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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507193/current-and-future-prospects-for-preventing-malaria-transmission-via-the-use-of-insecticides
#1
Hilary Ranson
Malaria vectors have developed resistance to all classes of insecticides that are used to target the adult mosquito to prevent parasite transmission. The number of resistant mosquito populations has increased dramatically in recent years, most likely as a result of the scale-up of vector control activities, and the intensity of this resistance is increasing rapidly and compromising the performance of vector control tools. Bednets and indoor residual spray formulations containing alternative active ingredients have shown promise in field trials but are still several years away from implementation...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492123/factors-associated-with-contracting-malaria-in-ward-29-of-shamva-district-zimbabwe-2014
#2
Gladwin Muchena, Notion Gombe, Lucia Takundwa, Mufuta Tshimanga, Donewell Bangure, Nyasha Masuka, Tsitsi Juru
BACKGROUND: Malaria cases at Wadzanayi Clinic in Shamva District, Zimbabwe, increased drastically, surpassing the epidemic threshold, in week four of December 2013. This rise was sustained, which necessitated an investigation of the outbreak. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors and system weaknesses to improve epidemic preparedness and response. METHODS: An unmatched 1:1 case-control study was conducted in Ward 29 of Shamva District in Zimbabwe...
April 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490535/vaccines-to-accelerate-malaria-elimination-and-eventual-eradication
#3
Julie Healer, Alan F Cowman, David C Kaslow, Ashley J Birkett
Remarkable progress has been made in coordinated malaria control efforts with substantial reductions in malaria-associated deaths and morbidity achieved through mass administration of drugs and vector control measures including distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated bednets and indoor residual spraying. However, emerging resistance poses a significant threat to the sustainability of these interventions. In this light, the malaria research community has been charged with the development of a highly efficacious vaccine to complement existing malaria elimination measures...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489935/indoor-residual-spraying-with-micro-encapsulated-pirimiphos-methyl-actellic%C3%A2-300cs-against-malaria-vectors-in-the-lake-victoria-basin-tanzania
#4
Fabian M Mashauri, Alphaxard Manjurano, Safari Kinung'hi, Jackline Martine, Eric Lyimo, Coleman Kishamawe, Chacha Ndege, Mahdi M Ramsan, Adeline Chan, Charles D Mwalimu, John Changalucha, Stephen Magesa
BACKGROUND: The indoor residual spraying programme for malaria vectors control was implemented in four districts of the Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania namely Ukerewe, Sengerema, Rorya andSerengeti. Entomological monitoring activities were implemented in one sentinel village in each district to evaluate the efficacy of pirimiphos-methyl 300 CS sprayed on different wall surfaces and its impact against malaria vectors post-IRS intervention. METHODS: The residual decay rate of p-methyl 300 CS applied at a target dosage of 1g a...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482832/factors-associated-with-malaria-parasitaemia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-in-uganda-a-secondary-data-analysis-of-the-2014-malaria-indicator-survey-dataset
#5
Humphrey Wanzira, Henry Katamba, Allen Eva Okullo, Bosco Agaba, Mathias Kasule, Denis Rubahika
BACKGROUND: In the midst of success with malaria reduction in Uganda, there are areas that still have high prevalence of malaria parasitaemia. This project aimed at investigating factors associated with this prevalence and its relationship with anaemia. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of the 2014 Malaria Indicator Survey dataset of children under 5 years. All had a blood sample taken by finger or heel prick for determination of malaria parasitaemia and estimation of haemoglobin level for anaemia status...
May 8, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463989/identifying-sources-pathways-and-risk-drivers-in-ecosystems-of-japanese-encephalitis-in-an-epidemic-prone-north-indian-district
#6
Manish Kakkar, Sanjay Chaturvedi, Vijay Kumar Saxena, Tapan N Dhole, Ashok Kumar, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Syed Abbas, Vidya V Venkataramanan, Pranab Chatterjee
Japanese Encephalitis (JE) has caused repeated outbreaks in endemic pockets of India. This study was conducted in Kushinagar, a highly endemic district, to understand the human-animal-ecosystem interactions, and the drivers that influence disease transmission. Utilizing the ecosystems approach, a cross-sectional, descriptive study, employing mixed methods design was employed. Four villages (two with pig-rearing and two without) were randomly selected from a high, a medium and a low burden (based on case counts) block of Kushinagar...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446198/effect-of-anti-malarial-interventions-on-trends-of-malaria-cases-hospital-admissions-and-deaths-2005-2015-ghana
#7
Maru Aregawi, Keziah L Malm, Mohammed Wahjib, Osae Kofi, Naa-Korkor Allotey, Peprah Nana Yaw, Wilmot Abba-Baffoe, Sylvester Segbaya, Felicia Owusu-Antwi, Abderahmane T Kharchi, Ryan O Williams, Mark Saalfeld, Nibretie Workneh, Estifanos Biru Shargie, Abdisalan M Noor, Constance Bart-Plange
BACKGROUND: Since 2005, the Government of Ghana and its partners, in concerted efforts to control malaria, scaled up the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Beginning in 2011, a mass campaign of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was implemented, targeting all the population. The impact of these interventions on malaria cases, admissions and deaths was assessed using data from district hospitals. METHODS: Records of malaria cases and deaths and availability of ACT in 88 hospitals, as well as at district level, ITN distribution, and indoor residual spraying were reviewed...
