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Hepatitis delta

Vera L Tunitskaya, Olesja V Eliseeva, Vladimir T Valuev-Elliston, Daria A Tyurina, Natalia F Zakirova, Olga A Khomich, Martins Kalis, Oleg E Latyshev, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Olga N Ivanova, Sergey N Kochetkov, Maria G Isaguliants, Alexander V Ivanov
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a viroid-like blood-borne human pathogen that accompanies hepatitis B virus infection in 5% patients. HDV has been studied for four decades; however, the knowledge on its life-cycle and pathogenesis is still sparse. The studies are hampered by the absence of the commercially-available HDV-specific antibodies. Here, we describe a set of reproducible methods for the expression in E. coli of His-tagged small antigen of HDV (S-HDAg), its purification, and production of polyclonal anti-S-HDAg antibodies in rabbits...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tai-Sung Lee, Brian K Radak, Michael E Harris, Darrin M York
RNA enzymes serve as a potentially powerful platform from which to design catalysts and engineer new biotechnology. A fundamental understanding of these systems provides insight to guide design. The hepatitis delta virus ribozyme (HDVr) is a small, self-cleaving RNA motif widely distributed in nature, that has served as a paradigm for understanding basic principles of RNA catalysis. Nevertheless, questions remain regarding the precise roles of divalent metal ions and key nucleotides in catalysis. In an effort to establish a reaction mechanism model consistent with available experimental data, we utilize molecular dynamics simulations to explore different conformations and metal ion binding modes along the HDVr reaction path...
2016: ACS Catalysis
Anika Wranke, Beatriz Calle Serrano, Benjamin Heidrich, Janina Kirschner, Birgit Bremer, Patrick Lehmann, Svenja Hardtke, Katja Deterding, Kerstin Port, Max Westphal, Michael P Manns, Markus Cornberg, Heiner Wedemeyer
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis delta is the most severe form of viral hepatitis. Pegylated interferon alfa (PEG- IFNα) is effective in only 25-30% of patients and is associated with frequent side effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical long-term outcome of hepatitis delta in relation to different antiviral treatment strategies. METHODS: We studied 136 anti-HDV-positive patients who were followed for at least 6 months in a retrospective single-center cohort (mean time of follow up 5...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Hui Cheng, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongyan Wang, Na Sun, Min Liu, Hongxia Chen, Renjun Pei
Riboswitches are functional non-coding RNA regulatory components that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in diverse organisms. In particular, using riboswitches to modulate RNA interference (RNAi) enables temporal and spatial control of gene expression in mammalian cells. Herein, a ribozyme gene switch to activate RNAi was fabricated for the artificial regulation of versatile gene silencing through the interaction of an RNA aptamer with small molecules. The device comprised an allosteric HDV ribozyme with an embedded theophylline aptamer and a primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) to silence the MAP4K4 gene in hepatic (HepG2) cells, aiming to achieve dose-dependent control of the activation of RNAi, and then the regulation of the MAP4K4 gene by theophylline...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Foram Maulin Patel, Parijath N Goswami
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is well known to induce a spectrum of acute and chronic liver diseases. There has been global decline in the prevalence of hepatitis D infection. The aim of the present study was to know the presence of acute HDV infection among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 5043 samples were subjected for routine testing of HBV, HIV and HCV by ELISA method...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Charles Béguelin, Darius Moradpour, Roland Sahli, Franziska Suter-Riniker, Alexander Lüthi, Matthias Cavassini, Huldrych F Günthard, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Patrick Schmid, Alexandra Calmy, Dominique Braun, Hansjakob Furrer, Andri Rauch, Gilles Wandeler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection accelerates the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease. We assessed the epidemiological characteristics of HDV infection in the nationwide Swiss HIV Cohort Study and evaluated its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with a positive HBsAg test were considered and tested for anti-HDV antibodies. HDV amplification and sequencing were performed in anti-HDV-positive patients...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Mayara Sandrielly Pereira Soares, Pathise Souto Oliveira, Gabriela Nogueira Debom, Bruna da Silveira Mattos, Carla Roberta Polachini, Jucimara Baldissarelli, Vera Maria Morsch, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Rejane Giacomelli Tavares, Francieli Moro Stefanello, Roselia Maria Spanevello
High levels of methionine (Met) and methionine sulfoxide (MetO) are found in several genetic abnormalities. Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of many inborn errors of metabolism. However, little is known about the role of oxidative damage in hepatic and renal changes in hypermethioninemia. We investigated the effect of chronic treatment with Met and/or MetO on oxidative stress parameters in liver and kidney, as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), total sulfhydryl content (SH), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enzymes activities superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and delta aminolevulinic dehydratase (ALA-D)...
