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Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Rehan, Keum-Shik Hong
This paper exploits the dynamical modeling, behavior analysis, and synchronization of a network of four different FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neurons with unknown parameters linked in a ring configuration under direction-dependent coupling. The main purpose is to investigate a robust adaptive control law for the synchronization of uncertain and perturbed neurons, communicating in a medium of bidirectional coupling. The neurons are assumed to be different and interconnected in a ring structure. The strength of the gap junctions is taken to be different for each link in the network, owing to the inter-neuronal coupling medium properties...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Xiong Qin, Pan Jin, Tongmeng Jiang, Muyan Li, Jiachang Tan, Huayu Wu, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao
BACKGROUND Worldwide, femoral head necrosis (FHN), which is also known as avascular necrosis of the femoral head or osteonecrosis of the femoral head, affects millions of people. Excess alcohol intake and steroid use are two common associations with FHN, but their pathogenesis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro model using human chondrocytes to study alcohol-induced and steroid-induced FHN. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, the in vitro model used a monolayer culture of articular chondrocytes derived from patients with non-traumatic FHN (Ficat and Arlet, Stage III)...
January 27, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
William J A Eiler, Mario Dzemidzic, Christina M Soeurt, Claire R Carron, Brandon G Oberlin, Robert V Considine, Jaroslaw Harezlak, David A Kareken
A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP) or negative (FHN) for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men) rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during oral delivery of water, 0...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Enrico Camporesi, Giuliano Vezzani, Vincenzo Zanon, Daniele Manelli, Garrett Enten, Silvia Quartesan, Gerardo Bosco
BACKGROUND: Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a common invalidating disease with an unclear etiology and pathophysiology that affects middle-aged people. FHN may lead to joint collapse and require invasive treatments. Because of its clinical and socioeconomic significance, an early diagnosis, staging and appropriate treatment are required. Unfortunately, to date a unique algorithm for the treatment of FHN has not been defined. OBJECTIVE: In this report we summarize the Tenth European Consensus Conference on hyperbaric medicine (April 2016, France), during which experts from Europe revised the list of accepted indications for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) treatment, including FHN...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Ronghua Xu, Bo Wei, Jiayi Li, Chenyu Huang, Rongcai Lin, Cheng Tang, Yan Xu, Qingqiang Yao, Liming Wang
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to explore changes in cartilage matrix in early-stage femoral head necrosis (FHN). MATERIAL AND METHODS Femoral head samples of patients with early FHN were collected during total hip arthroplasty (THA), high-field 7.0T MRI scans were performed in vitro, and the average T2 values were calculated. Cartilage samples were obtained from the weight-bearing area (FHN group) and non-weight-bearing area (Control group), divided into 3 equal parts and used for biochemical analysis, histopathological staining, and gene expression analysis...
December 6, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
R Garg, R Brownlie, L Latimer, V Gerdts, A Potter, S van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) is a major cause of lower respiratory disease i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, in infants and young children. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against PIV3. To produce an effective subunit vaccine, a chimeric FHN glycoprotein consisting of the N-terminal ectodomain of the fusion (F) protein linked to the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein without transmembrane domain, and secreted forms of the individual F and HN glycoproteins, were expressed in mammalian cells and purified...
December 18, 2017: Vaccine
Peihua Feng, Ying Wu, Jiazhong Zhang
Non-linear behaviors of a single neuron described by Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN) neuron model, with external electromagnetic radiation considered, is investigated. It is discovered that with external electromagnetic radiation in form of a cosine function, the mode selection of membrane potential occurs among periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions as increasing the frequency of external transmembrane current, which is selected as a sinusoidal function. When the frequency is small or large enough, periodic, and quasi-periodic motions are captured alternatively...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Alessio Molfino, Gerald J Beck, Minwei Li, Joan C Lo, George A Kaysen
AIM: Correction of metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease has been associated with improvement in thyroid function. We examined whether changes in bicarbonate were associated with changes in thyroid function in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving conventional or more frequent hemodialysis. METHODS: In the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trials, the relationship between changes in serum bicarbonate, free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) was examined among 147 and 48 patients with endogenous thyroid function who received conventional (3x/week) or more frequent (6x/week) hemodialysis (Daily Trial) or who received conventional or more frequent nocturnal hemodialysis (Nocturnal Trial)...
