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Indoor residual spraying

Zachary S Brown, Randall A Kramer, David Ocan, Christine Oryema
BACKGROUND: Insecticide-based tools remain critical for controlling vector-borne diseases in Uganda. Securing public support from targeted populations for such tools is an important component in sustaining their long-run effectiveness. Yet little quantitative evidence is available on the perceived benefits and costs of vector control programmes among targeted households. METHODS: A survey was administered to a clustered random sample of 612 households in Gulu and Oyam districts of northern Uganda during a period of very high malaria transmission and following a pilot indoor residual spray (IRS) programme...
October 6, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew, Habte Tekie, Teshome Gebre-Michael, Wakgari Deressa, Eskindir Loha, Bernt Lindtjørn, Hans J Overgaard
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the key malaria vector control interventions in Ethiopia. The success of these interventions rely on their efficacy to repel or kill indoor feeding and resting mosquitoes. This study was undertaken to monitor human-biting patterns of Anopheles species in south-central Ethiopia. METHODS: Human-biting patterns of anophelines were monitored for 40 nights in three houses using human landing catches (HLC) both indoors and outdoors between July and November 2014, in Edo Kontola village, south-central Ethiopia...
September 30, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Vanderson S Sampaio, Tatiana P Beltrán, Kevin C Kobylinski, Gisely C Melo, José B P Lima, Sara G M Silva, Íria C Rodriguez, Henrique Silveira, Maria G V B Guerra, Quique Bassat, Paulo F P Pimenta, Marcus V G Lacerda, Wuelton M Monteiro
BACKGROUND: Strategies designed to advance towards malaria elimination rely on the detection and treatment of infections, rather than fever, and the interruption of malaria transmission between mosquitoes and humans. Mass drug administration with anti-malarials directed at eliminating parasites in blood, either to entire populations or targeting only those with malaria infections, are considered useful strategies to progress towards malaria elimination, but may be insufficient if applied on their own...
2016: Malaria Journal
Babatunde A Odugbemi, Kikelomo O Wright, Adebayo T Onajole, Yetunde A Kuyinu, Olayinka O Goodman, Tinuola O Odugbemi, Olumuyiwa O Odusanya
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is used as part of the integrated vector management strategy for the control of malaria in Lagos, Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to compare the malariometric indices of children under 5 years old living in IRS-implementing and non-IRS-implementing communities of Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: The study was a community-based, comparative, cross-sectional study of 480 children under five recruited using a multi-stage sampling method...
2016: Malaria Journal
Jessica L Waite, Penelope A Lynch, Matthew B Thomas
BACKGROUND: Novel interventions for malaria control are necessary in the face of problems such as increasing insecticide resistance and residual malaria transmission. One way to assess performance prior to deployment in the field is through mathematical modelling. Modelled here are a range of potential outcomes for eave tubes, a novel mosquito control tool combining house screening and targeted use of insecticides to provide both physical protection and turn the house into a lethal mosquito killing device...
2016: Malaria Journal
Corine Ngufor, Jessica Critchley, Josias Fagbohoun, Raphael N'Guessan, Damien Todjinou, Mark Rowland
BACKGROUND: Indoor spraying of walls and ceilings with residual insecticide remains a primary method of malaria control. Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a growing problem. Novel insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) which can improve the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Insecticide mixtures have the potential to improve efficacy or even to manage resistance in some situations but this possibility remains underexplored experimentally...
2016: PloS One
Shawn A Means, Robert J Smith
Eradication of malaria from the world in the latter part of the twentieth century proved an elusive, albeit desirable, objective. Unfortunately, resurgence of malarial incidence is currently underway. Key to understanding effective control schemes such as indoor residual spraying (spraying insecticide inside houses to kill the malarial vector mosquitoes) is the impact of spatial distributions for communities exposed to the malarial vector mosquito populations. Densities of human dwellings in small communities vary considerably in regions exposed to larval breeding sites...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Mary K Muhindo, Abel Kakuru, Paul Natureeba, Patricia Awori, Peter Olwoch, John Ategeka, Patience Nayebare, Tamara D Clark, Atis Muehlenbachs, Michelle Roh, Betty Mpeka, Bryan Greenhouse, Diane V Havlir, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Prasanna Jagannathan
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) is a key intervention for reducing the burden of malaria in Africa. However, data on the impact of IRS on malaria in pregnancy and birth outcomes is limited. METHODS: An observational study was conducted within a trial of intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy in Tororo, Uganda. Women were enrolled at 12-20 weeks of gestation between June and October 2014, provided with insecticide-treated bed nets, and followed through delivery...