October 7, 2016: Amino Acids
Gaya Spolverato, Fabio Bagante, Matthew Weiss, Jin He, Christopher L Wolfgang, Fabian Johnston, Martin A Makary, Will Yang, Steven M Frank, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: Delta hemoglobin (ΔHb) is defined as the difference between the preoperative Hb and the lowest post-operative Hb level. We sought to define the impact of ΔHb relative to nadir Hb levels on the likelihood of transfusion, as well as characterize the impact of ΔHb and nadir Hb on morbidity among a large cohort of patients undergoing complex hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) surgery. METHODS: Patients who underwent pancreatic or hepatic resection between January 1, 2009 and June 30, 2015 at Johns Hopkins Hospital were identified...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Cheri L Lamb, Giovan N Cholico, Xinzhu Pu, Gerald D Hagler, Kenneth A Cornell, Kristen A Mitchell
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental contaminant and high-affinity ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Increasing evidence indicates that AhR signaling contributes to wound healing, which involves the coordinated deposition and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. In the liver, wound healing is attributed to the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which mediate fibrogenesis through the production of soluble mediators and collagen type I. We recently reported that TCDD treatment increases the activation of human HSCs in vitro...
September 28, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Maira Ferreira Cicero, Nathalia Mantovani Pena, Luiz Claudio Santana, Rafael Arnold, Rafael Gonçalves Azevedo, Élcio de Souza Leal, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz, Shirley Vasconcelos Komninakis
BACKGROUND: The Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) can increase the incidence of fulminant hepatitis. For this infection occurs, the host must also be infected with Hepatitis B Virus. Previous studies demonstrated the endemicity and near exclusivity of this infection in the Amazon region, and as a consequence of the difficulty in accessing this area we used dried blood spots (DBS) in sample collection. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of recombination, to analyze the epidemiology, ancestry and evolutionary pressures on HDV in Brazil...
September 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Chun-Miao Cai, Xu Xiao, Bing-Hao Wu, Bao-Feng Wei, Ze-Guang Han
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation and progression. We previously showed that Delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) may be a therapeutic target against the CSCs of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the therapeutic efficacy and underlying mechanism remain unclear. Here we demonstrated that knockdown of DLK1 using a tet-inducible short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system significantly inhibited proliferation, spheroid formation and in vivo xenograft tumor growth of human HCC cells. Furthermore, in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, adenovirus-mediated DLK1 knockdown could significantly reduce tumor size, as shown by in vivo imaging approach...
September 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Elisabetta Loggi, Fabio Conti, Alessandro Cucchetti, Giorgio Ercolani, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Pietro Andreone
The scarcity of available organs and the gap between supply and demand continue to be the main limitations of liver transplantation. To relieve the organ shortage, current transplant strategies have implemented extended criteria, which include the use of liver from patients with signs of past or present hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. While the use of liver grafts from donors with evidence of past HBV infection is quite limited, some data have been collected regarding the feasibility of transplanting a liver graft from a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive donor...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Chee Wah Tan, Han Kang Tee, Michelle Hui Pheng Lee, I-Ching Sam, Yoke Fun Chan
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease, and is occasionally associated with neurological complications and death in children. Reverse genetics is widely used in the field of virology for functional study of viral genes. For EV-A71, such tools are limited to clones that are transcriptionally controlled by T7/SP6 bacteriophage promoter. This is often time-consuming and expensive. Here, we describe the development of infectious plasmid DNA-based EV-A71 clones, for which EV-A71 genome expression is under transcriptional control by the CMV-intermediate early promoter and SV40 transcriptional-termination signal...
