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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785877/hepatitis-b-virus-lymphotropism-emerging-details-and-challenges
#1
Shivali S Joshi, Carla S Coffin
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is predominantly a hepatotropic virus but also infects cells of the lymphatic system. HBV genomes (DNA, messenger (m)RNA, covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA) and proteins have been found in extrahepatic sites such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and cerebrospinal fluid. HBV entry into hepatocytes occurs by binding of the HBV preS1 surface protein to its specific receptor, the bile acid transporter, sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP)...
May 22, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775812/virus-entry-and-its-inhibition-to-prevent-and-treat-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-d-virus-infections
#2
REVIEW
Thomas Tu, Stephan Urban
While chronic infection with the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) inflict major health burdens worldwide, current therapies cannot cure patients. One possible novel approach is blocking virus entry to prevent the establishment of infection in naïve hepatocytes. As HBV and HDV use identical viral envelope proteins and the same entry mechanisms, such a strategy would target both viruses. Entry inhibitors (e.g. neutralizing antibodies) have been relegated to the limited role of prophylaxis...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774107/clinical-outcome-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-can-be-predicted-by-the-expression-of-hepatic-progenitor-cell-markers-and-serum-tumour-markers
#3
Satoshi Seino, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Yusuke Watanabe, Yuzo Kawata, Yuichi Kojima, Shunzo Ikarashi, Hiroyuki Yanai, Koji Nakamura, Daisuke Kumaki, Masaaki Hirano, Kazuhiro Funakoshi, Takashi Aono, Takeshi Sakai, Jun Sakata, Masaaki Takamura, Hirokazu Kawai, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Toshifumi Wakai, Shuji Terai
The high heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) complicates stratification of HCC patients for treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a comprehensive panel of HCC biomarkers related to tumour behaviour and cancer prognosis. Resected HCCs from 251 patients were stained for hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) markers epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1), and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). Staining patterns were analysed for their prognostic association with relapse-free survival and overall survival...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761607/epidemiology-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-hepatitis-d-virus-infection-in-australia
#4
Kathy Jackson, Jennifer MacLachlan, Benjamin Cowie, Stephen Locarnini, D Scott Bowden, Nasra Higgins, Theo Karapanagiotidis, Suellen Nicholson, Margaret Littlejohn
BACKGROUND: The incidence and trends in hepatitis D virus (HDV) in Australia have not been recently assessed and the circulating genotypes have never been determined. AIM: This study aimed to characterise the current virology and epidemiology of HDV. METHODS: Notifiable disease surveillance and laboratory testing data were analysed to assess demographics, risk factors, and trends. HDV serology and RNA testing were performed on requested samples from 2010-2016...
May 14, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761292/-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-d-delta-current-and-future-treatments
#5
REVIEW
N Wortmann, C Höner Zu Siederdissen, M Cornberg
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is among the 30 leading causes of death, despite effective vaccination and therapeutic options. Chronic hepatitis delta (coinfection with hepatitis D virus) leads to a rapid disease progression. AIMS: Based on current international guidelines and studies, an overview about present and future therapeutic options for chronic hepatitis B and delta is provided. RESULTS: Therapy with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues leads to nearly complete HBV DNA suppression, which is associated with regression of liver fibrosis and a lower risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma...
