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Food environment

Anarina L Murillo, Muntaser Safan, Carlos Castillo-Chavez, Elizabeth D Capaldi Phillips, Devina Wadhera
Eating behaviors among a large population of children are studied as a dynamic process driven by nonlinear interactions in the sociocultural school environment. The impact of food association learning on diet dynamics, inspired by a pilot study conducted among Arizona children in Pre-Kindergarten to 8th grades, is used to build simple population-level learning models. Qualitatively, mathematical studies are used to highlight the possible ramifications of instruction, learning in nutrition, and health at the community level...
August 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Mauro Serafini, Elisabetta Toti
The obesity burden, with 1.5 billion overweight (OW) and 500 million obese (OB) worldwide, significantly increased the risk of degenerative diseases. Excessive consumption of foods that are energy dense lead to obesity, which represents a titanic cost for not only the world's health systems but also a substantial ecological cost to the environment. The waste of resources and the unnecessary green house gas emissions (GHGs) emission, due to "obesigen" consumption of foods, have been ignored so far in practical assessments of ecological impacts...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Sheila Fleischhacker, Gowri Ramachandran
This article briefly explains the food and nutrition implications of the new standards, tax penalties and reporting requirements for non-profit hospitals and healthcare systems to maintain a tax-exempt or charitable status under section 501(c)(3) of the Federal Internal Revenue Code set forth in The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (P.L. 111-148, Sec. 9007). The newly created 501(r) of the Internal Revenue Code requires, beginning with the first tax year on or after March 23, 2012, that such hospitals demonstrate community benefit by conducting a community health needs assessment (CHNA) at least once every three years and annually file information by means of a Schedule H (Form 990) regarding progress towards addressing identified needs...
July 2016: Nutrition Today
Ketrin Cristina da Silva, Marcos Paulo Vieira Cunha, Louise Cerdeira, Maria Gabriela Xavier de Oliveira, Mirela Caroline Vilela de Oliveira, Cleise Ribeiro Gomes, Nilton Lincopan, Terezinha Knöbl, Andrea Micke Moreno
This study reports the high-virulence phylogenetic backgrounds of CMY-2- and CTX-M-2-producing avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from turkeys sent to slaughter and condemned by airsacculitis in Brazil. Among 300 air sac samples, seven E. coli strains produced plasmid-mediated CMY-2-type AmpC, of which three carried also the blaCTX-M-2 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase encoding gene. Interestingly, the transfer of the blaCMY-2 gene was positive for three E. coli strains, being associated with the presence of IncI1 plasmids...
October 7, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Rimante Ronto, Lauren Ball, Donna Pendergast, Neil Harris
The high school setting has been identified as an ideal setting to teach adolescents about healthy dietary behaviours. This study explored home economics teachers' (HETs) views on the role of high schools in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and promoting healthy dietary behaviours. Semi-structured interviews with 22 HETs were conducted. The interview questions focused on the perceived strengths/opportunities and the limitations/barriers in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and healthy dietary behaviours in Australian high schools...
October 19, 2016: Appetite
V L Sirisha, Ankita Jain, Amita Jain
Immobilized enzymes can be used in a wide range of processes. In recent years, a variety of new approaches have emerged for the immobilization of enzymes that have greater efficiency and wider usage. During the course of the last two decades, this area has rapidly expanded into a multidisciplinary field. This current study is a comprehensive review of a variety of literature produced on the different enzymes that have been immobilized on various supporting materials. These immobilized enzymes have a wide range of applications...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
A A Prihanto, M Wakayama
l-Asparaginase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-asparagine to l-aspartic acid. This enzyme has an important role in medicine and food. l-Asparaginase is a potential drug in cancer therapy. Furthermore, it is also applied for reducing acrylamide, a carcinogenic compound in baked and fried foods. Until now, approved l-asparaginases for both applications are few due to their lack of appropriate properties. As a result, researchers have been enthusiastically seeking new sources of enzyme with better performance...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Hans-Uwe Dahms, Eun-Ji Won, Hui-Su Kim, Jeonghoon Han, Heum Gi Park, Sami Souissi, Sheikh Raisuddin, Jae-Seong Lee
Aquatic invertebrates contribute significantly to environmental impact assessment of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Much effort has been made to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate test organisms to meet rigorous regulatory requirements. Copepods, which are ecologically important and widely distributed in aquatic organisms, offer a huge opportunity as test organisms for aquatic toxicity testing. They have a major role not only in the transfer of energy in aquatic food chains, but also as a medium of transfer of aquatic pollutants across the tropic levels...
