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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911765/prevalence-of-hepatitis-d-virus-infection-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Alexander J Stockdale, Mas Chaponda, Apostolos Beloukas, Richard Odame Phillips, Philippa C Matthews, Athanasios Papadimitropoulos, Simon King, Laura Bonnett, Anna Maria Geretti
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D virus (also known as hepatitis delta virus) can establish a persistent infection in people with chronic hepatitis B, leading to accelerated progression of liver disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, where HBsAg prevalence is higher than 8%, hepatitis D virus might represent an important additive cause of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish the prevalence of hepatitis D virus among HBsAg-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We systematically reviewed studies of hepatitis D virus prevalence among HBsAg-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa...
October 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905970/on-the-discovery-of-new-potent-human-farnesyltransferase-inhibitors-emerging-pyroglutamic-derivatives
#2
Germain Homerin, Emmanuelle Lipka, Benoît Rigo, Amaury Farce, Joëlle Dubois, Alina Ghinet
In the current context of lack of emergence of innovative human farnesyltransferase inhibitors families, and given all new therapeutic perspectives that open up for such molecules in rare diseases (e.g. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome), and in delta hepatitis, cardiovascular or neuroinflammatory diseases, we have just discovered a new series of powerful inhibitors. These molecules are pyroglutamic acid derivatives, and were evaluated on human farnesyltransferase in vitro then modeled in silico on the active site of the protein...
September 14, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903779/hepatitis-delta-virological-and-clinical-aspects
#3
REVIEW
Luan Felipo Botelho-Souza, Mariana Pinheiro Alves Vasconcelos, Alcione de Oliveira Dos Santos, Juan Miguel Villalobos Salcedo, Deusilene Souza Vieira
There are an estimated 400 million chronic carriers of HBV worldwide; between 15 and 20 million have serological evidence of exposure to HDV. Traditionally, regions with high rates of endemicity are central and northern Africa, the Amazon Basin, eastern Europe and the Mediterranean, the Middle East and parts of Asia. There are two types of HDV/HBV infection which are differentiated by the previous status infection by HBV for the individual. Individuals with acute HBV infection contaminated by HDV is an HDV/HBV co-infection, while individuals with chronic HBV infection contaminated by HDV represent an HDV/HBV super-infection...
September 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899424/clade-homogeneity-and-low-rate-of-delta-virus-despite-hyperendemicity-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-ethiopia
#4
Yeshambel Belyhun, Uwe Gerd Liebert, Melanie Maier
BACKGROUND: Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hyperendemic and heterogeneous in its genetic diversity in Ethiopia, little is known about hepatitis D virus (HDV) circulating genotypes and molecular diversity. METHODS: A total of 321 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positives (125 HIV co-infected, 102 liver disease patients and 94 blood donors) were screened for anti-HDV antibody. The anti-HDV positive sera were subjected to Real time PCR for HDV-RNA confirmation...
September 12, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891399/response-of-human-fetal-liver-progenitor-cell-types-to-temperature-and-ph-stresses-in-vitro
#5
Eva Schmelzer, Hubert G Foka, Robert L Thompson, Angelo Luca, Bruno Gridelli, Jörg C Gerlach
Prolonged physiological stresses including abnormal pH and temperature are deleterious. Yet, human hepatic progenitors have been shown to be quite tolerant of temporary temperature stress such as in cold ischemia. We aimed to identify how various stresses affect liver progenitors, and to determine whether distinct effects exist on different progenitor cells of the human liver. Total fetal liver cells were exposed to low (25°C), normal (37°C), or high (40°C) temperatures, or low (6.76), normal (7.35), or high (7...
September 11, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885772/overt-hepatic-encephalopathy-impairs-learning-on-the-encephalapp-stroop-which-is-reversible-after-liver-transplant
#6
Chathur Acharya, James B Wade, Andrew Fagan, Melanie White, Edith Gavis, Dinesh Ganapathy, HoChong Gilles, Douglas M Heuman, Jasmohan S Bajaj
After an initial exposure, subjects can develop test-taking/learning strategies called the "test sophistication effect. Cirrhotics wth prior overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) could have persistent learning impairments. AIM: To define learning/test-sophistication on EncephalApp (downloadable Application) in OHE patients compared to no-OHE patients and controls cross-sectionally and longitudinally. METHODS: The EncephalApp Stroop App consists of 2 sections; the easier "Off" run assesses psychomotor speed while the difficult "On" run assesses cognitive flexibility...
September 8, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885709/prenylation-of-viral-proteins-by-enzymes-of-the-host-virus-driven-rationale-for-therapy-with-statins-and-ft-ggt1-inhibitors
#7
REVIEW
Ekaterina S Marakasova, Birgit Eisenhaber, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Frank Eisenhaber, Ancha Baranova
Intracellular bacteria were recently shown to employ eukaryotic prenylation system for modifying activity and ensuring proper intracellular localization of their own proteins. Following the same logic, the proteins of viruses may also serve as prenylation substrates. Using extensively validated high-confidence prenylation predictions by PrePS with a cut-off for experimentally confirmed farnesylation of hepatitis delta virus antigen, we compiled in silico evidence for several new prenylation candidates, including IRL9 (CMV) and few other proteins encoded by Herpesviridae, Nef (HIV-1), E1A (human adenovirus 1), NS5A (HCV), PB2 (influenza), HN (human parainfluenza virus 3), L83L (African swine fever), MC155R (molluscum contagiosum virus), other Poxviridae proteins, and some bacteriophages of human associated bacteria...
