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Pharmacogenomics drugs metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918238/genome-wide-mirnas-expression-profiles-of-schistosoma-japonicum-schistosomula-in-response-to-artesunate
#1
Qing-Ming Kong, Xiao Zhu, Qun-Bo Tong, Bin Zheng, Na-Yu Shi, Di Lou, Jian-Zu Ding, Jian-Ping Jia, Xiao-Heng Chen, Rui Chen, Shao-Hong Lu
AIM: miRNAs play a significant role in pharmacogenomics and are likely to be important in the molecular mechanism of atesunate (ART) effects on Schistosoma japonicum. METHODS: We sequenced the RNAs using an Illumina (Solexa) DNA sequencer and compared the relative expression levels of the miRNAs in 10-day-old schistosomula from ART and the parallel control group. RESULTS: We characterized 95 known miRNAs from S. japonicum schistosomula individuals, including 38 novel miRNA families...
December 5, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915083/pharmacodynamic-and-cytogenetic-evaluation-in-cyp2c19-2-and-cyp2c19-3-allelomorphism-in-south-indian-population-with-clopidogrel-therapy
#2
Javeed Ahmad Tantray, K Pratap Reddy, Kaiser Jamil, Y Shiva Kumar
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors play a significant role in pathogenesis of most diseases of heart. The present study was undertaken to correlate coronary artery disease with demographical, biochemical alterations, SNPs, gene expression and chromosomal abnormalities and for further enlightening the investigation in this field. METHODS: 150 patients taking clopidogrel drug were selected and single nucleotide polymorphism was done by PCR-RFLP techniques. With the same patients cytogenetic analysis was carried out on leukocyte cultures by karyotyping...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897267/increasing-bmi-is-associated-with-reduced-expression-of-p-glycoprotein-abcb1-gene-in-the-human-brain-with-a-stronger-association-in-african-americans-than-caucasians
#3
J Vendelbo, R H Olesen, J K Lauridsen, J Rungby, J E Kleinman, T M Hyde, A Larsen
The efflux pump, p-glycoprotein, controls bioavailability and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds. In the blood-brain barrier, p-glycoprotein regulates the delivery of pharmaceutical substances to the brain, influencing efficacy and side effects for some drugs notably antipsychotics. Common side effects to antipsychotics include obesity and metabolic disease. Polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene coding for p-glycoprotein are associated with more severe side effects to neuro-pharmaceuticals as well as weight gain, indicating a potential link between p-glycoprotein function and metabolic regulation...
November 29, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871989/quality-by-design-qbd-approach-of-pharmacogenomics-in-drug-designing-and-formulation-development-for-optimization-of-drug-delivery-systems
#4
REVIEW
Sumeet Gupta, Vikas Jhawat
Conventional approaches of drug discovery are very complex, costly and time consuming. But after the completion of human genome project, applications of pharmacogenomics in this area completely revolutionize the drug discovery and development process to produce a quality by design (QbD) approach based products. The applications of two areas of pharmacogenomics i.e. structural and functional pharmacogenomics excel the drug discovery process by employing genomic data in drug target identification and evaluation, lead optimization via high throughput screening, evaluation of drug metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters and drug receptors using computer aided technique and bioinformatics library data base...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861439/trends-in-tramadol-pharmacology-metabolism-and-misuse
#5
Karen Miotto, Arthur K Cho, Mohamed A Khalil, Kirsten Blanco, Jun D Sasaki, Richard Rawson
Tramadol is a unique analgesic medication, available in variety of formulations, with both monoaminergic reuptake inhibitory and opioid receptor agonist activity increasingly prescribed worldwide as an alternative for high-affinity opioid medication in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. It is a prodrug that is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 to its more potent opioid analgesic metabolites, particularly the O-demethylation product M1. The opioid analgesic potency of a given dose of tramadol is influenced by an individual's CYP genetics, with poor metabolizers experiencing little conversion to the active M1 opioid metabolite and individuals with a high metabolic profile, or ultra-metabolizers, experiencing the greatest opioid analgesic effects...
November 17, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854302/severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions-the-pharmacogenomics-from-research-to-clinical-implementation
#6
REVIEW
Shih-Chi Su, Shuen-Iu Hung, Wen-Lang Fan, Ro-Lan Dao, Wen-Hung Chung
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), previously thought to be idiosyncratic or unpredictable, are a deadly form of adverse drug reactions with skin manifestations. Current pharmacogenomic studies of SCARs have made important strides, as the prevention of SCARs, to some extent, appears attainable with the identification of genetic variants for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). Despite the improvement of incidence, a treatment guideline for this devastating condition is still unavailable, highlighting the inadequacy of contemporary accepted therapeutic interventions...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849442/to-genotype-or-phenotype-for-personalized-medicine-cyp450-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-genotype-phenotype-concordance-and-discordance-in-the-ecuadorian-population
#7
Fernando De Andrés, Santiago Terán, Francisco Hernández, Enrique Terán, Adrián LLerena
Genetic variations within the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) superfamily of drug metabolizing enzymes confer substantial person-to-person and between-population differences in pharmacokinetics, and by extension, highly variable clinical effects of medicines. In this context, "personalized medicine," "precision medicine," and "stratified medicine" are related concepts attributed to what is essentially targeted therapeutics and companion diagnostics, aimed at improving safety and effectiveness of health interventions...
