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Vector control

Mary H Hayden, Erika Barrett, Guyah Bernard, Eunice N Toko, Maurice Agawo, Amanda M Okello, Jayleen K L Gunn, Kacey C Ernst
Increasing the active participation of professional women in vector control (VC) activities may help promote greater gender equity in the workplace and reduce the burden of vector-borne diseases. This stakeholder survey examined the current roles and perspective of professionals employed in the VC sector in Kenya, Indonesia, India, and other countries. The largest barriers that women face in pursuing leadership roles in the VC sector include lack of awareness of career opportunities, limitations based on cultural norms, and the belief that VC is men's work...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Seynabou Sougoufara, Omar Thiaw, Aurélie Cailleau, Nafissatou Diagne, Myriam Harry, Charles Bouganali, Pape M Sembène, Souleymane Doucoure, Cheikh Sokhna
The implementation of long-lasting insecticidal-treated bed nets (LLINs) has contributed to halving the mortality rate due to malaria since 2000 in sub-Saharan Africa. These tools are highly effective against indoor-feeding malaria vectors. Thus, to achieve the World Health Assembly's new target to reduce the burden of malaria over the next 15 years by 90%, it is necessary to understand how the spatiotemporal dynamics of malaria vectors and human exposure to bites is modified in the context of scaling up global efforts to control malaria transmission...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Qiongshu Li, Muyun Liu, Man Wu, Xin Zhou, Shaobin Wang, Yuan Hu, Youfu Wang, Yixin He, Xiaoping Zeng, Junhui Chen, Qubo Liu, Dong Xiao, Xiang Hu, Weibin Liu
Placenta-specific 1 (PLAC1), a novel cancer-testis antigen (CTA), is expressed in a number of different human malignancies. It is frequently produced in breast cancer, serving a function in tumorigenesis. Adoptive immunotherapy using T cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells against CTA mediates objective tumor regression; however, to the best of our knowledge, targeting PLAC1 using engineered T cells has not yet been attempted. In the present study, the cDNAs encoding TCRα- and β-chains specific for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201-restricted PLAC1 were cloned from a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte, generated by in vitro by the stimulation of CD8+ T cells using autologous HLA-A2+ dendritic cells loaded with a PLAC1-specific peptide (p28-36, VLCSIDWFM)...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Francesca Macchi, José Manuel Rojas, Andrea Elizabeth Verna, Noemí Sevilla, Valentina Franceschi, Giulia Tebaldi, Sandro Cavirani, Verónica Martín, Gaetano Donofrio
Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) is an extremely infective morbillivirus that primarily affects goats and sheep. In underdeveloped countries where livestock are the main economical resource, PPRV causes considerable economic losses. Protective live attenuated vaccines are currently available but they induce antibody responses similar to those produced in PPRV naturally infected animals. Effective vaccines able to distinguish between vaccinated and naturally infected animals are required to PPRV control and eradication programs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Shaista Javaid, Sehrish Naz, Imran Amin, Georg Jander, Zaheer Ul-Haq, Shahid Mansoor
Sucking pests pose a serious agricultural challenge, as available transgenic technologies such as Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins (Bt) are not effective against them. One approach is to produce fusion protein toxins for the control of these pests. Two protein toxins, Hvt (ω-atracotoxin from Hadronyche versuta) and onion leaf lectin, were translationally fused to evaluate the negative effects of fusion proteins on Phenacoccus solenopsis (mealybug), a phloem-feeding insect pest. Hvt was cloned both N-terminally (HL) and then C-terminally (LH) in the fusion protein constructs, which were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum using a Potato Virus X (PVX) vector...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Norma Oviedo, Leticia Manuel-Apolinar, Sandra Orozco-Suárez, Teresa Juárez-Cedillo, Vilma Carolina Bekker Méndez, Emiliano Tesoro-Cruz
BACKGROUND: Intranasal administration (Int adm) has been well-studied and offers the possibility to deliver larger molecular weight biologics, such as proteins, viral vectors, nanoparticles, and naked plasmids to the brain and treat a variety of diseases in the central nervous system. The predominant challenge in this field is finding efficient vectors that are capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). OBJECTIVES: Here, we investigated whether a naked plasmid (pIRES-hrGFP-1a), could cross the BBB, reach brain cells and express green fluorescent protein (GFP) after int-adm and propose it as candidate for future gene therapy studies...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
Michael G Walsh, Cameron Webb
