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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329545/use-of-epidemiological-and-entomological-tools-in-the-control-and-elimination-of-malaria-in-ethiopia
#1
REVIEW
Abebe Animut, Bernt Lindtjørn
Malaria is the leading public health problem in Ethiopia where over 75% of the land surface is at risk with varying intensities depending on altitude and season. Although the mortality because of malaria infection has declined much during the last 15-20 years, some researchers worry that this success story may not be sustainable. Past notable achievements in the reduction of malaria disease burden could be reversed in the future. To interrupt, or even to eliminate malaria transmission in Ethiopia, there is a need to implement a wide range of interventions that include insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, improved control of residual malaria transmission, and improved diagnostics, enhanced surveillance, and methods to deal with the emergence of resistance both to drugs and to insecticides...
January 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324760/bionomics-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-in-villages-in-bihar-india-with-insights-into-efficacy-of-irs-based-control-measures
#2
David M Poché, Rajesh B Garlapati, Shanta Mukherjee, Zaria Torres-Poché, Epco Hasker, Tahfizur Rahman, Aakanksha Bharti, Vishnu P Tripathi, Suman Prakash, Rahul Chaubey, Richard M Poché
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly vector-borne disease. Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the number of sampling periods (n = 2-3) were minimal, and outdoor-resting P...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321011/attractive-toxic-sugar-baits-for-controlling-mosquitoes-a-qualitative-study-in-bagamoyo-tanzania
#3
Marta Ferreira Maia, Frank Chelestino Tenywa, Hannah Nelson, Athumani Kambagha, Abigail Ashura, Ibrahim Bakari, Deogratis Mruah, Aziza Simba, Ally Bedford
BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination is unlikely to be achieved without the implementation of new vector control interventions capable of complementing insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying. Attractive-toxic sugar baits (ATSBs) are considered a new vector control paradigm. They are technologically appropriate as they are simple and affordable to produce. ATSBs kill both female and male mosquitoes attracted to sugar feed on a sugary solution containing a mosquitocidal agent and may be used indoors or outdoors...
January 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316917/an-observational-analysis-of-the-impact-of-indoor-residual-spraying-with-non-pyrethroid-insecticides-on-the-incidence-of-malaria-in-s%C3%A3-gou-region-mali-2012-2015
#4
Joseph Wagman, Christelle Gogue, Kenzie Tynuv, Jules Mihigo, Elie Bankineza, Mamadou Bah, Diadier Diallo, Andrew Saibu, Jason H Richardson, Diakalkia Kone, Seydou Fomba, Jeff Bernson, Richard Steketee, Laurence Slutsker, Molly Robertson
BACKGROUND: Ségou Region in Central Mali is an area of high malaria burden with seasonal transmission, high access to and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), and resistance to pyrethroids and DDT well documented in Anopheles gambiae s.l. (the principal vector of malaria in Mali). Ségou has recently received indoor residual spraying (IRS) supported by Mali's collaboration with the US President's Malaria Initiative/Africa Indoor Residual Spraying programme. From 2012 to 2015, two different non-pyrethroid insecticides: bendiocarb in 2012 and 2013 and pirimiphos-methyl in 2014 and 2015, were used for IRS in two districts...
January 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304805/status-of-insecticide-resistance-in-malaria-vectors-in-kwale-county-coastal-kenya
#5
Caroline W Kiuru, Florence Awino Oyieke, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Joseph Mwangangi, Luna Kamau, Damaris Muhia-Matoke
BACKGROUND: The strategy for malaria vector control in the context of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality has been the scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets to universal coverage and indoor residual spraying. This has led to significant decline in malaria transmission. However, these vector control strategies rely on insecticides which are threatened by insecticide resistance. In this study the status of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and it's implication in malaria transmission at the Kenyan Coast was investigated...
