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Hepatitis delta

Alessandra Maria Mont Alverne Pierre, Ana Cristina de Castro Amaral Feldner, Roberto José de Carvalho Filho, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida Lopes, Michele Soares Gomes Gouvea, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Claudia Teresa Carvente, Christini Takemi Emori, Genimari Arruda da Silva, Maria Lúcia Cardoso Gomes Ferraz
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus infection is an important cause of liver disease in hemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients. Hepatitis Delta virus is a defective virus transmitted by the same route of hepatitis B virus, which requires the helper function of hepatitis B virus. Data about hepatitis B virus/hepatitis delta virus coinfection are scarce and there are no studies regarding the coinfection among hemodialysis patients and renal transplant in our country. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus infection among hemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Lamia Yacoubi, Ségolène Brichler, Frédéric Le Gal, Henda Triki, Emmanuel Gordien
While Tunisia is endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV), a recent large-scale retrospective study, revealed a very low prevalence (2%) of hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) (Yacoubi et al. in J Clin Virol 72:126-132, 2015). All strains were classified within the genotype 1 (HDV-1) as assessed by nucleotide sequencing of the so-called 'R0' region of the genome described previously. In this study, we aimed to determine the full-length genome sequence of HDV isolates in order to fully characterize the HDV strains spreading in Tunisia...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Virology
Jeffrey S Glenn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Francisco Macías, Raquel Afonso-Lehmann, Manuel C López, Inmaculada Gómez, M Carmen Thomas
Introduction: An important portion of the Trypanosoma cruzi genome is composed of mobile genetic elements, which are interspersed with genes on all chromosomes. The L1Tc non-LTR retrotransposon and its truncated version NARTc are the most highly represented and best studied of these elements. L1Tc is actively transcribed in all three forms of the Trypanosoma parasite and encodes the proteins that enable it to autonomously mobilize. This mini review discusses the enzymatic properties of L1Tc that enable its mobilization and possibly the mobilization of other non-autonomous retrotransposons in Trypanosoma...
February 2018: Current Genomics
Rachel Shirazi, Daniela Ram, Aviya Rakovsky, Efrat Bucris, Yael Gozlan, Yaniv Lustig, Pninit Shaked-Mishan, Orit Picard, Yonat Shemer-Avni, Haim Ben-Zvi, Ora Halutz, Yoav Lurie, Ella Veizman, Matthias Carlebach, Marius Braun, Michal Cohen- Naftaly, Amir Shlomai, Rifaat Safadi, Ella Mendelson, Ella H Sklan, Ziv Ben-Ari, Orna Mor
BACKGROUND: Characteristics of hepatitis B (HBV) and delta (HDV) coinfection in various geographical regions, including Israel, remain unclear. Here we studied HDV seroprevalence in Israel, assessed HDV/HBV viral loads, circulating genotypes and hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) conservation. METHODS: Serological anti HDV IgG results from 8969 HBsAg positive individuals tested in 2010-2015 were retrospectively analyzed to determine HDV seroprevalence. In a cohort of HBV/HDV coinfected (n=58) and HBV monoinfected (n=27) patients, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and sequencing were performed to determine viral loads, genotypes and hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) protein sequence...
February 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Woo Jin Jung, Jae Young Jang, Won Young Park, Soung Won Jeong, Hee Jeong Lee, Sang Joon Park, Sae Hwan Lee, Sang Gyune Kim, Sang-Woo Cha, Young Seok Kim, Young Deok Cho, Hong Soo Kim, Boo Sung Kim, Suyeon Park, Baigal Baymbajav
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is widely used to treat patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We investigated the effect of TDF on renal insufficiency in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).A consecutive cohort analysis was applied to CHB patients taking prescribed TDF from January 2012 to May 2016 at Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital. Alterations over time in corrected calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation method...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Thérèse Atieh, Miriam Diala El Ayoubi, Fabien Aubry, Stéphane Priet, Xavier de Lamballerie, Antoine Nougairède
Reverse genetics is key technology for producing wild-type and genetically modified viruses. The ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) method is a recent versatile and user-friendly reverse genetics method to rescue RNA viruses. The main constraint of its canonic protocol was the requirement to produce (e.g., by DNA synthesis or fusion PCR) 5' and 3' modified genomic fragments encompassing the human cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV) and the hepatitis delta virus ribozyme/simian virus 40 polyadenylation signal (HDR/SV40pA), respectively...
