigating whether successful sporogony of Plasmodium falciparum parasites through to human-infectious transmission stages is influenced by the host species upon which infected mosquitoes feed...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093904/supramolecular-polymer-dot-ensemble-for-ratiometric-detection-of-lectins-and-targeted-delivery-of-imaging-agents
#19
Chang-Zheng Wang, Jia-Li Chen, Ying Tang, Yi Zang, Guo-Rong Chen, Tony D James, Jia Li, Changfeng Wu, Xiao-Peng He
A supramolecular, polymer dot based ensemble has been developed for the ratiometric detection of lectins and targeted delivery of glycoprobes. Self-assembly between a blue-emitting polymer dot and a red-emitting glycoprobe, results in an ensemble that shows red emission upon excitation of the polymer dot because of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer. Resulting in ratiometric detection of lectins in buffer solution as well as targeted delivery of the glycoprobe to cells that highly express a sugar receptor. Unlike conventional systems where both the agent and vector are co-delivered intracellularly, our ensemble developed here shows a receptor-controlled dissociation on the cell membrane...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092699/infection-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells-by-invasive-bacteria-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-increases-icam-1-expression-through-nod1
#20
Woon Geon Shin, Bum Joon Park, Sung Joong Lee, Jae Gyu Kim
Background/Aims: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is required for primary intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to respond to natural mucopeptides secreted by gram-negative bacteria. Infection of human IECs with invasive bacteria up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. However, the role of NOD family members in host defense has been largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a functional role for NOD1 in the up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression in invasive bacteria-infected IECs...
January 16, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
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