January 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304803/factors-associated-with-willingness-to-take-up-indoor-residual-spraying-to-prevent-malaria-in-tororo-district-uganda-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Ignatius Wadunde, Arthur Mpimbaza, David Musoke, John C Ssempebwa, Michael Ediau, Doreen Tuhebwe, Yeka Adoke, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an efficient method of preventing malaria in homes, and community willingness to take up IRS is critical to its success. The first phase of IRS was conducted in Tororo district, Uganda between December 2014 and January 2015. High coverage rates (90%) were attained in the district. However, Mulanda sub-county had the lowest coverage of 78%, in the first round. This study assessed willingness and associated factors of IRS uptake among household heads for the next IRS campaign in Mulanda sub-county, Tororo district...
January 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287179/exposure-to-ddt-and-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-among-south-african-women-from-an-indoor-residual-spraying-region-the-vhembe-study
#7
Jennifer Murray, Brenda Eskenazi, Riana Bornman, Fraser W Gaspar, Madelein Crause, Muvhulawa Obida, Jonathan Chevrier
Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), the use of insecticides inside residences for malaria control, may cause elevated exposure to insecticides such as dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT). Evidence suggests that DDT exposure may increase blood pressure but no study has investigated associations with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) in an IRS area. We measured the serum concentration of DDT and its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethylene (DDE) at the time of delivery among 733 rural South African women participating in the Venda Health Examination of Mothers, Babies and their Environment (VHEMBE)...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282130/what-does-not-kill-it-makes-it-weaker-effects-of-sub-lethal-concentrations-of-ivermectin-on-the-locomotor-activity-of-anopheles-aquasalis
#8
Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Gustavo Bueno da Silva Rivas, Kevin Kobylinski, Yudi Tatiana Pinilla, Paulo Filemon Paolluci Pimenta, José Bento Pereira Lima, Rafaela Vieira Bruno, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health concern. Vector control measures based solely on insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have demonstrated not to be feasible for malaria elimination. It has been shown that ivermectin affects several aspects of Anopheles species biology. Along the Latin American seacoast, Anopheles aquasalis Curry plays an important role in malaria transmission. The observation of mosquitoes locomotor activity under laboratory conditions can reveal details of their daily activity rhythms, which is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock that seems to be influenced by external signals, such as light and temperature...
December 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276037/structure-of-the-g119s-mutant-acetylcholinesterase-of-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-gambiae-reveals-basis-of-insecticide-resistance
#9
Jonah Cheung, Arshad Mahmood, Ravi Kalathur, Lixuan Liu, Paul R Carlier
Malaria is a devastating disease in sub-Saharan Africa and is transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. While indoor residual spraying of anticholinesterase insecticides has been useful in controlling the spread of malaria, widespread application of these compounds has led to the rise of an insecticide-resistant mosquito strain that harbors a G119S mutation in the nervous system target enzyme acetylcholinesterase. We demonstrate the atomic basis of insecticide resistance through structure determination of the G119S mutant acetylcholinesterase of An...
December 16, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259767/the-protective-effectiveness-of-control-interventions-for-malaria-prevention-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#10
Thomas Kesteman, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Christophe Rogier
Background: Thanks to a considerable increase in funding, malaria control interventions (MCI) whose efficacy had been demonstrated by controlled trials have been largely scaled up during the last decade. Nevertheless, it was not systematically investigated whether this efficacy had been preserved once deployed on the field. Therefore, we sought the literature to assess the disparities between efficacy and effectiveness and the effort to measure the protective effectiveness (PE) of MCI. Methods: The PubMed database was searched for references with keywords related to malaria, to control interventions for prevention and to study designs that allow for the measure of the PE against parasitemia or against clinical outcomes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247618/malaria-control-in-a-tribal-area-of-central-india-using-existing-tools
#11
Neeru Singh, Ashok K Mishra, Kalyan B Saha, Praveen K Bharti, Dinesh S Sisodia, Gagan S Sonal, Akshay C Dhariwal, Ravendra K Sharma
Malaria is difficult to control in central India because of geographical terrain, efficient vectors, and perennial transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and socio-cultural practices of ethnic tribes. The objective was to develop a model to prevent and control malaria in hard to reach areas using existing tools. Baigachak (Tribe population 31,900) situated in Dindori district was undertaken for this study. Intervention measures used are indoor residual spray (IRS), long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs), prompt diagnosis and treatment along with intensive Information, Education and Communication (IEC) involving school children as agent of change...
