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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458156/how-to-isolate-identify-and-determine-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-anaerobic-bacteria-in-routine-laboratories
#1
REVIEW
Elisabeth Nagy, Lyudmila Boyanova, Ulrik S Justesen
BACKGROUND: There has been an increased interest in the study of anaerobic bacteria, which cause human infection during the past decade. Many new genera and species have been described by to use 16S rRNA gene sequencing of clinical isolates obtained from different infection sites with commercially available special culture media to support the growth of anaerobes. Several systems, such as anaerobic pouches, boxes, jars and chambers provide suitable anaerobic culture conditions to isolate even strict anaerobic bacteria successfully from clinical specimens...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458006/mechanistic-studies-of-formate-oxidase-from-aspergillus-oryzae-a-novel-member-of-the-glucose-methanol-choline-oxidoreductase-enzyme-superfamily-that-oxidizes-carbon-acids
#2
John M Robbins, Andreas S Bommarius, Giovanni Gadda
Formate oxidase (FOX) from Aspergillus oryzae is the only GMC member that oxidizes a carbon acid rather than alcohols; thus, its catalytic mechanism may be different from that of other GMC members. We have used pH, solvent viscosity, and deuterium kinetic isotope effects, to investigate the catalytic mechanism of FOX. The enzyme followed a Bi-Bi sequential steady-state kinetic mechanism. The kcat value was pH-independent between pH 2.8 and 6.8, suggesting lack of ionizable groups in kinetic step(s) that limit the overall turnover of the enzyme...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457876/pharmacokinetics-of-metformin-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-intolerance
#3
L McCreight, T B Stage, P Connelly, M Lonergan, F Nielsen, C Prehn, J Adamski, K Brosen, E R Pearson
AIMS: Metformin intolerance symptoms are gastrointestinal in nature, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess potential causes of metformin intolerance including: altered metformin uptake from the intestine; increased anaerobic glucose utilisation and subsequent lactate production; altered serotonin uptake; and altered bile acid pool. METHODS: This pharmacokinetic study recruited ten severely intolerant and ten tolerant individuals matched for age, sex and BMI...
February 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456740/an-obligatory-anaerobic-salmonella-typhimurium-strain-redirects-m2-macrophages-to-the-m1-phenotype
#4
Mei Yang, Juan Xu, Qi Wang, An-Qin Zhang, Kun Wang
A genetically engineered Salmonella typhimurium strain that may be applied in the medically useful therapeutic strategy of using bacterial agents to target breast cancer in a tumor-bearing nude mouse model has been previously reported. Furthermore, immune cell accumulation in breast tumor types has been observed, particularly distributed in regions surrounding the bacteria. M2 macrophages are associated with breast cancer aggressiveness, whereas M1 macrophages are prone to devouring bacteria and killing cancer cells...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456267/inorganic-carbon-and-oxygen-dynamics-in-a-marsh-dominated-estuary
#5
Shiyu Rachel Wang, Daniela Di Iorio, Wei-Jun Cai, Charles S Hopkinson
We conducted a free-water mass balance-based study to address the rate of metabolism and net carbon exchange for the tidal wetland and estuarine portion of the coastal ocean and the uncertainties associated with this approach were assessed. We measured open water diurnal O2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) dynamics seasonally in a salt marsh-estuary in Georgia, U.S.A. with a focus on the marsh-estuary linkage associated with tidal flooding. We observed that the overall estuarine system was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere and coastal ocean and a net sink for oceanic and atmospheric O2 ...
January 2018: Limnology and Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456123/activated-carbon-enhanced-anaerobic-digestion-of-food-waste-laboratory-scale-and-pilot-scale-operation
#6
Le Zhang, Jingxin Zhang, Kai-Chee Loh
Effects of activated carbon (AC) supplementation on anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste were elucidated in lab- and pilot-scales. Lab-scale AD was performed in 1 L and 8 L digesters, while pilot-scale AD was conducted in a 1000 L digester. Based on the optimal dose of 15 g AC per working volume derived from the 1 L digester, for the same AC dosage in the 8 L digester, an improved operation stability coupled with a higher methane yield was achieved even when digesters without AC supplementation failed after 59 days due to accumulation of substantial organic intermediates...
February 15, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456028/polyphasic-characterization-of-a-novel-species-in-the-lactobacillus-casei-group-from-cow-manure-of-taiwan-description-of-l-chiayiensis-sp-nov
#7
Chien-Hsun Huang, Jong-Shian Liou, Ai-Yun Lee, Min Tseng, Mika Miyashita, Lina Huang, Koichi Watanabe
Two Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, non-motile, catalase-negative and facultative anaerobic strains, NCYUAST and BCRC 18859 (=NRIC 1947), were isolated from cow manure of Taiwan and coconut juice of Philippines, respectively. Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed that the novel strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. These two strains had 100% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and 98.6% of average nucleotide identity (ANI) value based on whole genome sequences. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the type strains of Lactobacillus casei (99...
