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Food environment

A J Christensen, Venkatraman Srinivasan, John C Hart, Amy Marshall-Colon
Sustainable crop production is a contributing factor to current and future food security. Innovative technologies are needed to design strategies that will achieve higher crop yields on less land and with fewer resources. Computational modeling coupled with advanced scientific visualization enables researchers to explore and interact with complex agriculture, nutrition, and climate data to predict how crops will respond to untested environments. These virtual observations and predictions can direct the development of crop ideotypes designed to meet future yield and nutritional demands...
March 17, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Misty R Riddle, Ariel C Aspiras, Karin Gaudenz, Robert Peuß, Jenny Y Sung, Brian Martineau, Megan Peavey, Andrew C Box, Julius A Tabin, Suzanne McGaugh, Richard Borowsky, Clifford J Tabin, Nicolas Rohner
Periodic food shortages are a major challenge faced by organisms in natural habitats. Cave-dwelling animals must withstand long periods of nutrient deprivation, as-in the absence of photosynthesis-caves depend on external energy sources such as seasonal floods. Here we show that cave-adapted populations of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, have dysregulated blood glucose homeostasis and are insulin-resistant compared to river-adapted populations. We found that multiple cave populations carry a mutation in the insulin receptor that leads to decreased insulin binding in vitro and contributes to hyperglycaemia...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Bernadette U Ukah, Ogbonnaya Igwe, Peter Ameh
In Ajao Estate, it is believed that poor quality of its groundwater is unconnected to the dislodging of wastewater into the environment by food- and wine-producing industries operating in the area. To ascertain this claim, the impact of this wastewater on microbiological and physicochemical quality of the groundwater was evaluated. Microbiological result of water samples revealed decrease in Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, etc. count from the industrial wastewater dislodging point...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Dean Calahan, Edward Osenbaugh, Walter Adey
Humanity is degrading multiple ecosystem services, potentially irreversibly. Two of the most important human impacts are excess agricultural nutrient loading in our fresh and estuarine waters and excess carbon dioxide in our oceans and atmosphere. Large-scale global intervention is required to slow, halt, and eventually reverse these stresses. Cultivating attached polyculture algae within controlled open-field photobioreactors is a practical technique for exploiting the ubiquity and high primary productivity of algae to capture and recycle the pollutants driving humanity into unsafe regimes of biogeochemical cycling, ocean acidification, and global warming...
February 2018: Heliyon
Lianne Remijn, Lenie van den Engel-Hoek, Ton Satink, Bert J M de Swart, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden
OBJECTIVE: The impact of difficulties with eating and drinking in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy is unknown. The purpose of this study is to find out which difficulties adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy experience with eating and drinking in daily life and how they deal with these difficulties. The study also explores how they think about themselves with respect to eating and what does or does not help regarding social participation. METHOD: We collected the data from ten participants with spastic cerebral palsy (aged 15-23 years) living in the Netherlands...
March 21, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Carlos Rumbo, Juan Antonio Tamayo-Ramos, M Federica Caso, Antonio Rinaldi, Lorena Romero-Santacreu, Roberto Quesada, Santiago Cuesta
Electrospun biodegradable polymers have emerged as promising materials for their applications in several fields, including biomedicine and food industry. For this reason, the susceptibility of these materials to be colonized by different pathogens is a critical issue for public health, and their study can provide future knowledge to develop new strategies against bacterial infections. In this work, the ability of three pathogenic bacterial species ( Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Listeria monocytogenes) to adhere and form biofilm in electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) microfibrous meshes was investigated...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Natalia Crespo Tapia, Heidy M W den Besten, Tjakko Abee