September 8, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869445/clinical-significance-of-serum-14-3-3-beta-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Hai Lin, Xuelong Jiao, Benxia Yu, Jiangdong Du, HaiYan Xu, Aiping Dong, Chunsheng Wan
OBJECTIVE: The 14-3-3 family of conserved regulatory proteins comprises the isoforms beta (β), gamma (γ), zeta (ζ), sigma (ε), tau (η), and delta (σ), which are overexpressed and associated with a high risk of metastasis and poor survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we investigated whether serum 14-3-3 isoforms are related to HCC progression and patient survival. METHODS: Serum samples from 63 HCC patients who underwent surgical reSection 104 HCC patients who received non-surgical anti-HCC treatments, 50 patients with liver cirrhosis alone, 45 patients with chronic hepatitis alone, and 50 healthy subjects were collected between January 2006 and December 2010...
August 23, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854102/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-delta-viruses-among-hiv-infected-population-attending-antiretroviral-clinic-in-selected-health-facilities-in-abuja-nigeria
#9
I M Ifeorah, A S Bakarey, J A Adeniji, F N Onyemelukwe
INTRODUCTION: Tri- infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis D virus (HDV) is rare. There is limited data on the seroprevalence of HIV/HBV/HDV tri-infection especially in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalences of HBsAg and HDV among HIV infected individuals attending Anti-retroviral (ARV) clinics in Abuja, Nigeria. METHODS: In this cohort study, blood samples were collected from 1102 (Male = 450; Female = 652) age ranged <20 to ≥51 years (Mean age = 34...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827788/vitamin-d-supplementation-improves-serum-markers-associated-with-hepatic-fibrogenesis-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#10
Piyawat Komolmit, Sayamon Kimtrakool, Sirinporn Suksawatamnuay, Kessarin Thanapirom, Kanita Chattrasophon, Panarat Thaimai, Chintana Chirathaworn, Yong Poovorawan
Hepatic fibrosis is the net accumulation of matrix tissue components which controlled by pro-fibrolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and pro-fibrotic cytokine, TGF-β1, and enzymes, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). Vitamin D (VD) supplementation has been shown to reverse these processes in vitro and in vivo. This study sought to determine the effect of VD supplementation on serum fibrotic markers in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. Fifty-four CHC patients with VD deficiency were randomized into two groups, a VD group (n = 29) and a placebo group (n = 29)...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805896/the-composition-of-dietary-fat-alters-the-transcriptional-profile-of-pathways-associated-with-lipid-metabolism-in-the-liver-and-adipose-tissue-in-the-pig
#11
T A Kellner, N K Gabler, J F Patience
The objective was to investigate the of effect chemical composition of dietary fat on transcription of genes involved in lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and the liver via transcriptional profiling in growing pigs. A total of 48 Genetiporc 6.0 × Genetiporc F25 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) barrows (initial BW of 44.1 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. Each experimental diet included 95% of a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 5% cornstarch (control; CNTR), animal-vegetable blend (AV), coconut oil (COCO), corn oil (COIL), fish oil (FO), or tallow (TAL)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795384/contribution-of-hepatobiliary-scintigraphy-in-assessing-alpps-most-suited-timing
#12
Stéphanie Truant, Clio Baillet, Anne Claire Deshorgue, Mehdi El Amrani, Damien Huglo, François-René Pruvot
To reduce post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF), associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) has been recently developed for patients with a limited future remnant liver (FRL). Nevertheless, high morbi-mortality rates have been reported . The current study aimed to analyze the kinetics of FRL function in patients who were offered ALPPS. Serial SPECT (99 m)Tc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) was performed in all patients before and after surgery as well as at inter-stage to quantitatively assess hepatic function [total liver (TL) and FRL]...
August 9, 2017: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774414/hepatitis-delta-infection-current-and-new-treatment-options
#13
REVIEW
Menashe Elazar, Christopher Koh, Jeffrey S Glenn
In humans, hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection only occurs in the presence of a concomitant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and induces the most severe form of human viral hepatitis. Even though HDV is spread worldwide and is endemic in some regions, screening and treatment has been often neglected in part due to the lack of an effective therapy. Moreover, HDV prevalence rates are increasing in many countries driven by immigration from areas of high endemicity. Currently, no FDA-approved anti-HDV therapy is available, although interferon (IFN) alpha therapy has demonstrated benefit in a minority of patients...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760138/age-standardized-mortality-rates-related-to-viral-hepatitis-in-brazil
#14
Hugo Perazzo, Antonio G Pacheco, Paula M Luz, Rodolfo Castro, Chris Hyde, Juliana Fittipaldi, Caroline Rigolon, Sandra W Cardoso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdiléa G Veloso
BACKGROUND: Liver-related mortality has been increasing worldwide. We aimed to estimate the age-standardized mortality rates from viral hepatitis in Brazil. METHODS: The Brazilian National Death Registry was analyzed from 2008 to 2014. Viral hepatitis deaths were defined by the following ICD-10 codes in the death certificate: hepatitis A [B15.0; B15.9]; hepatitis B [B16.2; B16.9; B18.1]; hepatitis C [B17.1; B18.2]; hepatitis Delta [B16.0; B16.1; B18.0; B17.0] and other viral hepatitis [B17...