February 7, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455620/bacterial-mediated-biodegradation-of-pentachlorophenol-via-electron-shuttling
#8
Heba A El-Bialy, Ola A A Khalil, Ola M Gomaa
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a common persistent pesticide in soil, its persistence generates toxicity in the environment. PCP degradation by soil indigenous bacteria represents a practical and cost-effective solution. In the present study, bacteria isolated from paddy soil was investigated and the role of electron shuttling in the PCP degradation process was assessed. Two strains demonstrated the highest PCP degradation of 93.5% and 94.88% in the presence of citrate, and were identified using 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis as Pseudomonas chengduensis and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, respectively...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455151/nutrient-management-via-struvite-precipitation-and-recovery-from-various-agroindustrial-wastewaters-process-feasibility-and-struvite-quality
#9
Raffaele Taddeo, Mari Honkanen, Kari Kolppo, Raghida Lepistö
Improving environmental protection and finding sustainable and renewable resources of nutrients are core issues in circular bioeconomy. Thus, this study evaluated the efficiency of recovering struvite, MgNH4 PO4 ·6H2 O, from different agro-industrial wastewaters (four highly loaded reject waters of anaerobically co-digested agro-industrial waste and a raw swine slurry) and assessed the quality of recovered struvite crystals and their reusability as fertilizer. The efficiency of crystallization (Ec 40-80%) and amount of struvite in the precipitate (Pp 55-94%) highly varied due to the characteristics of influent wastewaters, particularly to the content of competing elements, such as alkaline and heavy metals and total solids (TS)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455089/occurrence-and-transformation-of-veterinary-antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-dairy-manure-treated-by-advanced-anaerobic-digestion-and-conventional-treatment-methods
#10
Joshua S Wallace, Emily Garner, Amy Pruden, Diana S Aga
Manure treatment technologies are rapidly developing to minimize eutrophication of surrounding environments and potentially decrease the introduction of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) into the environment. While laboratory and pilot-scale manure treatment systems boast promising results, antibiotic and ARG removals in full-scale systems receiving continuous manure input have not been evaluated. The effect of treatment on ARGs is similarly lacking. This study examines the occurrence and transformation of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, tetracycline degradation products, and related ARGs throughout a full-scale advanced anaerobic digester (AAD) receiving continuous manure and antibiotic input...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454922/nutrient-recovery-from-wastewater-through-pilot-scale-electrodialysis
#11
Andrew J Ward, Kimmo Arola, Emma Thompson Brewster, Chirag M Mehta, Damien J Batstone
Nutrient recovery performance utilising an electrodialysis (ED) process was quantified in a 30-cell pair pilot reactor with a 7.2 m2 effective membrane area, utilising domestic anaerobic digester supernatant, which had been passed through a centrifuge as a feed source (centrate). A concentrated product (NH4 -N 7100 ± 300 mg/L and K 2490 ± 40 mg/L) could be achieved by concentrating nutrient ions from the centrate wastewater dilute feed stream to the product stream using the ED process. The average total current efficiency for all major cations over the experimental period was 76 ± 2% (NH4 -N transport 40%, K transport 14%)...
February 8, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454921/sequential-pretreatment-for-cell-disintegration-of-municipal-sludge-in-a-neutral-bio-electro-fenton-system
#12
Qilin Yu, Xiaochen Jin, Yaobin Zhang
Sludge cell disruption was generally considered as the rate-limiting step for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Advanced oxidation processes and bio-electro-chemical systems were recently reported to enhance the hydrolysis of WAS and sludge cell disruption, while the cell-breaking processes of these systems remain unclear yet. In this study, an innovative Bio-electro-Fenton system was developed to pretreat the WAS sequentially with cathode Fenton process and anode anaerobic digestion...
February 9, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454625/intensified-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-removal-by-embedding-electrolysis-in-an-anaerobic-anoxic-oxic-reactor-treating-low-carbon-nitrogen-wastewater
#13
Benzhou Gong, Yingmu Wang, Jiale Wang, Wei Huang, Jian Zhou, Qiang He
A modified anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (AAO) reactor embedding electrolysis was constructed for treatment of low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) wastewater. The effect of different current conditions on the performance of reactor was investigated in this study. When the current ranged from 0 mA to 200 mA, the removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) increased from 61.25% (0 mA) to 75.60% (200 mA), and that of total phosphorus (TP) increased from 72.24% (0 mA) to 93.93% (200 mA). In addition, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4 + -N were not affected...
