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toxin and antitoxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449118/shot-by-a-gun-%C3%A2-missed-by-a-provider
#1
Eddie Garcia, Abdul H Zaid, Diane P Calello, Lisa McHugh, Grant Arzumanov, Najaf Asrar, Ari Sapin, Kristin G Fless
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The majority of cases are due to ingestion or injection drug use. Wound botulism from traumatic injury is exceedingly rare, with only one to two cases reported each year in the United States. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with diplopia, dysphagia, and progressive weakness 10 days after sustaining a gunshot wound to his right lower leg...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434398/a-highly-promiscuous-integron-plasmids-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases-and-efflux-pumps-as-factors-governing-multidrug-resistance-in-a-highly-drug-resistant-vibrio-fluvialis-isolate-bd146-from-kolkata-india
#2
Neha Rajpara, Mrinalini Nair, Ashima Kushwaha Bhardwaj
In an earlier study from this laboratory, Vibrio fluvialis BD146, a clinical isolate from Kolkata, India, 2002, was found to be resistant to all the fourteen antibiotics tested. It harboured a high copy number plasmid pBD146 and a low copy number plasmid. In the present study, a more detailed analysis was carried out to unravel different resistance mechanisms in this isolate. Sequencing showed that variable region of class 1 integron located on low copy number plasmid harbored arr3-cmlA-blaOXA10-aadA1 gene cassettes...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432616/autoregulation-of-mazef-expression-underlies-growth-heterogeneity-in-bacterial-populations
#3
Nela Nikolic, Tobias Bergmiller, Alexandra Vandervelde, Tanino G Albanese, Lendert Gelens, Isabella Moll
The MazF toxin sequence-specifically cleaves single-stranded RNA upon various stressful conditions, and it is activated as a part of the mazEF toxin-antitoxin module in Escherichia coli. Although autoregulation of mazEF expression through the MazE antitoxin-dependent transcriptional repression has been biochemically characterized, less is known about post-transcriptional autoregulation, as well as how both of these autoregulatory features affect growth of single cells during conditions that promote MazF production...
February 8, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423563/new-insights-into-the-metabolic-potential-of-the-phototrophic-purple-bacterium-rhodopila-globiformis-dsm-161t-from-its-draft-genome-sequence-and-evidence-for-a-vanadium-dependent-nitrogenase
#4
Johannes F Imhoff, Tanja Rahn, Sven Künzel, Sven C Neulinger
Rhodopila globiformis: is the most acidophilic anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacterium and was isolated from a warm acidic sulfur spring in Yellowstone Park. Its genome is larger than genomes of other phototrophic purple bacteria, containing 7248 Mb with a G + C content of 67.1% and 6749 protein coding and 53 RNA genes. The genome revealed some previously unknown properties such as the presence of two sets of structural genes pufLMC for the photosynthetic reaction center genes and two types of nitrogenases (Mo-Fe and V-Fe nitrogenase), capabilities of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation and denitrification using nitrite...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414903/bacillus-subtilis-type-i-antitoxin-sr6-promotes-degradation-of-toxin-yont-mrna-and-is-required-to-prevent-toxic-yoyj-overexpression
#5
Celine Reif, Charlotte Löser, Sabine Brantl
yonT/SR6 is the second type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) system encoded on prophage SPβ in the B. subtilis chromosome. The yonT ORF specifying a 58 aa toxin is transcribed on a polycistronic mRNA under control of the yonT promoter. The antitoxin SR6 is a 100 nt antisense RNA that overlaps yonT at its 3' end and the downstream gene yoyJ encoding a second, much weaker, toxin at its 5' end. SR6 displays a half-life of >60 min, whereas yonT mRNA is less stable with a half-life of ≈8 min. SR6 is in significant excess over yonT mRNA except in minimal medium with glucose...