April 26, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440300/insecticide-induced-leg-loss-does-not-eliminate-biting-and-reproduction-in-anopheles-gambiae-mosquitoes
#8
Alison T Isaacs, Amy Lynd, Martin J Donnelly
Recent successes in malaria control have been largely attributable to the deployment of insecticide-based vector control tools such as bed nets and indoor residual spraying. Pyrethroid-treated bed nets are acutely neurotoxic to mosquitoes, inducing symptoms such as loss of coordination, paralysis, and violent spasms. One result of pyrethroid exposure often seen in laboratory tests is mosquito leg loss, a condition that has thus far been assumed to equate to mortality, as females are not expected to blood feed...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438194/malaria-profiles-and-challenges-in-artemisinin-resistance-containment-in-myanmar
#9
Thet Wai Nwe, Tin Oo, Khin Thet Wai, Shuisen Zhou, Johan van Griensven, Palanivel Chinnakali, Safieh Shah, Aung Thi
BACKGROUND: This study examined evolving malaria profiles from January, 2010 to December, 2014 to evaluate achievements and challenges of implementing measures to prevent and control spread of artemisinin resistance in Myanmar. METHODS: Using National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) data, a cross-sectional descriptive study of 52 townships in artemisinin-resistant containment areas in Myanmar was conducted. Annual program data were analysed, and trends over time are graphically presented...
April 25, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427447/benchmarking-insecticide-resistance-intensity-bioassays-for-anopheles-malaria-vector-species-against-resistance-phenotypes-of-known-epidemiological-significance
#10
Nelius Venter, Shȕné V Oliver, Mbanga Muleba, Craig Davies, Richard H Hunt, Lizette L Koekemoer, Maureen Coetzee, Basil D Brooke
BACKGROUND: Insecticide use via indoor residual spraying (IRS) or treated nets is the primary method for controlling malaria vector populations. The incidence of insecticide resistance in vector populations is burgeoning globally making resistance management key to the design of effective malaria control and elimination strategies. Vector populations can be assessed for insecticide resistance using a binary (susceptible or resistant) classification based on the use of the standard WHO insecticide susceptibility assay for adult anopheline mosquitoes...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427415/insecticide-resistance-patterns-in-uganda-and-the-effect-of-indoor-residual-spraying-with-bendiocarb-on-kdr-l1014s-frequencies-in-anopheles-gambiae-s-s
#11
Tarekegn A Abeku, Michelle E H Helinski, Matthew J Kirby, James Ssekitooleko, Chris Bass, Irene Kyomuhangi, Michael Okia, Godfrey Magumba, Sylvia R Meek
BACKGROUND: Resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethroid insecticides has been attributed to selection pressure from long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and the use of chemicals in agriculture. The use of different classes of insecticides in combination or by rotation has been recommended for resistance management. The aim of this study was to understand the role of IRS with a carbamate insecticide in management of pyrethroid resistance. METHODS: Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from multiple sites in nine districts of Uganda (up to five sites per district)...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418299/control-of-malaria-vector-mosquitoes-by-insecticide-treated-combinations-of-window-screens-and-eave-baffles
#12
Gerry F Killeen, John P Masalu, Dingani Chinula, Emmanouil A Fotakis, Deogratius R Kavishe, David Malone, Fredros Okumu
We assessed window screens and eave baffles (WSEBs), which enable mosquitoes to enter but not exit houses, as an alternative to indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria vector control. WSEBs treated with water, the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin, or the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl, with and without a binding agent for increasing insecticide persistence on netting, were compared with IRS in experimental huts. Compared with IRS containing the same insecticide, WSEBs killed similar proportions of Anopheles funestus mosquitoes that were resistant to pyrethroids, carbamates and organochlorines and greater proportions of pyrethroid-resistant, early exiting An...
