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Indoor residual spraying

Krajana Tainchum, Jirod Nararak, Wasana Boonyuan, Michael J Bangs, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap
Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) with insecticides has been a procedure used for decades to protect humans from biting mosquitoes and potential vectors of pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the responses of three wild-caught species of malaria vectors exposed to pyrethroids of three different surface coverage percents using an excito-repellency test box. Each species was exposed to three insecticide-treated surfaces at varying exposure levels (full coverage, 50%, and 25% of the maximum allowable by the test system) to a single standard field dose of either lambda-cyhalothrin or alpha-cypermethrin...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Eliningaya J Kweka
Indoor malaria transmission reduction across sub-Saharan Africa has been attained through implementation of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spray interventions with small-scale larval source management. Improvement of house structures in sub-Saharan Africa can lead to zero indoor malaria transmission with evidence from West Africa, East Africa and Middle East countries. Residual malaria transmission cannot be targeted well with LLINs and IRS alone, but with incorporation of house structures modifications it may be possible...
November 14, 2016: Malaria Journal
Agaba Katureebe, Kate Zinszer, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, John Rek, Elijah Kakande, Katia Charland, Ruth Kigozi, Maxwell Kilama, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Adoke Yeka, Henry Mawejje, Arthur Mpimbaza, Henry Katamba, Martin J Donnelly, Philip J Rosenthal, Chris Drakeley, Steve W Lindsay, Sarah G Staedke, David L Smith, Bryan Greenhouse, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey
BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are the primary vector control interventions used to prevent malaria in Africa. Although both interventions are effective in some settings, high-quality evidence is rarely available to evaluate their effectiveness following deployment by a national malaria control program. In Uganda, we measured changes in key malaria indicators following universal LLIN distribution in three sites, with the addition of IRS at one of these sites...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
Ramesh C Dhiman, Rajpal S Yadav
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar in India, is a global public health problem. In Southeast Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. The role of sandflies as the vector of kala-azar was first confirmed in 1942 in India. Insecticide resistance in Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti, the vector of kala-azar in the Indian subcontinent, was first reported in 1987 in Bihar, India. This article provides a scoping review of the studies undertaken from 1959 to 2015 on insecticide resistance in P...
November 7, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Mehdi Zare, Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi, Sayed Hossein Davoodi, Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi
BACKGROUND: Iran has recently initiated a malaria elimination program with emphasis on vector control strategies which are heavily reliant on indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets. Insecticide resistance seriously threatens the efficacy of vector control strategies. This study was conducted to determine the insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles stephensi to DDT and current insecticides in Jask county as an active malaria focus in southeastern Iran. METHODS: In this study, the anopheline larvae were collected from different aquatic habitats in Jask county and transported to insectarium, fed with sugar and then 3-day-old adults were used for susceptibility tests...
November 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Mark Hoppé, Ottmar F Hueter, Andy Bywater, Philip Wege, Peter Maienfisch
Malaria is a vector-borne and life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The vector control insecticide market represents a small fraction of the crop protection market and is estimated to be valued at up to $500 million at the active ingredient level. Insecticide resistance towards the current WHOPES-approved products urgently requires the development of new tools to protect communities against the transmission of malaria...
October 2016: Chimia
Zachary S Brown, Randall A Kramer, David Ocan, Christine Oryema
BACKGROUND: Insecticide-based tools remain critical for controlling vector-borne diseases in Uganda. Securing public support from targeted populations for such tools is an important component in sustaining their long-run effectiveness. Yet little quantitative evidence is available on the perceived benefits and costs of vector control programmes among targeted households. METHODS: A survey was administered to a clustered random sample of 612 households in Gulu and Oyam districts of northern Uganda during a period of very high malaria transmission and following a pilot indoor residual spray (IRS) programme...
October 6, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew, Habte Tekie, Teshome Gebre-Michael, Wakgari Deressa, Eskindir Loha, Bernt Lindtjørn, Hans J Overgaard
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the key malaria vector control interventions in Ethiopia. The success of these interventions rely on their efficacy to repel or kill indoor feeding and resting mosquitoes. This study was undertaken to monitor human-biting patterns of Anopheles species in south-central Ethiopia. METHODS: Human-biting patterns of anophelines were monitored for 40 nights in three houses using human landing catches (HLC) both indoors and outdoors between July and November 2014, in Edo Kontola village, south-central Ethiopia...
September 30, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Vanderson S Sampaio, Tatiana P Beltrán, Kevin C Kobylinski, Gisely C Melo, José B P Lima, Sara G M Silva, Íria C Rodriguez, Henrique Silveira, Maria G V B Guerra, Quique Bassat, Paulo F P Pimenta, Marcus V G Lacerda, Wuelton M Monteiro
BACKGROUND: Strategies designed to advance towards malaria elimination rely on the detection and treatment of infections, rather than fever, and the interruption of malaria transmission between mosquitoes and humans. Mass drug administration with anti-malarials directed at eliminating parasites in blood, either to entire populations or targeting only those with malaria infections, are considered useful strategies to progress towards malaria elimination, but may be insufficient if applied on their own...
2016: Malaria Journal
Babatunde A Odugbemi, Kikelomo O Wright, Adebayo T Onajole, Yetunde A Kuyinu, Olayinka O Goodman, Tinuola O Odugbemi, Olumuyiwa O Odusanya
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is used as part of the integrated vector management strategy for the control of malaria in Lagos, Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to compare the malariometric indices of children under 5 years old living in IRS-implementing and non-IRS-implementing communities of Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: The study was a community-based, comparative, cross-sectional study of 480 children under five recruited using a multi-stage sampling method...
