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Vicente Pastor-Poquet, Stefano Papirio, Jean-Philippe Steyer, Eric Trably, Renaud Escudié, Giovanni Esposito
During high-solids anaerobic digestion (HS-AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), an important total solid (TS) removal occurs, leading to the modification of the reactor content mass/volume, in contrast to 'wet' anaerobic digestion (AD). Therefore, HS-AD mathematical simulations need to be approached differently than 'wet' AD simulations. This study aimed to develop a modelling tool based on the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1) capable of simulating the TS and the reactor mass/volume dynamics in HS-AD of OFMSW...
June 14, 2018: Water Research
Shinya Kimata, Daichi Mochizuki, Junichi Satoh, Ken Kitano, Yu Kanesaki, Kouji Takeda, Akira Abe, Shinji Kawasaki, Youichi Niimura
Amphibacillus xylanus is a recently identified bacterium which grows well under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and may prove useful for biomass utilization. Amphibacillus xylanus, despite lacking a respiratory chain, consumes oxygen at a similar rate to Escherichia coli (130-140 μmol oxygen·min-1 ·g-1 dry cells at 37 °C), suggesting that it has an alternative system that uses a large amount of oxygen. Amphibacillus xylanus NADH oxidase (Nox) was previously reported to rapidly reduce molecular oxygen content in the presence of exogenously added free flavin...
June 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Ayyappa Kumar Sista Kameshwar, Wensheng Qin
Ruminating animals, especially cattle lack the carbohydrate active enzyme encoding genes which are required for the degradation of the glycosidic linkages of plant cell wall carbohydrates (such as cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and pectin). Thus, ruminating animals are completely dependent on the microorganisms (anaerobic bacteria and fungi, methanogenic archaea and protozoa) residing in their rumen (hindgut). In this study, we have retrieved and analyzed the complete genome wide annotations of the Neocallimastigomycota division fungi such as Anaeromyces robustus, Neocallismatix californiae, Orpinomyces sp, Piromyces finnis, Piromyces sp E2...
2018: Journal of Genomics
Ricardo Schultz Martins, Patrick Girouard, Evan Elliott, Said Mekary
Martins, RS, Girouard, P, Elliott, E, and Mekary, S. Physiological responses of a jaw repositioning custom-made mouthguard on airway and their effects on athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Advanced dental techniques such as jaw-repositioning have shown to increase lower body muscular power such as vertical jump, but its effects on acceleration and speed have not been studied. Similarly, jaw repositioning is commonly used to increase airways volume and ventilation in a special population (i...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Maithe Cardoso de Araújo, Christian Baumgart, Christian T Jansen, Jürgen Freiwald, Matthias W Hoppe
Cardoso de Araújo, M, Baumgart, C, Jansen, CT, Freiwald, J, and Hoppe, MW. Sex differences in physical capacities of German Bundesliga soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Sex differences in physical capacities of elite soccer players have received limited attention. Therefore, this study investigated sex differences in linear and nonlinear sprint, squat and countermovement jump, core endurance, as well as incremental and intermittent endurance capacities in German Bundesliga soccer players...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Erin E Aufox, Linda A Frank, Elizabeth R May, Stephen A Kania
BACKGROUND: Dermatophilus congolensis is a facultative anaerobic actinomycete that causes papular to exudative dermatitis with crusting in horses. This organism is frequently implicated as a cause of pastern dermatitis, but few data are available validating the organism's association with this disease. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate if D. congolensis is associated with pastern dermatitis in horses utilizing RT-qPCR. ANIMALS: Fifteen client-owned horses diagnosed with pastern dermatitis and eight client-owned unaffected control horses were utilized for this study...
