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Indoor residual spraying

Yasmin A Williams, Lucy S Tusting, Sophia Hocini, Patricia M Graves, Gerry F Killeen, Immo Kleinschmidt, Fredros O Okumu, Richard G A Feachem, Allison Tatarsky, Roly D Gosling
BACKGROUND: Additional vector control tools (VCTs) are needed to supplement insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) to achieve malaria elimination in many settings. To identify options for expanding the malaria vector control toolbox, we conducted a systematic review of the availability and quality of the evidence for 21 malaria VCTs, excluding ITNs and IRS. METHODS: Six electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched from January 1, 1980 to September 28, 2015 to identify systematic reviews, Phase I-IV studies, and observational studies that measured the effect of malaria VCTs on epidemiological or entomological outcomes across any age groups in all malaria-endemic settings...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Vardayani Ratti, Evan Rheingold, Dorothy Wallace
Insecticidal indoor residual wall treatment is a major tool for the control of malaria, with the goals of reducing indoor vector density and vector life span, in addition to reducing transmission rates of disease. Dynamics of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, in the Emutete region in the Western Kenya highlands are based on an already existing model in the literature. In this paper, the framework is used to predict vector reduction due to four types of indoor wall treatments: two cases of indoor residual spraying of DDT and two types of pyrethrin-based INESFLY insecticidal paint...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Bashir Adam Ismail, Hmooda Toto Kafy, Jihad Eltaher Sulieman, Krishanthi Subramaniam, Brent Thomas, Abraham Mnzava, Nur Faeza Abu Kassim, Abu Hassan Ahmad, Tessa B Knox, Immo Kleinschmidt, Martin J Donnelly
BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) (with pyrethroids) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstones of the Sudanese malaria control program. Insecticide resistance to the principal insecticides in LLINs and IRS is a major concern. This study was designed to monitor insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from 140 clusters in four malaria-endemic areas of Sudan from 2011 to 2014. All clusters received LLINs, while half (n = 70), distributed across the four regions, had additional IRS campaigns...
March 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jalil Nejati, Seyed Hassan Moosa-Kazemi, Abedin Saghafipour, Khodamorad Soofi
Nowadays, community based control strategies are considered efficient in reaching the malaria elimination goal. For this reason, this study was conducted to access the knowledge, attitude and practice of people on malaria from rural areas with high malaria incidence. In this descriptive-analytic study, a total of 200 rural residents of southeastern Iran were recruited. They were selected based on cluster and simple random sampling methods. Data collection was done using questionnaire with reliability confirmation by Cronbach's alpha and data was analyzed using SPSS...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
J D Charlwood, E Kessy, K Yohannes, N Protopopoff, M Rowland, C LeClair
The relative efficacy of a mechanical (Prokopack) collection method vs. manual aspiration in the collection of resting mosquitoes was evaluated in northern Tanzania before and after an intervention using indoor residual spraying and longlasting insecticide-treated nets. In smoke-free houses mosquitoes were collected from the roof and walls, but in smoky houses mosquitoes were found predominantly on the walls. Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) constituted 97.7% of the 312 An. gambiae complex specimens identified before but only 19...
February 26, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
James C Dunford, Alden S Estep, Christy M Waits, Alec G Richardson, David F Hoel, Karin Horn, Todd W Walker, Jessika S Blersch, Jerry D Kerce, Robert A Wirtz
BACKGROUND: In this semi-field study, a new polymer-enhanced deltamethrin formulation, K-Othrine® PolyZone, was compared to a standard deltamethrin product for residual activity against a susceptible strain of laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae using standard WHO cone bioassays. METHODS: Residual insecticide efficacy was recorded after exposure to metal, cement and wood panels maintained in experimental huts in sub-tropical environmental conditions in north central Florida, USA, and panels stored in a climate controlled chamber located at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Georgia, USA...
February 23, 2018: Malaria Journal
Daniel J Bridges, Derek Pollard, Anna M Winters, Benjamin Winters, Chadwick Sikaala, Silvia Renn, David A Larsen
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a key tool in the fight to control, eliminate and ultimately eradicate malaria. IRS protection is based on a communal effect such that an individual's protection primarily relies on the community-level coverage of IRS with limited protection being provided by household-level coverage. To ensure a communal effect is achieved through IRS, achieving high and uniform community-level coverage should be the ultimate priority of an IRS campaign. Ensuring high community-level coverage of IRS in malaria-endemic areas is challenging given the lack of information available about both the location and number of households needing IRS in any given area...