2016: Malaria Journal
Guofa Zhou, Virginia Wiseman, Harrysone E Atieli, Ming-Chieh Lee, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: The massive scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) has led to a substantial increase in malaria vector insecticide resistance as well as in increased outdoor transmission, both of which hamper the effectiveness and efficiency of ITN and IRS. Long-lasting microbial larvicide can be a cost-effective new supplemental intervention tool for malaria control. METHODS/DESIGN: We will implement the long-lasting microbial larvicide intervention in 28 clusters in two counties in western Kenya...
2016: Trials
Yared Beyene Yohannes, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Shouta M M Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Mayumi Ishizuka
Despite the presence of a wide variety and number of birds, there is exceedingly little data on organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in birds inhabiting in Africa. In the present study, concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes, drins, cyclodienes, and hexachlorobenzene were measured in liver, kidney, heart and brain of 4 bird species from the Rift Valley region, Ethiopia. Indoor residual spraying of DDT for malaria vector control, and indiscriminate and illegal use of pesticides underline the relevance of this study...
August 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Eline Korenromp, Guy Mahiané, Matthew Hamilton, Carel Pretorius, Richard Cibulskis, Jeremy Lauer, Thomas A Smith, Olivier J T Briët
BACKGROUND: Scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment needs to continue to further important gains made in the past decade, but national strategies and budget allocations are not always evidence-based. Statistical models were developed summarizing dynamically simulated relations between increases in coverage and intervention impact, to inform a malaria module in the Spectrum health programme planning tool. METHODS: The dynamic Plasmodium falciparum transmission model OpenMalaria was used to simulate health effects of scale-up of insecticide-treated net (ITN) usage, indoor residual spraying (IRS), management of uncomplicated malaria cases (CM) and seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC) over a 10-year horizon, over a range of settings with stable endemic malaria...
2016: Malaria Journal
David M Poché, William E Grant, Hsiao-Hsuan Wang
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease caused by two known vector-borne parasite species (Leishmania donovani, L. infantum), transmitted to man by phlebotomine sand flies (species: Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia), resulting in ≈50,000 human fatalities annually, ≈67% occurring on the Indian subcontinent. Indoor residual spraying is the current method of sand fly control in India, but alternative means of vector control, such as the treatment of livestock with systemic insecticide-based drugs, are being evaluated...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Edouard Kawawa Swana, Ghislain Yav Makan, Clarence Kaut Mukeng, Henriette Ilunga Mupumba, Gabriel Mutabusha Kalaba, Oscar Numbi Luboya, Michael J Bangs
BACKGROUND: Malaria prevalence in the Mulumbu Health Area in Lualaba Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo has remained high (>70 %) despite repeated vector control (indoor residual spray) and mass insecticide-treated bed net coverage. Therefore, a pilot study was implemented to attack the parasite directly and demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of community case management of malaria (CCMm) using trained community health workers (CHWs). METHODS: A 13 month prospective evaluation of CCMm was undertaken in 14 rural villages...
2016: Malaria Journal
Badara Samb, Lassana Konate, Helen Irving, Jacob M Riveron, Ibrahima Dia, Ousmane Faye, Charles S Wondji
BACKGROUND: Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in tropical Africa, notably in Senegal. The highly anthropophilic and endophilic behaviours of this mosquito make it a good target for vector control operations through the use of insecticide treated nets, long-lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual spraying. However, little is known about patterns of resistance to insecticides and the underlying resistance mechanisms in field populations of this vector in Senegal...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Zewdie Birhanu, Lakew Abebe, Morankar Sudhakar, Gunawardena Dissanayake, Yemane Ye-Ebiyo Yihdego, Guda Alemayehu, Delenasaw Yewhalaw
BACKGROUND: Prompt care seeking and appropriate use of anti-malarial drugs are critical components of malaria prevention and control. This study assessed malaria related perceptions, care seeking behavior and anti-malarial drug use in malaria endemic settings of Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were generated from a community based cross-sectional study conducted among 798 households during January 2014 as part of a larger household behavioral study in three malaria endemic districts of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia...
