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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440783/social-vulnerability-and-hypoglycemia-among-patients-with-diabetes
#1
Jorge Waitman, Gabriela Caeiro, Silvana A Romero Gonzalez, Danila P Ré, Andrea Daghero, Claudio D Gonzalez, Guillermo E Umpierrez
Lower-income populations are hit harder by the diabetes epidemic as regards both prevalence and the risk of complications. Food Insecurity is one of the mechanisms through which poverty may predispose people with low socio-economic status to poorer control and higher complication rates. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization defined food security as "the right to have access to sufficient nutritional and culturally acceptable food choices." Adults suffering from diabetes with limited income have a 40% greater chance of having food insecurity and an inadequate blood glucose control...
February 2017: Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440738/restricted-feeding-modulates-the-daily-variations-of-liver-glutamate-dehydrogenase-activity-expression-and-histological-location
#2
Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Isabel Méndez, Isaías Turrubiate, Héctor Valente-Godínez, Moisés Pérez-Mendoza, Paola García-Tejada, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Glutamate dehydrogenase is an important enzyme in the hepatic regulation of nitrogen and energy metabolism. It catalyzes one of the most relevant anaplerotic reactions. Although its relevance in liver homeostasis has been widely described, its daily pattern and responsiveness to restricted feeding protocols has not been studied. We explored the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase transcription, protein, activity, and histochemical and subcellular location in a protocol of daytime food synchronization in rats...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439847/the-role-of-the-fda-and-regulatory-approval-of-new-devices-for-diabetes-care
#3
REVIEW
Shelley A Jazowski, Aaron N Winn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for assuring the safety, effectiveness, and quality of medical devices in the USA. Extensive review times coupled with the demand for necessary treatments have prompted the policymakers to implement measures to speed medical devices to market.The purpose of this review is to summarize the evolution of the regulatory pathways through which medical devices utilized in diabetes care gain market access. RECENT FINDINGS: Regulatory pathways, ranging from premarket notification to premarket approval, require distinct, yet necessary ("least burdensome") evidence demonstrating a device's safety and effectiveness...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437594/a-mesoamerican-origin-of-cherimoya-annona-cherimola-mill-implications-for-the-conservation-of-plant-genetic-resources
#4
N Larranaga, F J Albertazzi, G Fontecha, M Palmieri, H Rainer, M van Zonneveld, J I Hormaza
Knowledge on the structure and distribution of genetic diversity is a key aspect in order to plan and execute an efficient conservation and utilization of the genetic resources of any crop as well as for determining historical demographic inferences. In this work, a large data set of 1765 accessions of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill, Annonaceae), an underutilized fruit tree crop native to the neotropics and used as a food source by pre-Columbian cultures, was collected from 6 different countries across the American continent and amplified with 9 highly informative microsatellite markers...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437132/home-enteral-nutrition-updates-trends-and-challenges
#5
Karen Martin, Gabriela Gardner
The true prevalence of home enteral nutrition (HEN) utilization is unclear and requires further study. HEN therapy has remained virtually unchanged for several decades. However, new trends in HEN are evolving; enteral nutrition is undergoing changes ranging from enteral feeding devices, ingredients used, practice innovations, and challenges with reimbursement. A 2006 Joint Commission call to action that reported 2 sentinel events related to misconnections set things into motion for the transition of enteral device connectors to become specific for enteral nutrition use, which will affect patients who receive HEN...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436455/the-impact-of-gold-mining-and-agricultural-concessions-on-the-tree-cover-and-local-communities-in-northern-myanmar
#6
Sarah Papworth, Madhu Rao, Myint Myint Oo, Kyaw Thinn Latt, Robert Tizard, Thomas Pienkowski, L Roman Carrasco
Myanmar offers unique opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and foreign direct investment due to projected economic growth linked to natural resource exploitation. Industrial-scale development introduces new land uses into the landscape, with unknown repercussions for local communities and biodiversity conservation. We use participatory mapping of 31 communities, focus groups in 28 communities, and analyses of forest cover change during 2000-2010 using MODIS vegetation continuous fields images, to understand the social and environmental impacts of gold mining and agricultural concessions in Myanmar's Hukaung Valley (~21,800 km(2))...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435142/clinical-drug-drug-interaction-evaluations-to-inform-drug-use-and-enable-drug-access
#7
Dinko Rekić, Kellie S Reynolds, Ping Zhao, Lei Zhang, Kenta Yoshida, Madhav Sachar, Micheline Piquette Miller, Shiew-Mei Huang, Issam Zineh
Clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can occur when multiple drugs are taken by the same patient. Significant DDIs can result in clinical toxicity or treatment failure. Therefore, DDI assessment is an integral part of drug development and the benefit-risk assessment of new therapies. Regulatory agencies including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency of Japan (PMDA) have made recommendations in their DDI guidance documents on various methodologies (in vitro, in silico and clinical) to assess DDI potential and inform patient management strategies...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431671/where-are-we-now-a-clinicians-guide-to-the-use-of-follow-on-insulin-for-patients-with-diabetes
#8
Steven V Edelman, Priscilla A Hollander, Eugene E Wright
Insulin has been used as a standard treatment for patients with diabetes for almost 100 years. Over time, advances in insulin development have improved its pharmacologic properties. (Online access: http://courses.elseviercme.com/t2dm/666). Most recently, the US Food and Drug Administration approved a novel, follow-on basal insulin agent, with more expected to be commercially available in the near future. With the imminent availability of follow-on basal insulin agents, clinicians need to be aware of the potential benefits and concerns in order to facilitate informed decision making and to provide the best possible advice and guidance to their patients with diabetes...
