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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222762/dynamic-flux-balance-analysis-using-dfbalab
#1
Jose Alberto Gomez, Paul I Barton
Bioprocesses are of critical importance in several industries such as the food and pharmaceutical industries. Despite their importance and widespread application, bioprocess models remain rather simplistic and based on unstructured models. These simple models have limitations, making it very difficult to model complex bioprocesses. With dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA) more comprehensive bioprocess models can be obtained. DFBA simulations are difficult to carry out because they result in dynamic systems with linear programs embedded...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221682/effects-of-fructose-consumption-on-food-intake-and-biochemical-and-body-parameters-in-wistar-rats
#2
Viviane Wagner Ramos, Leandro Oliveira Batista, Kelse Tibau Albuquerque
INTRODUTION AND OBJECTIVE: Increased fructose consumption is associated with various metabolic changes that favor the onset of obesity and related comorbidities. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of chronic fructose consumption on body weight and adipose tissue, as well as on serum glucose and triglyceride levels. METHODS: Thirty-day-old Wistar rats were divided into two groups: fructose (F) and control (C), which had free access to commercial chow and either water or a 20% fructose solution...
December 5, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220861/do-we-need-plant-food-supplements-a-critical-examination-of-quality-safety-efficacy-and-necessity-for-a-new-regulatory-framework
#3
Mona Abdel-Tawab
Given the expanding market of plant food supplements (PFSs) not undergoing any pre-marketing authorization, the overall quality, safety and efficacy of PFSs were subjected to a critical examination. Although many high-quality PFSs exist on the legal market, quality concerns are in general justified. Besides economic adulteration, active ingredients dramatically differing from label claims and among products were reported in several studies. In addition, PFSs sold via the Internet may be intentionally adulterated with undeclared prescription drugs...
December 8, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220529/oxytocin-and-naltrexone-successfully-treat-hypothalamic-obesity-in-a-boy-post-craniopharyngioma-resection
#4
Eugenie A Hsu, Jennifer L Miller, Francisco A Perez, Christian L Roth
Context: Hypothalamic obesity, a treatment-resistant condition common to survivors of craniopharyngioma (CP), is strongly associated with a poor quality of life in this population. Oxytocin (OT), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, has been shown to play a role in the regulation of energy balance and to have anorexigenic effects in animal studies. Naltrexone (NAL), an opiate antagonist, has been shown to deter hedonic eating and to potentiate OT's effects. Case description: In this parent-observed study, we tested the administration of intranasal OT for 10 weeks (phase 1), followed by a combination of intranasal OT and NAL for 38 weeks (phase 2) in a 13-year-old male with confirmed hypothalamic obesity and hyperphagia post-CP resection...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219089/health-impacts-of-climate-change-and-health-and-social-inequalities-in-the-uk
#5
REVIEW
Jouni Paavola
This article examines how social and health inequalities shape the health impacts of climate change in the UK, and what the implications are for climate change adaptation and health care provision. The evidence generated by the other articles of the special issue were interpreted using social justice reasoning in light of additional literature, to draw out the key implications of health and social inequalities for health outcomes of climate change. Exposure to heat and cold, air pollution, pollen, food safety risks, disruptions to access to and functioning of health services and facilities, emerging infections and flooding are examined as the key impacts of climate change influencing health outcomes...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217539/inhibition-of-cocaine-and-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-self-administration-by-lorcaserin-is-mediated-by-5-ht2c-receptors-in-rats
#6
Brenda M Gannon, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
Lorcaserin is a serotonin (5-HT)2C receptor-preferring agonist approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Lorcaserin has been shown to decrease cocaine self-administration in rats and monkeys. Although this effect is partially inhibited by a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist (SB 242084), lorcaserin also has effects at 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors and the relative contribution of these receptors to its anti-cocaine effects has not been investigated. The goals of this study were to determine: (1) the potency and effectiveness of lorcaserin to decrease self-administration of cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a common "bath salts" constituent; and (2) the receptor(s) mediating the effects of lorcaserin on cocaine and MDPV self-administration...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215569/the-effect-of-feed-form-on-diet-digestibility-and-cecal-parameters-in-rabbits
#7
Isabella Corsato Alvarenga, Charles Gregory Aldrich, Micah Kohles
Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to one of 3 dietary treatment groups of 5 animals each and fed pelleted, extruded, or muesli diets in a completely randomized design experiment. Rabbits were placed in individual cages with ad libitum access to water and food for 45 days acclimation followed by 30 days experimental period. Feed intake of rabbits fed pelleted and extruded diets was greater (p < 0.05) than rabbits fed the muesli diet (125.6 and 130.4 vs. 91.9 g/d), but weight change and feed efficiency were not affected by treatment...
