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Sandra Sanchez-Roige, David N Stephens, Theodora Duka
BACKGROUND: Youths with family history (FH) of alcoholism are at greater risk of developing alcohol use disorder (AUD); heightened impulsive behavior may underlie such increased vulnerability. Here, we studied waiting impulsivity (previously suggested to predispose to alcohol drinking) in young moderate-to-heavy social drinkers (18 to 33 years old) characterized as family history positive (FHP) and negative (FHN) following an alcoholic or nonalcoholic (placebo) drink. METHODS: Two groups of young male and female social drinkers (n = 64) were administered an acute dose of alcohol (0...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Manjula Kurella Tamura, Glenn M Chertow, Thomas A Depner, Allen R Nissenson, Brigitte Schiller, Ravindra L Mehta, Sai Liu, Tammy L Sirich
Retention of uremic metabolites is a proposed cause of cognitive impairment in patients with ESRD. We used metabolic profiling to identify and validate uremic metabolites associated with impairment in executive function in two cohorts of patients receiving maintenance dialysis. We performed metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry applied to predialysis plasma samples from a discovery cohort of 141 patients and an independent replication cohort of 180 patients participating in a trial of frequent hemodialysis...
July 21, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Barbara Ruggiero, Marina Vivarelli, Alessandra Gianviti, Carmine Pecoraro, Licia Peruzzi, Elisa Benetti, Giovanna Ventura, Marco Pennesi, Luisa Murer, Rosanna Coppo, Francesco Emma
BACKGROUND: Patients with full-house nephropathy (FHN) present renal lesions that are indistinguishable from those of lupus nephritis (LN) but lack the systemic features necessary to meet diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erithematosus (SLE). Some have been reported to develop a delayed SLE with time. The clinical outcome of children having FHN without SLE has never been reported. METHODS: Children with biopsy-proven FHN were selected after excluding SLE cases by the absence of America College of Rheumatology criteria...
June 7, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Mark L Unruh, Brett Larive, Paul W Eggers, Amit X Garg, Jennifer J Gassman, Fredric O Finkelstein, Paul L Kimmel, Glenn M Chertow
BACKGROUND: Many patients who receive maintenance hemodialysis experience poor sleep. Uncontrolled studies suggest frequent hemodialysis improves sleep quality, which is a strong motivation for some patients to undertake the treatment. We studied the effects of frequent in-center ('daily') and nocturnal home hemodialysis on self-reported sleep quality in two randomized trials. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to frequent (six times per week) or conventional (three times per week) hemodialysis in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Daily (n = 245) and Nocturnal (n = 87) Trials...
June 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Rohana Liyanage, Jackson O Lay, Ronald Okimoto, Narayan C Rath
Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens, where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The selected birds with FHN showed higher body weights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of healthy and FHN-affected chickens were explored using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to prospect for protein biomarkers...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Wojciech Pepke, Philip Kasten, Nicholas A Beckmann, Patricia Janicki, Marcus Egermann
The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of injection of bone marrow aspirate concentrate during core decompression and to study its clinical (visual analogue scale; Harris-Hip-score) and radiological outcomes (magnetic resonance imaging). In this prospective and randomized clinical trial we evaluated 24 consecutive patients with non-traumatic femoral head necrosis (FHN) during a period of two years after intervention. In vitro analysis of mesenchymal stem cells was performed by evaluating the fibroblast colony forming units (CFU-Fs)...
March 21, 2016: Orthopedic Reviews
F Sirri, G Maiorano, S Tavaniello, J Chen, M Petracci, A Meluzzi
The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of 2 dietary levels of trace minerals (TM) zinc, manganese, and copper either from organic (OTM) or inorganic (ITM) sources on broiler performance, carcass traits, intramuscular collagen (IMC) properties, occurrence of hock burns (HB), foot pad dermatitis (FPD), femoral and tibia head necrosis, and breast muscle abnormalities (white striping, WS; wooden breast, WB; poor cohesion, PC). A total of 3,600 one-day-old male chicks were randomly assigned to one of 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (9 replicates of 100 birds/dietary treatment)...
August 1, 2016: Poultry Science
Mengxue Zhang, Vanessa Tidwell, Patricio S La Rosa, James D Wilson, Hari Eswaran, Arye Nehorai
Understanding the mechanisms of uterine contractions during pregnancy is especially important in predicting the onset of labor and thus in forecasting preterm deliveries. Preterm birth can cause serious health problems in newborns, as well as large financial burdens to society. Various techniques such as electromyography (EMG) and magnetomyography (MMG) have been developed to quantify uterine contractions. However, no widely accepted method to predict labor based on electromagnetic measurement is available...
2016: PloS One
Bradley S Dixon, John M VanBuren, James R Rodrigue, Robert S Lockridge, Robert Lindsay, Christopher Chan, Michael V Rocco, Jacob J Oleson, Leigh Beglinger, Kevin Duff, Jane S Paulsen, John B Stokes
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether switching to frequent nocturnal hemodialysis improves cognitive function in well-dialyzed patients and how this compares to patients who receive a kidney transplant. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter observational study with longitudinal follow-up of the effect on cognitive performance of switching dialysis treatment modality from conventional thrice-weekly hemodialysis to frequent nocturnal hemodialysis, a functioning renal transplant or remaining on thrice-weekly conventional hemodialysis...
