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toxin and antitoxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548657/the-endobacterium-of-an-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-modulates-the-expression-of-its-toxin-antitoxin-systems-during-the-life-cycle-of-its-host
#1
Alessandra Salvioli di Fossalunga, Justine Lipuma, Francesco Venice, Laurence Dupont, Paola Bonfante
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread root symbionts that perform important ecological services, such as improving plant nutrient and water acquisition. Some AMF from the Gigasporaceae family host a population of endobacteria, Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum (Cagg). The analysis of the Cagg genome identified six putative toxin-antitoxin modules (TAs), consisting of pairs of stable toxins and unstable antitoxins that affect diverse physiological functions. Sequence analysis suggested that these TA modules were acquired by horizontal transfer...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543534/a-chimeric-protein-of-cfa-i-cs6-subunits-and-ltb-sta-toxoid-could-protect-immunized-mice-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#2
Narges Zeinalzadeh, Ali Hatef Salmanian, Goli Goujani, Jafar Amani, Ghasem Ahangari, Asal Akhavian, Mahyat Jafari
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Colonization factors (CFs) and enterotoxins are the main virulence determinants in ETEC pathogenesis. Heterogeneity of CFs commonly considered as the bottleneck to achieve an effective vaccine. On the other hand, it is believed that a broad spectrum protection against ETEC would be available when the anti-CF and anti-enterotoxin immunity were induced simultaneously...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536673/two-partner-secretion-combining-efficiency-and-simplicity-in-the-secretion-of-large-proteins-for-bacteria-host-and-bacteria-bacteria-interactions
#3
REVIEW
Jeremy Guérin, Sarah Bigot, Robert Schneider, Susan K Buchanan, Françoise Jacob-Dubuisson
Initially identified in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the two-partner secretion (TPS) pathway, also known as Type Vb secretion, mediates the translocation across the outer membrane of large effector proteins involved in interactions between these pathogens and their hosts. More recently, distinct TPS systems have been shown to secrete toxic effector domains that participate in inter-bacterial competition or cooperation. The effects of these systems are based on kin vs. non-kin molecular recognition mediated by specific immunity proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536573/mqsr-mqsa-toxin-antitoxin-system-regulates-persistence-and-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-putida-kt2440
#4
Chenglong Sun, Yunxue Guo, Kaihao Tang, Zhongling Wen, Baiyuan Li, Zhenshun Zeng, Xiaoxue Wang
Bacterial toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems have received increasing attention due to their prevalence, diverse structures, and important physiological functions. In this study, we identified and characterized a type II TA system in a soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440. This TA system belongs to the MqsR/MqsA family. We found that PP_4205 (MqsR) greatly inhibits cell growth in P. putida KT2440 and Escherichia coli, the antitoxin PP_4204 (MqsA) neutralizes the toxicity of the toxin MqsR, and the two genes encoding them are co-transcribed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533235/the-tet39-determinant-and-the-msre-mphe-genes-in-acinetobacter-plasmids-are-each-part-of-discrete-modules-flanked-by-inversely-oriented-pdif-xerc-xerd-sites
#5
Grace A Blackwell, Ruth M Hall
The tet39 tetracycline resistance determinant and the macrolide resistance genes msrE and mphE were found in an 18.2 kb plasmid, pS30-1, recovered from a GC2 Acinetobacter baumannii isolate from Singapore, that conferred resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin. pS30-1 also contains mobA and mobC genes encoding MOBQ family proteins but attempts to mobilise pS30-1 utilising a co-resident conjugative repAci6 plasmid were unsuccessful. Eight pdif sites, consisting of inversely-oriented binding sites for the XerC and XerD recombinases separated by 6 bp, were detected in pS30-1...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533087/a-rele-pare-superfamily-toxin-in-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-has-dna-nicking-endonuclease-activity
#6
Jing Zhang, Hironori Ito, Madoka Hino, Makoto Kimura
Type II toxins in toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems fold into a similar fold and belong to the RelE/ParE superfamily. However, they display two distinct biochemical activities: RelE toxins are mRNA interferases, while ParE toxins are DNA gyrase (Gyr) inhibitors. Previously, we found a TA system, vp1842/vp1843, on the Vibrio parahaemolyticus genome whose toxin Vp1843 belongs to the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily. Vp1843, unlike RelE toxins, has neither protein synthesis inhibitory activity nor ribonuclease activity...
