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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906515/development-evolving-the-origins-and-meanings-of-instinct
#1
REVIEW
Mark S Blumberg
How do migratory birds, herding dogs, and navigating sea turtles do the amazing things that they do? For hundreds of years, scientists and philosophers have struggled over possible explanations. In time, one word came to dominate the discussion: instinct. It became the catch-all explanation for those adaptive and complex abilities that do not obviously result from learning or experience. Today, various animals are said to possess a survival instinct, migratory instinct, herding instinct, maternal instinct, or language instinct...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906468/optimal-timing-of-hepatitis-c-treatment-for-patients-on-the-liver-transplant-waiting-list
#2
Jagpreet Chhatwal, Sumeyye Samur, Brian Kues, Turgay Ayer, Mark S Roberts, Fasiha Kanwal, Chin Hur, Drew Michael S Donnell, Raymond T Chung
: The availability of oral direct-acting antiviral (DAAs) has altered the hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment paradigm for both pre- and post-liver transplant (LT) patients. There is a perceived trade-off between pre- versus post-LT treatment of HCV-treatment may improve liver function but potentially decrease the likelihood of a necessary LT. Our objective was to identify LT-eligible patients with decompensated cirrhosis who would benefit (and not benefit) from pre-LT treatment based on their MELD scores...
November 5, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906380/efficient-texture-mapping-by-adaptive-mesh-division-in-mesh-based-computer-generated-hologram
#3
Yeong-Min Ji, Hanju- Yeom, Jae-Hyeung Park
We propose a method that achieves efficient texture mapping in fully-analytic computer generated holograms based on triangular meshes. In computer graphics, the texture mapping is commonly used to represent the details of objects without increasing the number of the triangular meshes. In fully-analytic triangular-mesh-based computer generated holograms, however, those methods cannot be directly applied because each mesh cannot have arbitrary amplitude distribution inside the triangular mesh area in order to keep the analytic representation...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906375/surface-modulation-and-back-reflection-from-foil-targets-irradiated-by-a-petawatt-femtosecond-laser-pulse-at-oblique-incidence
#4
S Ter-Avetisyan, A Andreev, K Platonov, J H Sung, S K Lee, H W Lee, J Y Yoo, P K Singh, H Ahmed, C Scullion, K F Kakolee, T W Jeong, P Hadjisolomou, M Borghesi
A significant level of back reflected laser energy was measured during the interaction of ultra-short, high contrast PW laser pulses with solid targets at 30° incidence. 2D PIC simulations carried out for the experimental conditions show that at the laser-target interface a dynamic regular structure is generated during the interaction, which acts as a grating (quasi-grating) and reflects back a significant amount of incident laser energy. With increasing laser intensity above 10<sup>18</sup> W/cm<sup>2</sup> the back reflected fraction increases due to the growth of the surface modulation to larger amplitudes...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906304/optical-scheme-for-simulating-post-quantum-nonlocality-distillation
#5
Wen-Jing Chu, Ming Yang, Guo-Zhu Pan, Qing Yang, Zhuo-Liang Cao
An optical scheme for simulating nonlocality distillation is proposed in post-quantum regime. The nonlocal boxes are simulated by measurements on appropriately pre- and post-selected polarization entangled photon pairs, i.e. post-quantum nonlocality is simulated by exploiting fair-sampling loophole in a Bell test. Mod 2 addition on the outputs of two nonlocal boxes combined with pre- and post-selection operations constitutes the key operation of simulating nonlocality distillation. This scheme provides a possible tool for the experimental study on the nonlocality in post-quantum regime and the exact physical principle precisely distinguishing physically realizable correlations from nonphysical ones...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906258/optical-cryptosystem-based-on-single-pixel-encoding-using-the-modified-gerchberg-saxton-algorithm-with-a-cascaded-structure
#6
Wen Chen
In this paper, an optical cryptosystem is developed based on single-pixel encoding using the modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm with a cascaded structure. A series of random intensity-only patterns are pre-generated as principal security keys, and phase-only masks for optical encoding and decoding are generated by the modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm with a cascaded structure. Subsequently, a series of 1D intensity points, i.e., ciphertexts, are recorded by a single-pixel detector, which may provide a potential for establishing low-cost and compact security systems...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906144/positive-regulation-of-biochemical-parameters-by-tea-polyphenol-encapsulated-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-at-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-conditions
#7
Karikalan Kulandaivelu, Abul Kalam Azad Mandal