December 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790935/pharmacogenetics-and-ethnicity-relevance-for-clinical-implementation-clinical-trials-pharmacovigilance-and-drug-regulation-in-latin-america
#8
Martha Sosa-Macías, Enrique Teran, William Waters, Martha M Fors, Catalina Altamirano, Helgi Jung-Cook, Carlos Galaviz-Hernández, Marisol López-López, Diadelis Remírez, Graciela E Moya, Francisco Hernández, Humberto Fariñas, Ronald Ramírez, Carolina Céspedes-Garro, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Adrián LLerena
Congress of Pharmacogenetics and Personalized Medicine. Ethnicity, clinical implementation and regulatory environment (MESTIFAR 2016 Quito). Quito, Ecuador, 19-21 May 2016. The Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics (RIBEF) was created in 2006 with the main aim of promoting personalized medicine and collaborative pharmacogenetics research in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries in America and the Iberian Peninsula. The final goal of this initiative was the inclusion of Latin American populations that may benefit from the implementation of personalized medicine in drug therapy...
October 28, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771974/new-treatment-strategies-for-hiv-positive-cancer-patients-undergoing-antiblastic-chemotherapy
#9
Massimiliano Berretta, Raffaele Di Francia, Brigida Stanzione, Gaetano Facchini, Arben LLeshi, Paolo De Paoli, Michele Spina, Umberto Tirelli
The introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) into clinical practice has dramatically changed the outcome of HIV-infected patients by prolonging their survival. The increase in life expectancy has led to an increased risk of non-AIDS-related mortality and morbidity, including cardiovascular diseases, neurocognitive diseases, neuroendocrine dysfunctions and cancer. Areas covered: The GICAT (Italian Cooperation Group on AIDS and Tumors) has demonstrated that patients who receive a multidisciplinary approach with the combination of anticancer agents (AC) and HAART can achieve better responses and survival rates than patients who receive AC alone...
November 16, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767376/pharmacogenomics-and-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors
#10
Andrew Kl Goey, Tristan M Sissung, Cody J Peer, William D Figg
The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) has been used for many decades in neurology and psychiatry. The more recent introduction of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) belinostat, romidepsin and vorinostat for treatment of hematological malignancies indicates the increasing popularity of these agents. Belinostat, romidepsin and vorinostat are metabolized or transported by polymorphic enzymes or drug transporters. Thus, genotype-directed dosing could improve pharmacotherapy by reducing the risk of toxicities or preventing suboptimal treatment...
October 21, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761138/dissecting-the-effect-of-genetic-variation-on-the-hepatic-expression-of-drug-disposition-genes-across-the-collaborative-cross-mouse-strains
#11
Aharon Nachshon, Hanifa J Abu-Toamih Atamni, Yael Steuerman, Roa'a Sheikh-Hamed, Alexandra Dorman, Richard Mott, Juliane C Dohm, Hans Lehrach, Marc Sultan, Ron Shamir, Sascha Sauer, Heinz Himmelbauer, Fuad A Iraqi, Irit Gat-Viks
A central challenge in pharmaceutical research is to investigate genetic variation in response to drugs. The Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse reference population is a promising model for pharmacogenomic studies because of its large amount of genetic variation, genetic reproducibility, and dense recombination sites. While the CC lines are phenotypically diverse, their genetic diversity in drug disposition processes, such as detoxification reactions, is still largely uncharacterized. Here we systematically measured RNA-sequencing expression profiles from livers of 29 CC lines under baseline conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758707/new-psychoactive-substances-3-methoxyphencyclidine-3-meo-pcp-and-3-methoxyrolicyclidine-3-meo-pcpy-metabolic-fate-elucidated-with-rat-urine-and-human-liver-preparations-and-their-detectability-in-urine-by-gc-ms-lc-high-resolution-msn-and-lc-high-resolution
#12
Julian A Michely, Sascha K Manier, Achim T Caspar, Simon D Brandt, Jason Wallach, Hans H Maurer
3-Methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) and 3-methoxyrolicyclidine (3-MeO-PCPy) are two new psychoactive substances (NPS). The aims of the present study were the elucidation of their metabolic fate in rat and pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM), the identification of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved, and the detectability using standard urine screening approaches (SUSA) after intake of common users' doses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-multi-stage mass spectrometry (LC-MSn), and liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS)...