2016: Malaria Journal
Jessica L Waite, Penelope A Lynch, Matthew B Thomas
BACKGROUND: Novel interventions for malaria control are necessary in the face of problems such as increasing insecticide resistance and residual malaria transmission. One way to assess performance prior to deployment in the field is through mathematical modelling. Modelled here are a range of potential outcomes for eave tubes, a novel mosquito control tool combining house screening and targeted use of insecticides to provide both physical protection and turn the house into a lethal mosquito killing device...
2016: Malaria Journal
Corine Ngufor, Jessica Critchley, Josias Fagbohoun, Raphael N'Guessan, Damien Todjinou, Mark Rowland
BACKGROUND: Indoor spraying of walls and ceilings with residual insecticide remains a primary method of malaria control. Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a growing problem. Novel insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) which can improve the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Insecticide mixtures have the potential to improve efficacy or even to manage resistance in some situations but this possibility remains underexplored experimentally...
2016: PloS One
Shawn A Means, Robert J Smith
Eradication of malaria from the world in the latter part of the twentieth century proved an elusive, albeit desirable, objective. Unfortunately, resurgence of malarial incidence is currently underway. Key to understanding effective control schemes such as indoor residual spraying (spraying insecticide inside houses to kill the malarial vector mosquitoes) is the impact of spatial distributions for communities exposed to the malarial vector mosquito populations. Densities of human dwellings in small communities vary considerably in regions exposed to larval breeding sites...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Mary K Muhindo, Abel Kakuru, Paul Natureeba, Patricia Awori, Peter Olwoch, John Ategeka, Patience Nayebare, Tamara D Clark, Atis Muehlenbachs, Michelle Roh, Betty Mpeka, Bryan Greenhouse, Diane V Havlir, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Prasanna Jagannathan
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) is a key intervention for reducing the burden of malaria in Africa. However, data on the impact of IRS on malaria in pregnancy and birth outcomes is limited. METHODS: An observational study was conducted within a trial of intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy in Tororo, Uganda. Women were enrolled at 12-20 weeks of gestation between June and October 2014, provided with insecticide-treated bed nets, and followed through delivery...
2016: Malaria Journal
Guofa Zhou, Virginia Wiseman, Harrysone E Atieli, Ming-Chieh Lee, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: The massive scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) has led to a substantial increase in malaria vector insecticide resistance as well as in increased outdoor transmission, both of which hamper the effectiveness and efficiency of ITN and IRS. Long-lasting microbial larvicide can be a cost-effective new supplemental intervention tool for malaria control. METHODS/DESIGN: We will implement the long-lasting microbial larvicide intervention in 28 clusters in two counties in western Kenya...
2016: Trials
Yared Beyene Yohannes, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Shouta M M Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Mayumi Ishizuka
Despite the presence of a wide variety and number of birds, there is exceedingly little data on organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in birds inhabiting in Africa. In the present study, concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes, drins, cyclodienes, and hexachlorobenzene were measured in liver, kidney, heart and brain of 4 bird species from the Rift Valley region, Ethiopia. Indoor residual spraying of DDT for malaria vector control, and indiscriminate and illegal use of pesticides underline the relevance of this study...
August 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Eline Korenromp, Guy Mahiané, Matthew Hamilton, Carel Pretorius, Richard Cibulskis, Jeremy Lauer, Thomas A Smith, Olivier J T Briët
BACKGROUND: Scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment needs to continue to further important gains made in the past decade, but national strategies and budget allocations are not always evidence-based. Statistical models were developed summarizing dynamically simulated relations between increases in coverage and intervention impact, to inform a malaria module in the Spectrum health programme planning tool. METHODS: The dynamic Plasmodium falciparum transmission model OpenMalaria was used to simulate health effects of scale-up of insecticide-treated net (ITN) usage, indoor residual spraying (IRS), management of uncomplicated malaria cases (CM) and seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC) over a 10-year horizon, over a range of settings with stable endemic malaria...
2016: Malaria Journal
David M Poché, William E Grant, Hsiao-Hsuan Wang
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease caused by two known vector-borne parasite species (Leishmania donovani, L. infantum), transmitted to man by phlebotomine sand flies (species: Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia), resulting in ≈50,000 human fatalities annually, ≈67% occurring on the Indian subcontinent. Indoor residual spraying is the current method of sand fly control in India, but alternative means of vector control, such as the treatment of livestock with systemic insecticide-based drugs, are being evaluated...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Edouard Kawawa Swana, Ghislain Yav Makan, Clarence Kaut Mukeng, Henriette Ilunga Mupumba, Gabriel Mutabusha Kalaba, Oscar Numbi Luboya, Michael J Bangs
BACKGROUND: Malaria prevalence in the Mulumbu Health Area in Lualaba Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo has remained high (>70 %) despite repeated vector control (indoor residual spray) and mass insecticide-treated bed net coverage. Therefore, a pilot study was implemented to attack the parasite directly and demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of community case management of malaria (CCMm) using trained community health workers (CHWs). METHODS: A 13 month prospective evaluation of CCMm was undertaken in 14 rural villages...
2016: Malaria Journal
Badara Samb, Lassana Konate, Helen Irving, Jacob M Riveron, Ibrahima Dia, Ousmane Faye, Charles S Wondji
BACKGROUND: Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in tropical Africa, notably in Senegal. The highly anthropophilic and endophilic behaviours of this mosquito make it a good target for vector control operations through the use of insecticide treated nets, long-lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual spraying. However, little is known about patterns of resistance to insecticides and the underlying resistance mechanisms in field populations of this vector in Senegal...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
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