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Indoor residual spraying

Fiacre R Agossa, Gil G Padonou, Come Z Koukpo, Jacques Zola-Sahossi, Roseric Azondekon, Osei K Akuoko, Juniace Ahoga, Boris N'dombidje, Bruno Akinro, Arsene Jacques Y H Fassinou, Michel Sezonlin, Martin C Akogbeto
BACKGROUND: Scale-up of the distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying with insecticides over the last decade have contributed to the considerable decrease of malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the increasing pyrethroid resistance intensity and the spread of carbamate resistance in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) mosquitoes and the limited number of insecticides recommended by the WHO for vector control, alternative insecticide formulations for IRS with long-lasting residual activity are required to sustain the gains obtained in most malaria-endemic countries...
May 10, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Carlos J Chaccour, Kija Ngha'bi, Gloria Abizanda, Angel Irigoyen Barrio, Azucena Aldaz, Fredros Okumu, Hannah Slater, Jose Luis Del Pozo, Gerry Killeen
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes that feed on animals can survive and mediate residual transmission of malaria even after most humans have been protected with insecticidal bednets or indoor residual sprays. Ivermectin is a widely-used drug for treating parasites of humans and animals that is also insecticidal, killing mosquitoes that feed on treated subjects. Mass administration of ivermectin to livestock could be particularly useful for tackling residual malaria transmission by zoophagic vectors that evade human-centred approaches...
May 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
M Obopile, G Segoea, K Waniwa, D S Ntebela, K Moakofhi, M Motlaleng, T Mosweunyane, J K Edwards, J Namboze, W Butt, M Manzi, K C Takarinda, P Owiti
Setting: Larviciding has potential as a component of integrated vector management for the reduction of malaria transmission in Botswana by complementing long-lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual sprays. Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of local Anopheles to commonly used larvicides. Design: This field test of the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israliensis vs. Anopheles was performed by measuring larval density before treatment and 24 h and 48 h after treatment in seven sites of Bobirwa district, eastern Botswana, in 2012 and 2013...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
D R Mumbengegwi, H Sturrock, M Hsiang, K Roberts, I Kleinschmidt, M Nghipumbwa, P Uusiku, J Smith, A Bennet, W Kizito, K Takarinda, S Ade, R Gosling
Setting: A comparison of routine Namibia National Malaria Programme data (reported) vs. household survey data (administrative) on indoor residual spraying (IRS) in western Zambezi region, Namibia, for the 2014-2015 malaria season. Objectives: To determine 1) IRS coverage (administrative and reported), 2) its effect on malaria incidence, and 3) reasons for non-uptake of IRS in western Zambezi region, Namibia, for the 2014-2015 malaria season. Design: This was a descriptive study. Results: IRS coverage in western Zambezi region was low, ranging from 42...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
K Makadzange, N Dlamini, Z Zulu, S Dlamini, S Kunene, W Sikhondze, P Owiti, E Geoffroy, R Zachariah, T K Mengestu
Settings: Swaziland is striving to achieve sustainable malaria elimination. Three preventive interventions are vital for reaching this goal: 1) effective household utilisation of long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS), and 3) provision of chemoprophylaxis for those travelling to malaria-endemic areas. Objectives: To assess the uptake of preventive intervention among confirmed malaria cases. Design: A longitudinal study using nation-wide programme data from 2010 to 2015. Data on malaria cases from health facilities were sourced from the Malaria Surveillance Database System...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
Constant G N Gbalégba, Hampâté Ba, Kigbafori D Silué, Ousmane Ba, Emmanuel Tia, Mouhamadou Chouaibou, Nathan T Y Tian-Bi, Grégoire Y Yapi, Brama Koné, Jürg Utzinger, Benjamin G Koudou
BACKGROUND: Since 2000, substantial progress has been made in reducing malaria worldwide. However, some countries in West Africa remain a hotspot for malaria with all age groups at risk. Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium spp. are important sources of infections for malaria vectors and thus contribute to the anchoring of the disease in favourable eco-epidemiological settings. The objective of this study was to assess the asymptomatic malaria case rates in Korhogo and Kaedi, two urban areas in northern Côte d'Ivoire and southern Mauritania, respectively...
April 25, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Clifford Afoakwah, Xin Deng, Ilke Onur
BACKGROUND: Despite the significant investments to control malaria infection rates over the past years, infection rates remain significant in sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigates the association with use of large-scale malaria interventions such as: Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), Insecticide Treated bed-Nets (ITN), and Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) strategies, and the prevalence of malaria among children under-five in Ghana. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on 2, 449 children aged 6 to 59 months who were tested for malaria, through Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT), are drawn from the recent wave of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS 2014)...
