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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738840/progress-towards-malaria-elimination-in-zimbabwe-with-special-reference-to-the-period-2003-2015
#1
Shadreck Sande, Moses Zimba, Joseph Mberikunashe, Andrew Tangwena, Anderson Chimusoro
BACKGROUND: An intensive effort to control malaria in Zimbabwe has produced dramatic reductions in the burden of the disease over the past 13 years. The successes have prompted the Zimbabwe's National Malaria Control Programme to commit to elimination of malaria. It is critical to analyse the changes in the morbidity trends based on surveillance data, and scrutinize reorientation to strategies for elimination. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of available Ministry of Health surveillance data and programme reports, mostly from 2003 to 2015...
July 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737099/concentrations-and-human-health-risk-assessment-of-ddt-and-its-metabolites-in-free-range-and-commercial-chicken-products-from-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#2
L A Thompson, Y Ikenaka, Y B Yohannes, J J van Vuren, V Wepener, N J Smit, W S Darwish, S M M Nakayama, H Mizukawa, M Ishizuka
Organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have been used in agriculture and for disease control purposes over many decades. Reports suggest that DDT exposure may result in a number of adverse effects in humans. In the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, DDT is sprayed annually in homes (indoor residual spraying) to control the mosquito vector of malaria. In the northern part of the Province, samples of free-range chicken meat (n = 48) and eggs (n = 13), and commercially-produced chicken meat (n = 6) and eggs (n = 11) were collected and analysed...
July 24, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728572/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-malaria-transmission-in-mamfene-kwazulu-natal-province-south-africa-2015
#3
Pinky N Manana, Lazarus Kuonza, Alfred Musekiwa, Hluphi D Mpangane, Lizette L Koekemoer
BACKGROUND: In South Africa malaria is endemic in Mpumalanga, Limpopo and the north-eastern areas of KwaZulu-Natal provinces. South Africa has set targets to eliminate malaria by 2018 and research into complementary vector control tools such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is ongoing. It is important to understand community perceptions regarding malaria transmission and control interventions to enable development of community awareness campaign messages appropriate to the needs of the community...
July 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724450/variation-in-species-composition-and-infection-rates-of-anopheles-mosquitoes-at-different-altitudinal-transects-and-the-risk-of-malaria-in-the-highland-of-dirashe-woreda-south-ethiopia
#4
Taye Yohannes Daygena, Fekadu Massebo, Bernt Lindtjørn
BACKGROUND: The transmission of malaria is heterogeneous, and varies due to altitude. The information on whether the transmission of malaria is indigenous or imported to highland areas is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the species composition and infection rates of Anopheles at different altitudinal transects, and the risk of malaria if any in the highland of Dirashe Woreda, South Ethiopia. METHODS: This study was conducted in Gato (low altitude; average elevation of 1273 m), Onota (mid-altitude; average elevation of 1707 m) and Layignaw-Arguba (high altitude; average elevation of 2337 m) from August 2015 to April 2016...
July 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719286/the-economic-value-of-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-and-indoor-residual-spraying-implementation-in-mozambique
#5
Bruce Y Lee, Sarah M Bartsch, Nathan T B Stone, Shufang Zhang, Shawn T Brown, Chandrani Chatterjee, Jay V DePasse, Eli Zenkov, Olivier J T Briët, Chandana Mendis, Kirsi Viisainen, Baltazar Candrinho, James Colborn
AbstractMalaria-endemic countries have to decide how much of their limited resources for vector control to allocate toward implementing long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) versus indoor residual spraying (IRS). To help the Mozambique Ministry of Health use an evidence-based approach to determine funding allocation toward various malaria control strategies, the Global Fund convened the Mozambique Modeling Working Group which then used JANUS, a software platform that includes integrated computational economic, operational, and clinical outcome models that can link with different transmission models (in this case, OpenMalaria) to determine the economic value of vector control strategies...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696207/levels-and-determinants-of-ddt-and-dde-exposure-in-the-vhembe-cohort
#6
Fraser W Gaspar, Jonathan Chevrier, Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá, Jonah M Lipsitt, Dana Boyd Barr, Nina Holland, Riana Bornman, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: Although indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an effective tool for malaria control, its use contributes to high insecticide exposure in sprayed communities and raises concerns about possible unintended health effects. OBJECTIVE: The Venda Health Examination of Mothers, Babies and their Environment (VHEMBE) is a birth cohort study initiated in 2012 to characterize prenatal exposure to IRS insecticides and exposures' impacts on child health and development in rural South Africa...
July 7, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684267/current-vector-control-challenges-in-the-fight-against-malaria
#7
REVIEW
Giovanni Benelli, John C Beier
The effective and eco-friendly control of Anopheles vectors plays a key role in any malaria management program. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) suggests making use of the full range of vector control tools available. The strategies for IVM require novel technologies to control outdoor transmission of malaria. Despite the wide number of promising control tools tested against mosquitoes, current strategies for malaria vector control used in most African countries are not sufficient to achieve successful malaria control...
