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Falco Hietbrink, Lonneke G Bode, Louis Riddez, Luke P H Leenen, Marijke R van Dijk
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity. However, early referral frequently makes it a challenge to recognize this heterogeneous disease in its initial stages. Signs and symptoms might be misleading or absent, while the most prominent skin marks might be in discrepancy with the position of the fascial necrosis...
2016: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
Natalia Zeber-Lubecka, Maria Kulecka, Filip Ambrozkiewicz, Agnieszka Paziewska, Krzysztof Goryca, Jakub Karczmarski, Tymon Rubel, Wojciech Wojtowicz, Piotr Mlynarz, Lukasz Marczak, Roman Tomecki, Michal Mikula, Jerzy Ostrowski
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder and its development may be linked, directly and indirectly, to intestinal dysbiosis. Here we investigated the interactions between IBS symptoms and the gut microbiome, including the relation to rifaximin (1200 mg daily; 11.2 g per a treatment). We recruited 72 patients, including 31 with IBS-D (diarrhea), 11 with IBS-C (constipation), and 30 with IBS-M (mixed constipation and diarrhea) and 30 healthy controls (HCs). Of them, 68%, 64%, and 53% patients with IBS-D, IBS-C, and IBS-M, respectively, achieved 10-12 week-term improvement after the rifaximin treatment...
September 2, 2016: Gut Microbes
Long Liu, Xing Zhao, Qian Wang, Xiaoxian Sun, Lili Xia, Qianqian Wang, Biao Yang, Yihui Zhang, Sean Montgomery, He Meng, Tuoyu Geng, Daoqing Gong
Goose can develop severe hepatic steatosis without overt injury, thus it may serve as a unique model for uncovering how steatosis-related injury is prevented. To identify the markedly prosteatotic and protective mechanisms, we performed an integrated analysis of liver transcriptomes and gut microbial metagenomes using samples collected from overfed and normally-fed geese at different time points. The results indicated that the fatty liver transcriptome, initially featuring a 'metabolism' pathway, was later joined by 'cell growth and death' and 'immune diseases' pathways...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nermeen M Abu-Elala, Reham M Abd-Elsalam, Sherif Marouf, Mohamed Abdelaziz, Mohamed Moustafa
The present study was designed to assess the possible causes of the mass mortalities of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at El-Behera Governorate, Egypt, in relationship to environmental and microbiotic factors. Water samples were collected from fish farms at different locations and from Lake Edku to analyze water temperature, water pH, salinity, biological oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia nitrogen, and un-ionized ammonia. A number of moribund and freshly dead fish were sampled and submitted to our laboratory for microbiological, molecular, and histopathological examination...
September 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Amanda C Wollenberg, Tanush Jagdish, Greg Slough, Megan E Hoinville, Michael S Wollenberg
UNLABELLED: Insect larvae killed by entomopathogenic nematodes are thought to contain bacterial communities dominated by a single bacterial genus, that of the nematode's bacterial symbiont. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to profile bacterial community dynamics in greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae cadavers killed by Heterorhabditis nematodes and their Photorhabdus symbionts. We found that, although Photorhabdus strains did initially displace an Enterococcus-dominated community present in uninfected G...
October 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Thierry Franza, Emilie Delavenne, Aurélie Derré-Bobillot, Vincent Juillard, Mylène Boulay, Emmanuelle Demey, Joelle Vinh, Gilles Lamberet, Philippe Gaudu
Aerobic respiration metabolism in Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is activated by exogenous heme and menaquinone. This capacity enhances resistance of GBS to acid and oxidative stress and improves its survival. In this work, we discovered that GBS is able to respire in the presence of heme and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (DHNA). DHNA is a biosynthetic precursor of demethylmenaquinone (DMK) in many bacterial species. A GBS gene (gbs1789) encodes a homolog of the MenA 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate prenyltransferase enzyme, involved in the synthesis of demethylmenaquinone...