April 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
John Vontas, Linda Grigoraki, John Morgan, Dimitra Tsakireli, Godwin Fuseini, Luis Segura, Julie Niemczura de Carvalho, Raul Nguema, David Weetman, Michel A Slotman, Janet Hemingway
Since 2004, indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-impregnated bednets (LLINs) have reduced the malaria parasite prevalence in children on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, from 45% to 12%. After target site-based (knockdown resistance; kdr ) pyrethroid resistance was detected in 2004 in Anopheles coluzzii (formerly known as the M form of the Anopheles gambiae complex), the carbamate bendiocarb was introduced. Subsequent analysis showed that kdr alone was not operationally significant, so pyrethroid-based IRS was successfully reintroduced in 2012...
April 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Parfait H Awono-Ambene, Josiane Etang, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Cyrille Ndo, Wolfgang Ekoko Eyisap, Michael C Piameu, Elysée S Mandeng, Ranaise L Mbakop, Jean Claude Toto, Salomon Patchoke, Abraham P Mnzava, Tessa B Knox, Martin Donnelly, Etienne Fondjo, Jude D Bigoga
BACKGROUND: Following the recent discovery of the role of Anopheles rufipes Gough, 1910 in human malaria transmission in the northern savannah of Cameroon, we report here additional information on its feeding and resting habits and its susceptibility to the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin. METHODS: From 2011 to 2015, mosquito samples were collected in 38 locations across Garoua, Mayo Oulo and Pitoa health districts in North Cameroon. Adult anophelines collected using outdoor clay pots, window exit traps and indoor spray catches were checked for feeding status, blood meal origin and Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein...
April 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
R C Elliott, D L Smith, D Echodu
Using an established Ross/Macdonald model variant for mosquito-born parasite transmission, we extend the formalism to simply incorporate time-dependent control measures. In particular, two interventions are considered, mass drug administration (MDA) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), whose individual intensities during their respective campaigns are set to the same intervention-reduced reproductive number R0 . The impacts of these interventions, measured as each campaign's ability over time to reduce infections in a community, are found based on the transmission setting, coverage, and their associated durations...
April 12, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Natacha Protopopoff, Jacklin F Mosha, Eliud Lukole, Jacques D Charlwood, Alexandra Wright, Charles D Mwalimu, Alphaxard Manjurano, Franklin W Mosha, William Kisinza, Immo Kleinschmidt, Mark Rowland
BACKGROUND: Progress in malaria control is under threat by wide-scale insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. Two recent vector control products have been developed: a long-lasting insecticidal net that incorporates a synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and a long-lasting indoor residual spraying formulation of the insecticide pirimiphos-methyl. We evaluated the effectiveness of PBO long-lasting insecticidal nets versus standard long-lasting insecticidal nets as single interventions and in combination with the indoor residual spraying of pirimiphos-methyl...
April 11, 2018: Lancet
Immo Kleinschmidt, John Bradley, Tessa Bellamy Knox, Abraham Peter Mnzava, Hmooda Toto Kafy, Charles Mbogo, Bashir Adam Ismail, Jude D Bigoga, Alioun Adechoubou, Kamaraju Raghavendra, Jackie Cook, Elfatih M Malik, Zinga José Nkuni, Michael Macdonald, Nabie Bayoh, Eric Ochomo, Etienne Fondjo, Herman Parfait Awono-Ambene, Josiane Etang, Martin Akogbeto, Rajendra M Bhatt, Mehul Kumar Chourasia, Dipak K Swain, Teresa Kinyari, Krishanthi Subramaniam, Achille Massougbodji, Mariam Okê-Sopoh, Aurore Ogouyemi-Hounto, Celestin Kouambeng, Mujahid Sheikhedin Abdin, Philippa West, Khalid Elmardi, Sylvie Cornelie, Vincent Corbel, Neena Valecha, Evan Mathenge, Luna Kamau, Jonathan Lines, Martin James Donnelly
BACKGROUND: Scale-up of insecticide-based interventions has averted more than 500 million malaria cases since 2000. Increasing insecticide resistance could herald a rebound in disease and mortality. We aimed to investigate whether insecticide resistance was associated with loss of effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets and increased malaria disease burden. METHODS: This WHO-coordinated, prospective, observational cohort study was done at 279 clusters (villages or groups of villages in which phenotypic resistance was measurable) in Benin, Cameroon, India, Kenya, and Sudan...
April 9, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Brenda Eskenazi, Sookee An, Stephen A Rauch, Eric S Coker, Angelina Maphula, Muvhulawa Obida, Madelein Crause, Katherine R Kogut, Riana Bornman, Jonathan Chevrier
BACKGROUND: Although indoor residual spraying (IRS) with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroids effectively controls malaria, it potentially increases human exposure to these insecticides. Previous studies suggest that prenatal exposure to these insecticides may impact human neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the effects of maternal insecticide exposure and neurodevelopment of toddlers living in a malaria-endemic region currently using IRS...