October 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Adam C Labonte, Sun-Sang J Sung, Lucas T Jennelle, Aditya P Dandekar, Young S Hahn
: The liver maintains an immunologically tolerant environment as a result of continuous exposure to food and bacterial constituents from the digestive tract. Hepatotropic pathogens can take advantage of this niche and establish lifelong chronic infections causing hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Macrophages (Mϕ) play a critical role in regulation of immune responses to hepatic infection and regeneration of tissue. However, the factors crucial for Mϕ in limiting hepatic inflammation or resolving liver damage have not been fully understood...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Carmen Byker Shanks, Sarah Haack, Dawn Tarabochia, Kate Bates, Lori Christenson
Nutrition is an essential component in promoting health and quality of life into the older adults years. The purpose of this qualitative research is to explore how the rural food environment influences food choices of older adults. Four focus groups were conducted with 33 older adults (50 years of age and older) residing in rural Montana communities. Four major themes related to factors influencing food choices among rural older adults emerged from this study: perception of the rural community environment, support as a means of increasing food access, personal access to food sources, and dietary factors...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Community Health
Yanzhu Lin, Zhen-Xia Chen, Brian Oliver, Susan T Harbison
Differences in phenotype among genetically identical individuals exposed to the same environmental condition are often noted in genetic studies. Despite this commonplace observation, little is known about the causes of this variability, which has been termed microenvironmental plasticity. One possibility is that stochastic or technical sources of variance produce these differences. A second possibility is that this variation has a genetic component. We have explored gene expression robustness in the transcriptomes of 730 individual Drosophila melanogaster of 16 fixed genotypes, 9 of which are infected with Wolbachia Three replicates of flies were grown controlling for food, day/night cycles, humidity, temperature, sex, mating status, social exposure, and circadian timing of RNA extraction...
October 21, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Na Sai, Yuntang Wu, Guangui Yu, Zhong Sun, Guowei Huang
A novel photonic crystal (PC) for the enrichment and detection of trace chloramphenicol (Cm) was constructed based on the combination of the imprinted crystalline colloidal array (ICCA) and the enrichment effect induced by wettability differences. The enrichment ICCA (E-ICCA) material had a highly ordered opal structure consisted of hydrophilic molecular imprinting polymer (MIP) spheres and the surrounding hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix, thus showing the desired structural color but also possessing the large hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity (HP) interaction area to enable efficient enrichment of the target Cm molecules from a highly dilute solution to the MIP sphere surface...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Douglas B Sponsler, Reed M Johnson
The role of pesticides in recent honey bee losses is controversial, partly because field studies often fail to detect effects predicted by laboratory studies. This dissonance highlights a critical gap in the field of honey bee toxicology: there exists little mechanistic understanding of the patterns and processes of exposure that link honey bees to pesticides in their environment. We submit that 2 key processes underlie honey bee pesticide exposure: (1) the acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees and (2) the in-hive distribution of pesticide returned by foragers...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sonia M Hernandez, Catharine N Welch, Valerie E Peters, Erin K Lipp, Shannon Curry, Michael J Yabsley, Susan Sanchez, Andrea Presotto, Peter Gerner-Smidt, Kelley B Hise, Elizabeth Hammond, Whitney M Kistler, Marguerite Madden, April L Conway, Tiffany Kwan, John J Maurer
Worldwide, Salmonella spp. is a significant cause of disease for both humans and wildlife, with wild birds adapted to urban environments having different opportunities for pathogen exposure, infection, and transmission compared to their natural conspecifics. Food provisioning by people may influence these factors, especially when high-density mixed species flocks aggregate. White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), an iconic Everglades species in decline in Florida, are becoming increasingly common in urbanized areas of south Florida where most are hand-fed...