October 24, 2017: Nephrology
Emilie C Rijnink, Y K Onno Teng, Tineke Kraaij, Ron Wolterbeek, Jan A Bruijn, Ingeborg M Bajema
Background: Full-house immunofluorescence in combination with various histopathologic lesions in the renal biopsies of patients without overt systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) poses a diagnostic challenge. In this setting, the biopsy findings are sometimes termed non-lupus 'full-house nephropathy' (FHN). It is presently unknown whether idiopathic non-lupus FHN is clinicopathologically and prognostically distinct from lupus FHN. Methods: We included non-lupus FHN patients and lupus FHN controls (four or more American College of Rheumatology or Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics criteria) who were biopsied between 1968 and 2014 at the Leiden University Medical Centre...
April 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
M Zhang, C Y Shi, Z L Zhou, J F Hou
Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a common disorder in fast-growing broilers in the poultry industry, but the pathogenesis of FHN has not been clarified completely. In the present study, glucocorticoid (GC) administration was used to induce FHN in broilers. Compared with normal birds, histopathology showed that the length of the articular cartilage of GC-induced FHN broilers was thicker while the proliferative zone and prehypertrophic zone were obviously thinner. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed the apoptotic chondrocyte in the growth plate of the femoral head in FHN-affected birds...
June 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Richard Stephens, Kara Holloway, James A Grange, Lauren Owen, Kate Jones, Darren Kruisselbrink
AIMS: Positive family history of alcohol use disorder (FHP), a variable associated with propensity for alcohol use disorder (AUD), has been linked with elevated hangover frequency and severity, after controlling for alcohol use. This implies that hangover experiences may be related to AUD. However, inadequate control of alcohol consumption levels, low alcohol dose and testing for hangover during the intoxication phase detract from these findings. Here, we present further data pertinent to understanding the relationship between family history and alcohol hangover...
June 2017: Psychopharmacology
Joan C Lo, Gerald J Beck, George A Kaysen, Christopher T Chan, Alan S Kliger, Michael V Rocco, Minwei Li, Glenn M Chertow
INTRODUCTION: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with perturbations in thyroid hormone concentrations and an increased prevalence of hypothyroidism. Few studies have examined the effects of hemodialysis dose or frequency on endogenous thyroid function. METHODS: Within the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) trials, we examined the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with ESRD. Among those with endogenous thyroid function (without overt hyper/hypothyroidism or thyroid hormone supplementation), we examined the association of thyroid hormone concentration with multiple parameters of self-reported health status, and physical and cognitive performance, and the effects of hemodialysis frequency on serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free tri-iodothyronine (FT3) levels...
October 2017: Hemodialysis International
Tammy L Sirich, Kara Fong, Brett Larive, Gerald J Beck, Glenn M Chertow, Nathan W Levin, Alan S Kliger, Natalie S Plummer, Timothy W Meyer
The Frequent Hemodialysis Network Daily Trial compared conventional three-times weekly treatment to more frequent treatment with a longer weekly treatment time in patients receiving in-center hemodialysis. Evaluation at one year showed favorable effects of more intensive treatment on left ventricular mass, blood pressure, and phosphate control, but modest or no effects on physical or cognitive performance. The current study compared plasma concentrations of uremic solutes in stored samples from 53 trial patients who received three-times weekly in-center hemodialysis for an average weekly time of 10...
May 2017: Kidney International
Rachel M Kaplan, Charles A Herzog, Brett Larive, Haris Subacius, Bruce D Nearing, Richard Verrier, Rod S Passman
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). HD 6-times/week (6x/wk) may reduce SCD risk compared to usual 3-times/week HD (3x/wk) by mechanisms unknown. T-wave alternans (TWA), heart rate turbulence (HRT), and ventricular ectopy (VE) are elevated in HD patients, but their response to 6x/wk HD has not been assessed. METHODS: Baseline and 1-year Holter recordings were analyzed from enrollees in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Daily Trial, a randomized trial comparing 3x/wk to 6x/wk in 245 chronic HD patients...
