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Hepatitis delta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913980/complete-nucleotide-sequences-and-construction-of-full-length-infectious-cdna-clones-of-cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus-cgmmv-in-a-versatile-newly-developed-binary-vector-including-both-35s-and-t7-promoters
#1
Chan-Hwan Park, Hye-Kyoung Ju, Jae-Yeong Han, Jong-Seo Park, Ik-Hyun Kim, Eun-Young Seo, Jung-Kyu Kim, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim
Seed-transmitted viruses have caused significant damage to watermelon crops in Korea in recent years, with cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection widespread as a result of infected seed lots. To determine the likely origin of CGMMV infection, we collected CGMMV isolates from watermelon and melon fields and generated full-length infectious cDNA clones. The full-length cDNAs were cloned into newly constructed binary vector pJY, which includes both the 35S and T7 promoters for versatile usage (agroinfiltration and in vitro RNA transcription) and a modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequence to precisely cleave RNA transcripts at the 3' end of the tobamovirus genome...
December 2, 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907941/frequency-selective-non-linear-blending-to-improve-image-quality-in-liver-ct
#2
M N Bongers, G Bier, C Kloth, C Schabel, J Fritz, K Nikolaou, M Horger
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a new frequency selective non-linear blending (NLB) algorithm on the contrast resolution of liver CT with low intravascular concentration of iodine contrast. Materials and Methods: Our local ethics committee approved this retrospective study. The informed consent requirement was waived. CT exams of 25 patients (60 % female, mean age: 65 ± 16 years of age) with late phase CT scans of the liver were included as a model for poor intrahepatic vascular contrast enhancement...
December 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902514/prevalence-and-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-d-among-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-report-from-northern-spain
#3
Carlos Ordieres, Carmen A Navascués, María L González-Diéguez, Mercedes Rodríguez, Valle Cadahía, María Varela, Luis Rodrigo, Manuel Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: The incidence of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection has decreased during the last decades. However, an increasing trend has been reported recently. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a case-control study to analyze changes in its prevalence in 1215 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients, diagnosed consecutively in a tertiary center, between 1983 and 2012. According to the year of diagnosis, patients were distributed into two groups: A [1983-1997 (n=786)] and B [1998-2012 (n=429)]...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898698/myeloid-dll4-does-not-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-ldlr-mice
#4
Mike L J Jeurissen, Sofie M A Walenbergh, Tom Houben, Tim Hendrikx, Jieyi Li, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Patrick J van Gorp, Marion J J Gijbels, Albert Bitorina, Isabell Nessel, Freddy Radtke, Marc Vooijs, Jan Theys, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by liver steatosis and inflammation. Currently, the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatic inflammation are not fully understood and consequently, therapeutic options are poor. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and atherosclerosis share the same etiology whereby macrophages play a key role in disease progression. Macrophage function can be modulated via activation of receptor-ligand binding of Notch signaling. Relevantly, global inhibition of Notch ligand Delta-Like Ligand-4 (DLL4) attenuates atherosclerosis by altering the macrophage-mediated inflammatory response...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892677/ccr5-polymorphism-as-a-protective-factor-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-iranian-patients
#5
Reza Abdolmohammadi, Saleh Shahbazi Azar, Ayyoob Khosravi, Majid Shahbazi
The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) delta 32 allele results in a nonfunctional form of the chemokine receptor and has been implicated in a variety of immune-mediated diseases. CCR5Δ32 may also predispose one to chronic liver disease or be linked with resistance to HBV infection.This study was undertaken to investigate any association between CCR5 polymorphism with resistance to hepatitis B or susceptibility to HBV infection. A total of 812 Iranian individuals were enrolled into two groups: HBV infected cases (n=357), who were HBsAg-positive, and healthy controls (n=455)...