2016: PloS One
Bart G J Knols, Marit Farenhorst, Rob Andriessen, Janneke Snetselaar, Remco A Suer, Anne J Osinga, Johan M H Knols, Johan Deschietere, Kija R Ng'habi, Issa N Lyimo, Stella T Kessy, Valeriana S Mayagaya, Sergej Sperling, Michael Cordel, Eleanore D Sternberg, Patrick Hartmann, Ladslaus L Mnyone, Andreas Rose, Matthew B Thomas
In spite of massive progress in the control of African malaria since the turn of the century, there is a clear and recognized need for additional tools beyond long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides, to progress towards elimination. Moreover, widespread and intensifying insecticide resistance requires alternative control agents and delivery systems to enable development of effective insecticide resistance management strategies. This series of articles presents a novel concept for malaria vector control, the 'eave tube', which may fulfil these important criteria...
2016: Malaria Journal
Marimuthu Govindarajan, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, filiariasis and Zika virus. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment and induce resistance in a number of vectors...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Adam Bennett, Josh Yukich, John M Miller, Joseph Keating, Hawela Moonga, Busiku Hamainza, Mulakwa Kamuliwo, Ricardo Andrade-Pacheco, Penelope Vounatsou, Richard W Steketee, Thomas P Eisele
BACKGROUND: Four malaria indicator surveys (MIS) were conducted in Zambia between 2006 and 2012 to evaluate malaria control scale-up. Nationally, coverage of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) increased over this period, while parasite prevalence in children 1-59 months decreased dramatically between 2006 and 2008, but then increased from 2008 to 2010. We assessed the relative effects of vector control coverage and climate variability on malaria parasite prevalence over this period...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
George Mtove, Joseph P Mugasa, Louisa A Messenger, Robert C Malima, Peter Mangesho, Franklin Magogo, Mateusz Plucinski, Ramadhan Hashimu, Johnson Matowo, Donald Shepard, Bernard Batengana, Jackie Cook, Basiliana Emidi, Yara Halasa, Robert Kaaya, Aggrey Kihombo, Kimberly A Lindblade, Geofrey Makenga, Robert Mpangala, Abraham Mwambuli, Ruth Mzava, Abubakary Mziray, George Olang, Richard M Oxborough, Mohammed Seif, Edward Sambu, Aaron Samuels, Wema Sudi, John Thomas, Sophie Weston, Martin Alilio, Nancy Binkin, John Gimnig, Immo Kleinschmidt, Peter McElroy, Lawrence H Moulton, Laura Norris, Trenton Ruebush, Meera Venkatesan, Mark Rowland, Franklin W Mosha, William N Kisinza
BACKGROUND: Despite considerable reductions in malaria achieved by scaling-up long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), maintaining sustained community protection remains operationally challenging. Increasing insecticide resistance also threatens to jeopardize the future of both strategies. Non-pyrethroid insecticide-treated wall lining (ITWL) may represent an alternate or complementary control method and a potential tool to manage insecticide resistance...
2016: BMC Public Health
Peter Dambach, Michael Schleicher, Hans-Christian Stahl, Issouf Traoré, Norbert Becker, Achim Kaiser, Ali Sié, Rainer Sauerborn
BACKGROUND: The key tools in malaria control are early diagnosis and treatment of cases as well as vector control. Current strategies for malaria vector control in sub-Saharan Africa are largely based on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and to a much smaller extent on indoor residual spraying (IRS). An additional tool in the fight against malaria vectors, larval source management (LSM), has not been used in sub-Saharan Africa on a wider scale since the abandonment of environmental spraying of DDT...
2016: Malaria Journal
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