February 23, 2018: Malaria Journal
Nutan Nanda, S P Singh, B K Prajapati, Kumud Ranjan, N P Kar, S K Sharma, Neena Valecha
Background & objectives: Entomological investigations were carried out in highly malarious villages under Ujina PHC of District Nuh (Haryana state) which is an epidemic prone area in northwestern region of India. The study was aimed to have an in-depth understanding of the entomological parameters influencing malaria transmission in the study area. Methods: The seasonal prevalence and biological attributes of vector mosquitoes were investigated during 2015 and 2016...
October 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Michael Miaoulis, Javid Kashefi
The Phlebotomus sand flies are considered an important vector of both canine and human leishmaniasis. Current measures for sand fly control include mostly indoor interventions, such as residual spraying of dwellings (IRS) to target endophilic sand fly species with very limited number of vector control tools for outdoor interventions against exophilic sand flies. In this study we investigated the efficacy of ground ultra low volume (ULV) space spray applications of a deltamethrin based product against field populations of P...
February 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
Eric Coker, Jonathan Chevrier, Stephen Rauch, Asa Bradman, Muvhulawa Obida, Madelein Crause, Riana Bornman, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women may be co-exposed to multiple insecticides in regions where both pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control. Despite the potential for adverse effects on offspring, there are few studies in areas where IRS is currently used and little is known about the effects of pyrethroids on children's health. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between concentrations of four urinary pyrethroid metabolites in urine and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in maternal blood collected near delivery on body weight and body composition among children ≤2 years old participating in the prospective South Africa VHEMBE birth cohort (N = 708)...
February 1, 2018: Environment International
Jackie Cook, Dianna Hergott, Wonder Phiri, Matilde Riloha Rivas, John Bradley, Luis Segura, Guillermo Garcia, Chris Schwabe, Immo Kleinschmidt
BACKGROUND: Whilst there have been substantial reductions in malaria transmission over the past decade, in many countries in West and Central Africa the malaria burden remains high. Monitoring and evaluation of malaria transmission trends and intervention strategies are key elements for malaria control programmes. This study uses a time series of annual malaria indicator surveys to track the progress of malaria control in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, over a 13 year period of intensive interventions...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ousmane Sy, El Hadji Amadou Niang, Magatte Ndiaye, Lassana Konaté, Abdoulaye Diallo, Elhadji Conco Ciré Ba, Fassiath Tairou, Elhadji Diouf, Badara Cissé, Oumar Gaye, Ousmane Faye
BACKGROUND: Scaling-up of effective anti-malarial control strategies in Central-West region of Senegal has resulted in the sharp decline in malaria prevalence in this area. However, despite these strategies, residual malaria transmission has been observed in some villages (hot spots). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) with pirimiphos-methyl on malaria transmission in hot spot areas. METHODS: The malaria vector population dynamics were monitored in each of the six selected villages (4 of which used IRS, 2 were unsprayed control areas) using overnight human landing catches (HLC) and pyrethrum spray catches (PSC)...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Raghavan Srinivasan, Tanwir Ahmad, Vidya Raghavan, Manisha Kaushik, Ramakant Pathak
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic to 54 districts in 4 states of India. Poor awareness of the disease and inappropriate health-seeking behavior are major challenges to eliminating the disease. Between February 2016 and March 2017, we implemented a behavior change communication (BCC) intervention in 33 districts of Bihar, 4 districts of Jharkhand, and 3 districts of West Bengal using a mix of channels, including group and interpersonal communication, to improve knowledge, attitudes, and practices of communities, frontline health workers, and opinion leaders...