January 10, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885712/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-lactulose-plus-albumin-versus-lactulose-alone-for-treatment-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#6
Barjesh Chander Sharma, Jatinderpal Singh, Siddharth Srivastava, Alok Sangam, Alok Kumar Mantri, Nirupma Trehanpati, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with poor prognosis and treatment of HE is primarily directed at the reduction of the blood ammonia levels. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of albumin plus lactulose versus lactulose alone for treatment of overt HE. METHODS: In prospective randomized controlled trial, 120 patients with overt HE were randomized in 2 groups; group A lactulose plus albumin (n = 60) and group B, lactulose alone (n = 60)...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881614/performance-characteristics-of-a-new-consensus-commercial-kit-for-hepatitis-d-virus-rna-viral-load-quantification
#7
Frédéric Le Gal, Samira Dziri, Athenaïs Gerber, Chakib Alloui, Zahia Ben Abdesselam, Dominique Roulot, Ségolène Brichler, Emmanuel Gordien
Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is responsible for fulminant hepatitis and liver failure, and accelerates evolution towards cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus-infected patients. To date treatment relies upon long-term administration of pegylated alpha-interferon with sustained virological response in 30% of the patients. Very recently, new promising anti HDV therapies have been developed and are already used in clinical trials. HDV-RNA viral load (HDVL) monitoring must be an integral part of the management of the infected-patients...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880976/a-novel-quantitative-microarray-antibody-capture-q-mac-assay-identifies-an-extremely-high-hdv-prevalence-amongst-hbv-infected-mongolians
#8
Xiaohua Chen, Odgerel Oidovsambuu, Ping Liu, Rosslyn Grosely, Menashe Elazar, Virginia D Winn, Benjamin Fram, Zhang Boa, Hongjie Dai, Bekhbold Dashtseren, Dahgwahdorj Yagaanbuyant, Zulkhuu Genden, Naranbaatar Dashdorj, Andreas Bungert, Naranjargal Dashdorj, Jeffrey S Glenn
: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes the most severe form of human viral hepatitis. HDV requires a hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection to provide HDV with HBV surface antigen envelope proteins. The net effect of HDV is to make the underlying HBV disease worse, including higher rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accurate assessments of current HDV prevalence have been hampered by the lack of readily available and reliable quantitative assays, combined with the absence of an FDA-approved therapy...
November 23, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821029/long-term-efficacy-of-pegylated-%C3%A4-nterferone-in-the-treatment-of-delta-hepatitis-a-single-center-experience
#9
Z M Y Kılıç, A S Köksal, I H Kalkan, N Suna, H Yıldız, S Kacar
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Currently there is no satisfactory treatment of chronic HDV. We aimed to evaluate the long term efficacy of PEG-interferones. PATIENTS METHODS: Patients who received PEG-interferone for chronic delta hepatitis during a 7-year period were retrospectively analysed. End of treatment response, virologic response at 6 months after treatment, and long term efficacy were evaluated. Predictors of treatment response were determined. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 31 patients...
July 2016: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818230/effect-of-ppar-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-agonist-gw0742-treatment-in-the-acute-phase-response-and-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-following-brain-injury
#10
Khouloud Chehaibi, Laura le Maire, Sarah Bradoni, Joan Carles Escola, Francisco Blanco-Vaca, Mohamed Naceur Slimane
The systemic response to ischemic stroke is associated with the hepatic acute phase response (APR) that modulates leukocytes recruitment to the injured brain. The inappropriate recruitment of leukocytes to the brain parenchyma can result in blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Emerging data suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPAR-β/δ) activation has a potential neuroprotective role in ischemic stroke. However, mechanisms of PPAR-β/δ mediated protection in ischemic insults remain unclear...
October 18, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817147/hepatitis-delta-infection-in-italian-patients-towards-the-end-of-the-story
#11
Tommaso Stroffolini, Evangelista Sagnelli, Caterina Sagnelli, Maurizio Russello, Massimo De Luca, Floriano Rosina, Bruno Cacopardo, Giuseppina Brancaccio, Caterina Furlan, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Anna Licata, Piero Luigi Almasio
BACKGROUND: The endemicity of hepatitis delta virus infection in Italy has decreased in the last decades. AIM: To evaluate the current epidemiology of chronic delta infection in Italy and to compare the present findings with the corresponding figures from the previous studies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 16 referral centres scattered all over the country in 2014. RESULTS: Out of the 513 hepatitis B surface antigen-positive subjects enrolled, 61 (11...