2016: BMC Nephrology
Jochen G Raimann, Christopher T Chan, John T Daugirdas, Tom Depner, Frank A Gotch, Tom Greene, George A Kaysen, Alan S Kliger, Peter Kotanko, Brett Larive, Robert Lindsay, Michael V Rocco, Glenn M Chertow, Nathan W Levin
In previous reports of the Frequent Hemodialysis Network trials, frequent hemodialysis (HD) reduced extracellular fluid (ECF) and left ventricular mass (LVM), with more pronounced effects observed among patients with low urine volume (UVol). We analyzed the effect of frequent HD on interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and a time-integrated estimate of ECF load (TIFL). We also explored whether volume and sodium loading contributed to the change in LVM over the study period. Treatment effects on volume parameters were analyzed for modification by UVol and the dialysate-to-serum sodium gradient...
2016: Blood Purification
Mohammad Bavandpour, Hamid Soleimani, Bernabé Linares-Barranco, Derek Abbott, Leon O Chua
This study firstly presents (i) a novel general cellular mapping scheme for two dimensional neuromorphic dynamical systems such as bio-inspired neuron models, and (ii) an efficient mixed analog-digital circuit, which can be conveniently implemented on a hybrid memristor-crossbar/CMOS platform, for hardware implementation of the scheme. This approach employs 4n memristors and no switch for implementing an n-cell system in comparison with 2n (2) memristors and 2n switches of a Cellular Memristive Dynamical System (CMDS)...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Anita Cservenka
BACKGROUND: Individuals with a family history of alcoholism are at much greater risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) than youth or adults without such history. A large body of research suggests that there are premorbid differences in brain structure and function in family history positive (FHP) individuals relative to their family history negative (FHN) peers. METHODS: This review summarizes the existing literature on neurobiological phenotypes present in FHP youth and adults by describing findings across neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies...
January 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
B Packialakshmi, N C Rath, W E Huff, G R Huff
Femoral head separation (FHS) is a degenerative skeletal problem in fast-growing poultry wherein the growth plate of the proximal femur separates from its articular cartilage. At its early phase, FHS may remain asymptomatic but lead to epiphyseal breakage, infection, and femoral head necrosis (FHN). Healthy femoral head is viewed as a positive trait for genetic selection. However, the etiology of FHS is poorly understood for use in noninvasive diagnosis and genetic selection. Focal cell death and atrophic changes are likely associated with separation of tissues and necrotic changes...
September 2015: Avian Diseases
Niloofar Farajzadeh Tehrani, MohammadReza Razvan
This paper presents an investigation of the dynamics of two coupled non-identical FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons with delayed synaptic connection. We consider coupling strength and time delay as bifurcation parameters, and try to classify all possible dynamics which is fairly rich. The neural system exhibits a unique rest point or three ones for the different values of coupling strength by employing the pitchfork bifurcation of non-trivial rest point. The asymptotic stability and possible Hopf bifurcations of the trivial rest point are studied by analyzing the corresponding characteristic equation...
December 2015: Mathematical Biosciences
Glenn M Chertow, Nathan W Levin, Gerald J Beck, John T Daugirdas, Paul W Eggers, Alan S Kliger, Brett Larive, Michael V Rocco, Tom Greene
The Frequent Hemodialysis Network Daily Trial randomized 245 patients to receive six (frequent) or three (conventional) in-center hemodialysis sessions per week for 12 months. As reported previously, frequent in-center hemodialysis yielded favorable effects on the coprimary composite outcomes of death or change in left ventricular mass and death or change in self-reported physical health. Here, we determined the long-term effects of the 12-month frequent in-center hemodialysis intervention. We determined the vital status of patients over a median of 3...
June 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Anika A H Alvanzo, Gary S Wand, Hiroto Kuwabara, Dean F Wong, Xiaoqiang Xu, Mary E McCaul
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between family history of alcohol use disorder and striatal dopamine using positron emission tomography imaging. Participants were 84 healthy, 18- to 30-year-old, social drinkers recruited via fliers and newspaper advertisements. At assessment, participants completed measures of lifetime personal and family substance use and psychiatric symptoms. Participants underwent two consecutive positron emission tomography scans using the D2 /D3 dopamine receptor radioligand [(11) C]raclopride...
September 29, 2015: Addiction Biology
Mohsen Hayati, Moslem Nouri, Saeed Haghiri, Derek Abbott
The implementation of biological neural networks is a key objective of the neuromorphic research field. Astrocytes are the largest cell population in the brain. With the discovery of calcium wave propagation through astrocyte networks, now it is more evident that neuronal networks alone may not explain functionality of the strongest natural computer, the brain. Models of cortical function must now account for astrocyte activities as well as their relationships with neurons in encoding and manipulation of sensory information...
April 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Ying Xia, Jurgen Fripp, Shekhar S Chandra, Duncan Walker, Stuart Crozier, Craig Engstrom
To develop an automated approach for 3D quantitative assessment and measurement of alpha angles from the femoral head-neck (FHN) junction using bone models derived from magnetic resonance (MR) images of the hip joint.Bilateral MR images of the hip joints were acquired from 30 male volunteers (healthy active individuals and high-performance athletes, aged 18–49 years) using a water-excited 3D dual echo steady state (DESS) sequence. In a subset of these subjects (18 water-polo players), additional True Fast Imaging with Steady-state Precession (TrueFISP) images were acquired from the right hip joint...
October 7, 2015: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Florencio Rusty Punzalan, Yoshitoshi Kunieda, Akira Amano
Clinical and experimental studies involving human hearts can have certain limitations. Methods such as computer simulations can be an important alternative or supplemental tool. Physiological simulation at the tissue or organ level typically involves the handling of partial differential equations (PDEs). Boundary conditions and distributed parameters, such as those used in pharmacokinetics simulation, add to the complexity of the PDE solution. These factors can tailor PDE solutions and their corresponding program code to specific problems...
2015: PloS One
Meg Jardine, Vlado Perkovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
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