2016: PloS One
Rui Seixas, Tânia Raquel Santos, Jorge Machado, Luís Tavares, Fernando Bernardo, Teresa Semedo-Lemsaddek, Manuela Oliveira
The increase in prevalence of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- related infections over the last few years has been considered a public health issue in many European countries, especially as this serovar may be associated with tetraresistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT). Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates (n = 187) obtained by the Portuguese National Laboratory from different sources, including human clinical cases (n = 170), veterinary (n = 10), environmental (n = 6), and food samples (n = 1), were collected from 15 districts between 2006 and 2011...
October 21, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Vi Khanh Truong, Miljan Stefanovic, Shane Maclaughlin, Mark Tobin, Jitraporn Vongsvivut, Mohammad Al Kobaisi, Russell J Crawford, Elena P Ivanova
Corrosion of metallic surfaces is prevalent in the environment and is of great concern in many areas, including the military, transport, aviation, building and food industries, amongst others. Polyester and coatings containing both polyester and silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) have been widely used to protect steel substrata from corrosion. In this study, we utilized X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared micro-spectroscopy, water contact angle measurements, optical profiling and atomic force microscopy to provide an insight into how exposure to sunlight can cause changes in the micro- and nanoscale integrity of the coatings...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Vernon G Thomas, Robert H Hanner, Alex V Borisenko
Managing invasive alien species in Canada requires reliable taxonomic identification as the basis of rapid-response management. This can be challenging, especially when organisms are small and lack morphological diagnostic features. DNA-based techniques, such as DNA barcoding, offer a reliable, rapid, and inexpensive toolkit for taxonomic identification of individual or bulk samples, forensic remains, and even environmental DNA. Well suited for this requirement, they could be more broadly deployed and incorporated into the operating policy and practices of Canadian federal departments and should be authorized under these agencies' articles of law...
July 19, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Tamar Berman, Itamar Grotto, Eyal Schwartzberg
BACKGROUND: Large amounts of expired and unused medications accumulate in households. This potentially exposes the public to hazards due to uncontrolled use of medications. Most of the expired or unused medications that accumulate in households (household medical waste) is thrown to the garbage or flushed down to the sewage, potentially contaminating waste-water, water resources and even drinking water. There is evidence that pharmaceutical active ingredients reach the environment, including food, however the risk to public health from low level exposure to pharmaceuticals in the environment is currently unknown...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Wei Zhang, Arun Wanchoo, Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza, Yuxian Xia, Nemat O Keyhani
Insects interact with the surrounding environment via chemoreception, and in social insects such as ants, chemoreception functions to mediate diverse behaviors including food acquisition, self/non-self recognition, and intraspecific communication. The invasive red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has spread worldwide, displaying a remarkable environmental adaptability. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are chemical compound carriers, involved in diverse physiological processes including odor detection and chemical transport...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Y J Mu, B F Zhang, J Y Zhao, Z Q Wang, S L Xia, X Y Huang, B L Xu
Objective: To understand the distribution of Salmonella in external environment in Henan province, and explore the distribution of different serotypes of the Salmonella and their homology. Methods: A total of 4 488 samples were collected form animal dung, meat products and kitchen utensils, and identified by biochemical tests and serotyped by serum agglutination reaction. The predominant serotypes were further typed by PFGE. Results: A total of 324 Salmonella strains were detected in these samples, the detection rate was 7...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
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