February 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454109/comparative-evaluation-of-lignocellulolytic-activities-of-filamentous-cultures-of-monocentric-and-polycentric-anaerobic-fungi
#14
Sumit S Dagar, Sanjay Kumar, Priti Mudgil, Anil K Puniya
Sixteen strains of monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi were evaluated for cellulase, xylanase and esterase activities. Though strain level variations were observed among all genera, Neocallimastix and Orpinomyces strains exhibited the highest lignocellulolytic activities. The esterase activities of a monocentric group of anaerobic fungi were better than the polycentric group.
February 14, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453765/statistical-assessment-of-dna-extraction-methodology-for-culture-independent-analysis-of-microbial-community-associated-with-diverse-environmental-samples
#15
Rishi Mahajan, Sampan Attri, Kavita Sharma, Niharika Singh, Deepika Sharma, Gunjan Goel
Cost-effectiveness, quality, time-effectiveness and ease of the methodology are the most crucial factors in isolating quality DNA from wide variety of samples. Thus, research efforts focusing on the development of an efficient DNA extraction protocol is the need of the hour. The present study therefore, focuses on development of an efficient, rapid and free of inhibitory substances based methodology for extracting metagenomic DNA from diverse environmental samples viz. anaerobic biogas digesta, ruminant stomach, human feces, soil, and microbial starter cultures used for preparation of fermented food...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453755/effect-of-nicotine-on-repeated-bouts-of-anaerobic-exercise-in-nicotine-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals
#16
Robert Johnston, Melissa Crowe, Kenji Doma
PURPOSE: Nicotine is a psychostimulant that is reported to be commonly supplemented by athletes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of a rapidly absorbed form of nicotine on repeated bouts of anaerobic exercise, perception of exertion and a range of cardiovascular variables while monitoring side effect profiles. METHODS: Sixteen healthy, nicotine naïve male athletes (24.1 ± 5.3 years, 179.0 ± 8.8 cm, 81.7 ± 13.5 kg, BMI 25.5 ± 3.0, Body fat% 13...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453612/ancylomarina-psychrotolerans-sp-nov-isolated-from-sediments-of-fildes-peninsula-and-emended-the-description-of-genus-ancylomarina
#17
Chao Jia, Hong-Chang Cui, Yan-Qiong Han, Tian-Yu Fu, Rui Du, Xiao-Lei Wang, Xiao-Chong Shi, Xiao-Hua Zhang
A Gram-stain negative, obligately anaerobic, non-motile, asporogenous long rod-shaped and non-flagellated bacterial strain, designated 4SWWS2-6 T , was isolated from sediment in the intertidal zone of Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 4SWWS2-6 T belongs to the genus Ancylomarina and showed high sequence similarity with Ancylomarina subtilis FA102 T (96.5%). Optimal growth occurred at pH 6.5, 16 °C and in the presence of 3% (w/v) NaCl...
February 17, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453259/common-hydraulic-fracturing-fluid-additives-alter-the-structure-and-function-of-anaerobic-microbial-communities
#18
Adam C Mumford, Denise M Akob, J Grace Klinges, Isabelle M Cozzarelli
The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. Release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain, and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, DBNPA and Bronopol...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453175/solubilization-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-with-phenol-in-coking-wastewater-treatment-system-interaction-and-engineering-significance
#19
Qiaoping Kong, Haizhen Wu, Lei Liu, Fengzhen Zhang, Sergei Preis, Shuang Zhu, Chaohai Wei
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are accumulated in the sludge collected from the coking wastewater treatment. Phenol with its efficient degradation observed in biological treatment promotes the solubility of PAHs in aqueous phase. The interaction mechanism of phenol and PAHs in aqueous and sludge phases was systematically studied in two full-scale engineering projects composed of anaerobic-oxic-oxic (A-O 1 -O 2 ) and anaerobic-oxic-hydrolytic-oxic (A-O 1 -H-O 2 ) sequences. The results showed that reasonable use of phenol facilitates solubilization of PAHs alleviating their emission problems...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452804/inter-observer-reliability-of-preoperative-cardiopulmonary-exercise-test-interpretation-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
T E F Abbott, M Gooneratne, J McNeill, A Lee, D Z H Levett, M P W Grocott, M Swart, N MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing importance of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) for preoperative risk assessment, the reliability of CPET interpretation is unclear. We aimed to assess inter-observer reliability of preoperative CPET. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multi-centre, observational study of preoperative CPET interpretation. Participants were professionals with previous experience or training in CPET, assessed by a standardized questionnaire...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
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