June 21, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Danfeng Xu, Zongxiao Jia, Qiyu Chu, Shuilin Fu, Heng Gong
To determine the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) in Klebsiella pneumoniae , the growth and metabolism of PDHC-deficient mutant in glycerol-based medium were analyzed and compared with those of other strains. Under aerobic conditions, the PDHC activity was fourfold higher than that of pyruvate formate lyase (PFL), and blocking of PDHC caused severe growth defect and pyruvate accumulation, indicating that the carbon flux through pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A mainly depended on PDHC. Under anaerobic conditions, although the PDHC activity was only 50 % of that of PFL, blocking of PDHC resulted in more growth defect than blocking of PFL...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Judit Núñez-Manchón, Alfonsina Ballester-Lopez, Emma Koehorst, Ian Linares-Pardo, Daniëlle Coenen, Ignacio Ara, Carlos Rodriguez-Lopez, Alba Ramos-Fransi, Alicia Martínez-Piñeiro, Giuseppe Lucente, Miriam Almendrote, Jaume Coll-Cantí, Guillem Pintos-Morell, Alejandro Santos Lozano, Joaquin Arenas, Miguel Angel Martín, Mauricio de Castro, Alejandro Lucia, Alfredo Santalla, Gisela Nogales-Gadea
McArdle disease is an autosomal recessive condition caused by deficiency of the PYGM gene-encoded muscle isoform of glycogen phosphorylase. Some cases of "manifesting" heterozygotes or carriers (i.e., patients who show some McArdle-like symptoms or signs despite being carriers of only one mutated PYGM allele) have been reported in the literature but there is controversy, with misdiagnosis being a possibility. The purpose of our study was to determine if there are actually "manifesting" heterozygotes of McArdle disease and, if existing, whether statin treatment can trigger such condition...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Volker Müller, Nilanjan Pal Chowdhury, Mirko Basen
A decade ago, a novel mechanism to drive thermodynamically unfavorable redox reactions was discovered that is used in prokaryotes to drive endergonic electron transfer reactions by a direct coupling to an exergonic redox reaction in one soluble enzyme complex. This process is referred to as flavinbased electron bifurcation, or FBEB. An important function of FBEB is that it allows the generation of reduced low-potential ferredoxin (Fdred ) from comparably high-potential electron donors such as NADH or molecular hydrogen (H2 )...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
Chewapat Saejung, Pongsathorn Salasook
The bioconversion of sugar-industry wastewater to value-added products is a prominent topic in biotechnology. This work cultured a carotenoid-producing photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas faecalis, in a photo-bioreactor containing different wastewater from wastewater treatment ponds of a Thai sugar company. The cultivated R. faecalis produced single cell protein (SCP) with supplemental carotenoids. The cultivation boosted the growth and dehydrogenase activity of R. faecalis from all wastewater sources, while significantly reducing the total sugar concentration...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Technology
Chie Araki, Nobuyuki Okahashi, Kousuke Maeda, Hiroshi Shimizu, Fumio Matsuda
Cancer cells often respond to chemotherapeutic inhibitors by redirecting carbon flow in the central metabolism. To understand the metabolic redirections of inhibitor treatment on cancer cells, this study established a 13 C-metabolic flux analysis (13 C-MFA)-based method to evaluate metabolic redirection in MCF-7 breast cancer cells using mass spectrometry. A metabolic stationary state necessary for accurate 13 C-MFA was confirmed during an 8-24 h window using low-dose treatments of various metabolic inhibitors...
2018: Mass Spectrometry
S Chabou, M Tidjani Alou, S Khelaifia, J-C Lagier, N Labas, T Cimmino, S Diene, D Raoult, J-M Rolain
Clostridium niameyense sp. nov. strain MT5 is the type strain of C. niameyense sp. nov., a new species within the genus Clostridia. C. niameyense is a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacillus. The strain MT5 (= CSUR P1468 = DSMZ 100441), whose genome is described here, was isolated from a faecal sample collected from a patient with anorexia and marasmus living in Nigeria. The genome is 2 542 841 bp long with 27.44% G + C content and consists of six scaffolds.
July 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
S Belkacemi, N Cassir, J Delerce, F Cadoret, B La Scola
We report the main characteristics of 'Selenomonas massiliensis' sp. nov., strain Marseille-P4036T (= CSUR P4036). The culturomic combined with taxonogenomic methods were used to identify and characterize this new anaerobic bacterial species, which was isolated from an oral sample of a 25-year-old healthy woman.