May 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533000/clinical-immunological-and-microbiological-predictors-of-poor-outcome-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#7
E Reigadas, L Alcalá, M Marín, A Martín, E Bouza
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes increased morbidity and mortality. Clinical data cannot clearly predict poor CDI outcome. Data on the value of microbiological predictors is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To identify early predictors of poor outcome of CDI. METHODS: We prospectively included patients with CDI aged >2years. Clinical, immunological (Toxin B IgG/Ig A and Toxin A IgG/Ig A), microbiological factors (bacterial load, toxin quantification, sporulation, germination, and metronidazole susceptibility) were evaluated to identify early independent predictors of poor outcome...
May 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525308/toxin-antitoxin-systems-implications-for-plant-disease
#8
T Shidore, L R Triplett
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are gene modules that are ubiquitous in freeliving prokaryotes. Diverse in structure, cellular function, and fitness roles, TA systems are defined by the presence of a toxin gene that suppresses bacterial growth and a toxin-neutralizing antitoxin gene, usually encoded in a single operon. Originally viewed as DNA maintenance modules, TA systems are now thought to function in many roles, including bacterial stress tolerance, virulence, phage defense, and biofilm formation. However, very few studies have investigated the significance of TA systems in the context of plant-microbe interactions...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524037/-clinical-analysis-of-53-patients-with-clostridium-botulinum-food-poisoning
#9
Peng Zhang, Jianguang Dong, Lili Bai, Zewu Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiologic data of patients with Clostridium botulinum food poisoning, and to improve the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of food borne botulism. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. Fifty-three patients with Clostridium botulinum food poisoning admitted to Chinese PLA Center of Poisoning and Treatment from January 2009 to December 2016 were enrolled, and they were divided into mild, moderate, and severe groups according to the severity of disease...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521110/ethanol-induced-stress-response-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Jasmine M Pando, Richard F Pfeltz, Jesus A Cuaron, Vijayaraj Nagarajan, Mukti N Mishra, Nathanial J Torres, Mohamed O Elasri, Brian J Wilkinson, John E Gustafson
Transcriptional profiles of two unrelated clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were analyzed following 10 % v/v ethanol challenge (15 min), which arrested growth but did not reduce viability. Ethanol-induced stress (EIS) resulted in differential gene expression of 1091 genes, 600 common to both strains, of which 291 were up-regulated. With the exception of the down-regulation of genes involved with osmotic stress functions, EIS resulted in the up-regulation of genes that contribute to stress response networks, notably those altered by oxidative stress, protein quality control in general, and heat shock in particular...
May 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508407/structural-conservation-of-the-pin-domain-active-site-across-all-domains-of-life
#11
REVIEW
M Senissar, M C Manav, D E Brodersen
The PIN (PilT N-terminus) domain is a compact RNA-binding protein domain present in all domains of life. This 120-residue domain consists of a central and parallel β sheet surrounded by α helices, which together organize 4-5 acidic residues in an active site that binds one or more divalent metal ions and in many cases has endoribonuclease activity. In bacteria and archaea, the PIN domain is primarily associated with toxin-antitoxin loci, consisting of a toxin (the PIN domain nuclease) and an antitoxin that inhibits the function of the toxin under normal growth conditions...
May 15, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508139/functional-annotation-of-a-novel-toxin-antitoxin-system-xn-relt-of-xenorhabdus-nematophila-a-combined-in-silico-and-in-vitro-approach
#12
Lalit Kumar Gautam, Mohit Yadav, Jitendra Singh Rathore
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) complexes play an important role in stress responses and programmed cell death in bacteria. The RelB-RelE toxin antitoxin system is well studied in Escherichia coli. In this study, we used combined in silico and in vitro approaches to study a novel Xn-RelT toxin from Xenorhabdus nematophila bearing its own antitoxin Xn-RelAT-a RelB homolog of E. coli. The structure for this toxin-antitoxin pair is yet unknown. We generated homology-based models of X. nematophila RelT toxin and antitoxin...