May 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431621/two-decades-of-glatiramer-acetate-from-initial-discovery-to-the-current-development-of-generics
#9
REVIEW
Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Kavita V Nair, Joseph L Glajch, Tanmoy C Ganguly, Daniel Kantor
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, incurable, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In the United States, several US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) are available, including glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone®), one of the most longstanding treatments. GA was discovered serendipitously in the late 1960s/early 1970s while attempting to produce a synthetic antigen capable of inducing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of autoimmune inflammatory CNS disorders, including MS...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430794/experimental-demonstration-of-a-trophic-cascade-in-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-rocky-subtidal-effects-of-consumer-identity-and-behavior
#10
Jon D Witman, Franz Smith, Mark Novak
In diverse tropical webs, trophic cascades are presumed to be rare, as species interactions may dampen top-down control and reduce their prevalence. To test this hypothesis, we used an open experimental design in the Galápagos rocky subtidal that enabled a diverse guild of fish species, in the presence of each other and top predators (sea lions and sharks), to attack two species of sea urchins grazing on benthic algae. Time-lapse photography of experiments on natural and experimental substrates revealed strong species identity effects: only two predator species-blunthead triggerfish (Pseudobalistes naufragium) and finescale triggerfish (Balistes polylepis)-drove a diurnal trophic cascade extending to algae, and they preferred large pencil urchins (Eucidaris galapagensis) over green urchins (Lytechinus semituberculatus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430700/prescriber-compliance-with-liver-monitoring-guidelines-for-pazopanib-in-the-postapproval-setting-results-from-a-distributed-research-network
#11
Sumitra Shantakumar, Beth L Nordstrom, Susan A Hall, Luc Djousse, Myrthe P P van Herk-Sukel, Kathy H Fraeman, David R Gagnon, Karen Chagin, Jeanenne J Nelson
OBJECTIVES: Pazopanib received US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2009 for advanced renal cell carcinoma. During clinical development, liver chemistry abnormalities and adverse hepatic events were observed, leading to a boxed warning for hepatotoxicity and detailed label prescriber guidelines for liver monitoring. As part of postapproval regulatory commitments, a cohort study was conducted to assess prescriber compliance with liver monitoring guidelines. METHODS: Over a 4-year period, a distributed network approach was used across 3 databases: US Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, a US outpatient oncology community practice database, and the Dutch PHARMO Database Network...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429631/household-food-insecurity-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-sagamu-nigeria-a-preliminary-study
#12
Oluwafolahan O Sholeye, Victor J Animasahun, Albert A Salako, Bankole K Oyewole
BACKGROUND: Household food insecurity has been associated with increased risk of transmission of HIV infection and poor treatment outcomes. This study therefore determined the prevalence of household food insecurity and its associated factors among people living with HIV in Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 244 adult clients accessing care and support at the teaching hospital in Sagamu, Nigeria, selected via systematic sampling...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428391/the-interaction-of-human-population-food-production-and-biodiversity-protection
#13
REVIEW
Eileen Crist, Camilo Mora, Robert Engelman
Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings-especially for food-imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426643/incidence-and-trends-of-infections-with-pathogens-transmitted-commonly-through-food-and-the-effect-of-increasing-use-of-culture-independent-diagnostic-tests-on-surveillance-foodborne-diseases-active-surveillance-network-10-u-s-sites-2013-2016
#14
Ellyn P Marder, Paul R Cieslak, Alicia B Cronquist, John Dunn, Sarah Lathrop, Therese Rabatsky-Ehr, Patricia Ryan, Kirk Smith, Melissa Tobin-D'Angelo, Duc J Vugia, Shelley Zansky, Kristin G Holt, Beverly J Wolpert, Michael Lynch, Robert Tauxe, Aimee L Geissler
Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens...