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can grow as a biofilm on surfaces. Biofilm formation in food-processing environments is a big concern for food safety, as it can cause product contamination through the food-processing line. Although motile aerobic bacteria have been described to form biofilms at the air-liquid interface of cell cultures, to our knowledge, this type of biofilm has not been described in L. monocytogenes before. In this study we report L. monocytogenes biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface of aerobically grown cultures, and that this phenotype is specifically induced when the media is supplemented with glycerol as a carbon and energy source...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Joseph A Wonderlich, Lauren Breithaupt, James C Thompson, Ross D Crosby, Scott G Engel, Sarah Fischer
Stress and affect have been implicated in the maintenance of binge eating for women with symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN). Neuroimaging and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) have separately examined how these variables may contribute to eating disorder behavior. Though both methodologies have their own strengths, it's unclear how either methodology might inform the other. This study examined the impact of individual differences in neural reactivity to food cues following acute stress on the trajectories of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) surrounding binge eating...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Amber Hilliard, Dara Leong, Amy O'Callaghan, Eamonn P Culligan, Ciara A Morgan, Niall DeLappe, Colin Hill, Kieran Jordan, Martin Cormican, Cormac G M Gahan
Listeria monocytogenes is a major human foodborne pathogen that is prevalent in the natural environment and has a high case fatality rate. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis has emerged as a valuable methodology for the classification of L. monocytogenes isolates and the identification of virulence islands that may influence infectivity. In this study, WGS was used to provide an insight into 25 L. monocytogenes isolates from cases of clinical infection in Ireland between 2013 and 2015. Clinical strains were either lineage I (14 isolates) or lineage II (11 isolates), with 12 clonal complexes (CC) represented, of which CC1 (6) and CC101 (4) were the most common...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Jean-Christophe Billeter, Mariana F Wolfner
Chemicals released into the environment by food, predators and conspecifics play critical roles in Drosophila reproduction. Females and males live in an environment full of smells, whose molecules communicate to them the availability of food, potential mates, competitors or predators. Volatile chemicals derived from fruit, yeast growing on the fruit, and flies already present on the fruit attract Drosophila, concentrating flies at food sites, where they will also mate. Species-specific cuticular hydrocarbons displayed on female Drosophila as they mature are sensed by males and act as pheromones to stimulate mating by conspecific males and inhibit heterospecific mating...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Karina Franco-Paredes, Felipe J Díaz-Reséndiz, Carlos Alejandro Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Lilián Elizabeth Bosques-Brugada
The purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate a causal model of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents with different body composition. The participants were 209 adolescents (107 women and 102 men) ranging from 10 to 15 years of age. A model based on that proposed by Wilson and Cleary (JAMA 273(1):59-65, 1995) was elaborated. The body composition of the participants was analyzed. They were asked to complete a battery of questionnaires composed of the following factors: biological status (BS; included body mass index and weight), symptomatic psychological status (SPS; included the variables of drive for thinness and food concerns), functional status (FS; composed of physical activity, food consumption estimation, and socioeconomic status), and HRQoL, which included the dimensions of psychological well-being, autonomy and relationship with parents, social support and peers, and the academic environment...
March 20, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Xiu-Xiu Zhang, Yi-Zhen Song, Fang Fang, Zhi-Yong Wu
On-site rapid monitoring of nitrite as an assessment indicator of the environment, food, and physiological systems has drawn extensive attention. Here, electrokinetic stacking (ES) was combined with colorimetric reaction on a paper-based device (PAD) to achieve colorless nitrite detection with smartphone. In this paper, nitrite was stacked on the paper fluidic channel as a narrow band by electrokinetic stacking. Then, Griess reagent was introduced to visualize the stacking band. Under optimal conditions, the sensitivity of nitrite was 160-fold increased within 5 min...