May 14, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749323/effects-of-delta-tocotrienol-supplementation-on-liver-enzymes-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
Muhammad Amjad Pervez, Dishad Ahmet Khan, Aamir Ijaz, Shamrez Khan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing public health problem worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for this disease. δ-Tocotrienol has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and may reduce liver injury in NAFLD. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of δ-tocotrienol in the treatment of NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study conducted in patients aged > 20 years, belonging to both sexes, having ultrasound-proven fatty liver disease, having a fatty liver index (FLI) of ≥ 60, and persistent elevation of alanine transaminase...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742524/prevalence-and-incidence-of-hepatitis-delta-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-spain
#7
Antonio Aguilera, Rocio Trastoy, Javier Rodríguez-Calviño, Tamara Manso, Carmen de Mendoza, Vicente Soriano
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective agent that only replicates in the presence of the hepatitis B virus. Accordingly, HDV acquisition may occur as superinfection of HBsAg+ carriers or following acute dual HDV and hepatitis B virus exposure. Herein, we examined the global and incident rates of HDV infections in Spain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The presence of anti-HDV antibody and new HDV superinfections was examined in all HBsAg+ patients who attended one large tertiary outclinic in Spain since year 2000...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733968/molecular-characterization-of-elongase-of-very-long-chain-fatty-acids-6-elovl6-genes-in-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus-and-their-potential-roles-in-adaptation-to-cold-temperature
#8
Jingwen Chen, Yun Cui, Jie Yan, Jimin Jiang, Xiaojuan Cao, Jian Gao
Elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid. Although functional characteristics of Elovl6 have been demonstrated in mammal, the role of elovl6 in fish remains unclear. In this study, we firstly cloned three isoforms of elovl6 (elovl6a, elovl6b and elovl6-like) from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Molecular characterizations of the three elovl6 isoforms in loach and their expressions of early life stages and different tissues were then determined...
May 4, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723368/atypical-crusted-scabies-in-a-patient-with-chronic-liver-disease-caused-by-hepatitis-b-and-d-viruses
#9
Mônica Santos, Gustavo Ávila Maquiné, Carolina Talhari, Antonio Pedro Mendes Schettini
Crusted scabies is a less common variant of scabies that is highly contagious, difficult to treat and involves infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. The classical clinical presentation includes crusted, scaly and generally non-pruritic lesions usually located on the head, neck, palmar, plantar and periungual region. It was first described in Norway in 1848 in patients with leprosy who presented with crusted lesions. In this study, we report the case of a patient with crusted scabies with florid clinical manifestations and chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B and delta virus infection...
March 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698588/-normal-creatinine-levels-predict-persistent-kidney-injury-and-waitlist-mortality-in-outpatients-with-cirrhosis
#10
Giuseppe Cullaro, Meyeon Park, Jennifer C Lai
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical determinant of outcomes in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis, but little is known of the impact of AKI in the outpatient setting. We analyzed 385 adult outpatients with cirrhosis listed for liver transplant at a single center; excluded were those with severe hepatic encephalopathy, hepatocellular carcinoma or on hemodialysis. Baseline serum creatinine (bCr) was defined as the lowest value recorded; peak creatinine (pCr) as the highest value; delta creatinine (ΔCr) as pCr minus bCr; AKI as a rise in sCR by ≥0...
April 26, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698488/hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-d-virus-infections-in-the-central-african-republic-twenty-five-years-after-a-fulminant-hepatitis-outbreak-indicate-continuing-spread-in-asymptomatic-young-adults
#11
Narcisse Patrice Komas, Sumantra Ghosh, Mariama Abdou-Chekaraou, Pierre Pradat, Nasser Al Hawajri, Alexandre Manirakiza, Gina Laure Laghoe, Claudine Bekondi, Ségolène Brichler, Jean-Omer Ouavéné, Abdoulaye Sépou, Brice Martial Yambiyo, Jean Chrysostome Gody, Valentin Fikouma, Athénais Gerber, Natali Abeywickrama Samarakoon, Dulce Alfaiate, Caroline Scholtès, Nora Martel, Frédéric Le Gal, Hugo Lo Pinto, Ikram Amri, Olivier Hantz, David Durantel, Jean-Louis Lesbordes, Emmanuel Gordien, Philippe Merle, Tudor Drugan, Christian Trépo, Fabien Zoulim, Jean-Claude Cortay, Alan Campbell Kay, Paul Dény