April 21, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426620/committee-opinion-no-699-adolescent-pregnancy-contraception-and-sexual-activity
#15
(no author information available yet)
In 2015, the birth rate among U.S. adolescents and young adults (aged 15-19 years) reached a historic low at 22.3 per 1,000 women. Despite positive trends, the United States continues to have the highest adolescent pregnancy rate among industrialized countries with data. Racial and ethnic disparities in adolescent pregnancy rates continue to exist, as do state-based differences in pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports access for adolescents to all contraceptive methods approved by the U...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426615/committee-opinion-no-699-adolescent-pregnancy-contraception-and-sexual-activity
#16
(no author information available yet)
In 2015, the birth rate among U.S. adolescents and young adults (aged 15-19 years) reached a historic low at 22.3 per 1,000 women. Despite positive trends, the United States continues to have the highest adolescent pregnancy rate among industrialized countries with data. Racial and ethnic disparities in adolescent pregnancy rates continue to exist, as do state-based differences in pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports access for adolescents to all contraceptive methods approved by the U...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426185/integrated-hiv-care-and-service-engagement-among-people-living-with-hiv-who-use-drugs-in-a-setting-with-a-community-wide-treatment-as-prevention-initiative-a-qualitative-study-in-vancouver-canada
#17
Alexandra B Collins, Surita Parashar, Robert S Hogg, Saranee Fernando, Catherine Worthington, Patrick McDougall, Rosalind Baltzer Turje, Ryan McNeil
INTRODUCTION: Social-structural inequities impede access to, and retention in, HIV care among structurally vulnerable people living with HIV (PLHIV) who use drugs. The resulting disparities in HIV-related outcomes among PLHIV who use drugs pose barriers to the optimization of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) initiatives. We undertook this study to examine engagement with, and impacts of, an integrated HIV care services model tailored to the needs of PLHIV who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada - a setting with a community-wide TasP initiative...
February 3, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425899/associations-between-the-local-food-environment-and-the-severity-of-food-insecurity-among-new-families-using-community-food-security-interventions-in-montreal
#18
Elsury Pérez, Federico Roncarolo, Louise Potvin
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between the local food environment and the severity of food insecurity among new families using community food security interventions in Montreal. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed baseline data from 785 adults aged 18-65 years enrolled in the evaluation of the effects of organizations delivering community food security interventions in Montreal. The dependent variable was household food insecurity, while the independent variable was the local food environment, assessed through: location of the most frequently used grocery store, distance between the participant's residence and the community organization used, mode of transportation, walking time to the most frequently used grocery store, satisfaction with the acceptability and affordability of food available at the most frequently used grocery store, and self-reported difficulties in accessing food...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424462/dietary-behaviour-of-man-eating-lions-as-revealed-by-dental-microwear-textures
#19
Larisa R G DeSantis, Bruce D Patterson
Lions (Panthera leo) feed on diverse prey species, a range that is broadened by their cooperative hunting. Although humans are not typical prey, habitual man-eating by lions is well documented. Fathoming the motivations of the Tsavo and Mfuwe man-eaters (killed in 1898 in Kenya and 1991 in Zambia, respectively) may be elusive, but we can clarify aspects of their behaviour using dental microwear texture analysis. Specifically, we analysed the surface textures of lion teeth to assess whether these notorious man-eating lions scavenged carcasses during their depredations...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424092/analyzing-the-association-between-fish-consumption-and-osteoporosis-in-a-sample-of-chinese-men
#20
Xia Li, Tao Lei, Zihui Tang, Jingcheng Dong
BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to estimate the associations between frequency of fish food consumption and osteoporosis (OP) in general Chinese men. METHODS: We conducted a large-scale, community-based, cross-sectional study to investigate the associations by using self-report questionnaire to access frequency of fish food intake. A total of 1092 men were available for data analysis in this study. Multiple regression models controlling for confounding factors to include frequency of fish food consumption variable were performed to investigate the relationships for OP...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
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