March 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Bastian Hornung, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Hauke Smidt, Peter J Schaap
Humans are not autonomous entities. We are all living in a complex environment, interacting not only with our peers, but as true holobionts; we are also very much in interaction with our coexisting microbial ecosystems living on and especially within us, in the intestine. Intestinal microorganisms, often collectively referred to as intestinal microbiota, contribute significantly to our daily energy uptake by breaking down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, which are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and subsequently absorbed by human cells...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Gopal R Gopinath, Hannah R Chase, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Athmanya Eshwar, Hyein Jang, Isha Patel, Flavia Negrete, Samantha Finkelstein, Eunbi Park, TaeJung Chung, YeonJoo Yoo, JungHa Woo, YouYoung Lee, Jihyeon Park, Hyerim Choi, Seungeun Jeong, Soyoung Jun, Mijeong Kim, Chaeyoon Lee, HyeJin Jeong, Séamus Fanning, Roger Stephan, Carol Iversen, Felix Reich, Günter Klein, Angelika Lehner, Ben D Tall
Background: Malonate utilization, an important differential trait, well recognized as being possessed by six of the seven Cronobacter species is thought to be largely absent in Cronobacter sakazakii (Csak). The current study provides experimental evidence that confirms the presence of a malonate utilization operon in 24 strains of sequence type (ST) 64, obtained from Europe, Middle East, China, and USA; it offers explanations regarding the genomic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness among these strains, and that of other C...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Benjamin W Chrisinger, Michael J Kallan, Eliza D Whiteman, Amy Hillier
Food shopping decisions are pathways between food environment, diet and health outcomes, including chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. The choices of where to shop and what to buy are interrelated, though a better understanding of this dynamic is needed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's nationally representative Food Acquisitions and Purchase Survey food-at-home dataset was joined with other databases of retailer characteristics and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) of purchases. We used linear regression models with general estimating equations to assess relationships between trip, store, and shopper characteristics with trip HEI scores...
March 16, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Marcela Vega, Robert Nerenberg, Ignacio T Vargas
This paper reviews the unique situation of perchlorate contamination in Chile, including its sources, presence in environmental media and in the human population, and possible steps to mitigate its health impacts. Perchlorate is a ubiquitous water contaminant that inhibits thyroid function. Standards for drinking water range from 2 to 18 µg L-1 in United States and Europe. A major natural source of perchlorate contamination is Chile saltpeter, found in the Atacama Desert. High concentrations of perchlorate have presumably existed in this region, in soils, sediments, surface waters and groundwaters, for millions of years...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Research
Francesco Paolo Serpe, Filomena Fiorito, Mauro Esposito, Angelo Ferrari, Federico Fracassi, Roberto Miniero, Marco Pietra, Paola Roncada, Gianfranco Brambilla
The domestic cat (Felis catus) was used as a sentinel of exposure to polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in indoor urban environments y. Sera from 120 cats were pooled to form 30 different groups selected by age (<2 years; > 2 ≤ 8 years; > 8 years), sex, municipality (Bologna and Turin) and environment (indoor vs. outdoor). Test portions of 1 mL were analyzed by means of gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) for six selected indicators non-dioxin-like PCBs (∑6 PCBs: congeners #28, #52, #101, #132, #153 and #180) and the results were computed in the upper-bound mode...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Cheng-En Dai, Hai-Long Li, Xiao-Ping He, Fen-Fen Zheng, Hua-Liu Zhu, Liang-Feng Liu, Wei Du
The pharmacological activity of active ingredients from Chinese medicine depends greatly on the microecological environment of probiotics in the human body. After effective ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines are metabolized or biotransformed by probiotics, their metabolites can increase pharmacological activity, and can be absorbed more easily to improve the bioavailability. Therefore, the combination of Chinese medicines with probiotics is the innovation point in R&D of functional food and Chinese medicines, and also a new thinking for the modernization of Chinese medicine...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Brian G O'Flynn, Aidan J Hawley, David J Merkler
Crop protection against destructive pests has been at the forefront of recent agricultural advancements. Rapid adaptive evolution has led to insects becoming immune to the chemicals employed to quell their damage. Insecticide resistance is a serious problem that negatively impacts food production, food storage, human health, and the environment. To make matters more complicated are the strict regulations in place on insecticide development, driven by rising public concern relating to the harmful effects these chemicals have on the environment and on society...
2018: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Journal
Cheryl Doss, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Agnes Quisumbing, Sophie Theis
Sustainable Development Goal 5 (SDG) on gender equality and women's rights and at least 11 of the 17 SDGs require indicators related to gender dynamics. Despite the need for reliable indicators, stylized facts on women, agriculture, and the environment persist. This paper analyzes four gender myths: 1) 70% of the world's poor are women; 2) Women produce 60 to 80% of the world's food; 3) Women own 1% of the world's land; and 4) Women are better stewards of the environment. After reviewing the conceptual and empirical literature, the paper presents the kernel of truth underlying each myth, questions its underlying assumptions and implications, and examines how it hinders us from developing effective food security policies...
March 2018: Global Food Security
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