November 5, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813124/noninvasive-markers-for-staging-fibrosis-in-chronic-delta-hepatitis
#12
V Takyar, P Surana, D E Kleiner, K Wilkins, J H Hoofnagle, T J Liang, T Heller, C Koh
BACKGROUND: Serum fibrosis markers are useful in staging chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus but have not been evaluated in chronic hepatitis D virus (HDV). AIM: To evaluate the utility of serum fibrosis markers [fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio, aspartate aminotransferase ratio (AAR), age-platelet index (API), AST-to-platelet-ratio-index (APRI) and Hui score] in HDV infection. METHODS: Clinical and histologic laboratory data from HBV, HCV and HDV patients were evaluated and serum fibrosis markers were calculated...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810786/effects-of-gallic-acid-on-delta-aminolevulinic-dehydratase-activity-and-in-the-biochemical-histological-and-oxidative-stress-parameters-in-the-liver-and-kidney-of-diabetic-rats
#13
Lizielle Souza de Oliveira, Gustavo Roberto Thomé, Thauan Faccin Lopes, Karine Paula Reichert, Juliana Sorraila de Oliveira, Aline da Silva Pereira, Jucimara Baldissareli, Cristina da Costa Krewer, Vera Maria Morsch, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Roselia Maria Spanevello
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterised by hyperglycaemia associated with the increase of oxidative stress. Gallic acid has potent antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gallic acid on the biochemical, histological and oxidative stress parameters in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Male rats were divided in groups: control, gallic acid, diabetic and diabetic plus gallic acid. DM was induced in the animals by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65mg/kg). Gallic acid (30mg/kg) was administered orally for 21days...
October 28, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807029/cellular-nuclear-export-factors-tap-and-aly-are-required-for-hdag-l-mediated-assembly-of-hepatitis-delta-virus
#14
Hsiu-Chen Huang, Chung-Pei Lee, Hui-Kang Liu, Ming-Fu Chang, Yu-Heng Lai, Yu-Ching Lee, Cheng Huang
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus (HBV). HDV genome encodes two forms of hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg), small HDAg (HDAg-S), which is required for viral replication, and large HDAg (HDAg-L), which is essential for viral assembly. HDAg-L is identical to HDAg-S except that it bears a 19 amino acid extension at the C terminus. Both HDAgs contain a nuclear localization signal (NLS), but only HDAg-L contains a CRM1-independent nuclear export signal at its C terminus. The nuclear export activity of HDAg-L is important for HDV particle formation...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803174/the-third-signal-cytokine-il-12-rather-than-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-contribute-to-the-functional-restoration-of-hepatitis-d-virus-specific-t-cells
#15
Thomas Schirdewahn, Jan Grabowski, Solomon Owusu Sekyere, Birgit Bremer, Anika Wranke, Sebastian Lunemann, Verena Schlaphoff, Janina Kirschner, Svenja Hardtke, Michael Peter Manns, Markus Cornberg, Heiner Wedemeyer, Pothakamuri Venkata Suneetha
BACKGROUND:  Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection affects 15-20 million individuals world-wide and causes severely progressive hepatitis. It is unknown to what extent cellular immune responses contribute to liver disease and control of viral replication in HDV infection. METHODS:  Immune cell frequencies and phenotypes were determined in 49 HDV-infected patients, 25 HBV-monoinfected individuals and 18 healthy controls. T-cell proliferative and cytokine-producing capacities were analysed by stimulation with overlapping peptides spanning the large HDV antigen...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792905/antiviral-therapy-of-hepatitis-delta-virus-infection-progress-and-challenges-towards-cure
#16
REVIEW
Anika Wranke, Heiner Wedemeyer
Hepatitis B-/D-virus co-infection causes the most severe form of viral hepatitis, frequently leading to liver cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and consecutive liver-related mortality. Treatment options for hepatitis delta are limited. The only recommended therapy is pegylated interferon alpha which leads to virological responses in about 25-30% of patients. However, interferon therapy is associated with frequent side-effects and late HDV RNA relapses have been described during long-term follow even in patients who were HDV RNA negative 24 weeks after the end of therapy...