BACKGROUND: The current understanding of the landscape epidemiology of Ross River virus (RRV), Australia's most common arthropod-borne pathogen, is fragmented due to gaps in surveillance programs and the relatively narrow focus of the research conducted to date. This leaves public health agencies with an incomplete understanding of the spectrum of infection risk across the diverse geography of the Australian continent. The current investigation sought to assess the risk of RRV epidemics based on abiotic and biotic landscape features in anthropogenic landscapes, with a particular focus on the influence of water and wildlife hosts...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Graziana Da Rold, Silvia Ravagnan, Fabio Soppelsa, Elena Porcellato, Mauro Soppelsa, Federica Obber, Carlo Vittorio Citterio, Sara Carlin, Patrizia Danesi, Fabrizio Montarsi, Gioia Capelli
BACKGROUND: Northeastern Italy is a hotspot for several tick-borne pathogens, transmitted to animals and humans mainly by Ixodes ricinus. Here we compare the results of molecular monitoring of ticks and zoonotic TBPs over a six-year period, with the monitoring of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in an endemic area. RESULTS: In the period 2011-2016, 2,578 ticks were collected in 38 sites of 20 municipalities of Belluno Province. Individual adults (264), pooled larvae (n = 330) and nymphs (n = 1984) were screened for tick-borne encephalitis virus, Borrelia burgdorferi (s...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Morgane Guégan, Karima Zouache, Colin Démichel, Guillaume Minard, Van Tran Van, Patrick Potier, Patrick Mavingui, Claire Valiente Moro
The holobiont concept was first developed for coral ecosystems but has been extended to multiple organisms, including plants and other animals. Studies on insect-associated microbial communities have produced strong evidence that symbiotic bacteria play a major role in host biology. However, the understanding of these symbiotic relationships has mainly been limited to phytophagous insects, while the role of host-associated microbiota in haematophagous insect vectors remains largely unexplored. Mosquitoes are a major global public health concern, with a concomitant increase in people at risk of infection...
March 20, 2018: Microbiome
Charalampos Attipa, Laia Solano-Gallego, Kostas Papasouliotis, Francesca Soutter, David Morris, Chris Helps, Scott Carver, Séverine Tasker
BACKGROUND: In the Mediterranean basin, Leishmania infantum is a major cause of disease in dogs, which are frequently co-infected with other vector-borne pathogens (VBP). However, the associations between dogs with clinical leishmaniosis (ClinL) and VBP co-infections have not been studied. We assessed the risk of VBP infections in dogs with ClinL and healthy controls. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study of dogs with ClinL (positive qPCR and ELISA antibody for L...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Maria Flaminia Persichetti, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Angela Vullo, Marisa Masucci, Antonella Migliazzo, Laia Solano-Gallego
BACKGROUND: Cats can be carriers of infected arthropods and be infected with several vector-borne pathogens (VBP) but there is limited knowledge about their pathogenic role in cats. RESULTS: A cross-sectional controlled study investigated the clinical status and antibody (Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti and Leishmania infantum) and/or blood PCR (Mycoplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Marta Baxarias, Alejandra Álvarez-Fernández, Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Laura Ordeix, Alicia Rojas, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Gad Baneth, Laia Solano-Gallego
BACKGROUND: The severity of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum might be affected by other vector-borne organisms that mimic its clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens based on serological and molecular techniques in dogs with clinical leishmaniosis living in Spain and to associate them with clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities as well as disease severity...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Nguyen Xuan Xa, Johanna Helena Kattenberg, Nguyen Van Van, Vu Khac Anh Dung, Truong Minh Hieu, Nguyen Van Hong, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Nguyen Thanh Thao, Tran Thanh Duong, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Koen Peeters Grietens, Annette Erhart
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, malaria persists in remote forested regions where infections are spatially heterogeneous, mostly asymptomatic and with low parasite density. Previous studies in Vietnam have investigated broad behavioural concepts such as 'engaging in forest activities' as risk factors for malaria infection, which may not explain heterogeneity in malaria risk, especially in malaria elimination settings. METHODS: A mixed methods study combining ethnographic research and a cross-sectional survey was embedded in a 1-year malariometric cohort study in three ethnic minority villages in South Tra My district, Quang Nam Province in Central Vietnam...