November 2016: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Joan C Lo, Gerald J Beck, George A Kaysen, Christopher T Chan, Alan S Kliger, Michael V Rocco, Glenn M Chertow
INTRODUCTION: End-stage renal disease is associated with elevations in circulating prolactin concentrations, but the association of prolactin concentrations with intermediate health outcomes and the effects of hemodialysis frequency on changes in serum prolactin have not been examined. METHODS: The FHN Daily and Nocturnal Dialysis Trials compared the effects of conventional thrice weekly hemodialysis with in-center daily hemodialysis (6 days/week) and nocturnal home hemodialysis (6 nights/week) over 12 months and obtained measures of health-related quality of life, self-reported physical function, mental health and cognition...
April 2017: Hemodialysis International
Michael A Kraus, Sheru Kansal, Michael Copland, Paul Komenda, Eric D Weinhandl, George L Bakris, Christopher T Chan, Richard J Fluck, John M Burkart
Although intensive hemodialysis (HD) can address important clinical problems, increasing treatment also introduces risks. In this review, we assess risks pertaining to 6 domains: vascular access complications, infection, mortality, loss of residual kidney function, solute balance, and patient and care partner burden. In the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) trials, short daily and nocturnal schedules increased the incidence of access complications, although the incidence of access loss was not statistically higher...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Michael Copland, Paul Komenda, Eric D Weinhandl, Peter A McCullough, Jose A Morfin
Mineral and bone disorder is a common complication of end-stage renal disease. Notably, hyperphosphatemia likely promotes calcification of the myocardium, valves, and arteries. Hyperphosphatemia is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity along a gradient beginning at 5.0mg/dL. Among contemporary hemodialysis (HD) patients, mean serum phosphorus level is 5.2mg/dL, although 25% of patients have serum phosphorus levels of 5.5 to 6.9mg/dL; and 13%, >7.0mg/dL. Treatment of hyperphosphatemia is burdensome...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, David N Stephens, Theodora Duka
BACKGROUND: Youths with family history (FH) of alcoholism are at greater risk of developing alcohol use disorder (AUD); heightened impulsive behavior may underlie such increased vulnerability. Here, we studied waiting impulsivity (previously suggested to predispose to alcohol drinking) in young moderate-to-heavy social drinkers (18 to 33 years old) characterized as family history positive (FHP) and negative (FHN) following an alcoholic or nonalcoholic (placebo) drink. METHODS: Two groups of young male and female social drinkers (n = 64) were administered an acute dose of alcohol (0...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Manjula Kurella Tamura, Glenn M Chertow, Thomas A Depner, Allen R Nissenson, Brigitte Schiller, Ravindra L Mehta, Sai Liu, Tammy L Sirich
Retention of uremic metabolites is a proposed cause of cognitive impairment in patients with ESRD. We used metabolic profiling to identify and validate uremic metabolites associated with impairment in executive function in two cohorts of patients receiving maintenance dialysis. We performed metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry applied to predialysis plasma samples from a discovery cohort of 141 patients and an independent replication cohort of 180 patients participating in a trial of frequent hemodialysis...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Barbara Ruggiero, Marina Vivarelli, Alessandra Gianviti, Carmine Pecoraro, Licia Peruzzi, Elisa Benetti, Giovanna Ventura, Marco Pennesi, Luisa Murer, Rosanna Coppo, Francesco Emma
Background: Patients with full-house nephropathy (FHN) present renal lesions that are indistinguishable from those of lupus nephritis (LN) but lack the systemic features necessary to meet diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erithematosus (SLE). Some have been reported to develop a delayed SLE with time. The clinical outcome of children having FHN without SLE has never been reported. Methods: Children with biopsy-proven FHN were selected after excluding SLE cases by the absence of America College of Rheumatology criteria...
July 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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