2016: PloS One
Ashish Goyal, John M Murray
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) in conjunction with hepatitis B virus (HBV) increases adult morbidity and mortality. A number of studies have performed cost-benefit analyses for HBV interventions, but they have ignored the impact of HDV on these outcomes. METHODS: Using a mathematical model of HBV-HDV epidemiology, we compare health benefits and cost outcomes of four interventions: testing with HBV adult vaccination (diagnosis), diagnosis with antiviral treatment for HBV infections (mono-infections), diagnosis with antiviral treatment for HBV-HDV infections (dual-infections), and awareness programs...
September 1, 2016: Theoretical Population Biology
Haowen Qiao, Qing Cao, Yucheng Fu, Wei Guan, Fangyun Cheng, Juanjuan Wu, Xin Jia, Hongshan Chen, Yajun Zhou
Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, promotes liver fibrogenesis and inhibits the expression of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a key transcription factor in inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, in HSCs. This research aimed to further investigate the mechanisms underlying leptin regulation of PPARγ1 in HSCs in vivo and in vitro. Results demonstrated that sex-determining region Y-box 9 (Sox9) could bind to a site around -2275 within leptin response region of PPARγ1 promoter and inhibited PPARγ1 expression...
September 2, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Florian A Lempp, Yi Ni, Stephan Urban
Chronic hepatitis D is the most severe form of viral hepatitis, affecting ∼20 million HBV-infected people worldwide. The causative agent, hepatitis delta virus (HDV), is a unique human pathogen: it is the smallest known virus; it depends on HBV to disseminate its viroid-like RNA; it encodes only one protein (HDAg), which has both structural and regulatory functions; and it replicates using predominantly host proteins. The failure of HBV-specific nucleoside analogues to suppress the HBV helper function, and the limitations of experimental systems to study the HDV life cycle, have impeded the development of HDV-specific drugs...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Frédéric Le Gal, Ségolène Brichler, Roland Sahli, Sylvie Chevret, Emmanuel Gordien
: Infection by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a satellite of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), increases viral liver disease severity. Its diagnosis is thus vital for HBV-infected patients. HDV-RNA load (HDVL) should be assessed and monitored in plasma using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays. Taking advantage of the recently-developed World Health Organization (WHO) HDV international standard (WHO-HDV-IS), the first international external quality control for HDVL quantification was performed...
November 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Max Diego Cruz Santos, Michele Soares Gomes-Gouvêa, Jomar Diogo Costa Nunes, Lena Maria Fonseca Barros, Flair José Carrilho, Adalgisa de Sousa Paiva Ferreira, João Renato Rebello Pinho
Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is not well known, even though HDV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection leads to severe forms of acute and chronic liver diseases. HDV is endemic in the Western Amazon region. Recently, the HDV genotype 8 was found in chronic patients followed at the center for liver studies in the Northeast Brazil, Maranhão. Previous studies suggested that this genotype was introduced in Maranhão during the slave trade. The presence of HDV in that study, which was done outside the Amazon region, led us to investigate whether the virus is found infecting individuals in other regions of Maranhão as well...
September 15, 2016: Virus Research
Elham Shirvani-Dastgerdi, Robert E Schwartz, Alexander Ploss
Globally, over half a billion people are persistently infected with hepatitis B (HBV) and/or hepatitis C viruses. Chronic HBV and HCV infection frequently lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Co-infections with hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a subviral satellite requiring HBV for its propagation, accelerates the progression of liver disease toward HCC. The mechanisms by which these viruses cause malignant transformation, culminating in HCC, remain incompletely understood, partially due to the lack of adequate experimental models for dissecting these complex disease processes in vivo...
August 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Mohamed A Lounis, Quentin Escoula, Cathy Veillette, Karl-F Bergeron, James M Ntambi, Catherine Mounier
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a delta-9 fatty acid desaturase that catalyzes the synthesis of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). SCD1 is a critical control point regulating hepatic lipid synthesis and β-oxidation. Scd1 KO mice are resistant to the development of diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Using a chronic-binge protocol of ethanol-mediated liver injury, we aimed to determine if these KO mice are also resistant to the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). Mice fed a low-fat diet (especially low in MUFA) containing 5% ethanol for 10days, followed by a single ethanol (5g/kg) gavage, developed severe liver injury manifesting as hepatic steatosis...
July 28, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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