July 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751953/pcsk9-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-a-double-edged-sword
#15
EDITORIAL
Theodosios D Filippatos, Sebastian Filippas-Ntekouan, Eleni Pappa, Thalia Panagiotopoulou, Vasilios Tsimihodimos, Moses S Elisaf
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a paramount role in the degradation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors (LDLR) on the hepatic cells surface and subsequently affects LDL particles catabolism and LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) levels. The anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies lead to substantial decrease of LDL-c concentration. PCSK9 (which is also expressed in pancreatic delta-cells) can decrease LDLR and subsequently decrease cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic beta-cells, which impairs glucose metabolism and reduces insulin secretion...
July 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750657/rapid-expression-and-purification-of-the-hepatitis-delta-virus-antigen-using-the-methylotropic-yeast-pichia-pastoris
#16
Stephanie P Cartwright, Roslyn M Bill, Bui Tien Sy, Hieu Tran-Van, Hung Minh Nguyen
OBJECTIVE: Patients with dual hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D (HDV) virus infection are at an increased risk of progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma than patients with a single viral infection. Treatment of viral hepatitis due to dual HBV/HDV infection represents a challenge. Currently there is no vaccine against HDV. Recombinant production of HDV antigen (HDAg) is the first step towards a potential vaccine candidate and the development of assays for HDV detection...
July 27, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749453/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-therapy-improves-patient-and-caregiver-reported-outcomes-in-cirrhosis
#17
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Michael Ellwood, Timothy Ainger, Thomas Burroughs, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Binu John, James B Wade
OBJECTIVES: Patient-reported outcomes such as health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are impaired in cirrhosis due to under-treated mood and sleep disorders, which can adversely impact their caregivers. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) can improve patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in non-cirrhotic patients but their impact in cirrhosis is unclear. To evaluate the effect of MBSR and supportive group therapy on mood, sleep and HRQOL in cirrhotic patients and their caregivers. METHODS: Cirrhotic outpatients with mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)>14) on screening with an adult caregiver were enrolled...
July 27, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742055/kinetic-validation-of-the-limax-test-during-10-000-intravenous-13c-methacetin-breath-tests
#18
Tom Moses Rubin, Karsten Heyne, Axel Luchterhand, Jan Bednarsch, Florian W Vondran, Georgios Polychronidis, Maciej Malinowski, Alen Nikolic, Hans-Michael Tautenhahn, Maximilian Jara, Tilo Wuensch, Martin Stockmann, Johan Friso Lock
The LiMAx test, a novel 13C-methacetin-breath-test, has proven clinical validity in determining the hepatic metabolic capacity. In contrast to prior 13C-methacetin-breath-test protocols, the LiMAx-test is performed by intravenous body-weight adjusted substrate administration. Furthermore, the DOB kinetics (Delta over Baseline of the time dependent exhaled 13CO2/12CO2-ratio) are measured online at bedside with a high time resolution in order to determine the DOB maximum. The aim of this study was to analyze the recorded DOB kinetics in a large population for further refinement of the test protocol...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740596/improved-hepascore-in-hepatitis-c-predicts-reversal-in-risk-of-adverse-outcome
#19
Angus W Jeffrey, Yi Huang, W Bastiaan de Boer, Leon A Adams, Gerry MacQuillan, David Speers, John Joseph, Gary P Jeffrey
AIM: To establish if serial Hepascore tests (referred to as delta Hepascore) in those with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) correlate with the increase and/or decrease in risk of liver related complications. METHODS: Three hundred and forty-six CHC patients who had two Hepascore tests performed were studied. During 1944 patient years follow-up 28 (8.1%) reached an endpoint. The Hepascore is a serum test that provides clinically useful data regarding the stage of liver fibrosis and subsequent clinical outcomes in chronic liver disease...
July 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700067/acquired-hepatocerebral-degeneration-in-a-patient-with-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-delta-virus-coinfection
#20
Viviane de Carvalho, Dessana Francis Chehuan, Marcia Melo Damian
Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration is a neurological syndrome with typical clinical (extrapyramidal and neuropsychiatric) symptoms and brain magnetic resonance imaging findings (high T1 signal in the globus pallidus). It occurs mainly in patients with advanced liver disease, such as in patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV). However, there are no reports relating HBV/HDV coinfection and acquired hepatocerebral degeneration. This report presents the case of a 49-year-old woman with characteristics of acquired hepatocerebral degeneration and liver cirrhosis due to HBV/HDV coinfection, and presents the main theories of the physiopathology of this condition...
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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