Tea polyphenols (TPPs) comprise preventive and therapeutic potentials against cancer, cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Chemical instability of TPP which leads to low bioavailability is the major constrain to its use as therapeutic agent. The authors prepared TPP encapsulated solid lipid nanoparticles (TPP-SLNs) to increase its stability and bioefficacy. Comparison of Fourier transformed infrared spectra of unloaded SLN, free TPP and TPP-SLN indicated encapsulation of TPP. Sustained release of TPP from TP-SLN was observed...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906119/degrading-traumatic-memories-with-eye-movements-a-pilot-functional-mri-study-in-ptsd
#8
Kathleen Thomaes, Iris M Engelhard, Marit Sijbrandij, Danielle C Cath, Odile A Van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs). Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality of traumatic memories, but the underlying mechanism has been unclear. Recent studies support a "working-memory" (WM) theory, which states that the two tasks (recall and EMs) compete for limited capacity of WM resources...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906086/massive-adrenal-vein-aneurysm-mimicking-an-adrenal-tumor-in-a-patient-with-hemophilia-a-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Richard Sleightholm, Steven Wahlmeier, Jeffrey S Carson, Andjela Drincic, Audrey Lazenby, Jason M Foster
BACKGROUND: Visceral venous aneurysms are exceedingly rare, and until now, there have been no reports of this phenomenon in the adrenal vasculature. This report details the first adrenal venous aneurysm reported in the literature. The aneurysm presented as an 18-cm mass that was initially suspected to be a hematoma or tumor on the basis of the complex medical history of the patient, which included hemophilia A and testicular cancer. After surgical excision, pathologic examination confirmed this mass to be a 15...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906082/secondary-correction-of-nasal-deformities-in-cleft-lip-and-palate-patients-surgical-technique-and-outcome-evaluation
#10
Gabor Vass, Gabor Mohos, Zsofia Bere, Laszlo Ivan, Janos Varga, Jozsef Piffko, Laszlo Rovo
BACKGROUND: Nasal deformity associated with cleft lip and palate is a highly challenging reconstructive problem in rhinoplasty. In the literature, several operative solutions and evaluation methods have been described, however these do not offer a standard procedure for the surgeon. Our aim was to standardize our surgical technique-as much as the uniqueness of each case allowed it-based on the most frequent deformities we had faced; and to evaluate our results via a postoperative patient satisfaction questionnaire...
December 1, 2016: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906060/discrete-adipose-derived-stem-cell-subpopulations-may-display-differential-functionality-after-in-vitro-expansion-despite-convergence-to-a-common-phenotype-distribution
#11
Frederik Mølgaard Nielsen, Simone Elkjær Riis, Jens Isak Andersen, Raphaëlle Lesage, Trine Fink, Cristian Pablo Pennisi, Vladimir Zachar
BACKGROUND: Complex immunophenotypic repertoires defining discrete adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) subpopulations may hold a key toward identifying predictors of clinical utility. To this end, we sorted out of the freshly established ASCs four subpopulations (SPs) according to a specific pattern of co-expression of six surface markers, the CD34, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146, and CD271, using polychromatic flow cytometry. METHOD: Using flow cytometry-associated cell sorting and analysis, gating parameters were set to select for a CD73(+)CD90(+)CD105(+) phenotype plus one of the four following combinations, CD34(-)CD146(-)CD271(-) (SP1), CD34(-)CD146(+)CD271(-) (SP2), CD34(+)CD146(+)CD271(-) (SP3), and CD34(-)CD146(+)CD271(+) (SP4)...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906029/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906015/validation-of-a-self-reported-hiv-symptoms-list-the-iss-hiv-symptoms-scale
#13
Raffaella Bucciardini, Katherina Pugliese, Daniela Francisci, Andrea Costantini, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Miriam Cognigni, Chiara Tontini, Stefano Lucattini, Luca Fucili, Massimiliano Di Gregorio, Marco Mirra, Vincenzo Fragola, Sara Pompili, Rita Murri, Stefano Vella
BACKGROUND: To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). METHODS: The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. RESULTS: The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items)...
April 9, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906014/acceptability-and-use-of-ready-to-use-supplementary-food-compared-to-corn-soy-blend-as-a-targeted-ration-in-an-hiv-program-in-rural-haiti-a-qualitative-study
#14
Anne G Beckett, Debbie Humphries, J Gregory Jerome, Jessica E Teng, Patrick Ulysse, Louise C Ivers
BACKGROUND: Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) is increasingly used as a component of food rations for adults with HIV. METHODS: We undertook a qualitative study to evaluate the acceptability and use of peanut-based RUSF compared to corn-soy blend (CSB) among adults living with HIV in rural Haiti who had been enrolled in a prospective, randomized trial comparing the impact of those rations. A total of 13 focus groups were conducted with 84 participants-42 selected from the RUSF arm of the study, and 42 from the CSB arm-using a guide with pre-designated core topics and open-ended questions...