July 3, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676051/community-perceptions-on-outdoor-malaria-transmission-in-kilombero-valley-southern-tanzania
#8
Irene R Moshi, Halfan Ngowo, Angel Dillip, Daniel Msellemu, Edith P Madumla, Fredros O Okumu, Maureen Coetzee, Ladslaus L Mnyone, Lenore Manderson
BACKGROUND: The extensive use of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in Africa has contributed to a significant reduction in malaria transmission. Even so, residual malaria transmission persists in many regions, partly driven by mosquitoes that bite people outdoors. In areas where Anopheles gambiae s.s. is a dominant vector, most interventions target the reduction of indoor transmission. The increased use of ITNs/LLINs and IRS has led to the decline of this species...
July 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668377/priorities-for-broadening-the-malaria-vector-control-tool-kit
#9
REVIEW
Priscille Barreaux, Antoine M G Barreaux, Eleanore D Sternberg, Eunho Suh, Jessica L Waite, Shelley A Whitehead, Matthew B Thomas
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have contributed substantially to reductions in the burden of malaria in the past 15 years. Building on this foundation, the goal is now to drive malaria towards elimination. Vector control remains central to this goal, but there are limitations to what is achievable with the current tools. Here we highlight how a broader appreciation of adult mosquito behavior is yielding a number of supplementary approaches to bolster the vector-control tool kit...
June 28, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615868/some-probable-factors-affecting-the-malaria-situation-before-and-at-the-beginning-of-a-pre-elimination-program-in-southeastern-iran
#10
Jalil Nejati, Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaei, Masoud Salehi, Abedin Saghafipour, Ehssan Mozafari
The area southeast of Iran still copes with malaria as an unstable infectious disease and includes the most autochthonous malaria reports in the country. This comprehensive study was carried out for the evaluation of environmental factors, welfare indicators and health facilities on the malaria situation before and at the beginning of a pre-elimination programme in this area. The probable factors affecting the malaria situation, including the water-pipe network, electricity, rainfall, long-lasting integrated nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying and malaria diagnosis-treatment centres were analysed using SPSS software...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610579/reported-community-level-indoor-residual-spray-coverage-from-two-stage-cluster-surveys-in-sub-saharan-africa
#11
David A Larsen, Lauren Borrill, Ryan Patel, Lauren Fregosi
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in malaria-endemic areas. Indoor residual spray is an effective intervention to control malaria, but high community-level coverage is needed to maximize its impact. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using thirty-four two-stage cluster surveys (e.g., demographic and health surveys) and lot quality assurance sampling, indoor residual spray was estimated at the community level (i.e. enumeration-area) across sub-Saharan Africa since 2010...
June 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609661/the-use-of-pesticides-in-belgian-illicit-indoor-cannabis-plantations
#12
Eva Cuypers, Wouter Vanhove, Joachim Gotink, Arne Bonneure, Patrick Van Damme, Jan Tytgat
Cannabis (Cannabis spp.) use and cultivation continue to increase in many (European) countries. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users. Main risks may come from pesticide residues on plants, cultivation infrastructure and materials; left-over plant growth-promoting substances; mycotoxins from fungal pathogens on harvested plants; and/or high levels of cannabinoids in cannabis plant parts for consumption...
May 25, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609442/the-us-president-s-malaria-initiative-and-under-5-child-mortality-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-difference-in-differences-analysis
#13
Aleksandra Jakubowski, Sally C Stearns, Margaret E Kruk, Gustavo Angeles, Harsha Thirumurthy
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial financial contributions by the United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) since 2006, no studies have carefully assessed how this program may have affected important population-level health outcomes. We utilized multiple publicly available data sources to evaluate the association between introduction of PMI and child mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used difference-in-differences analyses to compare trends in the primary outcome of under-5 mortality rates and secondary outcomes reflecting population coverage of malaria interventions in 19 PMI-recipient and 13 non-recipient countries between 1995 and 2014...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604781/deltamethrin-resistance-in-aedes-aegypti-results-in-treatment-failure-in-merida-mexico
#14
Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec, Anuar Medina-Barreiro, Azael Che-Mendoza, Felipe Dzul-Manzanilla, Fabian Correa-Morales, Guillermo Guillermo-May, Wilbert Bibiano-Marín, Valentín Uc-Puc, Eduardo Geded-Moreno, José Vadillo-Sánchez, Jorge Palacio-Vargas, Scott A Ritchie, Audrey Lenhart, Pablo Manrique-Saide
The operational impact of deltamethrin resistance on the efficacy of indoor insecticide applications to control Aedes aegypti was evaluated in Merida, Mexico. A randomized controlled trial quantified the efficacy of indoor residual spraying (IRS) against adult Ae. aegypti in houses treated with either deltamethrin (to which local Ae. aegypti expressed a high degree of resistance) or bendiocarb (to which local Ae. aegypti were fully susceptible) as compared to untreated control houses. All adult Ae. aegypti infestation indices during 3 months post-spraying were significantly lower in houses treated with bendiocarb compared to untreated houses (odds ratio <0...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594568/repellents-and-new-spaces-of-concern-in-global-health
#15
Ann H Kelly, Hermione N Boko Koudakossi, Sarah J Moore
Today, malaria prevention hinges upon two domestic interventions: insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying. As mosquitoes grow resistant to these tools, however, novel approaches to vector control have become a priority area of malaria research and development. Spatial repellency, a volumetric mode of action that seeks to reduce disease transmission by creating an atmosphere inimical to mosquitoes, represents one way forward. Drawing from research that sought to develop new repellent chemicals in conversation with users from sub-Saharan Africa and the United States, we consider the implications of a non-insecticidal paradigm of vector control for how we understand the political ecology of malaria...