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414744/knockdown-resistance-mutations-predict-ddt-resistance-and-pyrethroid-tolerance-in-the-visceral-leishmaniasis-vector-phlebotomus-argentipes
#13
Bruno Gomes, Bidyut Purkait, Rinki Michelle Deb, Aarti Rama, Rudra Pratap Singh, Geraldine Marie Foster, Michael Coleman, Vijay Kumar, Mark Paine, Pradeep Das, David Weetman
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) with DDT has been the primary strategy for control of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector Phlebotomus argentipes in India but efficacy may be compromised by resistance. Synthetic pyrethroids are now being introduced for IRS, but with a shared target site, the para voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC), mutations affecting both insecticide classes could provide cross-resistance and represent a threat to sustainable IRS-based disease control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A region of the Vgsc gene was sequenced in P...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399303/efficacy-of-bendiocarb-used-for-indoor-residual-spraying-for-malaria-control-in-madagascar-results-with-local-anopheles-species-diptera-culicidae-from-experimental-hut-trials
#14
Sanjiarizaha Randriamaherijaona, Thiery Nirina Jean Jose Nepomichene, Jade Assoukpa, Yoann Madec, Sébastien Boyer
To control malaria in Madagascar, two primary vector control interventions are being scaled up: insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying of bendiocarb, which was implemented in the Malagasy Central Highlands in 2009. The current efficacy of bendiocarb against Anopheles species was evaluated in a small-scale field trial. An experimental hut trial comparing the effectiveness of bendiocarb sprayed on five substrates (cement, wood, tin, mud, and vegetative materials) was carried out against Anopheles species in two study sites located in the eastern foothills of Madagascar...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399299/assessment-of-ficam-vc-bendiocarb-residual-activity-on-different-wall-surfaces-for-control-of-anopheles-gambiae-s-s-diptera-culicidae-in-northern-uganda
#15
James Kirunda, Joseph Okello-Onen, Elizabeth A Opiyo, J B Rwakimari, Ranjith de Alwis, Michael Okia, Denis Ambayo, Benard Abola, David F Hoel
Insecticide decay rate on different wall surfaces is of importance to indoor residual spray (IRS) programs used as a malaria control intervention. Past IRS operations showed increasing populations of endophilic malaria vectors resting on indoor surfaces from various sites in Uganda following use of Ficam VC (bendiocarb) insecticide; variability of insecticide life was believed to be primarily due to wall surface type. Bendiocarb longevity was tested in the northern Uganda districts of Amuru, Apac, and Pader to assess its residual efficacy on three commonly encountered wall surfaces...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399179/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-malaria-parasitaemia-in-children-under-the-age-of-five-years-in-malawi-a-comparison-study-of-the-2012-and-2014-malaria-indicator-surveys-miss
#16
Maggie Zgambo, Balwani Chingatichifwe Mbakaya, Fatch Welcome Kalembo
BACKGROUND: Malaria is the main cause of morbidity and mortality among children under the age of five years in Malawi. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and factors associated with malaria parasitaemia among children under the age of five years in Malawi between the 2014 and 2012 Malaria Indicator Surveys (MISs). METHODOLOGY: Data on demographic factors, vector control interventions, and blood for malaria test were collected from a representative sample of children under the age of five years in Malawi through multistage cluster sampling method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381279/loa-loa-vectors-chrysops-spp-perspectives-on-research-distribution-bionomics-and-implications-for-elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis-and-onchocerciasis
#17
REVIEW
Louise Kelly-Hope, Rossely Paulo, Brent Thomas, Miguel Brito, Thomas R Unnasch, David Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Loiasis is a filarial disease caused Loa loa. The main vectors are Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata which are confined to the tropical rainforests of Central and West Africa. Loiasis is a mild disease, but individuals with high microfilaria loads may suffer from severe adverse events if treated with ivermectin during mass drug administration campaigns for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. This poses significant challenges for elimination programmes and alternative interventions are required in L...
April 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376112/geostatistical-modelling-of-malaria-indicator-survey-data-to-assess-the-effects-of-interventions-on-the-geographical-distribution-of-malaria-prevalence-in-children-less-than-5-years-in-uganda
#18
Julius Ssempiira, Betty Nambuusi, John Kissa, Bosco Agaba, Fredrick Makumbi, Simon Kasasa, Penelope Vounatsou
BACKGROUND: Malaria burden in Uganda has declined disproportionately among regions despite overall high intervention coverage across all regions. The Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) 2014-15 was the second nationally representative survey conducted to provide estimates of malaria prevalence among children less than 5 years, and to track the progress of control interventions in the country. In this present study, 2014-15 MIS data were analysed to assess intervention effects on malaria prevalence in Uganda among children less than 5 years, assess intervention effects at regional level, and estimate geographical distribution of malaria prevalence in the country...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369387/resurgence-of-malaria-following-discontinuation-of-indoor-residual-spraying-of-insecticide-in-a-previously-high-transmission-intensity-area-of-uganda
#19
Saned Raouf, Arthur Mpimbaza, Ruth Kigozi, Asadu Sserwanga, Denis Rubahika, Henry Katamba, Steve W Lindsay, Bryan K Kapella, Kassahun A Belay, Moses R Kamya, Sarah G Staedke, Grant Dorsey
Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary tools for malaria prevention in Africa. It is not known whether reductions in malaria can be sustained after IRS is discontinued. The aim of this study was to assess changes in malaria morbidity in a historically high transmission area of Uganda where IRS was discontinued after a four-year period of effective control followed by a universal LLIN distribution campaign. Methods: Individual-level malaria surveillance data were collected from one outpatient department and one inpatient setting in Apac District, Uganda from July 2009 through November 2015...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355338/social-and-behavior-change-communication-in-the-fight-against-malaria-in-mozambique
#20
Jorge Alexandre Harrison Arroz
Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and/or indoor residual spraying, associated with case management, are key interventions in the control of malaria in Africa. The objective of this study is to comment on the role of social and behavior change communication as a potential key intervention in the control of malaria in Mozambique. RESUMO As redes mosquiteiras impregnadas com insecticidade de longa duração e/ou pulverização intra-domiciliária, associada ao manejo de casos são intervenções-chave no controlo da malária em África...
March 23, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
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