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Ahlem Jebali, F Gabriel Acién, Erika Rodriguez Barradas, Eugenia J Olguín, Sami Sayadi, Emilio Molina Grima
This work investigated the production of Scenedesmus sp. in semi-continuous mode in three pilot-scale outdoor raceways (7.2 m2 ) using flue gas for CO2 supply and centrate from the anaerobic digestion of urban wastewater as the sole nutrient source. Experiments were performed at different culture depths, 5, 10 and 15 cm, while evaluating two centrate concentrations (30% and 45%) at dilution rates of 0.2 and 0.3 d-1 . Under optimal conditions of 30% centrate, 0.3 d-1 dilution rate and a 15 cm culture depth, a maximum biomass productivity of 22...
April 17, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Xin Li, Shi-Ming Lan, Zhong-Ping Zhu, Chang Zhang, Guang-Ming Zeng, Yun-Guo Liu, Wei-Cheng Cao, Biao Song, Hong Yang, Sheng-Fan Wang, Shao-Hua Wu
Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), a group of anaerobic prokaryotes, can use sulfur species as a terminal electron acceptor for the oxidation of organic compounds. They not only have significant ecological functions, but also play an important role in bioremediation of contaminated sites. Although numerous studies on metabolism and applications of SRB have been conducted, they still remain incompletely understood and even controversial. Fully understanding the metabolism of SRB paves the way for allowing the microorganisms to provide more beneficial services in bioremediation...
April 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Alaknanda J Adur, N Nandini, K Shilpashree Mayachar, R Ramya, N Srinatha
Silver nanoparticles were prepared through eco-friendly, cost effective, bio-mediated technique using anaerobically digested Parthenium hysterophorous digested slurry (PDS) for the first time. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized through different techniques such as UV-Vis spectrophotometer for optical properties; X-ray diffractometer (XRD), high resolution transmission electron spectroscopy (HR-TEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy for structural property investigations. It was observed that the prepared silver nanoparticles were crystallized in face centered cubic crystal structure with an average particle size of 19 nm as confirmed from XRD...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Simon Poirier, Sébastien Déjean, Olivier Chapleur
A wide variety of inhibitors can induce anaerobic digester disruption. To avoid performance losses, support media can be used to mitigate inhibitions. However, distinguishing the physico-chemical from the biological mechanisms of such strategies remains delicate. In this framework, the impact of 10  g/L of different types of zeolites and activated carbons (AC) on microbial community dynamics during anaerobic digestion of biowaste in the presence of 1.3 g/L of phenol was evaluated with 16 S rRNA gene sequencing...
April 13, 2018: Water Research
Eleanor Jameson, Mussa Quareshy, Yin Chen
The bacterial formation of trimethylamine (TMA) has been linked to cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on the methods employed to investigate the identity of the bacteria responsible for the formation of TMA from dietary choline and carnitine in the human gut. Recent studies have revealed the metabolic pathways responsible for bacterial TMA production, primarily the anaerobic glycyl radical-containing, choline-TMA lyase, CutC and the aerobic carnitine monooxygenase, CntA. Identification of these enzymes has enabled bioinformatics approaches to screen both human-associated bacterial isolate genomes and whole gut metagenomes to determine which bacteria are responsible for TMA formation in the human gut...
April 19, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
James E M Blackwell, Brett Doleman, Philip J J Herrod, Samuel Ricketts, Bethan E Phillips, Jonathan N Lund, John P Williams
BACKGROUND & AIM: Exercise training regimes can lead to improvements in measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), improved general health, and reduced morbidity and overall mortality risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a time-efficient approach to improve CRF in healthy individuals, but the relative benefits of HIIT compared to traditional training methods are unknown in across different disease cohorts. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis compares CRF gains in randomised controlled trials of short-term (<8 weeks) HIIT vs...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Phillip B Hylemon, Spencer C Harris, Jason M Ridlon
The human gut microbiome refers to a highly diverse microbial ecosystem, which has a symbiotic relationship with the host. Molecular hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are generated by fermentative metabolism in anaerobic ecosystems. H2 generation and oxidation coupled to CO2 reduction to methane or acetate help maintain the structure of the gut microbiome. Bile acids are synthesized by hepatocytes from cholesterol in the liver and are important regulators of host metabolism. In this Review, we discuss how gut bacteria metabolize hydrogen gases and bile acids in the intestinal tract and the consequences on host physiology...