October 25, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775592/prokaryotic-expression-purification-and-immunogenicity-in-rabbits-of-the-small-antigen-of-hepatitis-delta-virus
#17
Vera L Tunitskaya, Olesja V Eliseeva, Vladimir T Valuev-Elliston, Daria A Tyurina, Natalia F Zakirova, Olga A Khomich, Martins Kalis, Oleg E Latyshev, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Olga N Ivanova, Sergey N Kochetkov, Maria G Isaguliants, Alexander V Ivanov
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a viroid-like blood-borne human pathogen that accompanies hepatitis B virus infection in 5% patients. HDV has been studied for four decades; however, the knowledge on its life-cycle and pathogenesis is still sparse. The studies are hampered by the absence of the commercially-available HDV-specific antibodies. Here, we describe a set of reproducible methods for the expression in E. coli of His-tagged small antigen of HDV (S-HDAg), its purification, and production of polyclonal anti-S-HDAg antibodies in rabbits...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774349/a-two-metal-ion-mediated-conformational-switching-pathway-for-hdv-ribozyme-activation
#18
Tai-Sung Lee, Brian K Radak, Michael E Harris, Darrin M York
RNA enzymes serve as a potentially powerful platform from which to design catalysts and engineer new biotechnology. A fundamental understanding of these systems provides insight to guide design. The hepatitis delta virus ribozyme (HDVr) is a small, self-cleaving RNA motif widely distributed in nature, that has served as a paradigm for understanding basic principles of RNA catalysis. Nevertheless, questions remain regarding the precise roles of divalent metal ions and key nucleotides in catalysis. In an effort to establish a reaction mechanism model consistent with available experimental data, we utilize molecular dynamics simulations to explore different conformations and metal ion binding modes along the HDVr reaction path...
2016: ACS Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770553/antiviral-treatment-and-liver-related-complications-in-hepatitis-delta
#19
Anika Wranke, Beatriz Calle Serrano, Benjamin Heidrich, Janina Kirschner, Birgit Bremer, Patrick Lehmann, Svenja Hardtke, Katja Deterding, Kerstin Port, Max Westphal, Michael P Manns, Markus Cornberg, Heiner Wedemeyer
: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the most severe form of viral hepatitis. Pegylated interferon alfa (PEG-IFNα) is effective in only 25%-30% of patients and is associated with frequent side effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical long-term outcome of hepatitis delta in relation to different antiviral treatment strategies. We studied 136 anti-HDV-positive patients who were followed for at least 6 months in a retrospective single-center cohort (mean time of follow-up, 5...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754501/regulation-of-map4k4-gene-expression-by-rna-interference-through-an-engineered-theophylline-dependent-hepatitis-delta-virus-ribozyme-switch
#20
Hui Cheng, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongyan Wang, Na Sun, Min Liu, Hongxia Chen, Renjun Pei
Riboswitches are functional non-coding RNA regulatory components that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in diverse organisms. In particular, using riboswitches to modulate RNA interference (RNAi) enables temporal and spatial control of gene expression in mammalian cells. Herein, a ribozyme gene switch to activate RNAi was fabricated for the artificial regulation of versatile gene silencing through the interaction of an RNA aptamer with small molecules. The device comprised an allosteric HDV ribozyme with an embedded theophylline aptamer and a primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) to silence the MAP4K4 gene in hepatic (HepG2) cells, aiming to achieve dose-dependent control of the activation of RNAi, and then the regulation of the MAP4K4 gene by theophylline...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
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