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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750070/low-hiv-incidence-in-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-receiving-a-community-based-combination-hiv-prevention-intervention-in-a-high-hiv-incidence-setting-in-south-africa
#1
Geoffrey Fatti, Najma Shaikh, Debra Jackson, Ameena Goga, Jean B Nachega, Brian Eley, Ashraf Grimwood
BACKGROUND: Young Southern African women have the highest HIV incidence globally. Pregnancy doubles the risk of HIV acquisition further, and maternal HIV acquisition contributes significantly to the paediatric HIV burden. Little data on combination HIV prevention interventions during pregnancy and lactation are available. We measured HIV incidence amongst pregnant and postpartum women receiving a community-based combination HIV prevention intervention in a high HIV incidence setting in South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707222/considering-the-inferior-surface-area-of-lower-lumbar-vertebrae-determining-weight-transmission-pattern-at-the-lumbosacral-junction
#2
Uchenna Kenneth Ezemagu, Chike P Anibeze, Chinedu F Akpuaka
The biomechanical function of the lumbosacral junction (LSJ) is obscure, but its medical significance is not, as it is the most common site of low back pain. In this study, we analyzed the difference between the mean values of the surface areas of the inferior body and total inferior facet areas of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae. We aimed to define the function of the LSJ during weight transmission and clarify its mechanical significance. Vertebral columns of 45 adult male human cadavers from five anatomy departments in Nigeria were cut at the L3-L4 intervertebral disc and macerated...
July 13, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701780/high-throughput-identification-and-characterization-of-two-dimensional-materials-using-density-functional-theory
#3
Kamal Choudhary, Irina Kalish, Ryan Beams, Francesca Tavazza
We introduce a simple criterion to identify two-dimensional (2D) materials based on the comparison between experimental lattice constants and lattice constants mainly obtained from Materials-Project (MP) density functional theory (DFT) calculation repository. Specifically, if the relative difference between the two lattice constants for a specific material is greater than or equal to 5%, we predict them to be good candidates for 2D materials. We have predicted at least 1356 such 2D materials. For all the systems satisfying our criterion, we manually create single layer systems and calculate their energetics, structural, electronic, and elastic properties for both the bulk and the single layer cases...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693112/association-of-prenatal-passive-smoking-and-metabolic-gene-polymorphisms-with-child-growth-from-birth-to-3years-of-age-in-the-hokkaido-birth-cohort-study-on-environment-and-children-s-health
#4
Titilola Serifat Braimoh, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Fumihiro Sata, Seiko Sasaki, Houman Goudarzi, Thamar Ayo Yila, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Hisanori Minakami, Tsuyoshi Baba, Kazuo Sengoku, Reiko Kishi
Although the effects of prenatal passive smoking on birth weight have been reported, the effects of metabolic gene polymorphisms on passive smoking have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of maternal passive smoking and metabolic gene polymorphisms on child growth up to 3years of age using cotinine as a biomarker. We included 1356 Japanese participants in a prospective cohort between 2003 and 2007 (cotinine levels at the third trimester≤0.21ng/mL and 0.22 to 11.48ng/mL for non-passive and passive smokers, respectively), and measured child outcomes such as weight, length, head circumference, and Kaup index...
July 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620108/marini-o-costa-s-bevilacqua-d-et-al-mature-cd10-and-immature-cd10-neutrophils-present-in-g-csf-treated-donors-display-opposite-effects-on-t-cells-blood-2017-129-10-1343-1356
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615511/comprehensive-analysis-on-diagnostic-value-of-circulating-mirnas-for-patients-with-ovarian-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Huiqing Wang, Tingting Wang, Wenpei Shi, Yuan Liu, Lizhang Chen, Zhanzhan Li
We performed a meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of circulating miRNA for patients with ovarian cancer. We systematically searched several online databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang from inception to February 20, 2017. We used the bivariate mixed-effect models to pool positive likelihood ratios, negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratios and their 95% CI confidence intervals (CIs). We used the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 for quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601632/intraspecific-gestural-laterality-in-chimpanzees-and-gorillas-and-the-impact-of-social-propensities
#7
Jacques Prieur, Simone Pika, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin
A relevant approach to address the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the right-handedness/left-hemisphere language specialization of humans is to investigate both proximal and distal causes of language lateralization through the study of non-human primates' gestural laterality. We carried out the first systematic, quantitative comparison of within-subjects' and between-species' laterality by focusing on the laterality of intraspecific gestures of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) living in six different captive groups...