October 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Julien S Wonderlick, Robert D'Agostino
Clostridium difficile is a well-established cause of nosocomial gastrointestinal disease. Although antibiotics remain an effective first-line treatment for C. difficile colitis (CDC), relapse and recurrence are common. FMT has emerged as one of the safest and most effective known therapies available for recurrent or refractory CDC, which is likely due to restoration of the protective microbiotic barrier of the gastrointestinal tract. FMT varies greatly across institutions by route of delivery, dose, and protocol...
October 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Raphael N Alolga, Yong Fan, Zhuo Chen, Li-Wei Liu, Yi-Jing Zhao, Jin Li, Yan Chen, Mao-De Lai, Ping Li, Lian-Wen Qi
We investigated the influence of gut microbiotal metabolism on the pharmacokinetics of berberine in healthy male Africans and Chinese. The Cmax and AUC in the Africans were 2.67-fold and 2.0-fold higher than the Chinese, respectively. Microbiotal compositions by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing showed higher abundance of the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Megamonas (34.22, 13.88, and 10.68%, respectively) in the Chinese than the Africans (30.08, 9.43, and 0.48%, respectively). Scatter plot showed a strong negative correlation between the microbiotal abundance and the berberine AUC, especially for the genus Prevotella (r = -0...
2016: Scientific Reports
I A Kooij, S Sahami, S L Meijer, C J Buskens, A A Te Velde
This literature review assesses the current knowledge about the immunological aspects of the vermiform appendix in health and disease. An essential part of its immunological function is the interaction with the intestinal bacteria, a trait shown to be preserved during its evolution. The existence of the appendiceal biofilm in particular has proved to have a beneficial effect for the entire gut. In assessing the influence of acute appendicitis and the importance of a normally functioning gut flora, however, multiple immunological aspects point towards the appendix as a priming site for ulcerative colitis...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Mark L Heiman, Frank L Greenway
BACKGROUND: Like all healthy ecosystems, richness of microbiota species characterizes the GI microbiome in healthy individuals. Conversely, a loss in species diversity is a common finding in several disease states. This biome is flooded with energy in the form of undigested and partially digested foods, and in some cases drugs and dietary supplements. Each microbiotic species in the biome transforms that energy into new molecules, which may signal messages to physiological systems of the host...
May 2016: Molecular Metabolism
P Zheng, B Zeng, C Zhou, M Liu, Z Fang, X Xu, L Zeng, J Chen, S Fan, X Du, X Zhang, D Yang, Y Yang, H Meng, W Li, N D Melgiri, J Licinio, H Wei, P Xie
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the result of complex gene-environment interactions. According to the World Health Organization, MDD is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and it is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease. However, the definitive environmental mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of MDD remain elusive. The gut microbiome is an increasingly recognized environmental factor that can shape the brain through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. We show here that the absence of gut microbiota in germ-free (GF) mice resulted in decreased immobility time in the forced swimming test relative to conventionally raised healthy control mice...
June 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Hui-Ting Yang, Ming-Chong Yang, Jie-Jie Sun, Xiu-Zhen Shi, Xiao-Fan Zhao, Jin-Xing Wang
The metazoan gut lumen harbors numerous microbial communities. Tolerance for high bacterial counts and maintenance of microbiota homeostasis remain insufficiently studied. In this study, we identified a novel dual oxidase (MjDUOX2) involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. MjDUOX2 is a transmembrane protein with an N-signal peptide region (19 aa) and a peroxidase homology domain (PHD, 554 aa) in the extracellular region; seven transmembrane regions; and three EF (calcium-binding region) domains (110 aa), a FAD-binding domain (104 aa), and a NAD-binding domain (156 aa) in the intracellular region...