February 7, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411516/type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-system-pareso-copaso-stabilizes-prophage-cp4so-in-shewanella-oneidensis
#6
Jianyun Yao, Yunxue Guo, Pengxia Wang, Zhenshun Zeng, Baiyuan Li, Kaihao Tang, Xiaoxiao Liu, Xiaoxue Wang
Toxin/antitoxin (TA) loci are commonly found in mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and prophages. However, the physiological functions of these TA loci in prophages and cross-regulation among these TA loci remain largely unexplored. Here, we characterized a newly discovered type II TA pair, ParESO /CopASO , in the CP4So prophage in Shewanella oneidensis. We demonstrated that ParESO /CopASO plays a critical role in the maintenance of CP4So in host cells after its excision. The toxin ParESO inhibited cell growth, resulting in filamentous growth and eventually cell death...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410443/evolution-of-the-quorum-network-and-the-mobilome-plasmids-and-bacteriophages-in-clinical-strains-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-during-a-decade
#7
M López, A Rueda, J P Florido, L Blasco, L Fernández-García, R Trastoy, F Fernández-Cuenca, L Martínez-Martínez, J Vila, A Pascual, G Bou, M Tomas
In this study, we compared eighteen clinical strains of A. baumannii belonging to the ST-2 clone and isolated from patients in the same intensive care unit (ICU) in 2000 (9 strains referred to collectively as Ab_GEIH-2000) and 2010 (9 strains referred to collectively as Ab_GEIH-2010), during the GEIH-REIPI project (Umbrella BioProject PRJNA422585). We observed two main molecular differences between the Ab_GEIH-2010 and the Ab_GEIH-2000 collections, acquired over the course of the decade long sampling interval and involving the mobilome: i) a plasmid harbouring genes for blaOXA 24/40 ß-lactamase and abKA/abkB proteins of a toxin-antitoxin system; and ii) two temperate bacteriophages, Ab105-1ϕ (63 proteins) and Ab105-2ϕ (93 proteins), containing important viral defence proteins...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398446/toxins-targets-and-triggers-an-overview-of-toxin-antitoxin-biology
#8
REVIEW
Alexander Harms, Ditlev Egeskov Brodersen, Namiko Mitarai, Kenn Gerdes
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are abundant genetic elements that encode a toxin protein capable of inhibiting cell growth and an antitoxin that counteracts the toxin. The majority of toxins are enzymes that interfere with translation or DNA replication, but a wide variety of molecular activities and cellular targets have been described. Antitoxins are proteins or RNAs that often control their cognate toxins through direct interactions and, in conjunction with other signaling elements, through transcriptional and translational regulation of TA module expression...
January 21, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387173/genome-sequence-and-comparative-genomic-analysis-of-a-clinically-important-strain-cd11-4-of-janibacter-melonis-isolated-from-celiac-disease-patient
#9
Atul Munish Chander, Rakesh Kochhar, Devinder Kumar Dhawan, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Shanmugam Mayilraj
Background: Janibacter melonis and other member of this genus are known to cause bacteremia and serious clinical comorbidities, but there is no study reporting about pathogenicity attributes of J. melonis. Janibacter terrae is known to cause lethal infection. Reporting the genome of J. melonis CD11-4 and comparative genomics with other members of genus has provided some novel insights that can enable us to understand the mechanisms responsible for its pathogenicity in humans. Results: Comparative genomic analysis by Rapid Annotation Server and Technology revealed the presence of similar virulence determinant genes in both J...
2018: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358578/culex-pipiens-crossing-type-diversity-is-governed-by-an-amplified-and-polymorphic-operon-of-wolbachia
#10
Manon Bonneau, Celestine Atyame, Marwa Beji, Fabienne Justy, Martin Cohen-Gonsaud, Mathieu Sicard, Mylène Weill
Culex pipiens mosquitoes are infected with Wolbachia (wPip) that cause an important diversity of cytoplasmic incompatibilities (CIs). Functional transgenic studies have implicated the cidA-cidB operon from wPip and its homolog in wMel in CI between infected Drosophila males and uninfected females. However, the genetic basis of the CI diversity induced by different Wolbachia strains was unknown. We show here that the remarkable diversity of CI in the C. pipiens complex is due to the presence, in all tested wPip genomes, of several copies of the cidA-cidB operon, which undergoes diversification through recombination events...
