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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624768/gnat-toxins-of-bacterial-toxin-antitoxin-systems-acetylation-of-charged-trnas-to-inhibit-translation
#1
Chew Chieng Yeo
GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) is a huge superfamily of proteins spanning the prokaryotic and eukaryotic domains of life. GNAT proteins usually transfer an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to a wide variety of substrates ranging from aminoglycoside antibiotics to large macromolecules. Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are typically bicistronic and widespread in bacterial and archael genomes with diverse cellular functions. Recently, a novel family of type II TA toxins was described which presents a GNAT-fold and functions by acetylating charged tRNA thereby precluding translation...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621590/vancomycin-resistance-in-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-danish-chicken-meat-is-located-on-a-pvef4-like-plasmid-persisting-in-poultry-for-18-years
#2
Helena Leinweber, Sulaiman M I Alotaibi, Søren Overballe-Petersen, Frank Hansen, Henrik Hasman, Valeria Bortolaia, Anette M Hammerum, Hanne Ingmer
The occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) in food has public health relevance since foodborne VREfm may colonize the gut of consumers and transfer vancomycin resistance genes to the indigenous gut microbiota. Therefore, we determined occurrence and elucidated genetic traits of VREfm in Danish retail chicken meat. Three out of 40 samples (7.5%) from two slaughterhouses yielded VREfm (vancomycin MIC > 32mg/L). This is the first report of VREfm in Danish retail poultry meat since 2010 (DANMAP)...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617857/fic-proteins-from-bacteria-to-humans-and-back-again
#3
Simon Veyron, Gérald Peyroche, Jacqueline Cherfils
During the last decade, FIC proteins have emerged as a large family comprised of a variety of bacterial enzymes and a single member in animals. The air de famille of FIC proteins stems from a domain of conserved structure, which catalyzes the post-translational modification of proteins (PTM) by a phosphate-containing compound. In bacteria, examples of FIC proteins include the toxin component of toxin/antitoxin modules, such as Doc-Phd and VbhT-VbhA, toxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria to divert host cell processes, such as VopS, IbpA and AnkX, and a vast majority of proteins of unknown functions...
March 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593666/factors-involved-in-the-persistence-of-a-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-strain-in-bovine-feces-and-gastro-intestinal-content
#4
Audrey Segura, Pauline Auffret, Delphine Bibbal, Marine Bertoni, Alexandra Durand, Grégory Jubelin, Monique Kérourédan, Hubert Brugère, Yolande Bertin, Evelyne Forano
Healthy cattle are the primary reservoir for O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli responsible for human food-borne infections. Because farm environment acts as a source of cattle contamination, it is important to better understand the factors controlling the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 outside the bovine gut. The E. coli O157:H7 strain MC2, identified as a persistent strain in French farms, possessed the characteristics required to cause human infections and genetic markers associated with clinical O157:H7 isolates...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588398/the-light-chain-defines-the-duration-of-action-of-botulinum-toxin-serotype-a-subtypes
#5
Sabine Pellett, Marite Bradshaw, William H Tepp, Christina L Pier, Regina C M Whitemarsh, Chen Chen, Joseph T Barbieri, Eric A Johnson
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the causative agent of botulism and a widely used pharmaceutical to treat a variety of neurological diseases. BoNTs are 150-kDa protein toxins organized into heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) domains linked by a disulfide bond. The HC selectively binds to neurons and aids cell entry of the enzymatically active LC. There are seven immunological BoNT serotypes (A to G); each serotype includes genetic variants, termed subtypes. Only two subtypes, BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1, are currently used as therapeutics...
March 27, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577785/botulism-in-pregnancy-a-clinical-approach-to-diagnosis-and-management
#6
Bassam H Rimawi
Botulism is a life-threatening toxin mediated disease that often presents with a sudden rapid onset of paralysis of their skeletal muscles with subsequent respiratory compromise and sudden death. Given the natural physiological changes during pregnancy, pregnant women with botulism may experience a more exaggerated course and have worse outcomes compared to nonpregnant women. Medical providers caring for such patients should not only maintain a high level of suspicion for botulism, but administration of an antitoxin early in their care can help reduce morbidity and mortality, while awaiting confirmatory laboratory results...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570493/does-anthrax-antitoxin-therapy-have-a-role-in-the-treatment-of-inhalational-anthrax
#7
Nicholas J Vietri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inhalational anthrax is a rare disease and Bacillus anthracis is a likely pathogen to be used in a biological attack. The lack of clinical experience with anthrax has led experts to develop treatment guidelines. These guidelines recommend anthrax antitoxin to be used in conjunction with antibiotics for the treatment of patients with systemic anthrax infection, yet there is still a lack of human or animal data to support this recommendation. RECENT FINDINGS: The U...