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) increases morbidity in Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. In the mid-eighties, an outbreak of HDV fulminant hepatitis (FH) in the Central African Republic (CAR) killed 88% of patients hospitalized in Bangui. We evaluated infections with HBV and HDV among students and pregnant women, 25 years after the fulminant hepatitis (FH) outbreak to determine (i) the prevalence of HBV and HDV infection in this population, (ii) the clinical risk factors for HBV and/or HDV infections, and (iii) to characterize and compare the strains from the FH outbreak in the 1980s to the 2010 HBV-HDV strains...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669837/amino-acid-substitutions-within-hla-b-27-restricted-t-cell-epitopes-prevent-recognition-by-hepatitis-delta-virus-specific-cd8-t-cells
#12
Hadi Karimzadeh, Muthamia M Kiraithe, Anna D Kosinska, Manuel Glaser, Melanie Fiedler, Valerie Oberhardt, Elahe Salimi Alizei, Maike Hofmann, Juk Yee Mok, Melanie Nguyen, Wim J E van Esch, Bettina Budeus, Jan Grabowski, Maria Homs, Antonella Olivero, Hossein Keyvani, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías, David Tabernero, Maria Buti, Andreas Heinold, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Tanja Bauer, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch, Bijan Raziorrouh, Daniel Hoffmann, Antonina Smedile, Mario Rizzetto, Heiner Wedemeyer, Jörg Timm, Iris Antes, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Ulrike Protzer, Michael Roggendorf
Virus-specific CD8 T-cell response seems to play a significant role in the outcome of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection. However, the HDV-specific T-cell epitope repertoire and mechanisms of CD8 T-cell failure in HDV infection have merely been characterized. We therefore aimed to characterize HDV-specific CD8 T cell epitopes and the impact of viral mutations on immune escape. In this study, we predicted peptide epitopes binding the most frequent HLA types and assessed their HLA binding capacity. These epitopes were characterized in HDV-infected patients by intracellular IFN-γ staining...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663457/hepatitis-d-infection-in-brazil-prevalence-and-geographical-distribution-of-anti-delta-antibody
#13
Barbara V Lago, Francisco C A Mello, Tairine M Barros, Vinicius M Mello, Livia M Villar, Lia L Lewis-Ximenez, Maria Inês M C Pardini, Elisabeth Lampe
In Brazil, the Amazon Basin is endemic for hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection; however, studies in other regions of the country are scarce. This study aims to map the seroepidemiological situation of anti-Delta antibodies in chronic hepatitis B carriers in all five Brazilian geographic regions. Serum samples from 1240 HBsAg positive individuals (55.4% men; mean age 43.1 ± 13.4 years) from 24 of 26 Brazilian states were tested for the presence of anti-Delta antibodies using a commercial immunoassay. Anti-Delta antibodies were detected in 40 samples (3...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662142/the-hepatitis-delta-virus-accumulation-requires-paraspeckle-components-and-affects-neat1-level-and-psp1-localization
#14
Yasnee Beeharry, Gabrielle Goodrum, Christian J Imperiale, Martin Pelchat
The Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) relies mainly on host proteins for its replication. We previously identified that PSF and p54nrb associate with the HDV RNA genome during viral replication. Together with PSP1, these proteins are part of paraspeckles, which are subnuclear bodies nucleated by the long non-coding RNA NEAT1. In this work, we established the requirement for PSF, p54nrb and PSP1 in HDV replication using RNAi-mediated knockdown in HEK-293 cells replicating the HDV RNA genome. We determined that HDV replication induces the delocalization of PSP1 to cytoplasmic foci containing PABP and increases NEAT1 level causing an enlargement of NEAT1 foci...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661431/stratifying-mortality-in-a-model-for-end-stage-liver-disease-waiting-list-a-brazilian-single-center-study
#15
R B Martino, D R Waisberg, A P M Dias, V B S Inoue, R M Arantes, L B P Haddad, W Andraus, L D Lopes, F H F Galvão, A T W Song, L A C D'Albuquerque
BACKGROUND: The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) system reliably predicts mortality in cirrhotic patients. However, the etiology of liver disease and presence of portal vein thrombosis are not directly taken into account in MELD score. Its impact on the outcomes of patients on the waiting list is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality and access to transplantation regarding etiology of liver disease and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). METHODS: A total of 465 adult patients on the liver waiting list from August 2015 to August 2016 were followed up until August 2017...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614809/spatio-temporal-epidemiology-of-viral-hepatitis-in-china-2003-2015-implications-for-prevention-and-control-policies