January 22, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355570/a-novel-plasmid-psaa0430-08-from-streptococcus-anginosus-subsp-anginosus-strain-0430-08
#11
Atsushi Tabata, Douglas Deutsch, Seiya Otsuka, Kathleen Verratti, Toshifumi Tomoyasu, Hideaki Nagamune, Vincent A Fischetti
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are the genetic material often involved in the interspecies and intraspecies genetic transduction in bacteria. However, little is known about MGEs in the Anginosus group of streptococci (AGS), one of the streptococcal groups found in the oral cavity of humans. We looked for the presence of MGEs in Streptococcus anginosus subsp. anginosus (SAA), a representative species belonging to AGS, and found a novel plasmid from SAA strain 0430-08. This plasmid was 7038bp and ~31% G/C content which we named pSAA0430-08, and examined its genetic structure and characteristics...
January 17, 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351633/evolutionary-genetics-of-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-genes-cifa-and-cifb-in-prophage-wo-of-wolbachia
#12
Amelia R I Lindsey, Danny W Rice, Sarah R Bordenstein, Andrew W Brooks, Seth R Bordenstein, Irene L G Newton
The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia manipulates arthropod reproduction to facilitate its maternal spread through host populations. The most common manipulation is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI): Wolbachia-infected males produce modified sperm that cause embryonic mortality, unless rescued by embryos harboring the same Wolbachia. The genes underlying CI, cifA and cifB, were recently identified in the eukaryotic association module of Wolbachia's prophage WO. Here, we use transcriptomic and genomic approaches to address three important evolutionary facets of the cif genes...
January 17, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343718/the-bacterial-type-iii-toxin-antitoxin-system-toxin-is-a-dynamic-protein-rna-complex-with-stability-dependent-antiviral-abortive-infection-activity
#13
Francesca L Short, Chidiebere Akusobi, William R Broadhurst, George P C Salmond
Bacteria have evolved numerous defense systems to protect themselves from viral (bacteriophage) infection. The ToxIN system of Pectobacterium atrosepticum is a Type III toxin-antitoxin complex and "altruistic suicide" anti-phage system, which kills phage-infected cells through the release of a ribonuclease toxin, ToxN. ToxN is counteracted by a co-transcribed antitoxic RNA pseudoknot, ToxI, which self-assembles with ToxN into an inactive 3 ToxI:3 ToxN complex in vitro. However it is not known whether this complex is predominant in vivo, or how the complex is disassembled following infection to trigger a lethal, "altruistic" response...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339383/new-shuttle-vectors-for-gene-cloning-and-expression-in-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-species
#14
Massimiliano Lucidi, Federica Runci, Giordano Rampioni, Emanuela Frangipani, Livia Leoni, Paolo Visca
Understanding bacterial pathogenesis requires adequate genetic tools to assess the role of individual virulence determinants by mutagenesis and complementation assays, as well as for homologous and heterologous expression of cloned genes. Our knowledge of Acinetobacter baumannii pathogenesis has so far been limited by the scarcity of genetic tools to manipulate multi drug resistant (MDR) epidemic strains which are responsible for most of infections. Here, we report the construction of new multi-purpose shuttle plasmids, namely pVRL1 and pVRL2, which can efficiently replicate in Acinetobacter sp...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335804/identification-of-a-functional-toxin-antitoxin-system-located-in-the-genomic-island-pyg1-of-piezophilic-hyperthermophilic-archaeon-pyrococcus-yayanosii
#15
Zhen Li, Qinghao Song, Yinzhao Wang, Xiang Xiao, Jun Xu
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is bacterial or archaeal genetic module consisting of toxin and antitoxin gene that be organized as a bicistronic operon. TA system could elicit programmed cell death, which is supposed to play important roles for the survival of prokaryotic population under various physiological stress conditions. The phage abortive infection system (AbiE family) belongs to bacterial type IV TA system. However, no archaeal AbiE family TA system has been reported so far. In this study, a putative AbiE TA system (PygAT), which is located in a genomic island PYG1 in the chromosome of Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, was identified and characterized...