June 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591025/neurocognitive-development-in-hiv-positive-children-is-correlated-with-plasma-viral-loads-in-early-childhood
#8
Valentin Weber, Daniel Radeloff, Bianca Reimers, Emilia Salzmann-Manrique, Peter Bader, Dirk Schwabe, Christoph Königs
Because of neurocognitive impairments in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and adolescents, this study aimed to demonstrate the effect of plasma viral loads and early initiation of sufficient combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on neurocognitive development.In total, 14 perinatally infected HIV-positive children (median age 8.24 years [range: 6.0-16.74]) receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based ART underwent neurocognitive testing using the Wechsler Intelligence Score for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV)...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570450/the-impact-of-physician-assistants-on-a-breast-reconstruction-practice-outcomes-and-cost-analysis
#9
Albert H Chao, Alexander Yaney, Roman J Skoracki, Patrick N Kearns
BACKGROUND: Physician assistants (PAs) are commonly employed in plastic surgery. However, limited data exist on their impact, which may guide decisions regarding how best to integrate them into practice. METHODS: A review of the practices of 2 breast reconstructive surgeons was performed. A comparison was made between a 1-year period before to a 1-year period after the addition of a PA into practice. The practice model was a one-to-one pairing of a plastic surgeon and a PA...
May 31, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513324/biomechanical-comparison-of-countermovement-jumps-performed-on-land-and-in-water-age-effects
#10
Talin Louder, Dennis Dolny, Eadric Bressel
CONTEXT: The aquatic environment provides a low impact alternative to land-based exercise and rehabilitation in older adults. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the biomechanics of older adults and young adults performing jumping movements on land and in water. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional, mixed-factorial experiment; adjustable-depth pool at sports medicine research facility. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-six young adults (22.0±3.9years) and twelve healthy older adults (57...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506407/intraoperative-neuromonitoring-in-thyroid-surgery-is-the-two-staged-thyroidectomy-justified
#11
Pietro Giorgio Calò, Fabio Medas, Giovanni Conzo, Francesco Podda, Gian Luigi Canu, Claudio Gambardella, Giuseppe Pisano, Enrico Erdas, Angelo Nicolosi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) in predicting postoperative nerve function during thyroid surgery and its consequent ability to assist the surgeon in intraoperative decision making. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2365 consecutive patients were submitted to thyroidectomy by the same surgical team. Group A included 1356 patients (2712 nerves at risk) in whom IONM was utilized, and Group B included 1009 patients (2018 nerves at risk) in whom IONM was not utilized...
May 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499957/costs-of-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-opat-administered-by-hospital-at-home-units-in-spain
#12
V J González-Ramallo, M Mirón-Rubio, A Mujal, O Estrada, C Forné, B Aragón, A J Rivera
The aim of this study was to assess the direct healthcare costs of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) administered by Hospital at Home (HaH) units in Spain. An observational, multicentre, economic evaluation of retrospective cohorts was conducted. Patients were treated at home by the HaH units of three Spanish hospitals between January 2012 and December 2013. From the cost accounting of HaH OPAT (staff, pharmacy, transportation, diagnostic tests and structural), the cost of each outpatient course was obtained following a top-down strategy based on the use of resources...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468892/dietary-intake-of-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-risk-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#13
Juan Wu, Eunyoung Cho, Edward L Giovannucci, Bernard A Rosner, Srinivas M Sastry, Debra A Schaumberg, Walter C Willett
Background: The relation between α-linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is unclear. European researchers reported that ≤40% of ALA can be present as trans forms.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations between intake of ALA and intermediate and advanced AMD.Design: Seventy-five thousand eight hundred eighty-nine women from the Nurses' Health Study and 38,961 men from Health Professionals Follow-Up Study were followed up from 1984 to 2012 and from 1986 to 2010, respectively...
June 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438775/emergency-diagnosis-of-cancer-and-previous-general-practice-consultations-insights-from-linked-patient-survey-data
#14
Gary A Abel, Silvia C Mendonca, Sean McPhail, Yin Zhou, Lucy Elliss-Brookes, Georgios Lyratzopoulos
BACKGROUND: Emergency diagnosis of cancer is common and aetiologically complex. The proportion of emergency presenters who have consulted previously with relevant symptoms is uncertain. AIM: To examine how many patients with cancer, who were diagnosed as emergencies, have had previous primary care consultations with relevant symptoms; and among those, to examine how many had multiple consultations. DESIGN AND SETTING: Secondary analysis of patient survey data from the 2010 English Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES), previously linked to population-based data on diagnostic route...