March 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569108/rhodobacter-sp-rb3-an-aerobic-anoxygenic-phototroph-which-thrives-in-the-polyextreme-ecosystem-of-the-salar-de-huasco-in-the-chilean-altiplano
#8
Vilma Pérez, Cristina Dorador, Verónica Molina, Carolina Yáñez, Martha Hengst
The Salar de Huasco is an evaporitic basin located in the Chilean Altiplano, which presents extreme environmental conditions for life, i.e. high altitude (3800 m.a.s.l.), negative water balance, a wide salinity range, high daily temperature changes and the occurrence of the highest registered solar radiation on the planet (> 1200 W m-2 ). This ecosystem is considered as a natural laboratory to understand different adaptations of microorganisms to extreme conditions. Rhodobacter, an anoxygenic aerobic phototrophic bacterial genus, represents one of the most abundant groups reported based on taxonomic diversity surveys in this ecosystem...
March 22, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563815/viability-biofilm-formation-and-mazef-expression-in-drug-sensitive-and-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-circulating-in-xinjiang-china
#9
Ji-Li Zhao, Wei Liu, Wan-Ying Xie, Xu-Dong Cao, Li Yuan
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the most common chronic infectious amphixenotic diseases worldwide. Prevention and control of TB are greatly difficult, due to the increase in drug-resistant TB, particularly multidrug-resistant TB. We speculated that there were some differences between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant MTB strains and that mazEF 3,6,9 toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) were involved in MTB viability. This study aimed to investigate differences in viability, biofilm formation, and MazEF expression between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant MTB strains circulating in Xinjiang, China, and whether mazEF 3,6,9 TASs contribute to MTB viability under stress conditions...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561797/a-toxin-antitoxin-system-vapbc15-from-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-shows-distinct-regulatory-features
#10
Qian Fei, E-Bin Gao, Biao Liu, Yao Wei, Degang Ning
Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems play important roles in bacterial stress survival by regulating cell growth or death. They are highly abundant in cyanobacteria yet remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the identification and regulation of a putative type II TA system from Synechocystis PCC6803, VapBC15. The VapBC15 system is encoded by the chromosomal operon vapBC15 . Exogenous expression of VapC15 dramatically arrested cell growth of Escherichia coli and reduced the numbers of colony-forming units (CFU)...
March 21, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555683/structure-function-analyses-reveal-the-molecular-architecture-and-neutralization-mechanism-of-a-bacterial-hepn-mnt-toxin-antitoxin
#11
Xuanyan Jia, Jianyun Yao, Zengqiang Gao, Guangfeng Liu, Yuhui Dong, Xiaoxue Wang, Heng Zhang
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci in bacteria are small genetic modules that regulate various cellular activities, including cell growth and death. The two-gene module encoding a HEPN (higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide-binding) domain and a cognate MNT (minimal nucleotidyltransferase) domain has been predicted to represent a novel type II TA system prevalent in archaea and bacteria. However, the neutralization mechanism and cellular targets of the TA family remain unclear. The toxin SO_3166 having a HEPN domain and its cognate antitoxin SO_3165 with an MNT domain constitute a typical type II TA system that regulates cell motility and confers plasmid stability in the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540638/comparative-genomic-insights-into-endofungal-lifestyles-of-two-bacterial-endosymbionts-mycoavidus-cysteinexigens-and-burkholderia-rhizoxinica
#12
Dilruba Sharmin, Yong Guo, Tomoyasu Nishizawa, Shoko Ohshima, Yoshinori Sato, Yusuke Takashima, Kazuhiko Narisawa, Hiroyuki Ohta
Endohyphal bacteria (EHB), dwelling within fungal hyphae, markedly affect the growth and metabolic potential of their hosts. To date, two EHB belonging to the family Burkholderiaceae have been isolated and characterized as new taxa, Burkholderia rhizoxinica (HKI 454T ) and Mycoavidus cysteinexigens (B1-EBT ), in Japan. Metagenome sequencing was recently reported for Mortierella elongata AG77 together with its endosymbiont M. cysteinexigens (Mc-AG77) from a soil/litter sample in the USA. In the present study, we elucidated the complete genome sequence of B1-EBT and compared it with those of Mc-AG77 and HKI 454T ...
March 14, 2018: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537126/glutamine-rich-toxic-proteins-grta-grtb-and-grtc-together-with-the-antisense-rna-asgr-constitute-a-toxin-antitoxin-like-system-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#13
Tomoya Maeda, Yuya Tanaka, Masayuki Inui
The Corynebacterium glutamicum R grtA (cgR_2936), grtB (cgR_2934), and grtC (cgR_2933) genes were identified as paralogs encoding glutamine-rich toxic proteins. We also identified a new antisense small RNA AsgR (antisense sRNA for grtA) that overlaps the 3' end of the grtA gene. Single over-expressions of grtA, grtB, and grtC resulted in complete inhibition of Escherichia coli cell growth. This growth was rescued by co-expression of AsgR. Similar effects were observed in C. glutamicum, although the toxicities of these proteins were moderate...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529286/discovery-of-new-type-i-toxin-antitoxin-systems-adjacent-to-crispr-arrays-in-clostridium-difficile
#14
Anna Maikova, Johann Peltier, Pierre Boudry, Eliane Hajnsdorf, Nicolas Kint, Marc Monot, Isabelle Poquet, Isabelle Martin-Verstraete, Bruno Dupuy, Olga Soutourina
Clostridium difficile, a major human enteropathogen, must cope with foreign DNA invaders and multiple stress factors inside the host. We have recently provided an experimental evidence of defensive function of the C. difficile CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) system important for its survival within phage-rich gut communities. Here, we describe the identification of type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems with the first functional antisense RNAs in this pathogen...