April 23, 2018: FEBS Letters
Ram Hari Dahal, Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary, Jaisoo Kim
A novel bacterium, designated strain E9T , was isolated from pine forest soil of Kyonggi University (Suwon, Republic of Korea). Cells were facultatively anaerobic, Gram-staining-negative, catalase-negative, oxidase-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and straw coloured. Prosthecae were absent. Glucose was fermented. The strain grew in the pH range of 5.0-10.0 (optimum, 6.5-8.5) and at 45 °C (optimum, 28-32 °C). E9T was sensitive to NaCl at low concentration and tolerated only 0.2 % NaCl (w/v)...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Anna Banach, Slawomir Ciesielski, Tomasz Bacza, Marek Pieczykolan, Aleksandra Ziembińska-Buczyńska
More information on the connection between anaerobic digestion parameters and composition of the microbial community involved in the anaerobic digestion process is required to gain a better understanding of how a bioreactor functions. The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of microbial communities and the dynamics of methanogens' biodiversity changes during the shift from mesophilic (38 °C) to thermophilic (55 °C) conditions during biogas production. The total microbial composition was examined via the metagenomic approach based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, whereas the methanogen communities were analysed using PCR-DGGE (Polymerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) of mcrA...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Technology
Phat L Tran, Jianqiang Li, Lisa Lungaro, Srikanthan Ramesh, Ilia N Ivanov, Ji-Won Moon, David E Graham, Abdul Hamood, James Wang, Alistair Pd Elfick, Iris V Rivero
Bacterial pathogens that colonize wounds form biofilms, which protect the bacteria from the effect of host immune response and antibiotics. This study examined the effectiveness of newly synthesized zinc sulfide in inhibiting biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus) strains. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) was anaerobically biosynthesized to produce CompA, which was further processed by cryomilling to maximize the antibacterial properties to produce CompB. The effect of the two compounds on the S. aureus strain AH133 was compared using zone of inhibition assay...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Klaudia Łukasiewicz, Marek Fol
Cancer remains one of the major challenges of the 21st century. The increasing numbers of cases are not accompanied by adequate progress in therapy. The standard methods of treatment often do not lead to the expected effects. Therefore, it is extremely important to find new, more effective treatments. One of the most promising research directions is immunotherapy, including the use of specific types of microorganisms. This type of treatment is expected to stimulate the immune system for the selective elimination of cancer cells...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Ravichandra Vemuri, Rohit Gundamaraju, Madhur D Shastri, Shakti Dhar Shukla, Krishnakumar Kalpurath, Madeleine Ball, Stephen Tristram, Esaki M Shankar, Kiran Ahuja, Rajaraman Eri
Gut microbiota is established during birth and evolves with age, mostly maintaining the commensal relationship with the host. A growing body of clinical evidence suggests an intricate relationship between the gut microbiota and the immune system. With ageing, the gut microbiota develops significant imbalances in the major phyla such as the anaerobic Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as a diverse range of facultative organisms, resulting in impaired immune responses. Antimicrobial therapy is commonly used for the treatment of infections; however, this may also result in the loss of normal gut flora...
2018: BioMed Research International
Mamadou Beye, Sofiane Bakour, Sory Ibrahima Traore, Jaishriram Rathored, Noémie Labas, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
We report the properties of a draft genome sequence of the bacterium Fermentimonas caenicola strain SIT8 (= CSUR P1560). This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy 28-month-old Senegalese boy. Strain SIT8 is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,824,451-bp long (1 chromosome but no plasmid) contains 2354 protein-coding and 46 RNA genes, including four rRNA genes...