January 15, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326487/antitoxin-activity-of-aqueous-extract-of-cyclea-peltata-root-against-naja-naja-venom
#16
Thulasi Sivaraman, N S Sreedevi, S Meenatchisundaram, R Vadivelan
OBJECTIVES: Snakebites are a significant and severe global health problem. Till date, anti-snake venom serum is the only beneficial remedy existing on treating the snakebite victims. As antivenom was reported to induce early or late adverse reactions to human beings, snake venom neutralizing potential for Cyclea peltata root extract was tested for the present research by ex vivo and in vivo approaches on Naja naja toxin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo evaluation of venom toxicity and neutralization assays was carried out...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319934/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-systems-in-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans
#17
Blair Schneider, Whitney Weigel, Maryta Sztukowska, Donald R Demuth
Type II toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems contribute to the formation of persister cells and biofilm formation for many organisms. A. actinomycetemcomitans thrives in the complex oral microbial community subjected to continual environmental flux. Little is known regarding the presence and function of type II TA systems in this organism or their contribution to adaptation and persistence in the biofilm. We identified 11 TA systems that are conserved across all seven serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans and represent the RelBE, MazEF and HipAB families of type II TA systems...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317513/cyclic-amp-regulates-bacterial-persistence-through-repression-of-the-oxidative-stress-response-and-sos-dependent-dna-repair-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#18
Roberto C Molina-Quiroz, Cecilia Silva-Valenzuela, Jennifer Brewster, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Stuart B Levy, Andrew Camilli
Bacterial persistence is a transient, nonheritable physiological state that provides tolerance to bactericidal antibiotics. The stringent response, toxin-antitoxin modules, and stochastic processes, among other mechanisms, play roles in this phenomenon. How persistence is regulated is relatively ill defined. Here we show that cyclic AMP, a global regulator of carbon catabolism and other core processes, is a negative regulator of bacterial persistence in uropathogenic Escherichia coli, as measured by survival after exposure to a β-lactam antibiotic...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301587/foodborne-botulism-due-to-ingestion-of-home-canned-green-beans-two-case-reports
#19
Dorothea Hellmich, Katja E Wartenberg, Stephan Zierz, Tobias J Mueller
BACKGROUND: Foodborne botulism is a life-threatening, rapidly progressive disease. It has an incidence of less than 10 cases per year in Germany and mostly affects several previously healthy people at the same time. The only specific treatment is the administration of botulism antitoxin. According to the German guidelines administration of antitoxin is recommended only in the first 24 hours after oral ingestion of the toxin. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old white woman and her 51-year-old white husband presented with paralysis of multiple cranial nerves and rapidly descending paralysis approximately 72 hours after ingestion of home-canned beans...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301344/computational-modeling-of-the-staphylococcal-enterotoxins-and-its-interaction-with-natural-antitoxin-compounds
#20
Mahantesh Kurjogi, Praveen Satapute, Sudisha Jogaiah, Mostafa Abdelrahman, Jayasimha Rayalu Daddam, Venkatesh Ramu, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic bacterium that produces various types of toxins, resulting in serious food poisoning. Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are heat-stable and resistant to hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, representing a potential hazard for consumers worldwide. In the present study, we used amino-acid sequences encoding SEA and SEB-like to identify their respective template structure and build the three-dimensional (3-D) models using homology modeling method. Two natural compounds, Betulin and 28-Norolean-12-en-3-one, were selected for docking study on the basis of the criteria that they satisfied the Lipinski's Rule-of-Five...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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