October 18, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758143/pharmacogenomics-of-genes-involved-in-antifolate-drug-response-and-toxicity-in-osteosarcoma
#13
Claudia Maria Hattinger, Elisa Tavanti, Marilù Fanelli, Serena Vella, Piero Picci, Massimo Serra
Antifolates are structural analogs of folates, which have been used as antitumor drugs for more than 60 years. The antifolate drug most commonly used for treating human tumors is methotrexate (MTX), which is utilized widely in first-line treatment protocols of high-grade osteosarcoma (HGOS). In addition to MTX, two other antifolates, trimetrexate and pemetrexed, have been tested in clinical settings for second-line treatment of recurrent HGOS with patients unfortunately showing modest activity. Areas covered: There is clinical evidence which suggsest that, like other chemotherapeutic agents, not all HGOS patients are equally responsive to antifolates and do not have the same susceptibility to experience adverse drug-related toxicities...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757045/pharmacogenomics-of-statins-understanding-susceptibility-to-adverse-effects
#14
Joseph P Kitzmiller, Eduard B Mikulik, Anees M Dauki, Chandrama Murkherjee, Jasmine A Luzum
Statins are a cornerstone of the pharmacologic treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerotic disease is a predominant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Statins are among the most commonly prescribed classes of medications, and their prescribing indications and target patient populations have been significantly expanded in the official guidelines recently published by the American and European expert panels. Adverse effects of statin pharmacotherapy, however, result in significant cost and morbidity and can lead to nonadherence and discontinuation of therapy...
2016: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752976/pharmacogenomics-and-pharmacogenetics-for-the-intensive-care-unit-a-narrative-review
#15
Meghan MacKenzie, Richard Hall
PURPOSE: Knowledge of how alterations in pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics may affect drug therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) has received little study. We review the clinically relevant application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to drugs and conditions encountered in the ICU. SOURCE: We selected relevant literature to illustrate the important concepts contained within. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two main approaches have been used to identify genetic abnormalities - the candidate gene approach and the genome-wide approach...
October 17, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729266/pharmacogenomics-of-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-and-transporters-relevance-to-precision-medicine
#16
Shabbir Ahmed, Zhan Zhou, Jie Zhou, Shu-Qing Chen
The interindividual genetic variations in drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters influence the efficacy and toxicity of numerous drugs. As a fundamental element in precision medicine, pharmacogenomics, the study of responses of individuals to medication based on their genomic information, enables the evaluation of some specific genetic variants responsible for an individual's particular drug response. In this article, we review the contributions of genetic polymorphisms to major individual variations in drug pharmacotherapy, focusing specifically on the pharmacogenomics of phase-I drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters...
October 8, 2016: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706500/pharmacogenomics-can-enhance-prescribing-of-psychiatric-medications
#17
Puneet Narang, Amy Johnson, Manasa Enja, Steven Lippmann
Many psychiatric patients experience pharmaceutical intolerances, and some of them do not derive optimal efficacy from their pharmacotherapies. Clinical problems such as these may result in prolonged dysfunction, adverse consequences, and repeated changes in medication treatment regimens. Pharmacogenomics is a laboratory method that aids individualized medication selection by predicting drug efficacy and adverse effect profiles. It is a technique that involves the testing of patients' genetic makeup to improve medicinal response and tolerance...
October 2016: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693711/pharmacogenomics-of-the-cytochrome-p450-2c-family-impacts-of-amino-acid-variations-on-drug-metabolism
#18
Adriana Isvoran, Maxime Louet, Diana Larisa Vladoiu, Dana Craciun, Marie-Anne Loriot, Bruno O Villoutreix, Maria A Miteva
Pharmacogenomics investigates DNA and RNA variations in the human genome related to drug responses. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a supergene family of drug-metabolizing enzymes responsible for the metabolism of approximately 90% of human drugs. Among the major CYP isoforms, the CYP2C subfamily is of clinical significance because it metabolizes approximately 20% of clinically administrated drugs and represents several variant alleles leading to adverse drug reactions or altering drug efficacy. Here, we review recent progress on understanding the interindividual variability of the CYP2C members and the functional and clinical impact on drug metabolism...
September 28, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660611/from-metabonomics-to-pharmacometabonomics-the-role-of-metabolic-profiling-in-personalized-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Jeremy R Everett
Variable patient responses to drugs are a key issue for medicine and for drug discovery and development. Personalized medicine, that is the selection of medicines for subgroups of patients so as to maximize drug efficacy and minimize toxicity, is a key goal of twenty-first century healthcare. Currently, most personalized medicine paradigms rely on clinical judgment based on the patient's history, and on the analysis of the patients' genome to predict drug effects i.e., pharmacogenomics. However, variability in patient responses to drugs is dependent upon many environmental factors to which human genomics is essentially blind...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647252/-recent-progress-in-research-of-pathogeneses-of-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis
#20
T T Gao, Q Long
Stevens-Johnson syndrome(SJS)and toxic epidermal necrolysis(TEN)are life-threatening cutaneous adverse drug reactions that induce widespread epidermal necrosis. Ocular and cutaneous diseases are common chronic sequelae of SJS and TEN. Several concepts have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Recent advances in genetic, pharmacogenomics and immunologic studies have provided evidences of genetic predispositions, drug metabolism and cytokines related to SJS and TEN...
September 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
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