December 7, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214564/undiagnosed-diseases-italy-us-collaboration-and-international-efforts-to-tackle-rare-and-common-diseases-lacking-a-diagnosis
#8
Domenica Taruscio, Giovanna Floridia, Marco Salvatore, Stephen C Groft, William A Gahl
Rare diseases (RD), according to European Union criteria, affect 5 per 10,000 persons, or 30 million people, in the EU; in the USA, RD are defined as conditions that affect fewer than 200,000 individuals in the population (320 million). Most known rare disorders are severe and chronic, with many being degenerative and life threatening. There are roughly 5000-8000 rare diseases (European Commission, DG Health and Food Safety, Public Health, Rare Diseases, Policy.http://ec.europa.eu/health/rare_diseases/policy/index_en...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212782/trials-of-transvaginal-mesh-devices-for-pelvic-organ-prolapse-a-systematic-database-review-of-the-us-fda-approval-process
#9
Carl J Heneghan, Ben Goldacre, Igho Onakpoya, Jeffrey K Aronson, Tom Jefferson, Annette Pluddemann, Kamal R Mahtani
INTRODUCTION: Transvaginal mesh devices are approved in the USA by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), through the 510(k) system. However, there is uncertainty about the benefit to harm balance of mesh approved for pelvic organ prolapse. We, therefore, assessed the evidence at the time of approval for transvaginal mesh products and the impact of safety studies the FDA mandated in 2012 because of emerging harms. METHODS: We used FDA databases to determine the evidence for approval of transvaginal mesh...
December 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212781/analysis-of-drug-development-paradigms-for-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#10
Denis L Jardim, Debora de Melo Gagliato, Francis J Giles, Razelle Kurzrock
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have unique toxicities and response kinetics compared to cytotoxics and gene-targeted anti-cancer agents. We investigated the impact of innovative/accelerated immunotherapy drug development/approval models on the accuracy of safety and efficacy assessments by searching the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. Initial phase I trials for each agent were reviewed and safety and efficacy data compared to that found in later trials leading to regulatory approvals of the same agents...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210943/survey-of-the-american-neurotology-society-on-cochlear-implantation-part-2-surgical-and-device-related-practice-patterns
#11
Matthew L Carlson, Brendan P O'Connell, Christine M Lohse, Colin L Driscoll, Alex D Sweeney
OBJECTIVE: To examine surgical and device-related cochlear implant practice patterns across centers in the United States. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of the American Neurotology Society (ANS). RESULTS: A total of 81 surveys were returned from ANS members who report regular involvement in cochlear implant care. Overall there was a broad distribution in age and clinical experience, with most respondents reporting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accreditation in neurotology and employment at an academic center...
November 28, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207469/eating-at-food-outlets-and-on-the-go-is-associated-with-less-healthy-food-choices-in-adults-cross-sectional-data-from-the-uk-national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-rolling-programme-2008-2014
#12
Nida Ziauddeen, Eva Almiron-Roig, Tarra L Penney, Sonja Nicholson, Sara F L Kirk, Polly Page
Eating location has been linked with variations in diet quality including the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food, which is a recognised risk factor for obesity. Cross-sectional data from 4736 adults aged 19 years and over from Years 1-6 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) Rolling Programme (RP) (2008-2014) were used to explore food consumption patterns by eating location. Eating location was categorized as home, work, leisure places, food outlets and "on the go". Foods were classified into two groups: core (included in the principal food groups and considered important/acceptable within a healthy diet) and non-core (all other foods)...
December 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206840/age-related-changes-in-somatic-condition-and-reproduction-in-the-eurasian-beaver-resource-history-influences-onset-of-reproductive-senescence
#13
Ruairidh D Campbell, Frank Rosell, Chris Newman, David W Macdonald
Using 15 years of data from a stable population of wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), we examine how annual and lifetime access to food resources affect individual age-related changes in reproduction and somatic condition. We found an age-related decline in annual maternal reproductive output, after a peak at age 5-6. Rainfall, an established negative proxy of annual resource availability for beavers, was consistently associated with lower reproductive output for females of all ages. In contrast, breeding territory quality, as a measure of local resource history over reproductive lifetimes, caused differences in individual patterns of reproductive senescence; animals from lower quality territories senesced when younger...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200149/childhood-and-adolescent-cancer-in-the-state-of-pernambuco-brazil-incidence-geographical-distribution-and-association-with-environmental-health-indicators
#14
Lídia N V Bastos, José C Silveira, Carlos F Luna, Norma Lucena-Silva
Cases of childhood and adolescent cancer diagnosed from 2009 to 2012 in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed considering the patients' sex and age, the type of cancer and the municipality of living to determine the incidence, geographical distribution, and association with environmental health indicators. The spatial distribution pattern of the cancer incidence was estimated using the Global Moran's index. The association between environmental health indicators and cancer incidence was evaluated by multiple regression...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200030/resveratrol-for-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-hype-or-hope
#15
Rosanne J H C G Beijers, Harry R Gosker, Annemie M W J Schols
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease with a high prevalence of extrapulmonary manifestations and, frequently, cardiovascular comorbidity. Resveratrol is a food-derived compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, metabolic and cardioprotective potential. Therefore, resveratrol might improve the pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary pathology in COPD. In this review, we will evaluate knowledge on the effects of resveratrol on lung injury, muscle metabolism and cardiovascular risk profile and discuss if resveratrol is a hype or hope for patients with COPD...