February 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906008/sero-prevalence-of-hbv-and-associated-risk-factors-among-hiv-positive-individuals-attending-art-clinic-at-mekelle-hospital-tigray-northern-ethiopia
#15
Letebrhan Weldemhret, Tsehaye Asmelash, Rashmi Belodu, Dawit Gebreegziabiher
BACKGROUND: Because of the shared mean of transmission, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of an important cause of co-morbidity and mortality in peoples living with HIV/AIDS. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors in HIV/AIDS positive individuals attending ART clinic at Mekelle hospital, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from August to October 2014 in HIV/AIDS positive adult individuals...
February 4, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905999/factors-associated-with-hiv-viral-load-blips-and-the-relationship-between-self-reported-adherence-and-efavirenz-blood-levels-on-blip-occurrence-a-case-control-study
#16
Aaron Farmer, Xun Wang, Anuradha Ganesan, Robert G Deiss, Brian K Agan, Thomas A O'Bryan, Kevin Akers, Jason F Okulicz
BACKGROUND: The uncertain etiology of HIV viral load (VL) blips may lead to increased use of clinical resources. We evaluated the association of self-reported adherence (SRA) and antiretroviral (ART) drug levels on blip occurrence in US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) participants who initiated the single-tablet regimen efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF). METHODS: ART-naïve NHS participants started on EFV/FTC/TDF between 2006 and 2013 who achieved VL suppression (<50 copies/mL) within 12 months and had available SRA and stored plasma samples were included...
March 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905998/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-challenges-and-opportunities-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-us
#17
REVIEW
Hyman M Scott, Jeffrey D Klausner
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown high efficacy in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in several large clinical trials, and more recently in "real world" reports of clinical implementation and a PrEP demonstration project. Those studies also demonstrated high bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence and raised the discussion of how PrEP may impact STI control efforts, especially in the setting of increasing Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance and the increase in syphilis cases among MSM...
January 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905997/the-adult-prevalence-of-hiv-in-zambia-results-from-a-population-based-mobile-testing-survey-conducted-in-2013-2014
#18
Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Nathan Kapata, Eveline Klinkenberg, Ngosa William, Liwewe Mazyanga, Katoba Musukwa, Elizabeth Chizema Kawesha, Felix Masiye, Peter Mwaba
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the adult prevalence of HIV among the adult population in Zambia and determine whether demographic characteristics were associated with being HIV positive. METHODS: A cross sectional population based survey to asses HIV status among participants aged 15 years and above in a national tuberculosis prevalence survey. Counselling was offered to participants who tested for HIV. The prevalence was estimated using a logistic regression model. Univariate and multivariate associations of social demographic characteristics with HIV were determined...
January 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905912/effect-of-sitagliptin-on-blood-glucose-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-who-are-treatment-naive-or-poorly-responsive-to-existing-antidiabetic-drugs-the-jamp-study
#19
Hiroshi Sakura, Naotake Hashimoto, Kazuo Sasamoto, Hiroshi Ohashi, Sumiko Hasumi, Noriko Ujihara, Tadasu Kasahara, Osamu Tomonaga, Hideo Nunome, Masashi Honda, Yasuhiko Iwamoto
BACKGROUND: To investigate the ameliorating effect of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were previously untreated with or who have a poor responsive to existing antidiabetic drugs. METHODS: Sitagliptin (50 mg/day) was added on to the pre-existing therapy for type 2 diabetes and changes in the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level after 3 months of treatment were compared with the baseline and performed exploratory analysis...
December 1, 2016: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905910/is-standardized-care-feasible-in-the-emergency-setting-a-case-matched-analysis-of-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#20
Fabian Grass, Matthieu Cachemaille, Catherine Blanc, Nicolas Fournier, Nermin Halkic, Nicolas Demartines, Martin Hübner
BACKGROUND: Immediate laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the accepted standard for the treatment of acute cholecystitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a standardized approach with tailored care maps for pre- and postoperative care by comparing pain, nausea and patient satisfaction after elective and emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: From January 2014 until April 2015, data on pain and nausea management were prospectively recorded for all elective and emergency procedures in the department of visceral surgery...
December 1, 2016: BMC Surgery
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