2018: PloS One
Vincent Soriano, Antonio Aguilera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Cihan Yurdaydin, Onur Keskin, Çagdas Kalkan, Fatih Karakaya, Aysun Çaliskan, Gökhan Kabaçam, F Oguz Önder, Senem Karatayli, Ersin Karatayli, Xheni Deda, Hakan Bozkaya, A Mithat Bozdayi, Ramazan Idilman
Background: Interferon is the only treatment option in chronic delta hepatitis (CDH). A CDH database (333 patients, 161 with interferon treatment history) was analyzed for effects of treatment duration on virologic response and clinical outcomes. Methods: Ninety-nine CDH patients who received at least 6 months of interferon were selected. Maintained virologic response (MVR) was defined as hepatitis D virus RNA negative for 2 years after treatment discontinuation...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Qi Zhu, Xiaoping Shao, Shaoli Chen, Dingliang Li, Xiaohong Chen, Wenjin Liu, Xianghua Wu, Zengyong Jian, Rutherford Shannon, Huizhen Zheng
OBJECTIVE: A cross sectional community prevalence survey was conducted to investigate the seroepidemiological features of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among children aged 1-14 years in Guangdong Province, and to provide baseline data for the evaluation of HBV disease burden and the impacts of HBV control. METHODS: 2765 children aged 1-14 years old from 16 villages/streets of 8 cities in Guangdong province were recruited as subjects. A blood sample was obtained from each subject...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Cecilia María Delfino, Carolina Susana Cerrudo, Mirna Biglione, José Raúl Oubiña, Pablo Daniel Ghiringhelli, Verónica Lidia Mathet
In association with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a subviral agent that may promote severe acute and chronic forms of liver disease. Based on the percentage of nucleotide identity of the genome, HDV was initially classified into three genotypes. However, since 2006, the original classification has been further expanded into eight clades/genotypes. The intergenotype divergence may be as high as 35-40% over the entire RNA genome, whereas sequence heterogeneity among the isolates of a given genotype is <20%; furthermore, HDV recombinants have been clearly demonstrated...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Fahrettin Haczeyni, Hans Wang, Vanessa Barn, Auvro R Mridha, Matthew M Yeh, W Geoffrey Haigh, George N Ioannou, Yun-Jung Choi, Charles A McWherter, Narcissus C-H Teoh, Geoffrey C Farrell
Lipotoxicity associated with insulin resistance is central to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) pathogenesis. To date, only weight loss fully reverses NASH pathology, but mixed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha/delta (PPAR-α/δ) agonists show some efficacy. Seladelpar (MBX-8025), a selective PPAR-δ agonist, improves atherogenic dyslipidemia. We therefore used this agent to test whether selective PPAR-δ activation can reverse hepatic lipotoxicity and NASH in an obese, dyslipidemic, and diabetic mouse model...
September 2017: Hepatology Communications
Laetitia Canini, Christopher Koh, Scott J Cotler, Susan L Uprichard, Mark A Winters, Ma Ai Thanda Han, David E Kleiner, Ramazan Idilman, Cihan Yurdaydin, Jeffrey S Glenn, Theo Heller, Harel Dahari
The prenylation inhibitor lonafarnib (LNF) is a potent antiviral agent providing a breakthrough for the treatment of hepatitis delta virus (HDV). The current study used a maximum likelihood approach to model LNF pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters and predict the dose needed to achieve 99% efficacy using data from 12 patients chronically infected with HDV and treated with LNF 100 mg twice daily (bid) (group 1) or 200 mg bid (group 2) for 28 days. The LNF-PK model predicted average steady-state LNF concentrations of 860 ng/mL and 1,734 ng/mL in groups 1 and 2, respectively, with an LNF absorption rate ka = 0...