February 26, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529224/system-wide-analysis-unravels-differential-regulation-and-in-vivo-essentiality-of-vapbc-ta-systems-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Sakshi Agarwal, Prabhakar Tiwari, Amar Deep, Saqib Kidwai, Shamba Gupta, Krishan Gopal Thakur, Ramandeep Singh
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are bicistronic genetic modules that are ubiquitously present in bacterial genomes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome encodes for 90 putative TA systems and these are considered to be associated with maintenance of bacterial genomic stability or its survival under unfavorable environment. Majority of these in Mtb have been annotated as belonging to the Virulence associated protein B and C (VapBC) family. However, their precise role in bacterial physiology has not been elucidated...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526748/detection-of-qnrvc6-within-a-new-genetic-context-in-a-ndm-1-producing-citrobacter-freundii-clinical-isolate-from-uruguay
#16
Inés Bado, Romina Papa Ezdra, Nicolás Cordeiro, Matilde Outeda, Leticia Caiata, Virginia García-Fulgueiras, Verónica Seija, Rafael Vignoli
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to characterise the mechanisms underlying quinolone and oxyimino-cephalosporin resistance in a Citrobacter freundii clinical isolate obtained from the ICU in Uruguay's University Hospital. METHODS: Citrobacter freundii strain CF638 was isolated from a urine culture. Identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the VITEK® 2 system, and MIC determination and disc diffusion assay, respectively. Resistance genes and mobile genetic elements were identified, by PCR and sequencing...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518409/abiei-binds-cooperatively-to-the-type-iv-abie-toxin-antitoxin-operator-via-a-positively-charged-surface-and-causes-dna-bending-and-negative-autoregulation
#17
Hannah G Hampton, Simon A Jackson, Robert D Fagerlund, Anne I M Vogel, Ron L Dy, Tim R Blower, Peter C Fineran
Bacteria resist phage infection using multiple strategies, including CRISPR-Cas and abortive infection (Abi) systems. Abi systems provide population-level protection from phage predation, via "altruistic" cell suicide. It has recently been shown that some Abi systems function via a toxin-antitoxin (TA) mechanism, such as the widespread AbiE family. The Streptococcus agalactiae AbiE system consists of a bicistronic operon encoding the AbiEi antitoxin and AbiEii toxin, which function as a Type IV TA system...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515197/mycobacterium-ahvazicum-sp-nov-the-nineteenth-species-of-the-mycobacterium-simiae-complex
#18
Amar Bouam, Parvin Heidarieh, Abodolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Fazel Pourahmad, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Mohamad Hashemzadeh, Emeline Baptiste, Nicholas Armstrong, Anthony Levasseur, Catherine Robert, Michel Drancourt
Four slowly growing mycobacteria isolates were isolated from the respiratory tract and soft tissue biopsies collected in four unrelated patients in Iran. Conventional phenotypic tests indicated that these four isolates were identical to Mycobacterium lentiflavum while 16S rRNA gene sequencing yielded a unique sequence separated from that of M. lentiflavum. One representative strain AFP-003T was characterized as comprising a 6,121,237-bp chromosome (66.24% guanosine-cytosine content) encoding for 5,758 protein-coding genes, 50 tRNA and one complete rRNA operon...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484598/high-resolution-high-throughput-analysis-of-hfq-binding-sites-using-uv-crosslinking-and-analysis-of-cdna-crac
#19
Brandon Sy, Julia Wong, Sander Granneman, David Tollervey, David Gally, Jai J Tree
Small regulatory nonprotein-coding RNAs (sRNAs) have emerged as ubiquitous and abundant regulators of gene expression in a diverse cross section of bacteria. They play key roles in most aspects of bacterial physiology, including central metabolism, nutrient acquisition, virulence, biofilm formation, and outer membrane composition. RNA sequencing technologies have accelerated the identification of bacterial regulatory RNAs and are now being employed to understand their functions. Many regulatory RNAs require protein partners for activity, or modulate the activity of interacting proteins...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474913/-p-ppgpp-controls-bacterial-persistence-by-stochastic-induction-of-toxin-antitoxin-activity
#20
Etienne Maisonneuve, Manuela Castro-Camargo, Kenn Gerdes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Cell
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