June 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498366/till-stress-do-us-atart-a-novel-toxin-antitoxin-system-targeting-translation-initiation
#13
Mariavittoria Pizzinga, Robert F Harvey, Anne E Willis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480750/bezlotoxumab-could-this-b-the-answer-for-clostridium-difficile-recurrence
#14
Ryan W Chapin, Tiffany Lee, Christopher McCoy, Carolyn D Alonso, Monica V Mahoney
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and place in therapy of bezlotoxumab (BEZ), a novel monoclonal antibody against Clostridium difficile toxin B. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was conducted for data between 1946 and April 2017 using MeSH terms bezlotoxumab, MK-6072, or MDX-1388 alone and the terms Clostridium difficile combined with monoclonal antibody or antitoxin. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The literature search was limited to English-language studies that described clinical efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics in humans and animals...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480139/dynamics-and-genetic-diversification-of-escherichia-coli-during-experimental-adaptation-to-an-anaerobic-environment
#15
Thomas J Finn, Sonal Shewaramani, Sinead C Leahy, Peter H Janssen, Christina D Moon
BACKGROUND: Many bacteria are facultative anaerobes, and can proliferate in both anoxic and oxic environments. Under anaerobic conditions, fermentation is the primary means of energy generation in contrast to respiration. Furthermore, the rates and spectra of spontaneous mutations that arise during anaerobic growth differ to those under aerobic growth. A long-term selection experiment was undertaken to investigate the genetic changes that underpin how the facultative anaerobe, Escherichia coli, adapts to anaerobic environments...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460613/novel-information-about-neisseria-meningitides-identification-of-the-most-important-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-systems
#16
Abbas Maleki, Sobhan Ghafourian, Behzad Badakhsh, Iraj Pakzad, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard
BACKGROUND: Toxin antitoxin systems is the one of the important elements among pathogenic bacteria ‎which have proven roles such as biofilm formation, cell programed death and persister cells formation‎. Neisseria meningitidis due to create of serious diseases in humans must be highlighted. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to identify of mazEF and relBE TA systems in N. meningitidis. METHOD: The potential TA loci were searched in database by bioinformatics analysis and then, experimental analysis was performed by PCR assay...
April 27, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450142/pan-genome-analysis-of-clostridium-botulinum-reveals-unique-targets-for-drug-development
#17
Tulika Bhardwaj, Pallavi Somvanshi
Clostridium botulinum, a formidable pathogen is responsible for the emerging cause of food poisoning cases on the global canvas. The endemicity of bacterium Clostridium botulinum is reflected by the sudden hospital outbreaks and increased resistance towards multiple drugs. Therefore, a combined approach of in-silico comparative genomic analysis with statistical analysis was applied to overcome the limitation of bench-top technologies. Owing to the paucity of genomic data available by the advent of third generation sequencing technologies, several 'omics' technologies were applied to understand the underlying evolutionary pattern and lifestyle of the bacterial pathogen using phylogenomics...
April 24, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449040/toxin-antitoxin-systems-and-their-role-in-disseminating-and-maintaining-antimicrobial-resistance
#18
Qiu E Yang, Timothy R Walsh
Toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) are ubiquitous among bacteria and play a crucial role in the dissemination and evolution of antibiotic resistance, such as maintaining multi-resistant plasmids and inducing persistence formation. Generally, activities of the toxins are neutralised by their conjugate antitoxins. In contrast, antitoxins are more liable to degrade under specific conditions such as stress, and free active toxins interfere with essential cellular processes including replication, translation and cell-wall synthesis...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445136/selective-eradication-of-cancer-cells-by-delivery-of-adenovirus-based-toxins
#19
Shiran Shapira, Assaf Shapira, Diana Kazanov, Gil Hevroni, Sarah Kraus, Nadir Arber
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: KRAS mutation is an early event in colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. We previously reported that a recombinant adenovirus, carrying a pro-apoptotic gene (PUMA) under the regulation of Ets/AP1 (RAS-responsive elements) suppressed the growth of cancer cells harboring hyperactive KRAS. We propose to exploit the hyperactive RAS pathway, rather than to inhibit it as was previously tried and failed repeatedly. We aim to improve efficacy by substituting PUMA with a more potent toxin, the bacterial MazF-MazE toxin-antitoxin system, under a very tight regulation...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430938/characterization-of-yjjj-toxin-of-escherichia-coli
#20
Yuki Maeda, Chun-Yi Lin, Yojiro Ishida, Masayori Inouye, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Sangita Phadtare
Reminiscent of eukaryotic apoptotic programmed cell death, bacteria also contain a large number of suicide genes, which are in general co-expressed with their cognate antitoxic genes. These systems called the toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are associated with cellular dormancy, and play major roles in biofilm formation and persistent multi-drug resistance of many human pathogens. In recent years, the study on TA system toxins has become a hot topic due to the health implications of these toxins by virtue of their role in bacterial pathogenicity...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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