July 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589023/measuring-manipulating-and-exploiting-behaviours-of-adult-mosquitoes-to-optimise-malaria-vector-control-impact
#16
Gerry F Killeen, John M Marshall, Samson S Kiware, Andy B South, Lucy S Tusting, Prosper P Chaki, Nicodem J Govella
Residual malaria transmission can persist despite high coverage with effective long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS), because many vector mosquitoes evade them by feeding on animals, feeding outdoors, resting outdoors or rapidly exiting from houses after entering them. However, many of these behaviours that render vectors resilient to control with IRS and LLINs also make them vulnerable to some emerging new alternative interventions. Furthermore, vector control measures targeting preferred behaviours of mosquitoes often force them to express previously rare alternative behaviours, which can then be targeted with these complementary new interventions...
March 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589022/developing-an-expanded-vector-control-toolbox-for-malaria-elimination
#17
Gerry F Killeen, Allison Tatarsky, Abdoulaye Diabate, Carlos J Chaccour, John M Marshall, Fredros O Okumu, Shannon Brunner, Gretchen Newby, Yasmin A Williams, David Malone, Lucy S Tusting, Roland D Gosling
Vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) accounts for most of the malaria burden reductions achieved recently in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). LLINs and IRS are highly effective, but are insufficient to eliminate malaria transmission in many settings because of operational constraints, growing resistance to available insecticides and mosquitoes that behaviourally avoid contact with these interventions. However, a number of substantive opportunities now exist for rapidly developing and implementing more diverse, effective and sustainable malaria vector control strategies for LMICs...
March 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589015/going-beyond-personal-protection-against-mosquito-bites-to-eliminate-malaria-transmission-population-suppression-of-malaria-vectors-that-exploit-both-human-and-animal-blood
#18
Gerry F Killeen, Samson S Kiware, Fredros O Okumu, Marianne E Sinka, Catherine L Moyes, N Claire Massey, Peter W Gething, John M Marshall, Carlos J Chaccour, Lucy S Tusting
Protecting individuals and households against mosquito bites with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS) can suppress entire populations of unusually efficient malaria vector species that predominantly feed indoors on humans. Mosquitoes which usually feed on animals are less reliant on human blood, so they are far less vulnerable to population suppression effects of such human-targeted insecticidal measures. Fortunately, the dozens of mosquito species which primarily feed on animals are also relatively inefficient vectors of malaria, so personal protection against mosquito bites may be sufficient to eliminate transmission...
March 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588994/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-of-introducing-the-rts-s-malaria-vaccine-relative-to-scaling-up-other-malaria-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa
#19
Peter Winskill, Patrick Gt Walker, Jamie T Griffin, Azra C Ghani
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of introducing the RTS,S malaria vaccine in sub-Saharan Africa compared with further scale-up of existing interventions. DESIGN: A mathematical modelling and cost-effectiveness study. SETTING: Sub-Saharan Africa. PARTICIPANTS: People of all ages. INTERVENTIONS: The analysis considers the introduction and scale-up of the RTS,S malaria vaccine and the scale-up of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC)...
January 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587669/ivermectin-treated-cattle-reduces-blood-digestion-egg-production-and-survival-of-a-free-living-population-of-anopheles-arabiensis-under-semi-field-condition-in-south-eastern-tanzania
#20
Issa N Lyimo, Stella T Kessy, Kasian F Mbina, Ally A Daraja, Ladslaus L Mnyone
BACKGROUND: Anopheles arabiensis feed on cattle and contributes to residual transmission of malaria in areas with high coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying in East Africa. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ivermectin-treated cattle as a complementary vector control tool against population of An. arabiensis under the semi-field conditions in south-eastern Tanzania. METHODS: The free-living population of An. arabiensis was allowed to forage on untreated or ivermectin-treated cattle in alternating nights within the semi-field system in south-eastern Tanzania...
June 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
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