March 19, 2018: Malaria Journal
João Castelhano, Paula Tavares, Susana Mouga, Guiomar Oliveira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalographic biomarkers have been widely investigated in autism, in the search for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic outcome measures. Here we took advantage of the information available in temporal oscillatory patterns evoked by simple perceptual decisions to investigate whether stimulus dependent oscillatory signatures can be used as potential biomarkers in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: We studied an extensive set of stimuli (9 categories of faces) and performed data driven classification (Support vector machine, SVM) of ASD vs...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Bruce Y Lee, Sarah M Bartsch, Laura Skrip, Daniel L Hertenstein, Cameron M Avelis, Martial Ndeffo-Mbah, Carla Tilchin, Eric O Dumonteil, Alison Galvani
BACKGROUND: The 2020 Sustainable Development goals call for 100% certified interruption or control of the three main forms of Chagas disease transmission in Latin America. However, how much will achieving these goals to varying degrees control Chagas disease; what is the potential impact of missing these goals and if they are achieved, what may be left? METHODS: We developed a compartmental simulation model that represents the triatomine, human host, and non-human host populations and vector-borne, congenital, and transfusional T...
March 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jale Moradi, Maryam Izad, Mina Tabrizi, Nader Mosavari, Behnaz Esmaeili, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi
One third of the world population are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are at the risk of reactivation of tuberculosis (TB). The most effective strategy for control of TB worldwide is the development of a vaccine that inhibits progression of latent TB to active infection. In this study, two optimized constructs consisting of multi-epitopes DNA derived from three latency antigens Rv2029c, Rv2031c, and Rv2627c fused with or without light chain 3 (LC3) are synthetized. The immunogenicity effectiveness of two DNA constructs was evaluated in the mouse model...
March 19, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Erqing Jin, Lynn Wong, Yun Jiao, Jake Engel, Benjamin Holdridge, Peng Xu
Engineering cell factories for producing biofuels and pharmaceuticals has spurred great interests to develop rapid and efficient synthetic biology tools customized for modular pathway engineering. Along the way, combinatorial gene expression control through modification of regulatory element offered tremendous opportunity for fine-tuning gene expression and generating digital-like genetic circuits. In this report, we present an efficient evolutionary approach to build a range of regulatory control elements...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Legang Sun, Ling Liu, Tingting Yu, Qiuqin Wang, Honghai Fu
In the present study, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to investigate the effect of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 ( VCAM1 ) silencing on the proliferation of human oral squamous carcinoma HN12 cells. HN12 cells were divided into three groups: The untreated blank control cell group (CK), the negative control group transfected with non-homologous vector (NC) and the positive group transfected with the target sequence VCAM1 small hairpin RNA (KD). Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to examine the effects of VCAM1 -knockdown on the mRNA expression of VCAM1 and subsequent protein expression...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Ding Shi, Yongpan Liu, Dong Wu, Xujun Hu
Helicobacter pylori , the primary causative agent of stomach cancer, is known to affect gastric mucin expression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms mediating this H. pylori -dependent effect remain unknown. In the present study, the effect of exogenous expression of the H. pylori virulence factor, CagA, on mucin 5AC oligomeric muscus/gel-forming (MUC5AC) expression was investigated using an in vitro model of the gastric mucosa. AGS cells were either untreated or transfected by a vector control (pCDNA3...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jingxin Zhang, Guodong Deng, Lili Qiao, Hui Luo, Qiqi Liu, Ning Liang, Jian Xie, Jiandong Zhang
Galectin-3 is a multifunctional β-galactoside binding lectin associated with tumor progression. Previous studies confirmed the roles of galecin-3 overexpression and silencing in the biological behavior of Eca109 human esophageal cancer (EC) cells; galectin-3 may serve a critical role in the vasculogenic mimicry (VM) of tumors. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of galectin-3 knockdown using lentivirus vectors on VM in EC. Eca109 and EC9706 EC cells were transfected with a lentiviral vector to inhibit galectin-3 expression, or a control vector...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
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