June 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433614/association-between-breast-cancer-and-the-risk-of-colorectal-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Jennifer H Lai, Gavin Park, Lauren B Gerson
BACKGROUND: The literature to date has suggested a potential increase in colorectal cancer (CRC) among patients with breast cancer. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature and included 37 retrospective cohort studies and 8 case-control studies. The primary aim was to determine the prevalence of CRC. Secondary aims included analysis of adenomatous polyps and analysis of CRC prevalence by age. We calculated pooled prevalence rates and odds ratios (ORs) using random effects models with 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
April 20, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417835/objective-vs-subjective-evaluation-of-cognitive-performance-during-0-4-mpa-dives-breathing-air-or-nitrox
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Peter Germonpré, Costantino Balestra, Walter Hemelryck, Peter Buzzacott, Pierre Lafère
BACKGROUND: Divers try to limit risks associated with their sport, for instance by breathing enriched air nitrox (EANx) instead of air. This double blinded, randomized trial was designed to see if the use of EANx could effectively improve cognitive performance while diving. METHODS: Eight volunteers performed two no-decompression dry dives breathing air or EANx for 20 min at 0.4 MPa. Cognitive functions were assessed with a computerized test battery, including MathProc and Ptrail...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387927/multimodal-lung-cancer-screening-using-the-italung-biomarker-panel-and-low-dose-computed-tomography-results-of-the-italung-biomarker-study
#17
Francesca Maria Carozzi, Simonetta Bisanzi, Laura Carrozzi, Fabio Falaschi, Andrea Lopes Pegna, Mario Mascalchi, Giulia Picozzi, Marco Peluso, Cristina Sani, Luana Greco, Cristina Ocello, Eugenio Paci
Asymptomatic high-risk subjects, randomized in the intervention arm of the ITALUNG trial (1,406 screened for lung cancer), were enrolled for the ITALUNG biomarker study (n = 1,356), in which samples of blood and sputum were analyzed for plasma DNA quantification (cut off 5 ng/ml), loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability. The ITALUNG biomarker panel (IBP) was considered positive if at least one of the two biomarkers included in the panel was positive. Subjects with and without lung cancer diagnosis at the end of the screening cycle with LDCT (n = 517) were evaluated...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336350/smoking-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-occurrence-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-men-versus-women-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#18
Qing Wang, Yibin Guo, Cheng Wu, Liang Yin, Wei Li, Hua Shen, Wang Xi, Tianyi Zhang, Jia He, Zhinong Wang
BACKGROUND: Although smoking is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases, the number of large-scale cohort studies on the association between smoking and atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited and the results obtained are also inconsistent, and even fewer studies have addressed the difference between the male and female genders. The present study was intended to clarify and quantify the association between smoking and the risk of AF in men versus women. METHODS: Using AF- and smoking-related keywords, a comprehensive literature search on PubMed, EMbase and Web of Science was conducted with a time limit until December 2016, which was followed by manual screening, quality assessment and data extraction...
March 6, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329077/incidence-presentation-and-risk-factors-of-late-postoperative-pericardial-effusions-requiring-invasive-treatment-after-cardiac-surgery
#19
Niina K Khan, Kati M Järvelä, Eetu L Loisa, Jaakko A Sutinen, Jari O Laurikka, Jahangir A Khan
OBJECTIVES: Occurrence and risk factors of late postoperative pericardial effusions requiring invasive treatment, i.e. pretamponade and tamponade, following cardiac surgery are incompletely described in current literature. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence and presentation of late pretamponade and tamponade as well as to outline significant predisposing factors. METHODS: A cohort of 1356 consecutive cardiac surgery patients treated in a tertiary academic centre between January 2013 and December 2014 was followed up for 6 months after surgery...
June 1, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314371/intrauterine-growth-restriction-programs-the-hypothalamus-of-adult-male-rats-integrated-analysis-of-proteomic-and-metabolomic-data
#20
Amanda P Pedroso, Adriana P Souza, Ana P S Dornellas, Lila M Oyama, Cláudia M O Nascimento, Gianni M S Santos, José C Rosa, Ricardo P Bertolla, Jelena Klawitter, Uwe Christians, Alexandre K Tashima, Eliane B Ribeiro
Programming of hypothalamic functions regulating energy homeostasis may play a role in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)-induced adulthood obesity. The present study investigated the effects of IUGR on the hypothalamus proteome and metabolome of adult rats submitted to 50% protein-energy restriction throughout pregnancy. Proteomic and metabolomic analyzes were performed by data independent acquisition mass spectrometry and multiple reaction monitoring, respectively. At age 4 months, the restricted rats showed elevated adiposity, increased leptin and signs of insulin resistance...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
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