June 2017: Hepatology Communications
Kelly E Coller, Emily K Butler, Ka-Cheung Luk, Mary A Rodgers, Michael Cassidy, Jeffrey Gersch, Anne L McNamara, Mary C Kuhns, George J Dawson, Lazare Kaptue, Birgit Bremer, Heiner Wedemeyer, Gavin A Cloherty
Worldwide, an estimated 5% of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected people are coinfected with hepatitis delta virus (HDV). HDV infection leads to increased mortality over HBV mono-infection, yet HDV diagnostics are not widely available. Prototype molecular (RNA) and serologic (IgG) assays were developed for high-throughput testing on the Abbott m2000 and ARCHITECT systems, respectively. RNA detection was achieved through amplification of a ribozyme region target, with a limit of detection of 5 IU/ml. The prototype serology assay (IgG) was developed using peptides derived from HDV large antigen (HDAg), and linear epitopes were further identified by peptide scan...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Judy Chiu-Ho Webb, Andrej Lupták
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV)-like ribozymes are self-cleaving catalytic RNAs with widespread distribution in nature and biological roles ranging from self-scission during rolling-circle replication in viroids to co-transcriptional processing of eukaryotic retrotransposons, among others. The ribozymes fold into a double-pseudoknot with a common catalytic core motif and highly variable peripheral domains. Like other self-cleaving ribozymes, HDV-like ribozymes can be converted into trans-acting catalytic RNAs by bisecting the self-cleaving variants at non-essential loops...
February 1, 2018: Biochemistry
Akhila Reddy, Amy Ng, Tarun Mallipeddi, Eduardo Bruera
Neuropathic pain in cancer patients is often difficult to treat, requiring a combination of several different pharmacological therapies. We describe two patients with complex neuropathic pain syndromes in the form of phantom limb pain and Brown-Sequard syndrome who did not respond to conventional treatments but responded dramatically to the addition of levorphanol. Levorphanol is a synthetic strong opioid that is a potent N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptor agonist, and reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Ohad Etzion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Irappa Madabhavi, Gaurang Modi, Harsha Panchal, Apurva Patel, Swaroop Revannasiddaiah, Asha Anand, Sonia Parikh, Kshitij Joshi, Malay Sarkar
Peripheral T cell lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of post-thymic, mature lymphoid malignancies, accounting for approximately 10-15% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSGDTCL) is a rare entity, which is characterized by primary extra nodal disease with typical sinusoidal or sinusal infiltration of the liver and the spleen, respectively by expression of the T-cell receptor γδ chain, and by a number of other frequent clinicopathologic features, including aggressive course of disease...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
Xiliang Du, Xiaobing Li, Liang Chen, Min Zhan, Lin Lei, Wenwen Gao, Zhen Shi, Yuhao Dong, Zhe Wang, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
Insulin resistance is often characterized as the most critical factor contributing to the development of (T2D) type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding short single-stranded RNAs that function as negative regulators in many physiological and pathological processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the roles of miR-125b in the regulation of insulin sensitivity in hepatocytes. We found that hepatic miR-125b levels were significantly increased in the patients with type 2 diabetes, high fat diet (HFD) mice, ob/ob and db/db mice...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Alfredo Marzano, Pietro Andreone, Patrizia Boccagni, Patrizia Burra, Francesco Caneschi, Pasquale F Conoscitore, Carmine Coppola, Luciano DE Carlis, Stefano Fagiuoli, Paolo Forte, Giovanni B Gaeta, Rosa M Iemmolo, Anna Lotti Suffredini, Michele Mazzola, Manuela Merli, Gianpaolo Parrilli, Guido Piai, Maria R Piras, Mauro Salizzoni, Mariarosa Tamè, Giuseppe Tisone, Pierluigi Toniutto, Giovanni Vennarecci, Riccardo Volpes, Fausto Zamboni, Lucio Caccamo
BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis of hepatitis B after liver transplantation with antiviral(s) and immunoglobulins efficiently protect the majority of recipients; however recent experiences suggest a decline of HBsAg-positive candidates and the use of hepatitis B Immunoglobulin-free schedules. METHODS: This national survey evaluated the epidemiology and clinical results of hepatitis B prophylaxis among 10,365 liver transplants performed in 25 years in 13 Italian centers. RESULTS: With a percentage of 22, 2260 procedures were performed in HBsAg-positive recipients and 714 out of 1080 anti-HBc-positive grafts were used in HBsAg-negative recipients; a total of 2974 patients (29%) were considered at risk of hepatitis B after liver transplantation...
March 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
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