July 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Kai Shiau, Te Hung Tsao, Chang Bin Yang
This study examined the effects of one single bout daily versus triple bouts of resistance exercise for 12 weeks on muscular strength and anaerobic performance of the upper body. Twenty young male adults (age: 22.0 ± 1.0 years, bench press: 44.0 ± 10.3 kg) were randomly assigned to a single bout (SB) or triple bouts (TB) of resistance exercise group. Maximal strength and anaerobic performance of the upper body using the bench press (one-repetition maximum) and the modified 30 s Wingate test were determined before and after the intervention...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Paulo E Redkva, Mauro R Paes, Ricardo Fernandez, Sergio G da-Silva
The aim of this study was to investigate possible correlations between aerobic and anaerobic fitness (in field tests) with performance during a 90 min friendly match, through the following variables: total distance covered, maximal running speed, number of high-intensity actions and number of sprints. Eighteen professional soccer players from a Brazilian elite team (age 23 ± 3 years, body mass 77.5 ± 8.9 kg) participated in the study. The athletes performed a Yo-Yo Endurance Test (aerobic fitness) and a Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (six maximal 35 m efforts separated by 10 s of passive recovery, anaerobic fitness)...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Glynn Martin, Sofia Kolida, Julian R Marchesi, Elizabeth Want, James E Sidaway, Jonathan R Swann
Bile acids, the products of concerted host and gut bacterial metabolism, have important signaling functions within the mammalian metabolic system and a key role in digestion. Given the complexity of the mega-variate bacterial community residing in the gastrointestinal tract, studying associations between individual bacterial genera and bile acid processing remains a challenge. Here, we present a novel in vitro approach to determine the bacterial genera associated with the metabolism of different primary bile acids and their potential to contribute to inter-individual variation in this processing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Christian Jacoby, Jens Eipper, Markus Warnke, Oliver Tiedt, Mario Mergelsberg, Hans-Joachim Stärk, Birgit Daus, Zaira Martín-Moldes, María Teresa Zamarro, Eduardo Díaz, Matthias Boll
Side chain-containing steroids are ubiquitous constituents of biological membranes that are persistent to biodegradation. Aerobic, steroid-degrading bacteria employ oxygenases for isoprenoid side chain and tetracyclic steran ring cleavage. In contrast, a Mo-containing steroid C-25 dehydrogenase (S25DH) of the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase family catalyzes the oxygen-independent hydroxylation of tertiary C-25 in the anaerobic, cholesterol-degrading bacterium Sterolibacterium denitrificans Its genome contains eight paralogous genes encoding active site α-subunits of putative S25DH-like proteins...
June 19, 2018: MBio
Omar Santín, Gabriel Moncalián
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are produced in some unicellular organisms, such as marine gammaproteobacteria, myxobacteria and thraustochytrids, by large enzyme complexes called PUFA synthases. These enzymatic complexes resemble bacterial antibiotic-producing proteins known as polyketide synthases (PKS). One of the PUFA synthase subunits is a conserved large protein (PfaA in marine proteobacteria) that contains three to nine tandem Acyl Carrier Protein domains as well as condensation and modification domains...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Paul Mortreuil, Sylvie Baggio, Camille Lagnet, Blandine Schraauwers, Florian Monlau
Currently, there is a growing worldwide interest for the treatment of wastes, and especially farm wastes, by anaerobic digestion. Biochemical methane potential is a key parameter for the design, optimisation and monitoring of the anaerobic digestion process, but it is also time consuming (4-7 weeks). Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy seems a promising method to predict the biochemical methane potential of a wide range of organic substrates. This study compares a 'global' predictive model mainly built with biogas plant feedstocks, and a more 'agricultural' specific one built with farm wastes only (e...
June 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Wajeeha A Qazi, Mohammed Fm Abushammala, Mohammed-Hasham Azam
The Sultanate of Oman faces challenges, like rapid growth of waste generation, which calls for an optimum waste management strategy. Oman has witnessed the production of 1.5m t of municipal solid waste in 2012, which is expected to elevate to 1.89m t in 2030. This rapid increase needs to be tackled to reduce the generation rates along with the environmental impacts. Currently, there are no treatment facilities in Oman other than limited recycling, and therefore dumping waste into the landfill is the only ultimate way to dispose solid waste...
June 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
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