April 6, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Tinashe A Tizifa, Alinune N Kabaghe, Robert S McCann, Henk van den Berg, Michele Van Vugt, Kamija S Phiri
Purpose of Review: Malaria remains a global burden contributing to morbidity and mortality especially in children under 5 years of age. Despite the progress achieved towards malaria burden reduction, achieving elimination in more countries remains a challenge. This article aims to review the prevention and control strategies for malaria, to assess their impact towards reducing the disease burden and to highlight the best practices observed. Recent Findings: Use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying has resulted a decline in the incidence and prevalence of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Michael Okia, David F Hoel, James Kirunda, John Bosco Rwakimari, Betty Mpeka, Denis Ambayo, Ananya Price, David W Oguttu, Albert P Okui, John Govere
BACKGROUND: Uganda's malaria burden includes the sixth highest number of annual deaths in Africa (10,500) with approximately 16 million cases (2013) and the entire population at risk. The President's Malaria Initiative has been supporting the malaria control interventions of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) in Uganda since 2007. These interventions are threatened by emerging and spreading insecticide resistance, known to exist in Ugandan malaria vectors...
April 6, 2018: Malaria Journal
Christian E Gunning, Kenichi Okamoto, Helvio Astete, Gissella M Vasquez, Erik Erhardt, Clara Del Aguila, Raul Pinedo, Roldan Cardenas, Carlos Pacheco, Enrique Chalco, Hugo Rodriguez-Ferruci, Thomas W Scott, Alun L Lloyd, Fred Gould, Amy C Morrison
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and urban yellow fever viruses. Indoor, ultra low volume (ULV) space spraying with pyrethroid insecticides is the main approach used for Ae. aegypti emergency control in many countries. Given the widespread use of this method, the lack of large-scale experiments or detailed evaluations of municipal spray programs is problematic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two experimental evaluations of non-residual, indoor ULV pyrethroid spraying were conducted in Iquitos, Peru...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
John C Rek, Victor Alegana, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Ewan Cameron, Moses R Kamya, Agaba Katureebe, Steve W Lindsay, Maxwell Kilama, Sarah G Staedke, Jim Todd, Grant Dorsey, Lucy S Tusting
BACKGROUND: Rapid population growth in Africa requires an urgent expansion and improvement of housing options. Improving housing presents a promising opportunity for malaria control by reducing indoor exposure to mosquitoes. We measured recent changes in house design in rural Uganda and evaluated their association with malaria in relation to a mass scale-up of control efforts. METHODS: This analysis was part of a cohort study designed to compare temporal changes in malaria incidence from a cohort of children and adults with temporal changes in malaria test positivity rate from health facility surveillance...
February 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Gladwin Muchena, Busisani Dube, Rudo Chikodzore, Jasper Pasipamire, Sivakumaran Murugasampillay, Joseph Mberikunashe
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a public health problem in Zimbabwe. However, malaria elimination has become a foreseeable prospect with Matabeleland South Province making significant gains towards halting local malaria transmission. This study reviews malaria elimination progress and challenges to date utilizing the World Health Organization's Malaria Programme Review framework. RESULTS: Between 2011 and 2015, malaria incidence was less than one case per 1000 population at risk in all districts save for Beitbridge and Gwanda...
April 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
Edouard K Swana, Thierry I Yav, Leonard M Ngwej, Betty N Mupemba, Suprianto, Clarence K Mukeng, Izak Hattingh, Oscar N Luboya, Jean-Baptiste S Kakoma, Michael J Bangs
BACKGROUND: In southern Democratic Republic of the Congo, malaria transmission is stable with seasonal fluctuations. Different measurements can be used to monitor disease burden and estimate the performance of control programmes. Repeated school-based malaria prevalence surveys (SMPS) were conducted from 2007 to 2014 to generate up-to-date surveillance data and evaluate the impact of an integrated vector control programme. METHODS: Biannual SMPS used a stratified, randomized and proportional sampling method...
April 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
B I Abhulimhen-Iyoha, Y T Israel-Aina
BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is a life-saving procedure in paediatric practice. It is important in replacing blood volume in cases of haemorrhage or providing specific blood components as required. However, the procedure carries some risks and complications. The decision to transfuse, frequency of transfusion and the availability of safe blood and blood products are essential determinants of the success of the procedure. Hence, knowledge of the indications and rate of transfusion is important to ensure that blood for transfusion is safe and made available as at when due...
January 2018: West African Journal of Medicine
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