January 31, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Dereje Dengela, Aklilu Seyoum, Bradford Lucas, Benjamin Johns, Kristen George, Allison Belemvire, Angela Caranci, Laura C Norris, Christen M Fornadel
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is the application of insecticide to the interior walls of household structures that often serve as resting sites for mosquito vectors of malaria. Human exposure to malaria vectors is reduced when IRS involves proper application of pre-determined concentrations of the active ingredient specific to the insecticide formulation of choice. The impact of IRS can be affected by the dosage of insecticide, spray coverage, vector behavior, vector susceptibility to insecticides, and the residual efficacy of the insecticide applied...
January 30, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Timothy Awine, Keziah Malm, Nana Yaw Peprah, Sheetal P Silal
BACKGROUND: Malaria incidence is largely influenced by vector abundance. Among the many interconnected factors relating to malaria transmission, weather conditions such as rainfall and temperature are known to create suitable environmental conditions that sustain reproduction and propagation of anopheles mosquitoes and malaria parasites. In Ghana, climatic conditions vary across the country. Understanding the heterogeneity of malaria morbidity using data sourced from a recently setup data repository for routine health facility data could support planning...
2018: PloS One
Oliver F Medzihradsky, Immo Kleinschmidt, Davis Mumbengegwi, Kathryn W Roberts, Patrick McCreesh, Mi-Suk Kang Dufour, Petrina Uusiku, Stark Katokele, Adam Bennett, Jennifer Smith, Hugh Sturrock, Lisa M Prach, Henry Ntuku, Munyaradzi Tambo, Bradley Didier, Bryan Greenhouse, Zaahira Gani, Ann Aerts, Roly Gosling, Michelle S Hsiang
INTRODUCTION: To interrupt malaria transmission, strategies must target the parasite reservoir in both humans and mosquitos. Testing of community members linked to an index case, termed reactive case detection (RACD), is commonly implemented in low transmission areas, though its impact may be limited by the sensitivity of current diagnostics. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) before malaria season is a cornerstone of vector control efforts. Despite their implementation in Namibia, a country approaching elimination, these methods have been met with recent plateaus in transmission reduction...
January 27, 2018: BMJ Open
Maria Bornman, Rhena Delport, Paulina Farías, Natalie Aneck-Hahn, Sean Patrick, Robert P Millar, Christiaan de Jager
DDT [1, 1, 1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethane] compounds are used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) to control malaria mosquitoes. DDT is an endocrine disruptor chemical in experimental conditions, but little is known of adverse effects related to living conditions with continual uptake across a time span by all possible means of exposure. Based on estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic effects found in animal studies, we hypothesized that chronic DDT/DDE exposures in men may be associated with changes in male reproductive hormones...
January 17, 2018: Environment International
Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Nino Ndjondo Sandjo, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Charles S Wondji
During the last decade, scale-up of vector control tools such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) contributed to the reduction of malaria morbidity and mortality across the continent. Because these first line interventions are now affected by many challenges such as insecticide resistance, change in vector feeding and biting behaviour, outdoor malaria transmission and adaptation of mosquito to polluted environments, the World Health Organization recommends the use of integrated control approaches to improve, control and elimination of malaria...
January 24, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Fatemeh Nikpour, Hassan Vatandoost, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Raeisi, Mansour Ranjbar, Ahmad Ali Enayati, Mohammad Reza Abai, Mansoreh Shayeghi, Abdol Rasoul Mojahedi, Abolghasem Pourreza
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of deltamethrin combined with formulated piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist on various surfaces against the wild strain of Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in Southern Iran under semi-field condition. Methods: Four concentrations of deltamethrin WG 25% (Tagros) and PBO 800EC-UV (Endura) were prepared and sprayed on the pre-designed surfaces in accordance with WHO alliance line of the IRS Micronair®...
December 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Abebe Animut, Bernt Lindtjørn
Malaria is the leading public health problem in Ethiopia where over 75% of the land surface is at risk with varying intensities depending on altitude and season. Although the mortality because of malaria infection has declined much during the last 15-20 years, some researchers worry that this success story may not be sustainable. Past notable achievements in the reduction of malaria disease burden could be reversed in the future. To interrupt, or even to eliminate malaria transmission in Ethiopia, there is a need to implement a wide range of interventions that include insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, improved control of residual malaria transmission, and improved diagnostics, enhanced surveillance, and methods to deal with the emergence of resistance both to drugs and to insecticides...
January 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
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