#16
Bin Zhu, Jinlin Liu, Yang Fu, Bo Zhang, Ying Mao
Viral hepatitis, as one of the most serious notifiable infectious diseases in China, takes heavy tolls from the infected and causes a severe economic burden to society, yet few studies have systematically explored the spatio-temporal epidemiology of viral hepatitis in China. This study aims to explore, visualize and compare the epidemiologic trends and spatial changing patterns of different types of viral hepatitis (A, B, C, E and unspecified, based on the classification of CDC) at the provincial level in China...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600229/epidemiology-of-liver-cancer-in-nile-delta-over-a-decade-a-single-center-study
#17
Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Nadia Elwan, Hanan Soliman, Dina Ziada, Walaa Elkhalawany, Marwa Salama, Nehad Hawash, Mona Arafa, Rehab Badawi, Walaa M Shehata, Haidy S Khalil, Nehal Elmashad
Background: In Egypt, there has been a remarkable increase in the proportion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among chronic liver diseases patients. This rising proportion may be explained by the increasing risk factors as hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, improvement of the diagnostic tools of HCC as well as the extended survival among patients with cirrhosis to allow time for some of them to develop HCC. The aim of this study was to study the epidemiology of HCC in Nile delta over the last decade...
January 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580823/gw0742-ppar-beta-agonist-attenuates-hepatic-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-improving-hepatic-energy-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#18
Flavia Maria Silva-Veiga, Tamiris Lima Rachid, Letícia de Oliveira, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatic steatosis are intertwined with insulin resistance. PPARs are at the crossroads of these pathways. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GW0742 (PPAR-beta agonist) on hepatic energy metabolism and ER stress in a murine diet-induced obesity model. HF diet caused overweight, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic inflammation (increased NF-kB, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 protein expression) and favored hepatic lipogenesis, leading to ER stress, with ultrastructural and molecular alterations, ending up in proapoptotic stimulus...
March 23, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577518/quantification-of-serum-markers-of-hepatitis-b-hbv-and-delta-virus-hdv-infections-in-patients-with-chronic-hdv-infection
#19
Gabriele Ricco, Delia Codruta Popa, Daniela Cavallone, Speranta Iacob, Antonio Salvati, Daniela Tabacelia, Filippo Oliveri, Giovanni Mascolo, Ferruccio Bonino, Quan Yuan, Ning-Shao Xia, Liana Gheorghe, Maurizia Rossana Brunetto
The interplay between hepatitis B (HBV) and Delta (HDV) viruses is complex and not always characterized during chronic HDV infection. We assessed the clinical usefulness of new quantitative assays for HBV and HDV serum markers in a retrospective cross-sectional study. Sera obtained from 122 HDV-genotype-1 and HBV-genotype-D co-infected, anti-HIV-negative patients [71 males; median age 49.8 (21.7-66.9) years], recruited consecutively in two geographic areas (Italy 69 patients, Romania 53) with different HBV and HDV epidemiology, were tested for HBsAg, HBV-DNA, HBcrAg, total anti-HBc, HDV-RNA, IgM and total anti-HDV using quantitative assays...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567413/hepatocellular-carcinoma-risk-assessment-by-the-measurement-of-liver-stiffness-variations-in-hcv-cirrhotics-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#20
Federico Ravaioli, Fabio Conti, Stefano Brillanti, Pietro Andreone, Giuseppe Mazzella, Federica Buonfiglioli, Ilaria Serio, Gabriella Verrucchi, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Agostino Colli, Giovanni Marasco, Antonio Colecchia, Davide Festi
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) are an effective treatment for hepatitis C virus infection. However, sustained virologic response (SVR) after DAA treatment does not seem to reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in these patients. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) may predict the risk of developing HCC in liver cirrhosis patients. AIMS: The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of LSM variation as predictor of HCC development in patients treated with DAA...
February 27, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
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