December 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199629/exploring-the-association-of-urban-or-rural-county-status-and-environmental-nutrition-and-lifestyle-related-resources-with-the-efficacy-of-snap-ed-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-education-to-improve-food-security
#16
Rebecca L Rivera, Jennifer Dunne, Melissa K Maulding, Qi Wang, Dennis A Savaiano, Sharon M Nickols-Richardson, Heather A Eicher-Miller
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of policy, systems and environmental factors with improvement in household food security among low-income Indiana households with children after a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) direct nutrition education intervention. DESIGN: Household food security scores measured by the eighteen-item US Household Food Security Survey Module in a longitudinal randomized and controlled SNAP-Ed intervention study conducted from August 2013 to April 2015 were the response variable...
December 4, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198483/making-and-working-of-a-new-electronic-resource-for-patients-carers-and-professionals-maxfacts-uk
#17
D A Mitchell, A Sebald, L Tomasello
Many maxillofacial patients have serious short, medium, or long-term problems, as well as having to make informed decisions about often life-changing interventions. Validated comprehensive information, at the right time and the right level for a diverse group of users (patients, carers, and professionals), is vital if patients are to make a serious contribution to their treatment. We describe the development of an online resource for this purpose. Maxfacts.uk aims to cover every aspect of oral and maxillofacial surgery and care, from neck dissection and ballistic wounds to physiotherapy and texture-modified foods...
November 29, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194598/composition-granular-structure-and-pasting-properties-of-native-starch-extracted-from-plectranthus-edulis-oromo-dinich-tubers
#18
Tom Hellemans, Gifty Abera, Ingrid De Leyn, Paul Van der Meeren, Koen Dewettinck, Mia Eeckhout, Bruno De Meulenaer, Filip Van Bockstaele
Chemical composition, granular morphology and pasting properties of native starch extracted from tubers of Plectranthus edulis were analyzed. Starch was extracted from tubers of 6 accessions collected from 4 different areas in Ethiopia. Particle size analysis (PSA) and cryo-scanning electron microscope (cryo-SEM) imaging were used to examine the granular morphology and visualize the starch paste, respectively. Pasting properties, water absorption, and gelation capacity were compared. A wide range was found for the amylose (14...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194392/a-cluster-randomized-trial-to-promote-healthy-menu-items-for-children-the-kids-choice-restaurant-program
#19
Guadalupe X Ayala, Iana A Castro, Julie L Pickrel, Shih-Fan Lin, Christine B Williams, Hala Madanat, Hee-Jin Jun, Michelle Zive
Evidence indicates that restaurant-based interventions have the potential to promote healthier purchasing and improve the nutrients consumed. This study adds to this body of research by reporting the results of a trial focused on promoting the sale of healthy child menu items in independently owned restaurants. Eight pair-matched restaurants that met the eligibility criteria were randomized to a menu-only versus a menu-plus intervention condition. Both of the conditions implemented new healthy child menu items and received support for implementation for eight weeks...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192531/comparison-of-acute-to-chronic-ratios-between-silver-and-gold-nanoparticles-using-ceriodaphnia-dubia
#20
Ashley R Harmon, Alan J Kennedy, Jennifer G Laird, Anthony J Bednar, Jeffery A Steevens
As integration of nanoparticles (NPs) into products becomes more common, the need to address the paucity of chronic hazard information for aquatic environments required to determine risk potential increases. This study generated acute and chronic toxicity reference values for Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to 20 and 100 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to generate and evaluate potential differences in acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) using two different feeding methods. A modified feeding procedure was employed alongside the standard procedures to investigate the influence of food on organism exposure...
December 1, 2017: Nanotoxicology
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