December 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242251/equal-opportunity-equal-work-increasing-women-s-participation-in-the-u-s-president-s-malaria-initiative-africa-indoor-residual-spraying-project
#12
Abigail Donner, Allison Belemvire, Ben Johns, Keith Mangam, Elana Fiekowsky, Jayleen Gunn, Mary Hayden, Kacey Ernst
BACKGROUND: One of the primary control measures for malaria transmission is indoor residual spraying (IRS). Historically, few women have worked in IRS programs, despite the income-generating potential. Increasing women's roles in IRS requires understanding the barriers to women's participation and implementing measures to address them. The U.S. President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) Africa Indoor Residual Spraying (AIRS) Project is the largest implementer of IRS globally. To address gender inequity in IRS operations, PMI AIRS assessed the barriers to the participation of women and developed and implemented policies to address these barriers...
December 14, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229808/impact-of-insecticide-resistance-in-anopheles-arabiensis-on-malaria-incidence-and-prevalence-in-sudan-and-the-costs-of-mitigation
#13
Hmooda Toto Kafy, Bashir Adam Ismail, Abraham Peter Mnzava, Jonathan Lines, Mogahid Shiekh Eldin Abdin, Jihad Sulieman Eltaher, Anuar Osman Banaga, Philippa West, John Bradley, Jackie Cook, Brent Thomas, Krishanthi Subramaniam, Janet Hemingway, Tessa Bellamy Knox, Elfatih M Malik, Joshua O Yukich, Martin James Donnelly, Immo Kleinschmidt
Insecticide-based interventions have contributed to ∼78% of the reduction in the malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa since 2000. Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors could presage a catastrophic rebound in disease incidence and mortality. A major impediment to the implementation of insecticide resistance management strategies is that evidence of the impact of resistance on malaria disease burden is limited. A cluster randomized trial was conducted in Sudan with pyrethroid-resistant and carbamate-susceptible malaria vectors...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212553/household-knowledge-and-practices-concerning-malaria-and-indoor-residual-spraying-in-an-endemic-area-earmarked-for-malaria-elimination-in-iran
#14
Abdoulhossain Madani, Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi, Sayed Hossein Davoodi, Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi, Seyed Aghil Jaberhashemi, Mehdi Zare, Teamur Aghamolaei
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) is a key intervention for reducing the burden of malaria infection. Effectiveness and success of this strategy are to a considerable extent dependent on knowledge and practice of the target community regarding the IRS. Iran has entered the malaria elimination phase, and IRS has been considered as the main strategy for malaria vector control. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the household knowledge and practices about malaria and IRS in Bashagard County, one of the malaria-endemic areas in the southeast of Iran...
December 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194440/attacking-the-mosquito-on-multiple-fronts-insights-from-the-vector-control-optimization-model-vcom-for-malaria-elimination
#15
Samson S Kiware, Nakul Chitnis, Allison Tatarsky, Sean Wu, Héctor Manuel Sánchez Castellanos, Roly Gosling, David Smith, John M Marshall
BACKGROUND: Despite great achievements by insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in reducing malaria transmission, it is unlikely these tools will be sufficient to eliminate malaria transmission on their own in many settings today. Fortunately, field experiments indicate that there are many promising vector control interventions that can be used to complement ITNs and/or IRS by targeting a wide range of biological and environmental mosquito resources. The majority of these experiments were performed to test a single vector control intervention in isolation; however, there is growing evidence and consensus that effective vector control with the goal of malaria elimination will require a combination of interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162113/determination-of-the-residual-efficacy-of-carbamate-and-organophosphate-insecticides-used-for-indoor-residual-spraying-for-malaria-control-in-ethiopia
#16
Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Meshesha Balkew, Josephat Shililu, Sultan Suleman, Alemayehu Getachew, Gedeon Ashenbo, Sheleme Chibsa, Gunawardena Dissanayake, Kristen George, Dereje Dengela, Yemane Ye-Ebiyo, Seth R Irish
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying is one of the key vector control interventions for malaria control in Ethiopia. As malaria transmission is seasonal in most parts of Ethiopia, a single round of spraying can usually provide effective protection against malaria, provided the insecticide remains effective over the entire malaria transmission season. This experiment was designed to evaluate the residual efficacy of bendiocarb, pirimiphos-methyl, and two doses of propoxur on four different wall surfaces (rough mud, smooth mud, dung, and paint)...