2018: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Gilad Antler, André Pellerin
Separating the contributions of anaerobic oxidation of methane and organoclastic sulfate reduction in the overall sedimentary sulfur cycle of marine sediments has benefited from advances in isotope biogeochemistry. Particularly, the coupling of sulfur and oxygen isotopes measured in the residual sulfate pool (δ18 OSO4 vs. δ34 SSO4 ). Yet, some important questions remain. Recent works have observed patterns that are inconsistent with previous interpretations. We differentiate the contributions of oxygen and sulfur isotopes to separating the anaerobic oxidation of methane and organoclastic sulfate reduction into three phases; first evidence from conventional high methane vs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Leandro Augusto Gouvêa de Godoi, Lucas Tadeu Fuess, Tiago Palladino Delforno, Eugenio Foresti, Marcia Helena Rissato Zamariolli Damianovic
Phenol removal was investigated in anaerobic fixed-structured bed reactors, namely R1 and R2, treating synthetic wastewater simulating the soluble fraction of vinasse under strictly methanogenic (R1) and simultaneous methanogenic/sulfidogenic conditions (R2). Next-generation sequencing (Illumina MiSeq System) was used to further characterize the microbial communities in both systems. Phenol was completely and stably removed in R1 after a short operating period (≈55 days). Conversely, phenol removal in R2 required a longer period for biomass acclimation (≈125 days) to reach levels equivalent to R1...
April 21, 2018: Environmental Technology
Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves, Victor Menezes Tunholi, Juberlan Garcia, Esther Maria Mota, Rosane Nora Castro, Emerson Guedes Pontes, Jairo Pinheiro
For the first time, alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica experimentally infected with different parasite loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined. For this, the hemolymph activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hexokinase and the glucose concentrations in the hemolymph, as well as the polysaccharide reserves in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass, were assessed. Additionally, the contents of some carboxylic acids in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), permitting a better understanding of the alterations related to the host's oxidative metabolism...
April 21, 2018: Parasitology Research
Wentao Zhao, Qian Sui, Xia Huang
Elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coke wastewater is crucial to minimize the PAHs contamination levels to the environment. Knowledge about the characteristics of PAHs removal in biological treatment processes, especially hybrid systems, for real coke wastewater treatment has been very scarce. In this study, a lab-scale hybrid anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A1 /A2 /O) process was used to treat highly toxic coke wastewater and operated more than 600 d at total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 h, 40 h, 30 h, 20 h and internal mixed liquor recirculation ratio (R) of 3, 6, 9...
April 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xiaoyu Xu, Gary L Mills
The H-02 wetland was constructed to treat building process water and storm runoff water from the Tritium Processing Facility on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (Aiken, SC). Monthly monitoring of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations and water quality parameters in surface waters continued from 2014 to 2016. Metal speciation was modeled at each sampling occasion. Total Cu and Zn concentrations released to the effluent stream were below the NPDES limit, and the average removal efficiency was 65...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Xin Zhou, Xinai Zhang, Zeqian Zhang, Yu Liu
This study investigated the performance of full nitration-denitration (FND) and partial nitration-denitration-anammox (PNDA) in treating a synthetic wastewater with 300 mg/L NH4 + -N and 600 mg/L COD. It was found that approximately 40% higher total nitrogen removal was achieved via PNDA than via FND. Meanwhile, high-throughput sequencing also revealed that aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were predominant in the FND process, while facultative and even anaerobic bacteria including anammox bacteria were dominant in PNDA process...
April 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Longyi Lv, Weiguang Li, Jiyong Bian, Yang Yu, Donghui Li, Zejia Zheng
In order to explore whether the acidogenic phase and methanogenic phase could be separated vertically into a single-stage anaerobic reactor, a controlled double circulation (CDC) anaerobic reactor was proposed for treating traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater in this study. The results showed that most of the organic pollutants and refractory were removed in the first reaction area where most of the amount of sludge existed. The organic acids were accumulated in the first reaction area, and larger specific methanogenic activity (SMA) and coenzyme F420 values were found in the second reaction area...
April 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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