June 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Vishal Singh, Beng San Yeoh, Matam Vijay-Kumar
Over the last two decades, our understanding of gut microbiotal composition and its association with intra-intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases including risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) namely metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis, have been increased exponentially. A pertinent question which often arises in researchers' community is on how to manipulate the gut microbial ecology to 'cure' the cardiovascular risk factors. Accordingly, in this review we summarized the potential strategies, based on our current knowledge on gut microbiota in modulating CVD, how gut microbiota can be therapeutically exploited by targeting their metabolic activity to alleviate the risk factors of CVD...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Sharon B Meropol, Amy Edwards
Infants undergo profound shifts in colonizing intestinal microorganisms during their first year, especially during and after birth and during weaning. Microbiota are passed to infants through the placenta, during the vaginal birth process, and from early diet and other environmental exposures. These microbiota play an active role in the development of healthy infant metabolic and immunologic systems; profound shifts in microbiotal populations can be persistent, are associated with immediate alterations in gene expression, metabolic, immunologic, and neurologic function, and with downstream metabolic and immunologic consequences such as obesity, allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases, and potentially neurologic conditions...
December 2015: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Lawrence J Brandt
Respice, Adspice, Prospice, look to the past, look to the present, look to the future, is one of life's valuable axioms; for it is only if one knows where one has been can one intelligently prepare for the future. I have used this approach here to review fecal microbiota transplant (FMT). First used in fourth-century China to treat an assortment of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, today FMT is primarily used for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). In the future, however, it is likely that microbiotic therapy will be extended beyond treatment of RCDI...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Y Saint-Georges-Chaumet, D Attaf, E Pelletier, M Edeas
Our aim is to highlight the subtle relationship that exists between microbiota and mitochondria. Microbiota targets mitochondria by modulating the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and the mitochondrial activity through interactions with toxins, proteins or other metabolites released by gut microbiota. The intriguing relationship that exists between mitochondria and microbiota is strengthened by the probable prokaryotic origin of mitochondria. Emerging data implicates a role for ROS, nitric oxide, Short Chain Fatty Acids and hydrogen sulfide in the cross-talk between microbiota - mitochondria and REDOX signaling...
2015: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Fatima El Khalloufi, Khalid Oufdou, Marie Bertrand, Majida Lahrouni, Brahim Oudra, Philippe Ortet, Mohamed Barakat, Thierry Heulin, Wafa Achouak
The bloom-containing water bodies may have an impact due to cyanotoxins production on other microorganisms and aquatic plants. Where such water is being used for crops irrigation, the presence of cyanotoxins may also have a toxic impact on terrestrial plants and their rhizosphere microbiota. For that purpose, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was applied to phylogenetically characterize the bacterial community of Medicago sativa rhizosphere in response to cyanotoxins extract. This analysis revealed a wide diversity at species level, which decreased from unplanted soil to root tissues indicating that only some populations were able to compete for nutrients and niches in this selective habitat...
January 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Vincent K Dik, Martijn G H van Oijen, Hugo M Smeets, Peter D Siersema
BACKGROUND: Microbiotical dysbiosis induced by a Western diet seems to be associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Few other factors with an effect on the colonic microbiota and their association with CRC have been evaluated. AIM: We investigated whether the use of antibiotics is associated with CRC risk. METHODS: Data on the use of antibiotics and comedication were extracted from a health insurance database for subjects with a diagnostic-related group for CRC between 2006 and 2011 and four age- and sex-matched controls...
January 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Jacques Begon, Pascal Juillerat, Jacques Cornuz, Carole Clair
The digestive tract is colonized from birth by a bacterial population called the microbiota which influences the development of the immune system. Modifications in its composition are associated with problems such as obesity or inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotics are known to influence the intestinal microbiota but other environmental factors such as cigarette smoking also seem to have an impact on its composition. This influence might partly explain weight gain which is observed after smoking cessation...
June 10, 2015: Revue Médicale Suisse
Margaret A Adgent, Walter J Rogan
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of disease. The composition of the microbiome is influenced by factors such as mode of delivery at birth, diet and antibiotic use, yet the influence of environmental chemical exposures is largely unknown. The antimicrobial compound triclosan, found in many personal care products and widely detected in human urine, is an environmental exposure for which systemic microbiotic effects may be of particular interest. To investigate the relationship between triclosan and gut microflora, we assessed the association between triclosan and enterolactone, an intestinal metabolite that is produced via bacterial transformation of dietary lignans (seeds, nuts) and has known susceptibility to oral antibiotics...
October 2015: Environmental Research
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