November 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162102/micro-spatial-distribution-of-malaria-cases-and-control-strategies-at-ward-level-in-gwanda-district-matabeleland-south-zimbabwe
#17
Tawanda Manyangadze, Moses J Chimbari, Margaret Macherera, Samson Mukaratirwa
BACKGROUND: Although there has been a decline in the number of malaria cases in Zimbabwe since 2010, the disease remains the biggest public health threat in the country. Gwanda district, located in Matabeleland South Province of Zimbabwe has progressed to the malaria pre-elimination phase. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of malaria incidence at ward level for improving the planning and implementation of malaria elimination in the district. METHODS: The Poisson purely spatial model was used to detect malaria clusters and their properties, including relative risk and significance levels at ward level...
November 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161259/the-us-president-s-malaria-initiative-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-and-mortality-a-modelling-study
#18
Peter Winskill, Hannah C Slater, Jamie T Griffin, Azra C Ghani, Patrick G T Walker
BACKGROUND: Although significant progress has been made in reducing malaria transmission globally in recent years, a large number of people remain at risk and hence the gains made are fragile. Funding lags well behind amounts needed to protect all those at risk and ongoing contributions from major donors, such as the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI), are vital to maintain progress and pursue further reductions in burden. We use a mathematical modelling approach to estimate the impact of PMI investments to date in reducing malaria burden and to explore the potential negative impact on malaria burden should a proposed 44% reduction in PMI funding occur...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157310/zooprophylaxis-as-a-control-strategy-for-malaria-caused-by-the-vector-anopheles-arabiensis-diptera-culicidae-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Abebe Asale, Luc Duchateau, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Gerdien Huisman, Delenasaw Yewhalaw
BACKGROUND: Zooprophylaxis is the use of wild or domestic animals, which are not the reservoir host of a given disease, to divert the blood-seeking malaria vectors from human hosts. In this paper, we systematically reviewed zooprophylaxis to assess its efficacy as a malaria control strategy and to evaluate the possible methods of its application. METHODS: The electronic databases, PubMed Central®, Web of Science, Science direct, and African Journals Online were searched using the key terms: "zooprophylaxis" or "cattle and malaria", and reports published between January 1995 and March 2016 were considered...
October 25, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151024/insecticide-resistance-in-anopheles-arabiensis-from-ethiopia-2012-2016-a-nationwide-study-for-insecticide-resistance-monitoring
#20
Louisa A Messenger, Josephat Shililu, Seth R Irish, Gedeon Yohannes Anshebo, Alemayehu Getachew Tesfaye, Yemane Ye-Ebiyo, Sheleme Chibsa, Dereje Dengela, Gunawardena Dissanayake, Estifanos Kebede, Endalew Zemene, Abebe Asale, Mekonnen Yohannes, Hiwot Solomon Taffese, Kristen George, Christen Fornadel, Aklilu Seyoum, Robert A Wirtz, Delenasaw Yewhalaw
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) remain the cornerstones of malaria vector control. However, the development of insecticide resistance and its implications for operational failure of preventative strategies are of concern. The aim of this study was to characterize insecticide resistance among Anopheles arabiensis populations in Ethiopia and describe temporal and spatial patterns of resistance between 2012 and 2016. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2016, resistance status of An...
November 18, 2017: Malaria Journal
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